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cominto the interstitial fluid of the cortex and only then are diffused into the blood) (faculty.stcc.edu); 5) cortical collecting duct (this is a series of ducts and tubular that link nephrons to the ureters); 6) distal convoluted tubule -- DCT (this is the convoluted section of the nephron that lays between the "loop of Henle" and the "nonsecretory portion of the nephron; the DCT is mainly involved with the urine and how concentrated it should -- or does -- become); 7) loop of Henle (also called the nephron loop, it runs into the medulla and "…their different levels of permeability enable much more tubular reabsorption to occur" (faculty.stcc.edu); 8) duct of Bellini; 9) peritubular capillaries; 10) Arcuate vein; 11). Arcuate artery; 12) Afferent arteriole; and 13) juxtaglomerular apparatus (this part of the kidney is specialized in order to function as a way to regulate the filtrate formation and also it…
Answers.com "Nephron: Definition from Answers." Retrieved May 6, 2013, from http://answers.com . 2007.
Critical Care Medicine. "Tutorials / Functions of the Kidney." Retrieved May 6, 2013, from http://www.ccmtutorials.com. 2006.
Encyclopedia Britannica. "Nephron." Retrieved May 6, 2013, from http://www.britannica.com .
Major cavities of the body and their organs:
Our body is made up of solid structures and many cavities. The organs are packed in these cavities and they fill these cavities. The major cavities in our body are: the ventral cavity, which is surrounded by the rib cage and the abdominal musculature and dorsal cavity, which is surrounded by the bones of the skull and vertebral column. (Introduction / Terminology)
Significance and Process of Protein synthesis:
The genetic material of life is DNA. It is present in all the organisms on the earth and it has genetic information, which the organism uses for producing the protein essential for life. The DNA, whether it is in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, it is in the iconic form of the double helix, and it uses the same common genetic code that permits it to be converted to proteins. The procedure of forming…
However, all muscles are ultimately controlled by the central nervous system. Because the muscles are attached to the skeleton, all skeletal movements can be traced back to the central nervous system. The integumentary system is one of the body's primary interfaces with the outside world. Together with the sensory system, the integumentary system interact with the central nervous system by communicating its inputs.
3. Homeostasis is the body's state of equilibrium, achieved via self-regulation. A state of homeostasis is best described as feeling "normal," when the organism is not cold, tired, hungry, frightened, or sick with disease. All the organ systems are implicated in the creation and maintenance of homeostasis. Each organ system specializes in some aspect of the body's ability to create and maintain homeostasis.
External forces such as viruses, bacteria, or sensory stimulation may upset the body's homeostasis. Thoughts and psychological processes can also affect homeostasis, which is…
Beers, M.H. (2006). Organ systems. Merck. Retrieved online: http://merckmanuals.com/home/sec01/ch001/ch001d.html
Carpi, a. (1999). Basic Anatomy - Tissues & Organs. Retrieved online: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm
"Endocrine System" (2010). Retrieved online: http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/endocrine.html
Farabee, M.J. (2001). The interaugmentary system. Retrieved online: www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookintegusys.html
Even though the heart works harder, blockages still shortchange the needed blood supply to all areas of the body. Kidney disorders, which leave extra fluids, sodium, and toxins in the body, obesity, diabetes, birth control pills, pregnancy, smoking, excess alcohol, stress, and thyroid and adrenal gland problems can also cause and exacerbate a high blood pressure condition.
Proper ranges of cholesterol are also important in the prevention of heart attack or stroke. Total blood cholesterol above 200 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol above 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol below 35 mg/dl; and lipoprotein (a) level greater than 30 mg/dl are indicators of problematic cholesterol. Cholesterol is not actually a damage mechanism but is more an indicator of compromised liver function, and increased risk of heart attack.
Damage to the heart tissues from cardiovascular disease or from heart surgery will disrupt the natural electrical impulses of the heart and result in cardiac arrhythmia. Sudden…
Eimas, . "The Great Anatomy of Paolo Mascagni. University of Iowa Special Collections. April, 1963. etrieved from: http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/eimas.htm
Goldfinger, E. Human Anatomy for Artists: The Elements of Form. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Heckscher, W.S. embrandt's Anatomy of Dr. Nicolaas Tulp: An Icolonological Study. Albany: University of New York Press, 1958.
Iipma, F., et.al. "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp by embrandt
(1632): A Comparison of the Painting With a Dissected Left Forearm of a Dutch
Male Cadaver." American Society for Surgery of the Hand, 2006. etrieved from: http://www.handsurg.eu/resources/rembrandt_en.pdf
Maugh, T. "Venus Figurine sheds light on origins of art by early humans." The Los Angeles Times. ( May 14, 2009). etrieved from: http://articles.latimes.com/2009/may/14/science/sci-venus14
Palagia, O. (2008). Greek Sculpture: Function, Materials, and Techniques. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Pastorello, T. "Leonardo Squared the Circle! -- Da Vinic's Secret Solution in the Vitruvian Man Decoded." About.Com Art History. 2011.…
Eimas, R. "The Great Anatomy of Paolo Mascagni. University of Iowa Special Collections. April, 1963. Retrieved from: http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/eimas.htm
Goldfinger, E. Human Anatomy for Artists: The Elements of Form. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Heckscher, W.S. Rembrandt's Anatomy of Dr. Nicolaas Tulp: An Icolonological Study. Albany: University of New York Press, 1958.
Iipma, F., et.al. "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp by Rembrandt
Anatomy & Physiology 101
The Peripheral Nervous System
It is difficult to decide the importance of one set of senses over another, because consequentially, each of the senses enables the working of another or two of the senses. Seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling, and tasting are all somehow connected to each other; without one of the five, a particular system also becomes lacking in the sense department. That said, because of the importance in the olfactory nerves, the sense of smell is perhaps the most necessary of the senses. Without smell, a number of the other senses become lacking. Smell enables one's taste buds to taste the bitterness, sweetness, saltiness, and sourness of a particular food. Smell also acts as a warning sign for many different reasons; for instance, one can clearly determine the safety of an environment by smelling the air and looking for any traces of explosive gases around…
Bear, Connors and Paradiso, Mark, Barry and Michael (2007). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 265 -- 275.
Night time implies very low levels of light and therefore darkness. In this period, the human eye relies fully on the rod physiology so it no longer searches for color and alters our interpretation of the external environment by reducing levels of detail. Some scientists have estimated that our visual acuity during scotopia is around a scale of 20/200. Modern inventions of artificial light have helped man speed the recovery process from night to day vision. We can be fully reliant on our cones for example in less than five minutes by most estimates. The reverse has been estimated at around seven minutes with complete scotopic vision requiring around thirty minutes.
