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In the scenario of a college football game, the private security officers will provide several services to the college which is the premises to which they are assigned. The primary role of the private security officers is to detect, deter, observe and report any incidences at the stadium. First, they will be in charge of checking the bags belonging to all persons willing to enter the football field to make sure there are no weapons carried into the field or other items that are prohibited. Secondly, the security officers will need to coordinate and monitor the events and communications taking place in the stadium to ensure that key operations are running smoothly such as access to control posts, access to medical support staff and other services such as amenities provided to the crowd Ortmeier, 2009()
The private security officers will also be in charge of providing the crowd and other…
Dempsey, J.S. (2010). Introduction to Private Security. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Hess, K.M., & Orthmann, C.H. (2007). Introduction to Private Security. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Ortmeier, P.J. (2009). Introduction to Security: Operations and Management (Third ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
The Task Force eport suggested that both of these crime deterring institution work together rather than against one another (Craighead, 2003).
The primary difference between public and private security are the roles of the policing personnel. For public security the purpose is to protect the public, be it property, people, or crimes against property or people. Private security personnel's role is slightly different in that they protect the organization or property rights where assigned. These are primarily privately owned by the property or individual and may differ from public policy and procedure (Craighead, 2003).
Factors affecting the Growth of Private Security
The factors and level of training for security personnel has evolved significantly from those basically walking the perimeter and reporting disturbances. Today private property requires protection in many industries such as banking, medical, chemical, technological, manufacturing, even retailers and small businesses need security protection. The required security today includes…
Bureau of Security and Investigative Services (2012). A brief history. Retrieved March 25, 2012 from http://www.bsis.ca.gov/about_us/history.shtml
Craighead, G. (2003). High rise security and fire life safety. Rothstein Assoc.
Cunningham, W.C, Strauchs, J.J, Van Meter, C.W. (1990). Private security trends: hallcrest reports. . 106. Ibid., p. 2. 107
, P., J. (2009). Introduction to security. Pearson Education. 3rd Edition.
Even perimeter security is in question.
The GAO surmised that perimeter security at airports may be insufficient to provide effective security. The TSA has begun efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of security related technologies. These include items such as biometric identification systems, but the TSA still has failed to develop a plan that will guide airports when technology enhancements are developed. The TSA has pursued the procurement of checkpoint technologies in order to address critical existing vulnerabilities, yet the GAO noted that these technologies are not being deployed on a wide-scale basis (Berrick 2008). Challenges such as these must be addressed if the hybrid federal-private transportation security program is going to truly be effective in keeping America secure.
When the clear morning of September 11th, 2001 was shattered with the first plane strike into the World Trade Center, transportation in the United States would never be the same. The…
Berrick, C. (15 Apr 2008). Efforts to strengthen aviation and surface transportation security continue to progress, but more work remains: GAO-08-651T. GAO Reports. Retrieved May 6, 2009, from MasterFILE Premier database.
GAP: TSA's study of private-sector airport screening flawed. (25 Feb 2009). Airport Security Report, 15(30). Retrieved May 6, 2009, from International Security & Counter Terrorism Reference Center database.
Our history. (No date). Retrieved May 6, 2009, from http://www.tsa.gov/research/tribute/history.shtm.
Program overview. (No date). Retrieved May 6, 2009, from http://www.tsa.gov/what_we_do/optout/what_is_spp.shtm.
One big cause for the demand on modern hyper security is that a lot of cool stuffs are becoming easily available. Developments in computers have made programming robots easy for non-experts. Security systems can be toggled to holiday mode with a touch of a button to mechanically show the previous two weeks' lighting and curtain movements, showing the existence of owners. Paul ose, director of U.K. based security firm Icon Connect says that these are extremely complicated behind the scenes, but on the surface it's easy to use. When compared to the earlier days, the security products can be relied. Private homeowners prefer to depend more on devices they can control themselves and depend less on the state to protect them, in an age of terrorism. (Home, Secure Home)
The most deluxe new apartments are now being built with top-of-the-range ultra-modern security systems as a main selling point. At the…
Benson, Bruce. L. The Benefits of Privatized Crime Control. August 20, 1999.
Retrieved at http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=364Accessed on 20 July 2005
Flynn, Emily. Home, Secure Home. Retrieved at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8599794/site/newsweek/ . Accessed on 20 July 2005
Private Security Vs Public policing which will it be? Retrieved at http://www.oppa.on.ca/private_vs_public_policing.html. Accessed on 20 July 2005
During times where they are not needed, this would be a waste of resources. Instead, a PMC is there when the military needs it, and when the mission is over, the military no longer has to spend resources to maintain their personnel.
