When an heart needs more oxygen, such in times of exercise, stress or pharmacological stimuli, blood flow is increased to fulfill this demand. However, the physiological narrowing of arteries due to plaque build up found in coronary disease restricts blood flow to the heart, especially in times of when an increase in myocardial oxygen is needed. These restrictions mean a lessened CFR for the individual, which can lead to coronary ischemia, cardiac infarction, and several other dangerous effects. This physiological change in the coronary system, through the build up of plaque, occurs for several reasons. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition, with the consumption of certain fats and cholesterols, can facilitate plaque build up. High blood pressure, obesity, depression, and anxiety are also contributing factors (Pazoki, Nabiour, Seyednezami,...
Two treatment clinical options include lifestyle modification and revascularization. Lifestyle modification, when combined with pharmacological intervention, can be as effective as revascularization, for patients with lower coronary risk constellation and those who are highly motivated. Coronary revascularization is used when there is myocardial infarction greater than ten percent (Rub et al.).
Kern, Morton, Amir Lerman, Jan-Willen Bech, Bernard De Bruyne, Eric Eeckhout, William Fearon, Stuart Higano, Michael Lim, and Martjin Meuwissen. "Physiological Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory ." American Heart Association Journal 114 (2006): 1321-1341. American Heart Association. Web. 16 Nov. 2010.
Pazoki, Raha, Iraj Nabipour, Nasrin Seyednezami, and Seyed Reza Imami. "Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)." BMC Public Health 7 (2007): 216-220. Print.
Rub, M., Cremer, J., Krian, a., Meinertz, T., Werdan, K., & Zerkowski, H. "Different Treatment Options in Chronic Coronary Artery Disease." Deutschs Arzteblatt International 106.15 (10 Apr 2009): 253-261.
Shirato, Susan, and Beth Ann Swan. "Women and…
Heart Disease and the Elderly The objective of this work in writing is to examine how heart disease takes a toll elderly. Toward this end, this work will conduct a review of literature that examines the toll that heart disease takes on the elderly population. Approximately 18 million people or 7% of all individuals in the United States have heart disease. Heart disease affects older people more significantly as the elderly are
For example, some prescription drugs have been shown to increase risk for heart disease (Fries, nd). In particular, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are commonly prescribed for relieving the pain associated with arthritis, have been shown to cause heart-related side effects (Fries, nd). Unfortunately, patients who suffer from chronic pain sometimes need to choose between increasing their risk for heart disease and coping with severe chronic pain. Interestingly, though,
Other symptoms are shortness of breath and heaviness on the chest, a sensation of tightness, pain, burning sensation, squeezing or pressure on the breastbone or in the arms, neck and jaws. However, some persons showed no symptoms of coronary artery disease before a heart attack and just died suddenly (De Milto). Beneficial and Adverse Effects of Treatment The finding that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory response brought attention to the beneficial use
Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2% in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).# BIBLIOGRAPHY Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved
Heart attack or myocardial infarction occurs when there is an interruption of regular flow of blood to the heart. The blockage, which leads to the interruption of blood flow, has to be long enough that part of heart muscle dies or becomes damaged. This blockage makes the regular and required oxygen supply in the heart. This lack of oxygen supply leads to the death of numerous cells and the chance
In fact, dietary lipids, serum cholesterol, and sodium are linked directly with heart disease. Diets high in sodium lead to hypertension, or high blood pressure, which is also linked with the malady. Thus, a decrease in the amount of saturated fat and cholesterol for all people, as well as limiting the amounts of total fat, processed sugars, and calories for those who are overweight, is recommended for preventing the