In conclusion, this report was about the human sensory system and perception function of vision. The report delved into the physical anatomy of specific areas of the vision function as well as the importance of light and brain…
Bianco, M.D., Carl. (n.d.). How Vision Works. Retrieved June 7, 2005, from How Stuff Works at http://science.howstuffworks.com/eye1.htm
LeDoux, Joesph (YEAR). The Synaptic Self. ADD CITY: ADD PUBLISHER.
Segre, Liz. (n.d.). Eye Anatomy. Retrieved June 7, 2005, at http://www.allaboutvision.com/resources/anatomy.htm
Anatomy and Physiology
Sickle cell anemia is defined as being a severe form of the illness anemia, where not enough healthy red blood cells are present to carry the necessary oxygen to the rest of the body (Hwang & Shaparin 2003). ed blood cells in individuals with sickle cell anemia will be rigid and moon-shaped, unlike normal red blood cells that are smooth and round. Because of the shape of the red blood cells with sickle cell anemia, they become sticky and slow or block the flow of blood which ceases the amount of oxygen that can even go to the rest of the body (Bjorklund 2010).
Getting diagnosed with sickle cell anemia can happen as young as right after birth, or even before a baby is born (Peterson 2009; Bloom 1995). In order for this to occur, the fluid surrounding the amniotic sac is tested to watch out for…
Bloom, M. (1995). Understanding sickle cell anemia: For general readers to understanding a debilitating genetic disease that affects tens of thousands who are of african ancestry. Jackson, MI: University Press of Mississippi.
Harris, J.L. (2001). Controlling sickle cell disease: Lifestyle and treatment. In Sickle Cell Disease. Brookfield, CT: Twenty-First Century Books.
Pace, B. (2007). Renaissance of sickle cell disease research in the genome era. Hackensack, NJ: Imperial College Press.
Plasmar, R.L. (2004). Focus on sickle cell research. Hauppague, NJ: Nova Biomedical Books.
). These complications will be discussed in the discussion section of this paper.
Taking into account the physiological functioning of these bacteria on the human sensory and muscles muscle system it becomes clear that that this can be a serious threat to human health and, as discussed above, this disease can lead to death. Modern medicine has however created an antidote to the effects of this disease. Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination with tetanus toxoid ((Xy-Za et al.). However a booster for this vaccination is required every ten years after the first or primary vaccination (Xy-Za et al.).
In terms of healthcare and pretention it is also noted in many studies that this disease thrives when a wound is not properly cared for and treated. As one study emphasizes "Contaminated wounds are the site where tetanus bacteria multiply. Deep wounds or those with distallized tissue are particularly prone…
Myositis ossificans circumscripta. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com /EBchecked/topic/400545/myositis-ossificans-circumscripta
Tetanus. Retrieved from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/tetanus/article_em.htm
Tetanus Complications, Retrieved from http://www.cks.nhs.uk/patient_information_leaflet/tetanus/complications
Tetanus: Lockjaw & Tetanus Vaccination. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/tetanus/article.htm
The oxygen attaches to the blood cells and this is the means by which oxygenated blood returns to the body.
We are investigating the lower lobe of the right lung. This part of the lung is generally free from bacteria and that is the case here; our human is healthy. Nonspecific immunity refers to the mechanisms the body uses collaboratively with other systems. In the lower lobe, the spongy outside provides a physical barrier to the entry of bacterium. Inside, the lungs are made up of epithelium, cells that line cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body. The honeycombed formation of epithelium gives the inside of the lungs much more surface area than on the outside.
According to Science News (2009), it is not uncommon for people to die from lung complications of a disease rather than the disease itself. Epithelial cells in the airway signal the immune system…
References femoral vein. (2011). In MedicineNet.com. .
"Research elucidates way lungs fight bacteria and prevent infection." (2009). Science
News Jan 29, 2009. .
Scarring or adhesions can make one of the other types of tubal ligation more complicated and risky. Laparoscopy is generally done with a general anesthetic. Laparotomy or mini-laparotomy can be done using general anesthesia or a regional anesthetic, also known as an epidural. Undoing a tubal ligation is possible, but it is not highly successful. This is why tubal ligation is measured a permanent method of birth control, and not something that should be entered into lightly (Tubal Ligation and Tubal Implants, 2012).
After this procedure one normally goes home the sake day. Some women may need to stay in the hospital overnight. There will be some tenderness and pain. The doctor will give one a prescription for pain medicine or recommend over-the-counter pain medicine that can be taken. After laparoscopy, many women will have shoulder pain for a few days. This is caused by the gas used in the…
"Tubal Ligation." 2012. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
"Tubal Ligation: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S. National Library of Medicine.
U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2012. Web. 29 Apr. 2012.
Anatomy of Organizational Design (Kimberly, 1984) the author convincingly shows how the disciplines inherent and supporting organizational design frameworks must be inclusive of factors which have in the past been left out of its constructs and frameworks in the past. The author first defines progress in organizational design as the continual questioning of long-held structural components of an organization as being relevant for its future (Kimberly, 1984). Instead of merely illuminating how quickly frameworks can become outmoded and useless in a rapidly changing organizational climate however the author uses a series of metrics and frameworks to explain why the trajectory of change must be so closely monitored. In doing this he evokes many of the classical concepts of organizational design change management theory (Hax, Majluf, 1981). These are highly effective for making this point that ignoring the trajectory of change in an organization's structure often leads to its value to…
Hax, A.C., & Majluf, N.S. (1981). Organizational design: A survey and an approach. Operations Research, 29(3), 417-417.
Kimberly, J.R. (1984). The anatomy of organizational design. Journal of Management, 10(1), 109-109.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland found in the neck, and it controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones that are in play within the context of the body's intricacies. The gland itself is butterfly-shaped and sits on the trachea, in the anterior neck (Ayoub, Christie, Duggon, and Herndon 725). It is comprised of two lobes connected in the middle by an isthmus, and on the inside contains many hollow follicles, whole epithelial cell walls surround a central cavity filled with a thick, gelatinous material called colloid (Anraku, Nakao, Ono, and Yamamura 319). Located just below the area of the body commonly referred to as the "Adams Apple" or larynx, the thyroid actually originates in the back of the tongue when a body is still in utero and makes its…
Anraku, Tsubasa, Nakao, Nobuhiru, Ono, Hiroko, and Yamamura, Takashi. "Thyrotobin
in the Pars Tuberalis Triggers Photoperiodic Response." 2008. Nature, 452(7185): pp. 317-324.. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Ayoub, Macram, Christie, Benjamin, Duggan, Daniel and Herndon, Mark. "Thyroid
Abscess: Case Report and Review of the Literature." 2007. The American Surgeon, 73(7): pp. 725-729. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Identify all components of a normal ECG rhythm- a typical, or normal ECG tracing of the heartbeat consists of a P. wave, a QS complex, a T. wave and a U. wave (visible in 50-75% of cases).