Another benefit, although this is also the source of many ethical challenges as will be discussed later, is a PMC's ability to operate more freely than a state's military. As an example, there are strict rules that the American military must operate within, while trying to achieve a mission's objectives. These rules stem from both national and international sources. The ever-present media, as well as governing body watchdogs, mean that even one toe over the line is quickly fodder for an international scandal that can endanger the entire mission. This oftentimes restricts the military's ability to operate at maximum efficacy. However, by using a PMC, their personnel can…
Avant, D. (Jul/Aug 2004). Mercenaries. Foreign Policy. pp. 20-28.
Clark, A. (Spring 2009). Reclaiming the moral high ground. Public Contract Law Journal, 38(3). pp. 709-739.
Faite, A. (2004). Involvement of private contractors in armed conflict. Defence Studies, 4(2). pp. 166-183.
Fitzsimmons, S. (Aug/Sept 2006). A private solution to a humanitarian problem. Vanguard. pp. 18-20.
And the applicant must successfully pass a pre-employment drug screen (Collins, icks and Van Meter, 2000).
All private security officers must meet the applicable statutory requirements and any criteria that have been established by the employer. In looking at the requirements that have been set forth by the state of Louisiana, the following minimum requirements must be met in order for a person to become a private security officer:
1. The applicant must be 18 years of age.
2. They must be a citizen of the United States or a resident alien holding a proper documentation to work in the United States.
3. They can not have been convicted in any jurisdiction of any felony or of crime involving moral turpitude.
4. They can not have been declared by any court of competent jurisdiction to be incompetent by reason of mental defect or disease which has not been restored.
Collins, Pamela a., Ricks, Truett a. And Van Meter, Clifford W. (2000) Principles of Security
and Crime Prevention (4th Edition) (ISBN 0-87084-305-2).
License Information. (2005). Retrieved May 12, 2009, from LSBPIE Web site:
How could such concerns be addressed? Any concerns that do arise should be addressed in a manner according to council. With the proper authorities delegating the new policies, addressing concerns, whether they be from lower personnel or upper management, they will have the opportunity to unveil the oppositions that may hinder the operation of new policies.
How would transferring certain functions affect service delivery and public opinion? Transferring certain functions, such as surveillance will help to drop costs associated with every aspect it pertains to. The types of difficulties that may arise are minimal, and if anything, they would not decline the productivity of delivery nor decline the public opinion in their regard.
What would be the ideal public/private law enforcement model? The ideal differentiating model between private and public law enforcement would depict the makeup of federal and state regarded requirements. Adhering to a code of conduct that is…
Department of Licensing. 2005. http://www.leg.wa.gov/documents/wsr/2005/06/05-06-004.htm
Zielinski, Mike. 2007. Covert Action Quarterly. Armed and Dangerous; Private Police on the March. http://mediafilter.org/caq/CAQ54p.police.html
GIS and mapping software, once available only to agencies possessing mainframe computers, can now be easily loaded on the laptops carried in patrol vehicles and therefore can be used by even small and budget-constrained police departments. The innovations demanded by community and problem-oriented policing require that departments incorporate a geographic, spatial, or local focus, and emphasize the importance of integrating crime-mapping techniques into departmental management, analysis, and enforcement practices." (2006) What is needed, according to the work of Kehoe is 'standardization' insofar as the technology used in law enforcement and private security so as to enable more integration and coordination between the two entities. The tools which Kehoe includes in the foregoing list are not an exhaustive list whatsoever.
The work of Ashley Paul Moore entitled: "First Responder Accreditation: The Pros and the Cons" states that there has been a debate among members of Congress as to whether there is…
Kehoe, Jay (2006) GIS Solutions for Medium and Small Law-Enforcement Agencies - T.I.P.S. Total Integrated Preparedness Solutions 23 February 2005. online available at http://www.domesticpreparedness.com/pub/docs/DomPrepTIPSFeb23.pdf
Moore, Ashley Paul (2006) First Responder Accreditation: The Pros and the Cons - GIS Solutions for Medium and Small Law-Enforcement Agencies - T.I.P.S. Total Integrated Preparedness Solutions 23 February 2005. online available at
Private Security vs. Law Enforcement: Matrix Summary
"Private security and public law enforcement share many of the same goals: preventing crime and disorder, identifying criminals, and ensuring the security of people and property," ("Private Security and Public Law Enforcement," n.d.). There are many more private security officers than public police officers, making tandem projects and collaboration essential ("Private Security and Public Law Enforcement," n.d.). There may be some overlap between public law enforcement and private security, but generally the latter can be more highly specialized and are therefore useful in situations such as campus security.
