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Cardiovascular diseases' is an umbrella term representing a number of disorders known to affect the heart and blood vessels. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of deaths attributable to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is higher than that attributable to any other disease. However, people who live in low-income nations are more prone to death from CVDs than those who live high-income nations.
People in Low-Income Countries More Likely to Die From Cardiovascular Diseases
As I have already noted in the introduction section, WHO (2011) has classified cardiovascular diseases as "the number one cause of death globally." It is however important to note that on an annual basis, most of those who succumb to CVDs come from low-income countries (WHO 2011). There are several reasons for this.
To begin with, according to a fact sheet availed by the WHO (2011), this trend can be attributed to the exposure people…… [Read More]
Cardio-vascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and leads the statistics for emergency room (ER) cases. This literature review combines two primary causative agents in CVD: (1) Stress in the workplace, and (2) Middle Age. This review will explore one of the key reasons why the harmful ramifications of stress and middle age can be nullified or, at least, reduced -- through physical activity and exercise.
Job stress is defined as harmful physical and emotional responses to job requirements that do not match the abilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Occupational stress is a perceived imbalance between occupational demands and the individual's ability to perform when the consequences of failure are significant (rehm, 2002) This makes the entire concept of job stress a very personal and psychological matter -- whenever perceptions play an important role. Contemporary magazines like Newsweek, Time, and U.S. News and World Report have…… [Read More]
Self-reporting is noted as the most efficient as well as widely accepted means of disease assessment. It is therefore advisable to use self-rated oral health in the evaluation of the perception of people's health. The oral symptoms ae the subjective perceptions of an individual's oral health which is derived from various oral diseases such as periodontal disease, caries, xerostomia as well as tooth loss. It is clear that no study has been dedicated to the study of the correlation between oral symptoms and the mortality that is caused by cardiovascular disease as well as pneumonia. It is a wonder that one of the most crucial risk factors for cardiovascular disease occurs in the are of our body which we never at all connect with cardiovascular disease, our mouth. Several studies have studied the correlation that exists between heart disease and poor oral health.It has been suggested that the various oral…… [Read More]
Oral Health and Heart Disease
The following literature review will explore research that has investigated the relationship between dental health and cardiovascular disease. The discussion will focus on the significance of the association between oral health and cardiovascular disease, oral health and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, as well as other potential risk factors associated with this relationship.
An effective starting point in the investigation of the association between dental health and cardiovascular disease is to compare oral health of individuals with and without heart disease. Starkhammar et al., (2008) sought to examine the periodontal conditions of individuals with coronary heart disease and those without any heart problems. The authors recognized the severity of coronary heart disease, and how a key component to this disease is inflammation. Prior research indicated that oral diseases resulting in inflammation may play a significantly contributing role to the development of coronary heart disease (Starkhammar…… [Read More]
Genetic isk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Family History of Cardiovascular Disease
The term cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequently used interchangeably with 'heart disease', but for some medical professionals, the term CVD is used to describe only those medical conditions that lead to the narrowing or blocking of blood vessels (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). For others, the term CVD encompasses a number of medical conditions affecting the health of all aspects of the cardiovascular system, including blood vessels, the heart, and the autonomic circuits regulating heart rhythm (Kathiresan and Srivastava, 2012). Other terms used interchangeably with CVD include coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary heart disease (Superko, oberts, Garret, Pendyla, and King III, 2010; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 2011). For the purposes of this review, CVD will be used in the same umbrella-like manner that Kathiresan and Srivastava (2010) have used the term, except when discussing a study that…… [Read More]
Cholesterol Decreases Mortality
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality in the industrialized world. Each year, close to 950,000 Americans die of cardiovascular disease, while 61 million Americans have some form of cardiovascular disease. The financial costs of cardiovascular disease are high, with $351 billion spent on heart disease and stroke each year in the United States (Centers for Disease Control, Preventing Heart Disease).
At the same time, high blood cholesterol is known to be a risk factor for heart disease. Decreasing total blood cholesterol can have a profound effect, reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease by close to 30% (Centers for Disease Control, Heart Disease). Further, there is a wide variety of research that links blood cholesterol levels to heart disease and mortality. This study aims to add to this body of evidence by investigating the impact of decreased cholesterol consumption on mortality from cardiovascular…… [Read More]
Mass Spectrometry in Medical esearch
Metabolics is an emerging approach to cardiovascular biomarker research. Through the use of metabolic approaches based on chemistry, the metabolic properties that underlie a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) states can be analyzed (Senn, et al., 2012). Biomarkers are currently identified in biospecimens according to quantified protein-based end products, rather than representing the disease states by the metabolomics profiles that characterize the disease (Senn, et al., 2012). The literature shows use of both open (unbiased) and closed (targeted) approaches to "identifying, describing, and verifying metabolic differences between disease and nondisease conditions" (Senn, et al., 2012). The use of metabolomics profiling, without evidence of traditional risk factors, is being used to learn more about mortality due to cardiovascular disease, as well as myocardial infarction and stroke (Senn, et al., 2012).