Identify basic ECG rhythms -- ECG rhythms are printed on graph paper, the smaller squares represent .04 second; 1 second 25 small squares, etc. The basic rhythms are:
(Source: ECG Tutorial, 2006).
Identify basic dysrhythmias and relevant implications and nursing interventions -- There are a number of dysrhythmias that impact the nursing field: Sinus Bradycardia -- Heart rate less than 60 beats per minute, rhythm regular, duration normal, but slower respiration, may indicate beta blockers, brain injury, hypoglycemia, or substance use; Sinus Tachycardia -- excessive heart rate above 100 beats per minute, beats are normal but at a faster rate, may indicate fright, stress, or illness; Supraventricular Tacycardia (SVT) shows narrowing of…
AHA Diagnostic ECG Electrode Placement. (n.d.) Welchallyn.com. Cited in:
ECG Tutorial. (2006). Mauvila.com. Cited in: http://www.mauvila.com/index.htm
ECG Rhythms. (2006). Ambulance Technician Study. Cited in:
Henry Gray Anatomist Author Gray's Anatomy
Henry Gray is an English anatomist most notably recognized for the fact that he brought great contribution to anatomy and made it possible for people to understand its importance. Anatomists in the contemporary society are still likely to appreciate his writings and his perspective in regard to anatomy as a whole. His most notable manuscript, the "Anatomy of the Human Body" provided several generations of medicine and anatomy students with important information that assisted them in getting a better understanding of the human body. The book has also been especially helpful for artists that were concentrated on representing the human body as true as possible, given that its illustrations were particularly realistic (Gray learnt anatomy primarily through studying bodies).
The anatomist lived for most of his life in London, in his family's home. The fact that his father worked for the Royal family made…
Gray, Henry, "Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of medicine and surgery," Churchill Livingstone, 1995.
Hayes, Bill, "The anatomist: a true story of Gray's anatomy," Ballantine Books, 2008.
Leonard, C.H. And Gray, Henry, "The Concise Gray's Anatomy," Cosimo, Inc., 2005.
Richardson, Ruth, "Mr. Gray's Anatomy," Oxford University Press.
Some of the words used in human anatomy have fascinating origins. The term aorta has an uncertain derivation with Hippocrates being the first one recorded to mention the word around the 5th century BC. Hippocrates used the word (which may have come from combination of Greek 'aer' which means air and 'tepeo' which means to hold) to describe the trachea and its branches in consideration of the windpipe's function. The word biceps comes from the Latin words 'bis' meaning twice and caput which means head. Its brachii is basically a muscle with two heads or origins.
Another word derived from Latin is coronary from the word 'corona' meaning garland, wealth, crown or boundary. Arranged vertically instead of encircling the cranium, the coronal suture is reminiscent of the style favored by oman emperors for the wearing of a garland. The Greek word for almond, almygdala, is a mass of gray matter…
Dawn252. (2009, March 20). History of anatomy, body regions & landmarks. Retrieved April 6,
2010, from http://anatowiki.wetpaint.com/page/History+of+anatomy,+body+regions+&+landmarks
Dr. C. (2008). Anatomy Words: A Discussion of the Fascinating Histories behind the Words
Used in Human Anatomy. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from http://anatomyalmanac.blogspot.com/
Since the Greek kouros, sculpture has depended on at least a basic understanding of human anatomy. Anatomy was in fact studied by ancient civilizations independently of its relevance to rendering the human body in two dimensions or three for art. The fusion of anatomy and art reached its first peak during the Renaissance, when artists in Europe longed to deepen their technique and enhance the realism of their human forms and figures. Some artists went so far as to paint anatomy lessons in a display of dramatic irony that brings the viewer face-to-face with the reality that art depends on a solid understanding of the human body. In the middle of the seventeenth century, Dutch master Rembrandt van Rijn painted "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp," which depicts the titular doctor and his cadre of students with a corpse. Dr. Tulp uses a pair of scissors to slice…
Bambach, Carmen. "Anatomy in the Renaissance." Hellbrun Timeline of Art History. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anat/hd_anat.htm
Eknoyan, Garabed. "Michelangelo: Art, Anatomy, and the Kidney." Kidney International 57(2000): 1190-1201.
Frank, Priscilla. "Everything You Wanted to Know about Human Anatomy in One Art Exhibit." The Huffington Post. 2 October, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/02/anatomy-art_n_4023603.html
Gray, Carl. "Anatomy Art: Fascination Beneath the Surface." British Medical Journal. Volume 223. September 2001. Retrieved online: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1121254/pdf/698a.pdf
Manion himself finds it ironic that if he had caught Quill in the act and killed the rapist, he would have been exculpated from any guilt. The time lag between finding out about the crime and killing Quill seems like a mere technicality to the Lieutenant and morally justifies Manion's actions in his mind, even though he knows he murdered Quill according to the law.
According to the events presented as by Biegler, despite the fact that the Lieutenant was able to search for and find Quill, have enough presence of mind to arm himself, and then turn himself over to the authorities, he had obviously 'blacked out' during the commission of the crime, and had no recollection of the action. Biegler states to the jury that the Lieutenant "while he felt considerable loathing and contempt for the proprietor he had at no point has any intention of killing or…
Phelps, Shirelle. "Insanity Defense." Encyclopedia of Everyday Law. Gale Cengage, 2003.
eNotes.com. 2006. 23 May, 2010
http://www.enotes.com/everyday-law-encyclopedia / insanity-defense
Traver, Robert. Anatomy of a Murder. New York: St. Martin's, 2005.
Shonda Rhimes' TV series "Grey's Anatomy" presents life in a Seattle hospital as doctors and students are struggling to provide patients with effective treatments. Season 7, episode 19 presents one of the protagonists, Meredith Grey, as she tampers with a medical trial in order to have a person close to her have access to an Alzheimer's drug that could play an important role in fighting the disorder. The ethical issue here involves whether or not a person should lie in order for him or her to be able to save someone from contracting a disorder as horrible as Alzheimer's.
Alzheimer's is one of the most terrible maladies in the contemporary society and it can destroy numerous families and lives as a result of its symptoms. When regarding matters from a more general point-of-view, many individuals are likely to break the law in order to save a person who they have…
Kushner, T.K. (2001). Ward Ethics: Dilemmas for Medical Students and Doctors in Training. Cambridge University Press.
Rhimes, Shonda. Grey's Anatomy. ShondaLand, The Mark Gordon Company ABC Studios (as Touchstone Television (2005 -- 2007)).
Physiological Evolution of Fish
The anatomy of a typical fish adapted from Moyle, P.B., & Cech, J.J. (1982).