Large privately owned facilities like the campus stadium require a dedicated staff of personnel, rather than a sporadic or incident response team. Therefore, security at the stadium during games can be best provided by the private sector. The public law enforcement agencies in the community can and should be alerted as to when games…
Adam, W. (n.d.). Private security vs. public police. eHow. Retrieved online: http://www.ehow.com/about_5463113_private-security-vs.-public-police.html
Gunter, W., Kidwell, J. (2004). Law enforcement and private security liaison: partnerships for cooperation. International Foundation for Protection Officers. Retrieved online: http://www.ifpo.org/articlebank/lawprivateliaison.html
"Private Security and Public Law Enforcement," (n.d.). COPS. Retrieved online: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=2034
Private security industry [...] impact of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the private security field. Clearly, the private security industry, and all security, was impacted by the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York, Washington D.C. And Pennsylvania. Airport and border securities were tightened, and many Americans turned to private security firms to ensure their own personal safety. Millions of businesses also turned to private security to shore up their business defenses. Studies indicate that some forms of private security services are booming, but overall, the security industry has actually declined between 1999 and 2004.
The nation's private security industry has certainly changed since the September 11 terrorist attacks, but how much it has changed really depends on specific areas of security. One industry researcher notes, "In 2003, there were approximately one million security guards (including airport screeners) employed in the United States -- compared to 650,000 U.S.…
Corkery, Jennifer. "Public Safety Goes Private: Demand for Private Security Professionals .Skyrockets." JobJournal.com. 17 Feb. 2002. 17 Dec. 2004.
Parfomak, Paul W. "Guarding America: Security Guards and U.S. Critical Infrastructure Protection." Federation of American Scientists. 12 Nov. 2004. 17 Dec. 2004.
< http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RL32670.pdf >
Sikhs are also mistakenly included since police are unable to detect the difference. (District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia Advisory Committees to the U.S. Commission on Civil ights, 2003) a lot of people are being arrested on very technical immigration infringements of visa, and immigration judges will never let go an individual till the FBI articulates a curiosity in that particular person. For instance, on one occasion a student who missed to put his signature on an I-20 immigration form was held and had been imprisoned for six weeks. In its declaration to the Immigration Court deliberating to retain the youth in jail, the FBI stated that it had been unable to exclude the odds that he is in some manner or the other associated with or has knowledge regarding the terrorist assaults. Totally no positive accusation of any kind was available that might associate this student in any manner…
Cole, David. (2002, Sept) "Trading Liberty for Security after September 11" FPIF Policy
Report. Retrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://www.fpif.org/papers/post9-11.html
Dinh, Viet. D. (2004, May 1) "USA Patriot Act" German Law Journal, vol. 5, no. 5, pp: 8-10.
District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia Advisory Committees to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. (2003, Jun). "Civil Rights Concerns in the Metropolitan Washington, D.C., Area in the Aftermath of the September 11, 2001, Tragedies" Retrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/sac/dc0603/ch5.htm
Private Security and the Law
Private security operatives are held liable for their actions based on existing federal and state laws. Potential liability for these operatives occur when attempting to stop or arrest criminals or when carrying out their daily operations. The most common potential liability issues for private security operatives are assault and battery. In addition, private security operatives can be found guilty under vicarious liability for the torts of another and for a violation of 42 U.S.C. 1983 (Reid, 2017). An example of a recent court case involving private security operatives accused or found liable for a 42 U.S.C. 1983 violation and under vicarious liability for the torts of another is State v. Santiago (2009).
In this case, the defendant Luis Santiago was involved in a verbal altercation at the Coronado Mall on July 20, 2005 in Albuquerque. Following the altercation, Santiago was stopped by security guards as…
This paper seeks to explicate on the legitimacy of private security in regard to conducting administrative searchers based on the Chenkin v. Bellevue case. In the Chenkin v. Bellevue case, the court sought to challenge the legitimacy of searchers carried out by private security in a company to recover property or reduce asset theft. In the case, Bellevue Hospital provides a clear policy which guides the hospital in its reduction of theft of assets (Chenkin v. Bellevue Hosp. Ctr.). The hospital policy outlines that every package, large parcel or bag that is carried by any corporate employee must be searched randomly before the employee leaves the facility. However, Chenkin, a chemist at the hospital had denied the guards from searching his luggage two times. Consequently, the chemist’ wages were withheld for a week as a way of the hospital taking disciplinary action against him. Therefore, in the case, Chenkin…
Chenkin v. Bellevue Hosp. Ctr. (1979). CHENKIN v. BELLEVUE HOSP. CTR., N. Y. C., ETC. Retrieved from http://www.leagle.com/decision/1979686479FSupp207_1658/CHENKIN%20v.%20BELLEVUE%20HOSP.%20CTR.,%20N.%20Y.%20C.,%20ETC.#
Hans, G. S. (2018). Curing Administrative Search Decay. BUJ Sci. & Tech. L., 24, 1.