Cardiovascular disease (4-6 sentences are enough)
The leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed nations…… [Read More]
This Stanford study was commissioned by the federal government. It reviewed 1,800 studies on the health benefits of garlic or three months, specifically in lowering cholesterol levels. It said that studies lasting three months or less came out with that conclusion. ut longer-term studies did not (Feder).
Despite this new finding, the sale of garlic supplements remained brisk and popular (Feder 2007). It sold at $150 million a year. The Stanford study was independently conducted. It aimed at determining if raw garlic and garlic supplements could really reduce cholesterol in persons with moderately high cholesterol levels. It drew from the common and accepted belief that LDL, the bad cholesterol, could increase the risk of heart disease. Hence, patients are prompted to lower LDL level through diet, exercise and medication. The Stanford survey used 192 respondents with cholesterol levels high enough to attract concern. They were given raw garlic, Garlicin-powdered garlic,…… [Read More]
These are high cholesterol levels, obesity, physical activity, smoking and racism. According to the 2003 report by the American Heart Association, 53% of Mexican-American men and 48% of women aged 20-74 have high bad cholesterol levels.
The 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported that 33%
of Mexican-American women and 28% of men were obese, as compared with 20% of non-Hispanic women. Adolescents aged 12-19 were 24% overweight as compared with non-Hispanic white adolescents at only 13%. And Latino children aged 6-11 were also likelier to be overweight than non-Hispanic black children at 20% and non-Hispanic white children at 12%.Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes. Hispanics are also less likely to engage in physical activity. Physical inactivity further increases the risk of developing diabetes. Smoking was found to be higher among white adults at 25.3% than among Hispanic adults at 20.4%. ut the Centers for Disease Control and…… [Read More]
Article Summary: The Influence of the Human Microbiome and Probiotics on Cardiovascular Health
One of the world’s leading causes of death is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Some of the risk factors that have been associated with CVD include, but they are not limited to, clinical depression, smoking, physical inactivity, blood pressure and high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity. It is important to note that microorganisms, as the authors of the present article point out, constitute one of the numerous etiological factors in reference to CVD. In this article, the authors not only provide a concise assessment of how CVD and microbiome associate, but also evaluate probiotic therapy applications.
Over time, the role and impact of microbial communities on the health of human beings has been intensely investigated. Some of the areas inhibited by microbial communities in the human body, as the authors of this article point out, include the oral…… [Read More]
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major public health concerns since they contribute to 7 million hospitalizations annually and death. As a result, the identification of suitable treatment options for the diseases is important in order to enhance patient outcomes. Advanced practice nurses play a critical role in recommending appropriate treatment options for patients with these disorders. This process entails examining aspects that could influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic procedures. For this paper, I have selected Patient AO who has gained 9 pounds, has a history of obesity, and suffers from hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Arcangelo & Peterson (2013) classify hypertension as a disorder that affects one in three American adults and hyperlipidemia as increase in the levels of blood cholesterol. These two conditions are regarded as foundations for serious health conditions like heart failure.
The selected patient factor for this case is ethnicity, which influences the development of hypertension…… [Read More]
High fructose corn syrup is found in just about every sweetened food product in America—from ice cream to Coca Cola to Nature’s Made gummy vitamins. Since it is so prevalent an ingredient, most would think it harmless, too. However, as Bray, Nielsen and Popkin (2004) have shown, consuming foods and beverages that contain high fructose corn syrup could play a major role in the onset of obesity. Indeed, the obesity epidemic in the West has coincided with the rise of the soda pop, fast food culture that dominated the American experience in the latter half of the 20th century and continues on to this day (Boutelle, Fulkerson, Neumark-Sztainer, Story & French, 2007; Morrill & Chin, 2004). This paper will discuss the dangers high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) poses for one’s health.
The Rise of HFCS Consumption
Bray et al. (2004) point out that the consumption of high fructose corn…… [Read More]
Although the severities of congestive signs may be similar, medical evaluation should be instructed to determine whether there is accompanying proof of cardiovascular disease. Physical proof of cardiovascular disease contains the narrow pulse pressure, cool arms, and legs, and sometimes changed mentation, with supporting proof sometimes provided by reducing serum sodium level and deteriorating renal function. Cardiovascular disease is frequently difficult to recognize through phone contact but may be suspected when previously effective diuretic increases fail, nurses report lower blood pressure, or patients explain improved lethargy.
