Historical Advances Made In Tooth Extraction Essay

Length: 6 pages Sources: 6 Subject: Health - Nursing Type: Essay Paper: #44237307 Related Topics: Dentistry, Nursing Malpractice, Dental, Tuberculosis
Excerpt from Essay :

History Of Tooth Extraction From the 5th Century

a paper history tooth extraction Greeks ( 5th century) till .

The process if removing teeth from their dental sockets is referred to as tooth extraction (Vignoletti et al.). There are many reasons for extractions, but the most common reason is removal when teeth become unrestorable because of tooth decay, dental trauma, or periodontal disease. People result to tooth extraction when the mentioned conditions are accompanied with toothache. Tooth extraction might occur when teeth are crowded. This would create space for the rest of the teeth to grow or be straightened. Tooth was extraction was not only conducted when the person's tooth was painful, but it was also done as a pain reliever for other diseases. Currently, tooth extraction is straight forward, and is mostly done when a person is awake using only local anesthetic, which eliminates pain sensations. Tooth extractions are either surgical or simple. Simple extractions involve visible teeth in the mouth. Simple extractions are performed using local anesthetic. Teeth that cannot be accessed easily are extracted surgically. Lack of access mostly means that the tooth has broken below the gum line.

Tooth extraction in the past

Dentistry as we know it today was not a real profession in the 5th century. Back then, dentistry was not a real profession, and unskilled people handled all teeth problems. During that period, toothaches were painful and plentiful, and the only available remedy was extraction. Barbers used to double up as dentists. Barbers were designated as dentists because they were experienced with handling knives and razors. Barbers handled any activity that involved bloodletting, and since tooth extraction involve bloodletting, barbers were the preferred people to perform the activity. In Europe, monks performed tooth extraction as they were the most educated people. Monks were charged with performing surgery, dentistry, and practice medicine. However, the church council prohibited the monks from any activity that involved bloodletting (Klein and Lorber). The barbers were now commonly known as barber-surgeons, and they had a red and white stripped pole outside their shops, which indicated that the barber performed bloodletting activities. The barbers were eventually differentiated from surgeons, who learnt and specialized in complex surgical operations. Barber-surgeons remained popular until the 1700s, because they were affordable, and offered various services. The wealthy people could hire surgeons to perform tooth extractions, but the middle class looked for barber-surgeons. The poor who could not afford barber surgeons sought the services of tooth-drawers. This people pulled teeth for entertainment purposes and were mainly located in marketplaces. Teeth were also extracted by tying a string to the tooth, and another person pulled the string to remove the tooth. There were drummers in the background who would increase the tempo of the song to relax the person before the tooth was pulled. This was quite barbaric, but it represented a phase that people had to pass through in the past.

Guy de Chaulic invented the dental pelican in the 14th century. The local blacksmith shaped the tool, and it made tooth extractions brutal and painful (Wilson, Bairsto and Gelbier). Using the dental pelican resulted in the accidental removal or loosening of the surrounding teeth. The pelican was in use until the 18th century when it was replaced by the dental key. The dental key was modelled after a door key. The dental key came with a claw that would be placed on the tooth. The long metal rod was placed at the root of the tooth. The key would then be turned, and the tooth would pop out if all went well. This process mostly resulted in shattering of the tooth, and the tooth would be removed out piece by piece from the gum tissue. The dental key could also remove the bone attached to the tooth, which was completely undesirable. If used by untrained people, the dental key was found to be disastrous. There were cases where jaws were broken when the person attempted to use the dental key to extract a tooth. The modern forceps started been used in the 20th century (Clement). The dental forceps can be defined as two levers connected with a hinge. The hinge is the fulcrum for the forceps. In order for the forceps to grasp the tooth, pressure must be applied on the handles and increased greatly. Too much pressure...

...

The force applied is only for grasping the tooth, and no extraction takes place at this point. Extraction occurs when the dentist pulls the tooth to dislodge it from its socket.

