Gravity Is The Force Responsible Essay

Length: 5 pages Sources: 4 Subject: Physics Type: Essay Paper: #38066673 Related Topics: Solar System, The Solar System, Time Warp 3, Planets
Excerpt from Essay :

Newton explained that apples fell from trees by virtue of the same universal attractive natural force that caused the planets to orbit the skies.

In his 1687 book, Philosopiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Newton presented complex mathematical formulae that described the observed orbits of the known planets fairly accurately. Newton also provided an explanation for why the attractive force of gravity did not cause the planets to fall in on themselves the way the apple falls to the ground. Since all the planets and stars in the universe exerted mutually attractive force and because there were an infinite number of planets distributed uniformly throughout the universe, there was no "center" of the universe and the planets and stars are all pulled in many directions, all of which, in effect, cancel out their tendency to fall together (Hawking, 1991).

Galileo Galilei:

Almost eighty years earlier, in 1609, Galileo Galilei invented the world's first optical telescope and began carefully observing the planets in the solar system. Galileo noticed immediately that like earth, the planet Jupiter also seemed to have moons orbiting it, which directly conflicted with the traditional belief that all objects in the solar system orbited the earth in the explanation supported by the church. In 1632, Galileo published his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, with the permission of the pope, because Galileo had agreed not to favor the Copernican view over the model proposed by Aristotle, as well as to conclude that God's work could never be fully understood by man (Feynman, 1995; Hawking, 2002). When the book had the effect of convincing people that Copernicus had been right all along, the pope condemned the work, brought Galileo before the inquisitors, forced him to publicly denounce his mistaken views, and condemned the world's first astronomer to house arrest for the remainder of his life (Hawking, 2002).

Albert Einstein and the Modern Theory of Gravity:

In 1905, an obscure Swiss patent clerk named Albert Einstein conducted a series of revolutionary thought experiments in which he envisioned himself riding along on a beam of light in conjunction with which he published a scientific paper on what he called Special Relativity,...


As a consequence of the implications of Einstein's special relativity, time is linked to the constant, unchanging speed of light and decreases with increased velocity with respect to a stationary observer; moving objects grow in mass while shrinking in size in the direction of travel and in proportion to their velocity; and nothing can ever reach the speed of light because its mass would become infinitely large while it would contract to zero size, and time would stop altogether (Goldsmith, 1997). Finally, special relativity also solved one of the problems with Newtonian mechanics by reconciling the observed deviations in the orbit of the planet Mercury

Twelve years later, Einstein published his General Theory of Relativity that applied the implications of the speed of light and special relativity to gravity and also suggested that matter and energy were different forms of the same thing (Goldsmith, 1997; Hawking, 2001). In principle, general relativity fundamentally changed the way that we understand gravity because it describes gravity as a property of space-time rather than an independent force that acts on planets and objects in a mechanical way. While it is an imperfect representation, that property of space-time is often depicted as a flexible, rubber-like grid in which larger planets "warp" the very shape of space, causing the orbital phenomenon of planetary motion (Hawking, 2001; 2002).

Einstein spent the rest of his life trying to unify gravity with the other three fundamental forces (electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces). More recent theories of gravity have succeeded in mathematically unifying only the weak nuclear force and electromagnetism, but not gravity and the strong nuclear force. Contemporary science suggests that at the subatomic level, gravity is actually a property attributable to subatomic particles called Gravitons (Hawking, 2001; 2002).


Feynman, R. (1995). Six Easy Pieces. New York: Helix.

Goldsmith, D. (1997). The Ultimate Einstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Hawking, S. (2001). The Universe…

Sources Used in Documents:


Feynman, R. (1995). Six Easy Pieces. New York: Helix.

Goldsmith, D. (1997). The Ultimate Einstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Hawking, S. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. New York: Bantam.

Hawking, S. (2002). The Theory of Everything: The Origin and Fate of the Universe. Beverly Hills, CA: New Millennium Press.

Cite this Document:

"Gravity Is The Force Responsible" (2009, April 30) Retrieved December 8, 2021, from

"Gravity Is The Force Responsible" 30 April 2009. Web.8 December. 2021. <>

"Gravity Is The Force Responsible", 30 April 2009, Accessed.8 December. 2021,

Related Documents
Use of Force and Wars on Terrorism
Words: 1911 Length: 6 Pages Topic: Government Paper #: 25623458

Force and Wars on Terrorism The objective of this work is to consider that as one of the governing principles of the United Nations, the UN Charter Article 2(4) prohibits the use of force in international relations, but its Article 51 permits the use of for e as an act of self-defense against any illegal use of force in violation of Article 2(4). Contemporary wars on terrorism are often justified

String Theory the Fundamental Forces
Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Physics Paper #: 81433491

This implies we live in a universe "in which six of the space dimensions have been collapsed or curled up in themselves." (Tipler 650). Since all of these dimensions are believed to be of the order of the Planck length they cannot be seen by any common experimental procedures currently in practice today. Despite the attractiveness of string theory its utilization of large numbers of space dimensions raises many important

Financial Industry Responsible for the
Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Economics Paper #: 69012167

It was irresponsible for banks to operate from a position of absentee management, and the careless ownership enabled reckless conduct from their "agents" who ran the day-to-day operation. While some blame must be placed on the public for continuing to spend at outrageous rates, the bank itself promoted and enabled such activity. Blankfein's argument that no one had been arrested is irrelevant since the issue at hand is whether

Testing Theories
Words: 1517 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Physics Paper #: 27945489

Philosophy natural science. Given natural science theories: 1. What makes objects fall 2. The missed 2012 apocalypse First, describe theories world / forces operate . These theories, pass Karl Popper's theory demarcation Natural Science Theories The idea of the force that makes objects fall has haunted mankind for thousands of years before people actually came to understand how the force of gravity functions. Italian scientist Galileo Galilei is responsible for opening people's

Black Holes Astronomy Encompasses Vast
Words: 2858 Length: 10 Pages Topic: Physics Paper #: 62638877

The author further explains that the gravity coming from this type of star has to be spherically symmetric. This means that the star should only depend on the distance from the star (Hawley and Holcomb 1998). As a result of this fact, it was not possible to disregard the angular terms (Hawley and Holcomb 1998). Lastly, the star along with its gravitational field do not change with time, this means

Language of News Reporting in
Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Topic: Communication - Journalism Paper #: 72791834

Instead, however, the headline does follow the sequence of events as they happened to present a more chronological overview of the event while still maintaining a good inverted pyramid structure. For example, take the head line of the news story in Appendix A: 'Iranian election uproar tests U.S.', this headline without giving specifics of the actual election result implies that the results were not great overall because of the