Facilitators and barriers to optimal disorder management and outcomes
Environmental factors and cultural beliefs; motivators and hinders
In this case, the client thought he was suffering from a heart attack and feared to come to the hospital. The symptoms had presented for four days before the patient sought help. The patient had been suffering from similar symptoms for the past six months, but thought…… [Read More]
Those who are the vulnerable will have specific genes they inherit from their relatives, who were impacted by the condition. This increases their chances of having similar complications when they become older. (Kolata, 2010)
Congestive Heart Failure and Hypertension
Congestive heart failure and hypertension are interconnected with each other. According to a study conducted by the University of Texas, they found that there are 660 thousand new cases reported each year. This is accounting for 7% of all deaths associated with cardio vascular disease. One of the biggest factors that will determine if someone is at risk is hypertension. As this is used in 75% of all cases, to predict if someone will be impacted by congestive heart failure and the long-term effects it will have on them. (Merla, 2009)
Hypertension can lead to complications by increasing the chances of ventricle or systolic dysfunction taking place. This improves the chances…… [Read More]
Naturally occurring trans-fatty acids are consumed in meager amounts and make up about half a percent of total energy intake including but not limited to meats and dairy products from cows, sheep, and other ruminants; these trans fats are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach.
Therefore it is safe to assume that diet containing poly-saturated fats is a much clearer and present danger than environmental factors, which on their own cannot be discarded or disregarded.
Might there be environmental changes that go along with the homogenization of the American diet and the spread of the typical American diet around the world? What might those environmental risks be?
Yes. The whole industry and the various feeder industries associated with the fast food industry are more like to create environmental factors. For example Trans fatty acids and poly-saturated fats are the result of the specific kind of diet…… [Read More]
"Participants were instructed to drink no more than 3 caffeinated beverages and no more than 2 alcoholic beverages per day" (pg. 2457).
Two features from this study that stand out when compared to the previous study (as read about earlier) was that this study sought to keep the participants weight relatively stable and that the participants were not obese and old, but were young and healthy. The goal of this study was measurably the same as the pervious study, but was set in entirely different circumstances. This is important to individuals seeking entry to the nursing field because it provides ammunition for lifestyle interventions even before the patient may think it is necessary.
The study's primary interest was to ascertain "the contrasts between the carbohydrate and protein diets and between the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets" (pg. 2459). What the study found was that for each diet (when compared to…… [Read More]
Cardiovascular disease is especially dangerous and one of the only effective measures to handle it is prevention. This ultimately makes interventions so crucial, especially with patients with a history of cardiovascular disease and those still showing signs of cardiovascular health. For the case in question, it is crucial to establish with the patient a need to start interventions so that he can avoid further cardiovascular problems. The patient witnessed an abnormal treadmill test, which ultimately signifies issues with the cardiovascular system that may endanger the patient's health.
First, there are interventions that deal with lifestyle changes. These are the least invasive because they do not entail the introduction of medicines or the need for surgery. ather, they aim to intervene with unhealthy lifestyle choices within the life of the patient. Changes in lifestyle include diets, exercise routines, and other changes that promote better cardiovascular health (Lauer, 2008).…… [Read More]
Broken Heart Syndrome
Cardiovascular Case Study
Broken heart syndrome, otherwise called stress or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), represents an adverse physiological response to an acute psychological or physical stressor (Derrick, 2009). The death of a loved one or experiencing a physically traumatic event, represent two examples of life stressors that can cause this reversible form of cardiomyopathy. Although effective treatment is available, the seriousness of the condition is such that it explains how a person can literally die of a broken heart.
An estimated 1.2 million people suffered from an myocardial infarction (MI) in 2007 and approximately 1% (Derrick, 2009, p. 50) to 2% (Wittstein, 2012, p. 2) of MI events was probably due to TTC. Women are far more susceptible to TTC than men and represent approximately 89% of all cases (Derrick, 2009, p. 50). This gender bias shifts the estimated prevalence of TTC among female MI patients…… [Read More]
Gender variation in clinical decision-making was measured, including (1) the number, types, and certainty levels of diagnoses considered and (2) how diagnoses vary according to patient characteristics, when patients have identical symptoms of CHD (Maserejian et al., 2009).
This was a factorial experiment presenting videotaped CHD symptoms, systematically altering patient gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and race, and physician gender and level of experience. The primary end point was physicians' most certain diagnosis. The results: Physicians (n=128) mentioned five diagnoses on average, most commonly heart, gastrointestinal, and mental health conditions. Physicians were significantly less certain of the underlying cause of symptoms among female patients regardless of age, but only among middle-aged women were they significantly less certain of the CHD diagnosis. Among middle-aged women, 31.3% received a mental health condition as the most certain diagnosis, compared with 15.6% of their male counterparts. An interaction effect showed that females with high…… [Read More]
Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.