Mansfield, S. (2015). Constitutional Law-Administrative Searches-Closing the Door on Frank v. Maryland. DePaul Law Review, 17(1), 207.
Private Security and the Law: International Use of Private Security in Support of U.S. Interests Abroad
To support U.S. interests abroad more and more resources have been diverted to private security as American military have been scaled back in places like Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria. But is the international use of private security in support of U.S. interests abroad justifiable or lawful? Certainly it is both—but then why the controversy among certain groups? The controversy among some constitutionalists and conservative circles is that private security defense contractors take the place of the military and thus put distance between the American public and the continuation of wars abroad, which the public is under the mistaken belief have ended. As Jennifer Elsea notes, “the use of private security contractors (PSCs) to protect personnel and property in Iraq and Afghanistan has been a subject of debate in the press, in Congress, and…
Elsea, Jennifer. “Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues.” Congressional Research Service, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20110807121937/http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/R40991_20100107.pdf
Franke, Volker, and Marc Von Boemcken. \\\\"Guns for hire: Motivations and attitudes of private security contractors.\\\\" Armed Forces & Society 37.4 (2011): 725-742.
Glanz, James and Andrew Lehren. “Use of Contractors Added to War’s Chaos in Iraq.” New York Times, 2010. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/24/world/middleeast/24contractors.html?_r=1&hp
Higate, Paul. \\\\"‘Cowboys and professionals’: The politics of identity work in the private and military security company.\\\\" Millennium 40.2 (2012): 321-341.
Leander, Anna. \\\\"The paradoxical impunity of private military companies: Authority and the limits to legal accountability.\\\\" Security dialogue 41.5 (2010): 467-490.
Leander, Anna, and Rens Van Munster. \\\\"Private security contractors in the debate about Darfur: Reflecting and reinforcing neo-liberal governmentality.\\\\" International relations21.2 (2007): 201-216.
Priddy, Alice, and Stuart Casey-Maslen. \\\\"Counter-Piracy Operations by Private Maritime Security Contractors: Key Legal Issues and Challenges.\\\\" Journal of International Criminal Justice 10.4 (2012): 839-856.
Thurnher, Jeffrey S. \\\\"Drowning in Blackwater: how weak accountability over private security contractors significantly undermines counterinsurgency efforts.\\\\" Army Law. (2008): 64.
Private Security Officers Ethical Responsibilities
Private Security Officers
The objective of this study is to examine the importance of ethics in security. Towards this end this work will examine the regulations and laws in this area of inquiry as well as reporting on case law in this area of the law.
Rules and Regulations
The 'Rules and Regulations -- Relating to the Licensing and Regulation of the Private Security Guard usiness Pursuant to the Private Security Guards Act of 1987 sets out the regulations for the operation of a Private Security business and the licensing requirements. It is related in the regulations published by the State of California in regards to the duties of a private security officer that any individual registered in that capacity must turn into their director a written report of any incident in which they are involved that results in a firearm being discharged within seven…
Barranca, SM (nd) Unbecoming Conduct: Legal and Ethical Issues of Private Contractors in Military Situations. Retrieved from: http://isme.tamu.edu/ISME09/Barranca09.pdf
Button, M. (2013) Security Officers and Policing: Powers, Culture and Control in the Governance of Private Space. Ashgate Publishing. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=jMuhAgAAQBAJ&dq=caselaw:+private+security+officer+ethics&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Nemeth, C. (nd) Private Security and the Law. ScienceDirect. Retrieved from: https://www.elsevier.com/books/private-security-and-the-law/nemeth/978-0-12-386922-7
Search and Seizure (nd) WISSPD. Retrieved from: http://www.wisspd.org/htm/ATPracGuides/980Case/caseSum/SearchAndSeizure.htm
Private Security Employment
Employment testing has emerged as a major component in today's hiring and recruitment processes because many employers are faced with an ever increasing competitive business environment. Employers are increasingly utilizing different methods of employment testing to help ensure that highly qualified individuals are recruited. In essence, employment testing is used as a major component of today's employment practices to help ensure that the best candidates for the job once a pool of applicants has been obtained (Dessler, 2005, p.210). The significance of employment testing in the modern business environment has also expanded to other segments including public and private security. Employment testing in private security includes the use of psychological assessment since it helps in examining the cognitive and emotional functioning of applicants in this field.
