Those rating the interviews were black and white individuals and findings state that: "the black raters rated the black candidates higher than the white and vice versa." (Ibid) Conclusions state that this demonstrated the potential of "institutionalized racism" in interviewing. DeGroot and Motowidlo (1999) state findings that "the unconscious influence what would, objectively be evident as irrelevant factors was found in a "positive relationship between a number of aspects of interviewee's voice quality, such as pitch and rate of speech" in the ratings of the interviewers. (Edenborough, 2004; paraphrased) Edenborough relates chain-interviewing in which the second interviewer will explore a fact that the first interviewer missed. "Conventional unstructured interviewing with a career history focus is widely practice, despite general recognition of its limitations." Edenborough (2004) the objectivist-psychometric view of interviewing places emphasis on the gathering of evidence in a systematic fashion. While the subjectivist-social perception in interviewing places emphasis on the need of gaining an intuitive feel for potential employees are well as for selling the organization to the potential employees in the interview. It is important, according to the work of Edenborough that the interview process make it clear to the potential employees what is expected "there and at any subsequent stages of selection" and that this take place in an environment that is "controlled and the interview conducted without interruptions." (2004)
Difficulties in Interviewing Identified by Edenborough (2004)
Edenborough identifies the common difficulties in conduction of interviews to be experienced because:
1) the stage management or control of the process;
2) Handling pauses;
3) Framing questions clearly;
5) Listening; and 6) Physical layout of the interview room." (2004)
Structured interviews range from very simple approaches to conduction of "psychometric measures" in interviewing. The work of Weisner and Cronshaw (1988) states findings that structured interviews have much higher levels of validity in terms of interviewing selection than do the unstructured methods. McDaniel et al. (1994) conducted a metaanalytic study, which states findings that "even the unstructured interview was found to have a respectable level of validity."
Rodger's 'Seven-Point Plan'
An early and widely-used method in structured interviewing is that which Rodger advocated in the "Seven-Point Plan (NIIP, 1951) which is approach that brought forth to light the aspects of an individual that are relevant and of primary importance. The Rodger "Seven Point Plan" includes the following:
1) Physical make-up: Have the candidates any defects of health or physique that may be of occupational importance? How agreeable is their appearance, bearing and speech?
2) Attainments: What type of education have they had? How well have they done educationally? What occupational training and experience have they had already? How well have they done occupationally?
3) General Intelligence: How much general intelligence can they display? How much general intelligence do they normally display?
4) Special aptitudes: Have they marked mechanical aptitude? Manual dexterity? Facility in the use of words or figures? Talent for drawing or music?
5) Interests: To what extent are their interests intellectual? Practical? Constructional? Physically active? Social? Artistic?
6) Disposition: How acceptable do they make themselves to other people? Do they influence others?
7) Circumstances: What are their domestic circumstances? What do other members of their family do for a living? Are there any special openings available to them?
Munro-Fraser 'Five-Fold' Grading System similar interviewing technique to that of Rogder's is one called the 'five-fold' grading system of Munro-Fraser (1954) which includes the five as follows:
1) Impact on others: Physical make-up, appearance, speech and manner.
2) Acquired qualifications: education, vocational training, work experience.
3) Innate abilities: Natural quickness of comprehension and aptitude for learning.
4) Motivation: The kind of goals set by the individual, his or her consistency and determination in following them up and success in achieving them; and 5) Adjustment: emotional stability, ability to stand up to stress and ability to get on with people.
Some structured interviewing is focused on behavioral aspects of the individual and...
Structured interviews are viewed as "lining up with the objective-psychometric model of interviewing, using Anderson's (1992) distinction between that and the subjective and social-perception approach..." (Edenborough, 2004) the 'Extended' interview is one in which there is a "division of labor, with different people exploring different aspects of the candidate's suitability."
The work of Margaret Aitchison reports the best practices in private sector 'e-recruitment' or hiring via the Internet. The work of Aitchison states that: "Developments in Internet technology, notably in the falling cost and increasing accessibility of broadband will result in an even greater impact on traditional recruitment techniques. The traditional boundaries that existed between print and media owners, job boards, recruitment advertising agencies, recruitment consultancies and technology companies are breaking down. Recruitment showed the biggest spending growth as the highest spending sector in online advertising, with an eighty percent increase in the first six months of 2005." (2006) Aitchison states additionally: "The private sector is exploring novel ways in filtering and screening techniques to select the best applicants in a competitive market place. These may range from basic spelling and arithmetical testing for operational staff to in-depth psychometric assessments for potential strategic managers." (2006) the HR Bulletin, published by the Northern California Human Resources Association in an article entitled: "Behavior-based Interviewing: Does it Still Work" states that today's interviewers "are in a bind" because behavioral interviewing that is reliant upon "give me an example" questions "is in jeopardy." (Kennedy, 2001) Kennedy states that: "Behavior-based interviewing uses the recognized principle that past and present behavior is the best predictor of future performance. However, more and more of today's candidates either have difficulty relating to traditional questioning techniques or have learned how to co-opt the behavior-based interviewer altogether." (2001)
There is a problem at present according to the work of Kennedy in that there is a 'talent shortage'. The answer to this problem is the modification of the interview processes because "in today's market, you may not always find a candidate with the exact skills and qualities you seek. That's why your interviews should focus on revealing every competency a candidate possesses - not just the ones you are told to probe for on a short list." (Kennedy, 2001) in fact, in hiring the best individual for the job one must "look deeper and discover everything a candidate might bring to the job." (Kennedy, 2001) Another point made in the work of Kennedy is that it is held by "Workforce 2020" that over one-half of entrants into the job market will be accounted for by minorities in the years to come and 'many, with technical backgrounds or degrees, will come from 'high-context' cultures such as Asian, Hispanic or Latino and Middle Eastern." (Kennedy, 2001) This means that the interviewer must "understand the impact of diversity on interviewing." (Ibid) Furthermore, today's candidates are "more savvy candidates" as stated in Bruce Tuligan's work entitled: "Talent Wars" "Interviews are not as reliable as they used to be because so many people are learning how to give the 'right' answers in job interviews - the kinds of answers interviewers want to hear." (Ibid) Kennedy states as well that candidates tend to either "generalize" or "exaggerate" (2001) Kennedy concludes his article by stating that: "Traditional behavior-based interviewing techniques may no longer yield useful or authentic information." (2001)
Three models in outsourcing the hiring process
The work of Dolinsky (2006) discusses the "predominant technical job interview process and suggests that the majority of software development failures are rooted flawed resource selection. The in-house interview process does not allow for comprehensive in-depth skills assessment and is not cost efficient." Problems are stated in the following categories of the hiring process:
Job description - job description reviews should be conducted; and Interview Planning - developers are often unprepared for the interview process due to failure to study applicant's resumes and with no interview plan mapped to the job description and technologies used by the company.
It is suggested by Dolinsky that it is best to prepare an interview form that lists the "required and desired skills" needed by the candidate. Another problem is that it is important for an unbiased interview to take place, which requires someone highly skilled in interviewing. Oftentimes an interviewer will allow things such as "ego, personal motives, perception of the candidates influence on his or her own position within the company, or even a bad or good mood..." To bar a constructive interview taking place. Other problems include those in "post-interview" reporting inclusive of lack of information, vague details and the like. Comparative analysis is generally performed of the candidates that have been interviewed with the problem being that the candidates are compared to one another instead of against the qualifications needed for the position to be filled.
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