For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…… [Read More]
Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…… [Read More]
Valli G., et.al. (2002). Benefits, Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions of Herbal Therapies With Cardiovascular Effects. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Vol. 29, No. 7. Reprieved April 30, 2017 from http://www.unifra.br/pos/aafarm/downloads/_intera%C3%A7_%20cardiovascular.pdf
The article is a culmination of research and extensive literature reviews done by three researchers and specialists in the herbal medicine field of medical therapies. It is an academic and professional article widely informed by the ever rising use and need to use the herbal medicine in the USA. The FDA has weighed in especially in terms of the safety concerns of these various herbs hence this article objectively looks at the issues concerning the benefits, the adverse effects and the therapeutic value of various herbal therapies particularly among patients with cardiovascular diseases.
The article highlights the challenges that the herbal medicine faces in terms of the regulations and standards setting is concerned. Many manufacturers are seen…… [Read More]
The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.
In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.
Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.
"Survey:…… [Read More]
hen an heart needs more oxygen, such in times of exercise, stress or pharmacological stimuli, blood flow is increased to fulfill this demand. However, the physiological narrowing of arteries due to plaque build up found in coronary disease restricts blood flow to the heart, especially in times of when an increase in myocardial oxygen is needed. These restrictions mean a lessened CFR for the individual, which can lead to coronary ischemia, cardiac infarction, and several other dangerous effects. This physiological change in the coronary system, through the build up of plaque, occurs for several reasons. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition, with the consumption of certain fats and cholesterols, can facilitate plaque build up. High blood pressure, obesity, depression, and anxiety are also contributing factors (Pazoki, Nabiour, Seyednezami, and Imami).
There are different treatment options for coronary artery disease. Two treatment clinical options include lifestyle modification and revascularization. Lifestyle…… [Read More]
The impact of stress on physical health has been fairly well documented, with emerging research detailing possible pathways or mechanisms of action. Such research has a tremendous impact on disease prevention strategies and best practices in healthcare. One of the areas revealing the strongest connection between stress and physical health is cardiology, with a strong correlation between environmental, psychological, and psychosocial stress and the etiology or exacerbation of heart disease. The following five articles provide an overview of recent research into the link between stress and cardiovascular disease.
Cohen, B.E., Edmondson, D. & Kronish, I.M. (2015). State of the art review. American Journal of Hypertension 28(11): 1295-1302.
Stress contributes to the etiology of cardiovascular disease, even in patients who had previously shown no other risk factors. Chronic stress—whether exposure to daily life stressors over time or the chronic stress associated with posttraumatic stress disorder—may be particularly damaging to heart health.…… [Read More]
Chronic Illness: Coronary Heart Disease
Outline of Coronary Heart Disease
The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has been on the increase of late across the globe and this disease, alongside stroke have been the top causes of death in many countries like Australia (Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2017). There have been cases of people succumbing to complications occasioned by the CHD hence the need for any medic or clinician to fully furnish themselves with the CHD and the causes and effects as well as how it can be managed.
CHD is a disuse characterized by the development of a waxy substance called plaque building up in the inner walls of the coronary arteries. These are the arteries responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The buildup of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries results into atherosclerosis and this takes many years to pile up to harmful…… [Read More]
In this instance, what started out as a religious ceremony among villages went very wrong and could have caused deaths; hence, the authors' points are potentially helpful in the future when outbreaks like this occur.
hat are the Benefits of Botulinum Toxin?
hile it is widely known that there are dangers associated with botulinum toxin, and with botulism, Ashley Henshaw writes in Symptom Find that there are a "…variety of medical and cosmetic procedures" that are helpful for humans. In the 1950s, research began into potential positive uses for the botulinum toxin, and in the 1970s, Henshaw writes, the toxin was used with success on humans "…to temporarily paralyze specific muscle impulses" (Henshaw, 2012, p. 2). Some of the cosmetic uses include: a) certain eye conditions (like crossed eyes and "uncontrollable blinking") can be treated by "injecting botulinum toxin"; b) "upper motor neuron syndrome" (when certain muscles are not able…… [Read More]
A website for Current Nursing touts a health promotion model as espoused by Nola J. Pender, a former professor of nursing at the University of Michigan. The model's focus is on three areas: 1) individual characteristics and experiences, 2) behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and 3) behavioral outcomes (Current Nursing, 2011). Additionally, the model touts the fact that each individual has unique personal characteristics and experiences that will affect their actions and their health. Employing the Pender health promotion model concerning obesity will necessarily entail understanding each individual's motivation for participating in the study, and gearing the study towards those motivations.