Psychological Assessment in Private Security
As previously mentioned employment testing in private security entails conducting psychological assessments of the applicant. These…
Cochrane, R.E., Tett, R.P. & Vandecreek, L. (2008). Psychological Testing and the Selection of Police Officers -- A National Survey. In Introduction to forensic psychology: research and application (chap. 3, pp.27-38). Retrieved from http://www.corwin.com/upm-data/19737_Chapter_3.pdf
Dessler, G. (2005). Human resource management (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Roberson, C. & Birzer, M. (2008). Introduction to private security: theory meets practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Stabile, S.J. (2002). The Use of Personality Tests As a Hiring Tool: Is the Benefit Worth the Cost? U. Pa. Journal of Labor and Employment Law, 4(2), 279-313. Retrieved from https://www.law.upenn.edu/journals/jbl/articles/volume4/issue2/Stabile4U.Pa.J.Lab.%26Emp.L.279(2002).pdf
private security in the United States is indelibly related to U.S. history in general, for the simple fact that prior to the founding of the country, security -- in its most basic form -- was essentially handled by civilians. This occurrence was common before the colonies became organized and before there were official police or even federal troops. Perhaps the apex of this tendency on the part of the American people to become privately involved in issues of security was in the era during the Colonial War, when privateering was extremely profitable for a number of westernized nations. For the most part, privateers were little more than pirates; yet they still managed to combine their personal interests with that of their country during the aforementioned martial encounter.
Private security as it is known in its current conception in the U.S. began in earnest during the midway point of the 19th…
Bureau of Security and Investigative Services. (2013). A brief history. Department of Consumer Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.bsis.ca.gov/about_us/history.shtml
Spencer, J. (2000). The facts about military readiness. www.heritage.org. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2000/09/bg1394-the-facts-about-military-readiness
Private Security Threats: Terrorist Profiling
Security is an invaluable asset to the society. The U.S. government has instituted various measures aimed at bolstering the security of its citizens and ensuring that they are comfortable in whatever they are doing. Oftentimes, the government has to outsource of the services to private entities. Some individuals also contract private entities because they consider them as effective and efficient in terms of services delivery and accountability. Such dynamics has seen the rise of private security in the U.S. And globally (Lyon, 2005). Perhaps, the increase in terror threats has made many governments and individual to procure the services of private security firms because of the in surveillance and undercover operations. This study has focused on St. Moritz Security Services based in Pittsburg, Securitas Security Services based in Chicago, and Allied Barton Security Services based in Pennsylvania.
The three are classified as licensed private security…
Dempsey, J. (2010). Introduction to Private Security. Cengage Learning
Lyon, D. (2005). Surveillance as Social Sorting: Privacy, Risk, and Automated Discrimination. Routledge St. Moritz Security Services. http://www.smssi.com/
Securitas Security Services http://www.securitas.com/us/en/
Allied Barton Security Services http://www.alliedbarton.com/
qualified candidate who demonstrates professionalism and aptitude in the field of private security, I urge you to consider the following BSCJA courses that I have recently completed with aplomb. Through this coursework, I have met and surpassed all program objectives, including developing enhanced communications skills, intimate knowledge of the discipline and what it entails, full integration of academic knowledge and hands-on practice, training and self-development through education, the development of proper conduct, professionalism, and codes of ethics, aptitude in research and analysis of data, organizational awareness and participation, analytical and problem-solving skills, and vision for the future.
As part of the BSCJA program, I completed the following coursework relevant to my personal and professional development. A course in organized crime introduced me to the origins of organized crime as well as strategies that law enforcement officials use to curtail it. Criminal justice, criminal law, criminal procedures and criminology courses each…
The private security industry will become generalists in the next century. The industry must be well versed in a number of disciplines. It must base its operations and decisions on demographic and economic trends, and rapid technological changes. Traditionally, the private security industry focused mainly on security and safety of its subjects. Although they continue to be a major focus of the industry, prevailing trends indicate that the industry requires extensive knowledge in other emerging critical areas to become successful. The additional areas include, but are not limited to law, computers and management (Dempsey, 2008).