How fish has evolved physiologically to become suited to its environment
Fishes have been around for utmost 500 million years during which time they have managed to adapt to any type of aquatic habitat. Physiologic features the fish posses that make them more adapted to the environment they live in are not universal to all the species of fish. Some fishes may have elongate bodies where as others may have greatly shortened bodies. In others, the bodies may be flattened while others may have laterally compressed bodies. Other fish species may have elaborately extended fins that form intricate shapes while others may have reduced or even lost fins. The positions of the eye, the mouth, the nostril, and even the gills also differ in different fish species. Some fishes are cryptically colored.…
Moyle, P.B., & Cech, J.J. (1982). Fishes An Introduction to Ichthyology New York: Prentice
Dorsal fin Lateral line Finlet Scute Caudal Fin Tail margin
Snout Nape Operculum Pectoral Ventral fin Anal fin Caudal peduncle
Muscles Involved in the Backhand Action of the Tennis Shot
The Muscles That Initiate and Assist in Backhand Motion
The motion that is most important in the backhand motion is the grip. A proper grip is vital in any movement when playing tennis. For the grip, the index knuckle of the dominant hand is placed on the top bevel. These muscles are smaller muscles and include;
Abductor Pollicis brevis
Flexor Pollicis brevis
Abductor digiti minimi brevis
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Opponens digiti minimi.
The backhand grip enables one to develop firmness that allow maximum power and spin enabling the player to get maximum utilization of the backhand. In addition, the backhand grip reciprocates well the stroke and allows a good leverage in the stroke to handle the ball from different angles. The Eastern and modified Eastern backhand grip are used when the player intends to return a hard…
worth 1 point.
The energy-storing compound found in all cells is
A cell placed in a ____ solution will swell.
A form of an element that differs in its atomic weight from other forms of that same element is a (n)
A cord of connective tissue that joins a muscle to a bone is called a (n)
The muscle separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity is the diaphram
A change in the genetic material of a cell is called a (n)
The scientific term for the widening of the blood vessels is dilation
The primary sensory area is found in the ____ lobe.
The neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction is called acetycholine
The ____ side of the heart pumps blood over longer distances than the other side.
The abdominal gland that secretes glucagon and digestive enzymes is the pancreas
Anatomy of Fascism
Chapter 2 Analysis
Paxton identifies the starting place and date of “fascism” (Italy, 1919) but goes on to note that the idea of fascism was occurring elsewhere in Europe at the same time—quite distinctly from anything related to Mussolini. The Hungarian kingdom had essentially been dissolved by the Treaty of Trianon following the end of WWI, and Bela Kun had instituted a socialist government in Budapest. Hungarian elites struck back and formed the Anti-Bolshevik Committee, which was essentially anti-Jewish, as Kun’s commissars had mainly been Jewish. Thus a type of Hungarian fascism was born. A similar story was told in Germany, where Hitler led a similar response to Jewish power during the Weimar years. Essentially, fascism was a nationalistic-militaristic response to liberalism and socialism. Likewise, the miserable outcome for countries defeated by the Allies in WWI was a prelude to the organic rise of fascism—a power viewed…
Anatomy: Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease is a central nervous system disease that is degenerative. It disrupts normal functioning at the cellular level by reducing the activity of cells that secret dopamine (Davie, 109). That happens through the death of cells, as well, in a couple of different regions of the brain. The two regions most affected are both related to movement and learning. They also affect how a person reacts to something, and whether he or she feels like a particular behavior was rewarding. The pathways that connect the basal ganglia of the brain to other areas are all affected in people who have Parkinson's disease (Shulman, De Jager, & Feany, 196). The symptoms are based on the ways in which those pathways are disrupted by the disease process and the death of the cells. As these cells die, they are not able to stop the body's systems from activating…
Davie, C.A. "A review of Parkinson's disease." British Medical Bulletin, 86(1): 109 -- 127. 2008. Print.
Shulman, J.M., De Jager, P.L., & Feany, M.B. "Parkinson's disease: Genetics and pathogenesis." Annual review of pathology, 6: 193 -- 222. 2011. Print.
The Breath of Life
Throughout scripture the concept of breath represents life. Genesis 2:7
It is evident that we need to breathe to live and that without our respiratory system, we would die. But why is this? Can we know why other than to say that this is how our Creator designed us to be? Perhaps an understanding of our own respiratory system can help us to better understand our Creator? I think so.
What do we find in our nose? A kind of filter that keeps out of our lungs harmful particles and spores that would otherwise pollute them. This can be a symbol of how we should filter our minds of impure thoughts so as to keep our souls clean. It can also be a symbol of how important God's grace is in our souls -- it is to our souls as oxygen is to our bodies.…
South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Sheen, F. (1951). Three to Get Married. Princeton, NJ: Scepter Publishers.
Holy Bible, New Living Translation. (2004). IL: Tyndale House Publishers.
Homeostasis is the goal promoted by both positive and negative
feedback mechanisms. This is the principle which indicates that there is a
balance in autonomic life functions which the body attempts always to
maintain. This refers to such features as body temperature, heart rate,
respiration and the powering of vital organs. When stimuli create a
divergence from this status, the body will activate a set of responses
designed to regulate a return to balance.
4. In anatomical position, how many planes can be described and what
are their names?
There are three major anatomical planes, which are used to refer to
different ways of addressing the body and its systems. The anatomical
planes include the Coronal Plane, which refers to the frontal surface of
the body from head to foot. The Sagittal Plan refers to the surface which
might be viewed from a profile, indicating a lateral perspective on the…
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Antonini-Canterin et. al. (2009). Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study. Angiology 60 (5) 596-600
CDC. (2010). Heart disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/
Dewey et. al. (2004). Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology. European Radiology. 14 (6) 1048-1054
Escolar et. al. (2006). New imaging techniques for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174 (4) 487-495
hen an heart needs more oxygen, such in times of exercise, stress or pharmacological stimuli, blood flow is increased to fulfill this demand. However, the physiological narrowing of arteries due to plaque build up found in coronary disease restricts blood flow to the heart, especially in times of when an increase in myocardial oxygen is needed. These restrictions mean a lessened CFR for the individual, which can lead to coronary ischemia, cardiac infarction, and several other dangerous effects. This physiological change in the coronary system, through the build up of plaque, occurs for several reasons. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition, with the consumption of certain fats and cholesterols, can facilitate plaque build up. High blood pressure, obesity, depression, and anxiety are also contributing factors (Pazoki, Nabiour, Seyednezami, and Imami).
There are different treatment options for coronary artery disease. Two treatment clinical options include lifestyle modification and revascularization. Lifestyle…
Kern, Morton, Amir Lerman, Jan-Willen Bech, Bernard De Bruyne, Eric Eeckhout, William Fearon, Stuart Higano, Michael Lim, and Martjin Meuwissen. "Physiological Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory ." American Heart Association Journal 114 (2006): 1321-1341. American Heart Association. Web. 16 Nov. 2010.