It might be a simple matter to understand the motivating factors an obese person will be feeling regarding participation in the study, but to prepare an individualized course of action for each individual would likely entail a lot more time and expense than developing a more broad based approach…… [Read More]
According to Waryasz & McDermott (2009), the global prevalence of diabetes among people aged between 20 and 79 rose to 6.4% affecting 285 million people in 2010 and the rate will rise to 7.7% affecting 439 million people by 2030. Amid 2010 and 2030, the rate of individuals with diabetes will increase by 69% in developing nations, and a twenty percent rate in developed nations. In 2011, the number rose to 366 and it is expected to rise to 552 by 2030. The pervasiveness of diabetes is advanced in males compared to females, yet the number of women with diabetes is more compared to that of men.
Diabetes affects any part of the human body and people with diabetes are likely to die of heart-related problems or stroke. Seventy-percent of individuals with diabetes show signs of high blood pressure which a risk factor for heart-related diseases. The majority of…… [Read More]
Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…… [Read More]
Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
I selected case study 1, whereby we have a patient by the name AO who has been diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. In addition to having obesity history, the patient has gained approximately 9 pounds in the recent past. She has been prescribed with several drugs, namely:
1. Atenolol 12.5 mg daily. Being a beta blocker, this drug impacts the patient’s circulation and heart. Administered orally, its rate of absorption is rapid and at between 100mg and the maximum dosage, systolic pressure reduction could be achieved in less than one hour. In essence, a dose of 200 mg is the maximum allowable dose in a day. This, therefore, effectively means that our patient’s dose is largely minimized.
2. Doxazosin 8 mg daily. In this case, the patient has been prescribed with the maximum dosage of this drug which is, in essence, an alpha-adrenergic blocker. It functions…… [Read More]
Paget's Disease Of Bone
James Paget, 1877
Paget's disease of bone
general information about disease
Effects of disease
Diagnosis of Disease
Treatment and Prognosis for patient
disease can be treated but not cured.
Paget's Disease of Bone
In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…… [Read More]
Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…… [Read More]
Treatment of Addison's disease involves addressing the hormone deficiency using "replacement dose." [NIH] The drugs that are used as replacements for cortisol functions are known as glucocorticoids. Hydrocortisone or Dexamethasone or Prednisone is the drugs of choice. Since blood levels of Hydrocortisone can be directly measured it is an excellent choice for treatment and it makes drug dosage adjustment very easy. [Sarah aker] Patients with Aldosterone deficiency are treated with fludrocortisone (Florinef). Inside the human body the secretion of cortisol is affected by stress. More cortisol is secreted during stress, fever, vomiting, etc. Therefore during periods of stress or physical ailments patients may require additional dosages of cortisol therapy. During sick days it is therefore necessary to consult with the physician, as a higher dose of cortisol therapy is essential. "Sick day rules" are different from normal days for glucocortisoid treatment dosage. Also, if the patient suffers from severe vomiting…… [Read More]
One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).
In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional esearch in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…… [Read More]
The disease known as Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD), according to the American Heart Association (AHA, 2004), involves the blood vessels "outside the heart and brain." This disease refers to a narrowing of those vessels that carry blood to one's leg and arm muscles.
In particular, the AHA states that there are two forms of PVD: one is "Functional Peripheral Vascular Disease," and the other is "Organic Peripheral Vascular Disease." The first, Functional PVD, does not allude to actual defects in the structure of the blood vessel, but rather refers to "short-term effects" caused by cold temperatures, stress caused by emotions, smoking, or handling machinery that vibrates powerfully.
The second form of PVD - "Organic" - is actually caused by "structural changes" in blood vessels. These changes may be inflammation, tissue damage, or the buildup of fatty substances in the arteries, called "atherosclerosis" - which…… [Read More]
For example, in these procedures it is often difficult to open the patient's mouth wide enough for laryngoscopy and intubation, thus creating the possibility that cardiopulmonary changes may be present and the "probability o lesions in oesophagus, bowel, kindneys, skin and joints." This information would not be known if not for this study and its reported findings.
The study's conclusion is that the use of thoracic epidural anesthesia to sevoflurane based inhalation "may be a suitable technique for thoracic surgery in achalasia due to sclerodermic patients." The reason for this conclusion is that the study found that this procedure "can provide a smooth anesthesia course and a rapid recovery, with hemodynamic stability, and also having pain-free postoperatively." More so, the study found that providing anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade and non-intravenous opioids has "provided a shorter recovery time."