Current and future private security companies require extensive knowledge of the law. Legislations governing the industry have either been passed by various states or in the processed of being passed. Furthermore, several federal laws indirectly or directly affect management of the private security industry. For instance, legislation on denying employers polygraph use in pre-employment screening…
Private Security Trends and Movements
Private security plays such a significant role in the efforts of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) that the DHS published in 2010 a Private Sector Resources Catalog that “centralizes access to all DHS resources targeted for the private sector including small and large businesses, academia, trade associations, and other non-governmental organizations” (DHS, 2018). One example of a private security firm within the catalog is TRIPwire Community Gateway (TWCG)—“a web portal designed specifically for the nation’s CIKR owners, operators, and private security personnel.” The TWCG serves as a portal for private security groups to give analysis of threats, reports, and planning phases, helping private sector players working with the DHS the opportunity to plan for and detect potential terror threats.
The trends in collaborating the efforts and partnerships of private security with the DHS are growing, too. As the U.S. Department of Justice (2005) has…
These devices can help to ensure customer violence is limited. Additionally, by investing in interpersonal training and dispute resolution courses for employees, companies can help to control coworker violence. Furthermore, the use of EAP (Employee Assistance Programs) for frustrated workers can help to provide some outlet for frustrations, further eliminating the possible problems (Hagan, 2004). Through polite, direct, proper communication, most acts of interpersonal workplace violence can be avoided.
ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. etrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website: http://www.asisonline.org/certification/arp/certpromo.htm.
Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] etrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website: http://www.leg.state.or.us/01orlaws/sess0400.dir/0498ses.html
Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy eport. etrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://www.fpif.org/papers/post9-11.html.
Collins, P.A., icks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. Retrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website: http://www.asisonline.org/certification/arp/certpromo.htm .
Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] Retrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website: http://www.leg.state.or.us/01orlaws/sess0400.dir/0498ses.html
Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy Report. Retrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://www.fpif.org/papers/post9-11.html .
Collins, P.A., Ricks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
The various factors that influence both the definition and the perception of private security are typically environmental but can be internal and external to the issue of security itself. In most developed nations, the state provides security forces that are paid for by tax payers (local, municipal, state and federal police, and military forces); however, private security forces, typically operated by ex-military officers who bring their training and experience into the private sector to fill gaps in the market where demand cannot be satisfied by state security apparatuses alone, do exist and do operate both in developed and developing nations. Private security contractors like Academi, GRS, and Aegis look like military forces and often work with military forces when political factors require governments to apply to them for assistance (as has been the case with the U.S. government in the Middle East (Elsea) as well as with Middle…
1. Some operational contingencies are considered core because the operation could not function without it. A core operational contingency is one that must remain functioning. This is important for contingency planning, so that when you plan for the more common risks that the operation faces, you ensure that the core ones are taken care of, and will continue to run. If you run an e-commerce site, for example, you would consider the ability to keep your website running and continue taking orders as a core contingency. Everything else can suffer from some downtime if necessary, but keeping the revenue coming in is a core competency.
The non-core competencies are the ones that can be disrupted without entirely disrupting the business. This does not mean that the operation can continue indefinitely without these competencies, just that they can be interrupted without completely interrupting the operation. A classic example is…
The foundation of the current private security systems may be credited to Alan Pinkerton. Born in Glasgow in 1819 Pinkerton worked for a sort time as the Cook County Deputy Sherriff before in 1849 being the first detective appointed in the Chicago Police department (Dempsey, 2010). Pinkerton also went on to investigate mail thefts as a special U.S. mail agent in 1850 (Dempsey, 2010). t was in the early 1850's that in partnership with Edward Rucker he started up his on private detective agency, located in the North-West of the country (Dempsey, 2010). After only a year his partner left, at which time the firm was renamed the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, with the tag line 'the eye that never sleeps' (Dempsey, 2010). t was this slogan which led to the term 'private eye' to refer to private investigators (Dempsey, 2010; Burstein, 1999). The agency was highly successful and became…
In the Civil War the firm offered private services to the government, including intelligence gathering and the protection of President Lincoln. The firm is credited with saving the life of Lincoln by identifying an assassination plan during covet intelligence work identifying threats to the railroads (Fischel, 1996).
Pinkertons was not the only private security firm to emerge, the latter part of the nineteenth century also saw other firms established. The need was also supported with the Railway Police Acts 1865, giving railroad the ability to protect themselves (Dempsey, 2010). The two main rivals were Binks Inc., created with the aim of protecting payroll governments, and in 1909 there was the founding of William J. Burns Inc., which went on to become the investigative unit of the American Banking Association (Burstein, 1999).