Pazoki, Raha, Iraj Nabipour, Nasrin Seyednezami, and Seyed Reza Imami. "Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)." BMC Public Health 7 (2007): 216-220. Print.
Rub, M., Cremer, J., Krian, a., Meinertz, T., Werdan, K., & Zerkowski, H. "Different Treatment Options in Chronic Coronary Artery Disease." Deutschs Arzteblatt International 106.15 (10 Apr 2009): 253-261.
Shirato, Susan, and Beth Ann Swan. "Women and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidentiary Review." MedSurg Nursing 19.5 (2010): 282-306. Print.
It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.
The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…
1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/theEvolutionofmodernmedicin/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.
History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007
Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.lsumc.edu.com, Accessed May 12, 2007
Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet,
However, it was 1953 that the formation of serotonin was from the lungs was substantiated. It is also observed that detoxification of the blood takes place in the lungs. Later, it was observed that one of the important activities of the lung is to provide chemical filtration by shielding the regular circulation of blood from the attack of vasoactive mixtures and other exogenous compounds present in the arteries. The physiology of the lungs and its location makes the lung exclusively suitable to perform these activities. (Wet; Moss, 1998)
The total output from the cardiac system is obtained by the lungs whereas other organs acquire only a very small quantity of output. The blood that circulates the lungs is subject to the vast capillary endothelial plane of the body which is of seventy square meters. This aspect of output and circulation enable the lung to perform the efficient function of biochemical…
Bennett, Taylor. B. (1996) "Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel"
De Reuck, a.V. S; O'Connor, Maeve. (1962) "CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pulmonary
Structure and Function" a. Churchill Ltd.: London.
Or pressure. Or temperature (hot and cold, separately). Or vibration (both high- and low-frequency)." (Hancock, 1995) All over the surface f the skin are receptors that report warmth and there are others that report cold. Several types of nerves exist that have the ability to sense "cold, warmth pressure, pain, and more. The nerves that sense and transmit pain are called nociceptors. Nociceptors transmit electrical signals to your spinal column. In the spinal cord, electrical pain signals causes a release of chemicals which are called neurotransmitters, which activate other nerve cells that process and transmit the information to the brain. Important decisions occur in the spinal column: Acute pain like that from touching a hot surface raises a red flag and is routed to the brain immediately.. "The larger fibers convey electrical impulses very rapidly to the brain, and are thought to cause sharp pricking pain, while the very fine…
DeSanti, Leslie (2005) Pathophysiology and Current Management of Burn Injury Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Volume 18(6), July/August 2005, pp 323-332
Hancock, Elise (1995) The Handy Guide to Touch - April 1995. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/~jhumag/495web/touch.html .
Kane, Daniel (2004) Feb 19 How Your Brain Handles Love and Pain MSNBC Online available at http://www.sciam.com/search/index.cfm?QT=Q&SCC=Q&Q=burns%3A+skin+receptors .
Britt, Robert Roy (2006) The Pain Truth: How and Why We Hurt - Health Sci-Tech 31 January 2006 Live Science Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=signals+to+brain+from+burn&page=4&nt=SG1_S I0&userid=-7493026336042476887&invocationType=topsearchbox.search&c lickstreamid=-7493026336042476889
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…
Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm
Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm
Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.
Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems
Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
Mechanisms of Vestibular-Mediated Equilibrium
There are two types of equilibrium that the vestibular system helps to maintain: static and dynamic (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31). Static equilibrium provides feedback concerning head position or head movement when the body is stationary. In contrast, dynamic equilibrium involves sensing motion or acceleration/deceleration of the head. Acceleration can be further divided into sensing a change in linear velocity, either horizontally or vertically, and angular velocity associated with rotation of the head.
The vestibular system's contribution to maintaining equilibrium critically depends on inner ear structures. The saccule and utricle together provide sensory information concerning static equilibrium and linear acceleration, while the semicircular canals contribute information about angular acceleration (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31-32). Both the saccule and utricle contain a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells, which are known as maculae. The…
Hain, T. And Helminski, J. (2001). Anatomy and physiology of the normal vestibular system. In S. Herdman (Ed.) Vestibular Rehabilitation, 3rd Edition (pp. 2-18). Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.
Lledo, Peirre-Marie, Gheusi, Gilles, and Vincent, Jean-Didier. (2005). Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system. Physiological Reviews, 85, 281-317.
Virtual Medical Centre. (2010). Ear. VirtualMedicalCentre.com. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2011 from http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/anatomy/ear/29
Plasma & BC
Plasma constitutes the majority of whole blood volume, about 46-63% (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). Plasma is the matrix of blood, contributing to blood's unique composition. Plasma has three main components: plasma proteins, water, and other solutes (Patton & Thibodeau, 2009). Plasma proteins are too large in size to get across capillary walls; therefore after the majority of these proteins are synthesized by the liver, they go into the bloodstream and remain there (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). The majority of plasma proteins are albumins. Albumin's role is to contribute to the osmotic pressure of plasma; they also serve as carrier proteins, transporting various hormones and fatty acids (Tortora & Derrickson, 2011). Globulin is another plasma protein whose role is to transport ions, thyroid and steroid hormones, and lipids; they also contain our antibodies that help our immune system (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). Fibrinogin is an…
Martini, F., Nath, J., & Bartholomew, E. (2011).Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology.. (9th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.
Patton, K.T., & Thibodeau, G.A. (2009). Anatomy & physiology. (7th ed.). Missouri: Mosby.
Tortora, G.J., & Derrickson, B.H. (2011). Principles of anatomy and physiology. (13th ed., Vol. 22). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Computed tomography, more commonly know as a CT or CT scan, is an X-ray technique that is used to produce very detailed images of internal organs located in various parts of the body, such as the head, chest, and abdomen. Doctors use the images produced through this procedure to help diagnose and treat diseases. Other terms for the technique are also called computerized tomography or computerized axial tomography (CAT). While conventional X-ray exams produce two-dimensional images, CT scans uses an X-ray-sensing unit that rotates around your body and a large computer to create cross-sectional images of the inside of your body. This paper will address vital educational information including a brief history, uses for computed tomography, and the effects that it may have on the patient.
British engineer, Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories, England and Allan Cormack of Tufts University in Massachusetts invented computed tomography. Their…
Imaginis.com. Computerized Tomography Imaging. Accessed April 1, 2004, at http://www.imaginis.com/ct-scan/how_ct.asp .
International Medical News Group. (2001). CT scan radiation. Family Practice News, 31 (6) 35.
Frush, D. (2003, Nov. 1). In planning CT dese reduction, one size does not fit all - Body size, imaging indication, and scanner engineering create complex formula for success. Dianostic Imaging, p. NA.