Clearly this specific case study has important and practical implications to the practice…… [Read More]
Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance
The Influence of Mean Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance
reathing, also known as pulmonary ventilation, is the basic connection between the heart and lungs (Williams & Whitney, 2006). The connection allows air between the lungs and the atmosphere and the exchange of gases between the air and the alveoli in the lungs. ody receptors can detect changes involved in the movement of air and the pressure that accompanies it. These receptors can either increase or decrease breathing rate. They encourage slower breathing when blood pressure rises and faster breathing rate if the blood pressure goes down. Meanwhile, an exchange of gases between body tissues and capillaries is needed to maintain life. It brings in the gases living tissues need for survival. lood carries oxygen molecules when leaving the heart and distributes it throughout the body. Very small capillaries coordinate in the flow and…… [Read More]
ole of ALS in EMS
ALS (Advanced Life Support) represents a complex collection of rules and procedures extending beyond elementary life support, for further aiding ailing or injured individuals in clearing their windpipe, breathing and ensuring air circulates throughout their body, thus supporting blood circulation under emergency circumstances (Advanced Life Support (Definition and Explanation), 2016). The following individuals commonly need ALS transport (Lifeline: Basic and Advanced Life Support, 2016):
A surgical or medical patient with ongoing intravenous medicine but not requiring any egistered Nurse, in keeping with state regulation.
Individuals with Cardiac Monitor attached
Urgent care center patients
Patients suffering from a possible compromise of the airway
Patients regarded as having a possible complication in the course of transport, as indicated by a report forwarded by the sending healthcare facility.
Whiteman, C., Shaver, E., Doerr, ., Davis, S., Blum, F., Davidov, D., & Lander, O. (2014). Trauma patient…… [Read More]
Alterations of Hematology and Cardiovascular Systems
Sickle Cell Anemia
Ms. A is suffering from Sickle cell anemia. In this disease, the red blood cells appear in the shape of sickles or letter C. The normal red blood cells are disk-shaped. The disk-shape allows them to move smoothly in the blood vessels. Normal red blood cells have hemoglobin. The hemoglobin is responsible the red color. It helps in the transportation of oxygen. Sickle cells, on the other hand, have abnormally low hemoglobin, which results in the C-shape. This form is sticky and stiff and so cannot move easily through the blood vessels. Ms. A's condition was a case of Menorrhagia as well as dysmenorrhea. The sickle cells lump together and block the flow of blood through the blood vessels leading to the organs and the limbs. Such blocked blood vessels may lead to pain, infections and even organ damage (Health 24,…… [Read More]
Quality Development in Advanced Practice field knowledge in nursing: Proposal on Enhancing the dental health of children suffering Congenital Heart Disease
One of the most prevalent development abnormalities found in children is heart disease, and it occurs in about 8-10 in every 1, 000 births. Dental supervision of children with congenital heart problems calls for special care, due to their increased susceptibility to contagious endocarditis, which is associated with bacteremia caused by persistent dental processes. Additionally, these patients always have developmental enamel abnormalities that raises caries risk, and always have deprived oral health. This latter condition may be said to be due to cardiac health problems, whose care and attention may lead to the under-estimation of oral health and inadequate consideration. Additionally, continual administration of liquid drugs containing sucrose as sweetener may cause caries and gingivitis cases in children (Andersson et al. 2013a). Dental ailment may cause dental extractions in…… [Read More]
As a result, it is not stable to say that the balance of benefits and harms of routine use of supplements of vitamins a, C or E; multivitamins with folic acid; or antioxidant combinations for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease (U.S. Preventive Services ask Force (USPSF).
From other evidence, it does not seem that the experiments of this article were not conducted long enough to prove its thesis because supplements do not help with cancer. If they were trying to prove supplements did not help, their testing would be valid. As it can be seen from other evidence, the objective can be proven false because other research prove tat their thesis cannot be accurate.
he Canadian ask Force on Preventive Health Care (CFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease…… [Read More]
Instrumentation needed for the research study will be relatively minimal and straightforward; necessary equipment for a standard checkup to determine cardiovascular health and other basic signs of chronic disease as well as scrapers, swabs, and vials for the collection of bacterial samples will be needed. It is possible that culturing of the bacterial samples will be desired, in which case additional instruments and controlled environment equipment will also be needed for the full completion of the study. In order to assess the exclusionary criteria related to weight, a standard scale and height ruler will need to be utilized along with caliper measurements to determine body mass index. Other than this and the instruments necessary for recording and analyzing the data collected using these instruments, it is not expected that any other resources will be necessary for this research study.
ollowing initial measurements to determine suitability for inclusion in…… [Read More]
Conditions Associated ith a Lack of Exercise/Physical Activity
Health is one of the most important things in people's lives, but individuals often fail to focus on this aspect because they concentrate on diverse tasks that they wrongly consider to be more important. As a consequence, many end up suffering greatly as a result of their irresponsible behavior. In addition to causing significant health problems in people's lives, sedentary living is also responsible for costing society billions of dollars every year. The fact that the masses often trick themselves into thinking that they are eventually going to start exercising is extremely worrying and leads to numerous health problems.