In the Private Security Task Force Report three factors were identified as ongoing drivers for the development of the industry, these were ineffective policing services, the increase in the level of crimes and increased
Many states, such as Virginia, are training private security officers in order to ensure smooth cooperation and coordination between security companies without police powers and the police and sheriff's departments. In Washington D.C., the municipal police department requires private security officers to be licensed as "special police" officers in order to legally search or arrest people. Cooperation can reach significant proportions, as in the case of the Minneapolis Police Department's "SafeZone" program, which place private security officers downtown who now outnumber Minneapolis Police Department officers there 13 to 1.
4. Industries and organizations that use special and/or commissioned officers and for what purposes
a. There is a truly broad range of industries and organizations which use special police officers. These organizations tend to have significant financial resources, large premises, and sensitive security needs which they believe cannot be met by the existing public police force. These often involve the need…
Amy Goldstein, Washington Post, the Private Arm of the Law January 2, 2007
For any event, effective countermeasures are an important part of enhancing safety. Those who take these factors into account, will ensure that everyone is protected and the chances of having any kind of incidents are decreased. To fully understand how these objectives are achieved requires focusing on public safety, transportation and issues for the celebrity. This will be accomplished by examining various agencies to be worked with, areas of responsibility and coordination. Together, these areas will improve the ability of stakeholders to deal with a number of challenges. (Fisher, 2000) (Walton, 2011)
With what agencies are you going to work?
The various agencies involve working with numerous levels of government. The most notable include: local, state and federal agencies. Each one of them can offer specific insights, that will deal with key problems and mitigate the probabilities of unfortunate incidents occurring. This is achieved by working with private…
Fischer, R. (2000). Loss Prevention. Oxford: Butterworth.
Walton, B. (2011). Special Event Security Planning. Longboat Key, FL: Government Training Inc.
"Yet earnings estimates have acquired a life of their own and often generate more attention from the media and analysts than a company's actual financial results." (Whalen, 2003).
More conservative critics of analyst conflicts rules believe that they are a step in the right direction, but view them as a work in progress. For example, the Sarbanes-Oxley bill, which mandated many improvements in corporate managers' financial practices, did nothing to reduce the unethical practice by many managers of communicating only with those analysts who cooperate with management's forecasts of the future (oni and Womack). This and other rules need strengthening.
Wall Street Journal reported in April 2003 that the brokerage firms of the top investment banks are still more likely to give optimistic research recommendations to their own banking clients, calling to question if new disclosure rules reapply protect investor clients (oni and Womack). With all the hoopla to protect…
60 Minutes - the sheriff of Wall Street (2002, October 6). Retrieved January 11, 2005 from James Hoyer Web site: http://www.jameshoyer.com/news_cbs_merrill_lynch.html
Boni, L. And Womack, K.L., Wall Street research: will new rules change its usefulness? Retrieved January 11, 2005 from The University of New Mexico Web site: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:Vops0e1attQJ:www.unm.edu/~boni/FAJ_MayJune2003.doc+%22NASD+and+NYSE+rules%22+and+%22conflict+of+interest%22+and+%22not+enough%22& hl=en
Fleischman, D. (2003, March 6). Outline of new research analyst conflicts of interest rules. Retrieved January 11, 2005 from Security Industries Association Web site: http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:ETmwyiBBHrMJ:www.sia.com/ResearchManagement/pdf/ResearchOutline.pdf+%22NASD+Rule+2711%22& hl=en
Rayburn, K. (2004, Winter). Insecure securities. Impact. Retrieved January 11, 2005 from University of Louisville Web site: http://php.louisville.edu/advancement/pub/impact/winter2004/insecure.php
private military companies Iraq illustrate a trend warfare? -No, Historical reasons great empires employed a large number mercenaries.-What reasons, -Type firms, divided types- type spear
Private military companies
Today's society is more challenging and dynamic than it has ever been. And this trend is manifested within the military sector as well. Here, the employees in the division have to be better motivated in order to risk their lives and this motivation has to be complex, and include both financial and non-financial incentives. While the major non-financial incentive would be the sense of fighting to protect one's country, the financial incentive has to be substantial and significantly larger than that of any other category of employees.