MayoClinic.com. (1998-2004). "Mayo Clinic Health Information." Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
So far, we have accomplished stepping up one step, but this is only half of the process necessary for reaching something on a high shelf. The second step, of course, is reaching up with the arm to grasp the desired object. The beginning of the process is pretty much the same -- a nerve impulse originates in the brain (possibly in the motor cortex for this more complex and less-often performed task), and then travels along the spinal cord and periphery nerves to the proper muscles (pbs.org). Again, the neuromuscular junction is the site of chemical/electrical messaging between he nerve and the muscle fiber, and the same process activates the muscle tissue.
It is worthwhile to examine exactly what process takes place in the muscle tissue once activated that actually enables movement. muscles work by contracting; at the cellular level, the muscle fibers actually cling together and shorten when activated,…
Cluett, J. (2009). "Information About Anatomy: Orthopedics." Accessed 17 May 2009. http://orthopedics.about.com/od/anatomy/Information_About_Anatomy.htm
Freudenrich, C. (2009). "How Muscles Work." Accessed 17 May 2009. http://health.howstuffworks.com/muscle1.htm
Pbs.org. "The Secret Life of the Brain." Accessed 17 May 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/3d/
The large intestine begins near the lower coils of the small intestines but then ascends up the right side and bend back over the top of the highest loop of the small intestine. Several layers of muscle and sinewy tissue wrap around the area housing the internal organs (Iazzetti & igutti, 2007).
The other organs located in the major body cavity include the bladder, gall bladder, and pancreas. In addition, the female body cavity also contains a uterus.
Besides the major internal organs, there are major blood vessels that run down the body cavity directly from the heart and branch off to smaller arteries and veins that carry blood throughout the rest of the body (Iazzetti & igutti, 2007).
Iazzetti, G, igutti, E.…
Iazzetti, G, Rigutti, E. (2007). Atlas of Anatomy. London: TAJ Books.
However, starting from this, Leonardo was able to use this conclusion in his mathematics work and "rationalize irrational geometry of square root of 2."
The rationalization mentioned in the previous paragraph is not only related to the proportions that exist between the different body parts, but also to the easiness with which the square and circle can be constructed and how these two perfect geometric shapes are correlated. As such, the drawing initially starts with the square. If rotated by 45 degrees, the square will result in a vertical geometric projection of itself. The difference between the extremity of the projected square and the side of the initial square will form the diameter of the circle. Calculated in palms, the area of the circle is 660 palms, while the area of the square is 576 palms. This makes for the differences between the two areas 84 palms, important because of…
1. Vitruvius. Ten Books on Architecture. Translated by a committee, edited by Ingrid D. Rowland and Thomas Noble Howe; Cambridge University Press, 1999
2. Place, Robert. Leonardo's Vitruvian Man. 2000. On the Internet at http://thealchemicalegg.com/VitruviusN.html.Last retrieved on December 7, 2008
3. Turbeville, Joseph. An Angular Perspective of Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man. From "A Glimmer of Light from the Eye of a Giant: Tabular Evidence of a Monument in Harmony with the Universe.
4. Bowman, David. Vitruvian Man. 2008. On the Internet at http://www.aiwaz.net/a6.Last retrieved on December 7, 2008
Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…
Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/salivary.html
Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011, http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041
Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm
Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University of New York, viewed 15 September 2011, http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
While less than a full page is devoted to actual diseases and conditions and specific mention of diagnostic methods and treatments of these conditions, over three pages are given over to a general discussion of assessment and treatment (Judge 2007). Though there are conditions that might not present in ways conducive to these general methods, Judge notes that the bulk of musculoskeletal conditions often have similar complaints, especially with range of motion and pain (Judge 2007). The consistent symptom presentation and other related factors makes this approach most efficient.
The similarities can also make the correct diagnoses of a specific musculoskeletal condition in contrast to another somewhat difficult. Judge lays out a careful yet efficient assessment procedure that quickly determines the underlying cause of the most commonly presented musculoskeletal symptoms, giving the working nurse an excellent and handy practical guide in providing the most help to patients. One of the…
Judge, N.L. (2007). "Assessing and managing patients with musculoskeletal conditions,"
Nursing standard, 22(1), pp. 51-7
Any brain injury is serious and Julie should not have continued the climb. Seeking immediate medical attention as soon as the injury occurred may have saved Julie's life. The severe headache and ringing in her ears is another sign that the bump on the head was not so light, but still consistent with a Grade 1 concussion. Although Julie did not lose consciousness, she still had the key signs of a concussion.
The treatment of a concussion includes rest and inactivity. Aspirin should be avoided, as it may contribute to continued internal bleeding. Continuing the hike may have caused Julie's blood pressure to remain high, contributing to the inability of her body to form clots at the injury points. The onset of severe headache was a sign that things had become critical. Julie's life may have been saved had the severity of the injury been recognized from the beginning and…
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/
Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.
Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
They cannot carry impulses as they do not have an axon and dendrites. The oligodendrocyte cells are more numerous than the neurons and make up almost 90% of the brain cells. Thus, to differentiate between a neuron and oligodendrocyte the researcher would have to eliminate the presence of the axon and dendrite and check the density of the presence of these cells within the brain sample. [Wikipedia, 2005]
ASTOCYTE: These are another type of Glial cells that can easily be differentiated through their star shape. The astrocytes are seen to contain many secondary filaments that function just like dendrites in neurons. When examined the nuclei of the astrocytes is seen as smaller than that of the oligodendrocytes. The glial cells are non-neural and can easily be distinguished from the neurons. [Glia, 2005]
Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005
Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,…
Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005
Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glia
Author Not Available, Glia, 2005, http://www.mb.jhu.edu/tins/media/Neuroglia.txt
This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland (Reiser and Kemp, p.1).
This complex system of self-regulation means that there are multiple opportunities for the glands to stop working properly.
The hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, is, in many ways, the control center of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that, in turn, either suppress or stimulate hormone release by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then uses the messages it receives from the hypothalamus to govern its secretion of stimulating hormones to other glands in the endocrine system. The pituitary gland sends messages to other glands in the endocrine system, as well as producing important hormones that regulate bodily functions without requiring the intervention of other glands. The hormones produced by the pituitary gland include: growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating…
Brown, Harriet. "For Some, Psychiatric Trouble May Start in the Thyroid." The New York
Times. N.p. 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.
Rieser, Marianne and Stephen Kemp. "Anatomy of the Endocrine System." Emedicine Health.
1-11. 7 Dec. 2011. Web. 9 Dec. 2012.
Cardiac Cycle: Diastole and Systole Phases and Heart Disease
The objective of the research in this study is to examine the cardiac cycle from the anatomy and physiology perspective. Toward this end, literature in this area of inquiry, which for the purpose of this study is the cardiac cycle, is examined and reported.