Figures associated with sedentary living are alarming, but this is still not enough to influence some people in changing their attitudes concerning the concept. On a yearly basis, "approximately 250,000 people die prematurely because they are inactive" (Corbin & Lindsay 43). Even with…… [Read More]
Studies conducted over decades have concluded that there is a significant link between diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For instance, the most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, which involves both the impairment in insulin resistance and the defective secretion of insulin by the pancreas. The development of diabetes often comes with a number of cardiovascular complications including "coronary heart disease (CDC), stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and possibly neuropathy and cardiomyopathy." (Grundy 1999)
Specifically both diabetes type 1 and type 2 are considered to be risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. "Moreover, myocardial ischemeal due to coronary atherosclerosis commonly occurs without symptoms in patients with diabetes." (Grundy 1999) In other words, patients with diabetes are more likely to be stricken with congestive heart failure. But it is not only the risk of heart failure that diabetes sufferers are at risk from, another…… [Read More]
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…… [Read More]
It is believed that this is related to some basic dissimilarity in women's the way women's hearts work (icciotti, 2012).
Women are just as liable to have a heart attack as men, but the fact that they are more apt to die after their first heart attack may be because the signs of a heart attack are different in women. Doctors and patients frequently point chest pains in women to non-cardiac causes, leading to a misdiagnosis of their condition. Men generally experience crushing chest pain during a heart attack. Women may have a larger inclination to have pain just under the breastbone, or complain of abdominal pain, heartburn, trouble breathing, sickness and mysterious exhaustion. Women are consequently easily misdiagnosed of indigestion, gall bladder disease, or even an anxiety attack. The probability of misdiagnosing a heart attack in women is also augmented by the fact that women tend to have heart…… [Read More]
he researcher was able to pull up information on Venous hromboembolism hospitalizations by utilizing ICD-10 (Maynard & Stein, 2010)
he clinical diagnosis of Venous hromboembolism is defective; people that are suffering with signs and symptoms of Venous hromboembolism, just 20% have thrombosis confirmed by diagnostic testing.13Clinical prediction rules have been developed to improve the probability of an accurate diagnosis. he most widely used model classifies patients into a high, moderate, or low probability of deep vein thrombosis (Maynard & Stein, 2010). When joined with research laboratory and radiological imaging tests, this method is superior to the old-style method of executing a diagnostic test in all patients with suspected Venous hromboembolism (Martinez- 2008).
Prognosis, broken down by risk groups
A lot of the Deep Vein hrombosis is occult and most of the time resolves instinctively without there being a problem. he main longstanding illness from Deep Vein hrombosis is PS,…… [Read More]
The most common cause is blockage of an artery, usually by a piece of atherosclerotic plaque in one of the brain's main arteries that ahs broken off and gotten stuck "downstream." TIA are also caused by blood clots that originate in the heart, travel to the brain, and become lodged in a small artery there. By definition, the symptoms of a TIA last less than 24 hours, in contrast to the symptoms of a stroke, which last longer -- and are often permanent. (Komaroff, 2006, p. 88)
An individual may have one or more experiences with a TIA, though they may have none, prior to the actual stroke vent, often leading up to it, within a year or more of the stroke event. If these symptoms are noted, and even if they go away an individual should still seek care to begin treatment for medical stroke prevention. Individuals should also…… [Read More]
Diabetes in Australia
The Australian government and the relevant Health agencies have for many years strived to put the diabetes menace under close observation and management. There have been massive researches and huge sums directed towards good management and possible elimination of diabetes at the national levels. This commitment is exhibited by the specialized funds and efforts like the Juvenile Diabetes esearch Fund (JDF) that has been committed to striving to mitigate the effects of diabetes from the render age of the Australians.
Since diabetes is such a big challenge to Australia as a whole, diabetes mellitus was declared a National Health Priority Area in 1996 during the Australian Health Minister's Conference and this was as recognition to the high levels of diabetes prevalence within Australia, the mortality rates that were due to it, the impact it had on morbidity and the possibility of the health improvements that can be…… [Read More]
Exercise and Proper Diet:
Solutions to Circulatory System Health and Coronary Heart Disease Management
Coronary heart disease is the nation's single leading cause of death." For American Heart Association's 2003 report on Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, coronary heart disease will prove to be significant and responsible for almost 1.1 million Americans that have the potential of having "recurrent coronary attack." This figure implies the degree of significance that heart diseases does to the increasing mortality rate and deteriorating health of many Americans. Coronary heart disease is a "chronic illness in which the coronary arteries become narrowed and unable to carry a normal amount of blood" (Microsoft Encarta 2002). Heart diseases occur precisely because there occurs a clogging of the arteries that are vital for the regulation, supply, and flow of oxygen-containing blood in the circulatory system.