Tooth extraction meant the person became aesthetically challenged. The lack of a tooth was frowned upon by the wealthy, and they would prefer implants. Unfortunately during this period dentures had not been discovered, which left them with two options live or dead teeth. Live teeth were removed for a donor who was still alive. A person would remove their rotten teeth, and teeth from various donors would be extracted until a perfect tooth was found. This was a costly method, and only the wealthy could afford it, which left the thrifty or middle class people with the option of opting for donor teeth from dead people. These teeth were cheaper, and most people could afford to purchase. The downside to these two methods is the spread of tuberculosis and syphilis.

Pierre Fauchard is considered the father of modern dentistry. He made considerable contributions towards dentistry in the 18th century. His publication of 1723 included information regarding oral anatomy, dental construction, function, and other operative techniques (Philippe). He demonstrated that dentistry was quite different from other surgery categories, which ensured that dentists are trained differently. Other dentists expounded on his knowledge. John Hunter introduced transplanting of teeth from person to person. The practice was widely accepted, but it failed eventually. Dentures were also introduced in the 18th century to replace extracted teeth. This was a better method for teeth replacement instead of transplanting. The dentures were made from ivory, silver, or gold, which made them quite expensive, and only the wealthy or upper class could afford to purchase. The dentures were vastly uncomfortable, but the wealthy preferred to have dentures instead of gaps in their mouth. John Baker from England was the first dentist to practice dentistry in America in 1760. In 1779, Isaac Greenwood became the first American to practice dentistry.

19th century

There were still very few dentists, and the dental practice was far from achieving its professional status. In the mid-1800s, there were an increase in dental practitioners, but there was rampant incompetence and malpractice. In the 19th century, people were still seeking the services of teeth pullers. The dental key was the tool in use for tooth extraction, and this might have contributed to the incompetence. There was not certification and dentists did not have their own body to monitor dental activities. There were no more barber-surgeons, but this did not mean that the profession received the facelift it deserved. Many people relied upon blacksmiths to extract teeth. Only the wealthy were able to afford dental services or surgery.

Anesthesia was introduced in the 19th century, and it resulted in dramatic changes in the field of dentistry. Tooth extraction was no longer dreaded, but most people embraced the extraction of decaying teeth. Nitrous oxide was the preferred option for most surgeries and by the end of the century, anesthetic equipment was found in all dental surgeries. With an increase in tooth extraction and the relative painless exercise, many people felt the need to have a cheap replacement. The demand for efficient and cheap dentures increased. Vulcanite dentures replaced the expensive ivory dentures in the mid-19th century. The vulcanite dentures were affordable since they could be mass-produced.

The case of tooth decay reduced as people became more aware of dental problems and methods to prevent diseases. Tooth brushing and flossing was now been promoted, and people responded positively to the promotions. The 19th century saw various advances all aimed at reducing the number of dental problems people faced. This endeavor reduced the number of teeth extractions carried out. The advancements of x-ray also meant that dentists could examine the root canal to determine the best method to treat tooth decay. Edmond Kells carried out the first tooth x-ray for a living person in 1895.

20th century onwards

Fillings were preferred over tooth extractions, and in case an extraction was done the dentists recommended dentures for the patients. Lost wax was invented, which allowed dentists to have precision fillings. Tooth decay was now a rare condition and toothaches were reduced drastically. The advancements made in dental programs meant that many people knew how to care for their teeth, which contributed to the reduction of tooth extractions. However, this does not mean that extractions are not currently carried out, it is the number that has reduced compared to the past centuries. Dentists have developed various techniques for tooth filling, which reduces the risk of tooth…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Clement, Milton A. "Dental Forceps." Google Patents, 2011. Print.

DiVito, E, OA Peters, and G. Olivi. "Effectiveness of the Erbium: Yag Laser and New Design Radial and Stripped Tips in Removing the Smear Layer after Root Canal Instrumentation." Lasers in medical science 27.2 (2012): 273-80. Print.

Klein, C, and CG Lorber. "[Historical Development of Surgical Wisdom Tooth Extraction]." Fortschritte der Kiefer-und Gesichts-Chirurgie 40 (1994): 113-16. Print.

Philippe, Julien. "Pierre Fauchard the "Inventor" of Orthodontics." Journal of Dentofacial Anomalies and Orthodontics 14.01 (2011): 104. Print.


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