Two Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
The work of Klabunde reports that the single cycle of cardiac activity may be divided into two primary phases stated to be those of: (1) the diastole phase; and (2) the systole phase. (Klabunde, 2012, p.1, p.1) Diastole is representative of the span of time when the "ventricles are relaxed…blood is passively flowing from the left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) into the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV), respectively." (Klabunde, 2012, p.1) The mitral and triscuspid or atrioventircular valves are reported to "separate the atria from the ventricles…
Chute, RM (2012) Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels. Retrieved from: http://www.apchute.com/ap2chap/chapt19.htm
Fukuta, H. And Little, W.C. (2008) The Cardiac Cycle and the Physiological Basis of Left Ventricular Contraction, Ejection, Relaxation, and Filling. Heart Fail Clin. 2008. Jan 4(1):1-11. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2390899/
Klabunde, R.E. (2012) Cardiac Cycle. Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Retrieved from: http://www.cvphysiology.com/Heart%20Disease/HD002.htm
Limacher, MC (2004) Understanding the Impact of Abnormal Cardiac Activation on Cardiac Function. J Am Cardiol 2004;43(9): 1532-1533. Retrieved from: http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1135544
Hematology is the branch of medicine that deals with blood. This includes functions of blood, organs and organisms in the body that create blood, and diseases that are concerned with the blood. Each component of the blood has an equally important role and the body cannot function properly if one of these abilities is in some way hindered. Blood itself is composed of plasma, platelets, and red and white blood cells. Each of these parts work together inside the human body in order to make a fully-functioning human; if any of the components of the blood fail, the rest of the body will not be able to function properly.
Adult humans have approximately five liters of blood in their bodies at one time. The most abundant cells in human blood are red blood cells. These cells are proteins which create iron and function to allow oxygen to travel throughout the…
"Blood Basics" (2010). American Society of Hematology.
Brass, Lawrence (2010). "Understanding and Evaluating Platelet Function." Blood. (1): 387-96.
"The Human Heart" (2011). The Franklin Institute.
Intrinsically Photosensitive etinal Ganglion Cell
ecent studies on biological anatomy of the eye discovered an additional photoreceptor within the mammalian eye. The cells discovered mediate the primary non-image visual activities with the vision system. The functioning of these cells aids in various significant processes including the regulation of the papillary reflex activity in response to light, as well as, the circadian photo entrainment. These cells, called the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells respond to more than the absolute light. The ipGCs have a unique feature of activity, as they differ from the usual photoreceptor cells of cones and rods. The rods and cones mediate on the vision of images by signaling the contrasts in light after adaptation. Interestingly, the ipGCs also do adapt to light contrast. The cells show sensitivity to flash of light, as is the case with other photoreceptors. The factor of action of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion…
1. Bellintani-guardia, B., & Ott, M. (2002). Displaced retinal ganglion cells project to the accessory optic system in the chameleon (chamaeleo calyptratus). Experimental Brain Research, 145(1), 56-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-002-1091-z
2. Ben Simon, G.,J., Hovda, D.A., Harris, N.G., Gomez-Pinilla, F., & Goldberg, R.A. (2006). Traumatic brain injury induced neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(7), 1072-82. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2006.23.1072
3. Engelund, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Harrison, A., & Hannibal, J. (2010). Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Cell and Tissue Research, 340(2), 243-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-0950-3
4. Henderson, D., & Miller, R.F. (2003). Evidence for low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents in the dendrites of tiger salamander retinal ganglion cells. Visual Neuroscience, 20(2), 141-52. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198275379?accountid=458
Angiography;, Types Categories, , Signs & Symptoms, Treatment, Imaging Modality
An angiography involves the use of water-soluble X-ray contrast media by injecting it into blood streams in arteries or veins with the purpose of imaging blood vessels. The process is meant to observe normal or pathological conditions of the vessel organization. By seeing the lumen of blood vessels and organs, an angiography can provide information concerning conditions like luminal narrowing and aneurismal widening. Vessel access is essential and serious complications can appear if the substance is unable to pervade the veins and arteries, but this is rare and unlikely to occur. hile these are some of the conditions that are frequently detected through an angiography, it can also play an important role in analyzing sources of bleeding, tumors, and diverse malformations in veins and arteries.
The discovery of X-rays led to some of the first experiments with angiographies as…
Ford-Martin, P.A. (2002). Angiography. Retrieved November 14, 2013, from http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/angiography#1
Osborne, A.G. (1999). Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Snellen, H.A., Dunning, A.J., & Arntzenius, A.C. (1981). History and perspectives of cardiology: catherization, angiography, surgery, and concepts of circular control. Leiden University Press.
Thomas, A.M.K. & Banerjee, A.K. (2013). The History of Radiology. Oxford University Press.
In the Major League aseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the aseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.
There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can…
Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.
Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.
Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.
Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
PET represents a new step forward in the way scientists and doctors look at the brain and how it functions. An X-ray or a CT scan shows only structural details within the brain. The PET scanner gives us a picture of the brain at work. - What is PET?
The epigraph above is reflective of the enthusiasm being generated among clinicians concerning the advent of positron emission tomography and its potential for imaging the human brain. The introduction of sophisticated neuroimaging techniques such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has shifted the emphasis of neuropsychology from lesion localization to diagnosing the etiology of diseases (Maruish & Moses, 1997).
Behavioral neurology also benefited from innovations in neuroimaging techniques. The advent of improvements in the imaging of brain anatomy through computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI), as well as functional imaging with single photon emission…
Charney, D.S., Hoffer, P.B. & Kosten, T.R. et al. (1995). Opiate Dependence and Withdrawal: Preliminary Assessment Using Single Photo Emission Computerized Tomography. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21(1), 47.
Imaging Parkinson's. (December 14, 2002). Science News, 162(24), 382.
Jensen, K.B. (1991). Humanistic scholarship as qualitative science: Contributions to mass communication research. In K.B. Jensen & N.W. Jankowski (eds.). A handbook of qualitative methodologies for mass communication research (17-43). New York: Routledge.
Lincoln, Y.S., & Guba, E.G. (1990). Judging the quality of case study reports. Qualitative Studies in Education, 3(1), 53-59.
Kinesiology -- Human Kinetics
Dunking, also known as slam dunk, is a basketball trick in which the player jumps in the air and dunks the ball in the basket with one or both the hands over the rim of the basketball hoop. It is a popular shot among the audience and provides an entertaining experience to the viewers. Slam dunk contests are also held separately due to the popularity of this shot.