Two of the most common and prevalent cases of coronary heart diseases are…… [Read More]
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…… [Read More]
eart Failure in African-Americans
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the top killers in the world population and number one in the U.S. eart failure is the number one killer in the U.S. And stroke, number three. The African-American Population has even higher numbers that fall victims to these killers. The main factors that lead to heart failure and stroke are: "high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, diabetes, poor diet and physical inactivity," with their natural consequences: "overweight and obesity" (http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=21).
Although heart diseases are the number one cause of death in the U.S. today, they are also among the most preventable diseases. An unprecedented opportunity to prevent heart disease and stroke exists today in the United States. "We know what causes these conditions and how to prevent them, largely because of the decades of research supported by NI, the American eart Association, and others" (http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/action_plan/pdfs/action_plan_full.pdf ). The African-American Population…… [Read More]
Organ transplant recipients are more susceptible to cancer due to oncogenic viral infections and immunosuppression. What is the overall pattern of cancer following an organ transplantation?
Cancer is a major adverse outcome of solid organ transplantation.2 Previous studies have demonstrated an overall 2- to 4-fold elevated risk of cancer.3- 11 Excess risk is largely due to immunosuppression, with a spectrum of cancer resembling that seen with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, another immunosuppressing condition.11 isks are especially high for malignancies caused by viral infections, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma (both due to Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]), Kaposi sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8), anogenital cancers (human papillomavirus), and liver cancer (hepatitis C and B viruses). Certain other malignancies such as cancers of the lung, kidney, skin, and thyroid also are increased in transplant recipients. Linkage of population-based transplant and cancer registries from the same geographic region can allow for systematic ascertainment of…… [Read More]
Another hypothesis that has just began to be explored by the academic community is the possibility that flavonoids may alter growth factor signaling, thus limiting the ability of the cell to initiate rapid growth 8). Study into this area are just beginning to emerge and more information will be available in the next several years.
Potential Health Benefits
The key to solving the riddle of why persons that consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables can expect to have certain health benefits depends on the ability to understand the mechanisms at play. Let us first examine current hypothesis regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for the anti-carcinogenic effects of flavonoids. Research into the mechanisms by which certain flavonoids demonstrate anti-carcinogenic effects can be grouped into five categories. Currently these studies are at the in vitro stage, with a few animal studies in the present group. Therefore, it is not known…… [Read More]
Demographic Perception Survey of Patients with Atypical CP Who Present to Cardiac Care Doctors and Patient Outcomes
This study intends to examine gender differences in individuals who present to cardiac doctors with chest pain and specifically, atypical chest pain in women. The work of Debra L. Issac (2000) states that over the past ten years "there has been increasing awareness of both the importance of CAD in women and of the significant differences between men and women who have the disease. Potential gender biases, both within the medical community and within the general population of women themselves also have been identified. These gender differences and biases have the potential to influence investigation and management of suspected or confirmed CAD in women, and should be taken into consideration when faced with a woman with potential cardiovascular disease." (p.157)
Issac also states that chest pain in women is "common and often non-ischemic.…… [Read More]
knowledge statements on Cardiovasular Diseases among Minority Women in U.S.
Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) accounts for the single largest cause of death among women, causing 8.6 million deaths annually (Keyhani et al., 2008). In the U.S., it is estimated that about 38.2 million women currently live with CVD and more women than men die each year from CVD (Mosca et al., 2007). Cardiovascular disease varies substantially not only across gender lines, but also across different ethnic groups in the U.S. For example, Hamner and Wildner (2008) noted that the prevalence of CVD is higher among African-American women (49%) when compared to Caucasian women (35%). According to Williams (2009), age-adjusted death rate to CVD in 2002 was significantly higher among African-American women (169.7 per 100,000) when compared to Caucasian women (131.2 per 100,000). Knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors is limited among African-American women as Williams (2009) citing a survey…… [Read More]
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Description of the communicable disease
Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…… [Read More]
When looking at the demographics for the state of Oklahoma there are some interesting things that can be seen. In 2009 the median household income in the state was $41,716 compared to $50, 221 for the entire country. 19.4% of the population was uninsured compared with 16.7% across the U.S. And there 13.5% of the population was over the age of 65 compared to 12.9% for the country (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009). This data shows that the population of the state of Oklahoma is older, has less insurance and is poorer than the average across the country. All of these factors have been shown to affect the health of a population as a whole in that people with no money and no insurance often do not seek preventative care and therefore tend to be sicker as well as do those people who are over the age…… [Read More]