Phases of the movement
There are four distinct phases involved in dunking. In the first phase, the player or MJ in this case, extends his body by bending his right knee and extending his left leg so that it propels him off the ground. In the second phase, he is jumping in the air and his right knee is more bent than his left knee. He also raises his right elbow and extends his left arm to…
Hoffman, Shirl. (2009). Introduction to Kinesiology: Studying Physical Activity. Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Redmond, Kevin; Foran, Andrew; Dwyer, Sean. (2009). Quality Lesson Plans for Outdoor Education. Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Milner, Clare. (2008). Functional Anatomy for Sport and Exercise. Kentucky: Taylor & Francis.
Pangrazi, Robert; Dauer, Victor. (1979). Lesson Plans for Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company.
Hormonal egulation of Urine
Human beings are made of 75% water. The huge percentage of water in the human body is attributed to the constant need to sustain fluid balance through drinking water. However, the quantity of ingested water needs to be balanced with the amount and concentration of urine generated so as to regulate the volume of fluid and osmolarity within an ordinary range. Urine is formed in the human body through three major processes that occur in the nephrons i.e. glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and turbular secretion (McCann et. al., 2002, p.605). The quantities of substances reabsorbed and secreted in the nephrons are varied by the kidneys, which contributes to changes in the composition of excreted urine.
Urine output or excretion is usually regulated by several hormones that also play a crucial role in regulation of urine. Vasopressin is one of the hormones that regulate urine output and…
McCann et. al. (2002). Illustrated manual of nursing practice (3rd ed.). Springhouse, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
McCann et. al. (2007). Straight A's in anatomy & physiology: a review series. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Rubin, R.H. & Pfaff, D.W. (2010). Hormone/behavior relations of clinical importance: endocrine systems interacting with brain and behavior. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.
According to Gutmann et al. (2017) neurofibromatosis is a group of three conditions whereby tumors grow in the nervous system. These conditions are neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), neurofibromatosis type II (NF2), and schwannomatosis. It is considered to be a genetic disorder of the nervous system. Neurofibromatosis mainly affects the development and growth of nerve cell tissue. The tumors can develop anywhere in the nervous systems including spinal cord, brain, and nerves. These tumors are mostly noncancerous, however, there have been instances when they do become cancerous. The most common condition is NF1. Schwannomatosis is the most recent and it is a rare type of neurofibromatosis. Little is known about schwannomatosis.
NF1 manifests at birth or in early childhood. It is characterized by multiple café-au-lait (light brown) spots that are concentrated in the groin and underarms (Gutmann et al., 2017). It is also manifested by benign tumors under the skin.…
red wolf and different aspects related to this species. I have included information about its taxonomy, morphology & anatomy, distribution, habitat, feeding, predators, behavior, reproduction, development and economic value. Over all, I have given thorough information regarding the life and habits of the red wolf that is now an endangered animal.
The red wolf is a species of wolf that is smaller in size and its color varies from reddish gray to almost black. It is commonly known as red wolf. The red wolf is considered as the most beautiful of all the wolves on the planet (Sutton, 1998). However, it has been given the scientific name of Canis rufus. It belongs to the Family Canidae and Order Carnivora (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247). As far as the status of red wolf is concerned, it has been categorized as an endangered living creature as this species of wolf…
Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HomHpmeIyWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+ wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.
Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.
Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-022-01-0001.pdf
The first Grays arrived in 2010, but they did not come en masse until a century later. The initial group of twenty brought with them a plethora of testing equipment from their home planet and took with them a total of two thousand samples from our environment. With the cooperation of the United Nations Council on Extraterrestrial Life (UNCEL), the Grays were permitted to take with them soil samples from hundreds of Earth locations and hundreds of botanical samples, many of which were of plants edible to humans but many of which were deemed palatable by the Grays. The Grays also took atmospheric air samples and water samples, both saline and non-saline, with them. Once the extensive surveys determined that their species could and would live on Earth comfortably, and once UNCEL approved it, about ten thousand of the Grays were permitted to come to the planet. The…
Health Letter to Friend
Hormone problems. Who can't relate to those these days? People talk a lot about symptoms like high blood pressure, emotional ups and down, obesity, all of which might well be related to serious medical concerns that come with our age, or that might be caused by stress or junk food!
Which means you are right to have questions and a bit of anxiety. Some hormone conditions (minor or severe) need attention because they tell us how well the endocrine system is in balance -- and it's the endocrine system that influences how the body works and how different parts of our system function together. So the balance is important.
But hormone imbalances can vary a lot, and it takes information to figure out what's wrong. Diabetes (or being overweight), reproduction problems, infertility, thyroid conditions, high blood pressure, poor cholesterol levels and even lipids (not putting on…
Kemp, S., Chausmer, A.B., and Talavera, F., (2011) emedicineHealth, Anatomy of the Endocrine System. Retrieved on October 15, 2011 from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/anatomy_of_the_endocrine_system/article_em.htm .
Anatomy [...] gall bladder disorders, with background information for the first page, and then homeopathic treatments on the second page. Must be alternative treatments to surgery, drugs etc. (ex, diet)
The gall bladder is a small, pear-shaped organ nestled beneath the liver. It stores treats the bile from the liver, and then dumps the bile into the intestines. Gall bladders can suffer several disorders, such as gallstones, gall bladder sludge, infection and inflammation, and even cancer. Some symptoms of gall bladder disorders include nausea or vomiting, pain in the upper abdomen or between the shoulders, abdominal bloating, continued intolerance of fatty foods, and gas and/or indigestion (Comforth). Patients may also notice a fever, or slight jaundice (yellow skin or whites of the eyes) (Bartel). Gallstones are the most common form of gall bladder disorder, and usually are the cause of at least 80% of gall bladder disorders. Usually, there are…
Bartel, Kent R. "Gall Bladder Symptoms." New Hope Health Clinic. 2003. 3 Dec. 2004.
Editors. Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia. 3rd ed. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1958.
Comforth, Tracee. "Symptoms of Gallbladder Disease." About.com. 2004. 3 Dec. 2004.
esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).
The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).
A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…
Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.
Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.
Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.
Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from http://ehealthmd.com
Metatarsal Stress Fracture and Complications
Because of the metatarsals' location, they are exposed to high stresses during many types of athletics, particularly those involving frequent jumping, pivoting, and repeated changes of direction. The metatarsals are susceptible to chronic stress-induced fractures from a combination of factors including foot anatomy, footwear, playing surface, specific maneuvers, previous injury to surrounding tissue, and more general variables such as frequency of sports activity.
Acute treatment involves the traditional use of rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), the use of crutches, a gradual return to normal activities, and any necessary changes or augmentation to footwear. Generally, recovery is complete after nine weeks but complications from insufficient rest include increased trauma to the area and prolongation of total recovery time. With adequate attention, metatarsal stress fractures heal completely without subsequent recurrence of symptoms unless specific underlying factors continue to impose unusual stresses on the area.