The modern day army then integrates technologic developments to improve the nature and outcome of its operations. It as such strives to answer the more and more complex demands of the contemporaneous society and, in…
Adebajo, A., Sriram, C.L., 2000, Messiahs or mercenaries? The future of international private military services, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 7, No. 4
Avant, D., 2006, Private military companies and the future of war, Foreign Policy Research Institute, http://www.fpri.org/enotes/200604.military.avant.privatemilitarycompanies.html last accessed on May 27, 2011
Beutel, M.D., 2005, Private military companies: their emergence, importance and a call for global regulation, Northwich University, http://princess.digitalfreaks.org/thesis/beutelmdthesis.pdf last accessed on May 27, 2011
Carafano, J.J., 2008, Private sector, public wars: contractors in combat-- Afghanistan, Iraq, and future conflicts, Greenwood Publishing, ISBN 0275994783
security career is varied, offering people wishing to pursue this option with jobs like security guard, loss prevention specialist, crossing guard, deputy sheriff, even security management specialists. The cross fields and some need special training as well as a degree for a person to gain access too, not to mention, some jobs requires prior experience, at least one year. With that said, the most in demand and easy to apply and access job in the security career field is loss prevention specialist. Although it can be hard at times to catch suspected shoplifters, it will teach the person working the job, how to spot suspected criminal activity and learn how to properly detain and question criminal suspects.
Often this kind of job only requires a high school diploma and doesn't need long-term training. Furthermore, the hours are not long unless the person elects to work for a 24-hour store, which…
Fischer, R.J., & Green, G. (2012). Introduction to Security (9th Ed.). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Nemeth, C.P. (2005). Private security and the law. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.
Q1. What appears to be the main emphasis on the 8-hour pre-assignment training course proposed by the Task Force on Private Security? What is the reasoning behind pre-assignment training? Three decades later are those educational goals still relevant?
Although some employers combine basic security training with pre-assignment training and only provide the minimum number of hours required by law, the overall trend within the field has been to increase the number of hours of training. This offers greater protection for employers, should they become the subject of a lawsuit (McCrie, 2016). Additional training highlights the extent to which the employer engaged in planning for every possible eventuality. Also, employees come to security positions with very diverse backgrounds. Many police officers, firefighters, and other personnel have had training through their own organizations which may not necessarily be congruent with that of a private employer. Providing training ensures that all personnel have…
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
" (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) the key to the preservation of confidentiality is "making sure that only authorized individuals have access to that information. The process of controlling access -- limiting who can see what -- begins with authorizing users." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) Employers are held accountable under the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules for their employee's actions. The federal agency that holds responsibility for the development of information security guidelines is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST further defines information security as "the preservation of data confidentiality, integrity, availability" stated to be commonly referred to as "the CIA triad." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012)
III. Risk Reduction Strategies
Strategies for addressing barriers and overcoming these barriers are inclusive of keeping clear communication at all organizational levels throughout the process and acknowledging the impact of the organization's culture as well as capitalizing on all…
Harman, LB, Flite, CA, and Bond, K. (2012) Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. State of the Art and Science. Virtual Mentor. Sept. 2012, Vol. 14 No. 9. Retrieved from: http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2012/09/stas1-1209.html
Kopala, B. And Mitchell, ME (2011) Use of Digital health Records Raises Ethical Concerns. JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation. Jul/Sep 2011. Lippincott's Nursing Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/cearticle?tid=1238212#P77 P85 P86 P87
In the present day, organizations are reliant on information in order to continue being relevant and not become obsolete. To be specific, organizations are reliant on the controls and systems that have been instituted in place, which provide the continuing privacy, veracity, and accessibility of their data and information (Lomprey, 2008). There is an increase and rise in threats to information contained within organizations and information systems (Lomprey, 2008). There is also a rise in the intricacy of such systems and information, which places emphasis on the importance for organizations to understand and gain an understanding of how to better safeguard their information as well as information systems. As stated by Briggs (2005), globalization has instigated the world to become a global village. This, in turn, has increased the level of complexity and intricacy of the information security aspect of the organizations across the world. There is greater…
Alfawaz, S. M. (2011). Information security management: a case study of an information security culture (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
Ashenden, D. (2008). Information Security management: A human challenge? Information security technical report, 13(4), 195-201.
Briggs, R. (2005). Joining Forces From national security to networked security. DEMOS.
Chang, S. E., Ho, C. B. (2006). Organizational factors to the effectiveness of implementing information security management. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 106 (3): 345-361.
This leaves those clients that are inside unsupervised while the guard is outside. There is also a lack of signage inside displaying rules and regulations along with directions. This propagates a lot of unnecessary questions being asked of the surety officer on duty. In order to alleviate these issues it would be essential to place distinct parking signage outside in order to help facilitate clients parking in the correct spaces. It is also necessary to place directional signage within the facility along with general rules and policies. All of these signs together would cost approximately $1,000 to install.
The last security issue that needs to be addressed is that of the security information processes that is in place. As each client arrives at the facility, their license plate numbers are recorded and they are then assigned a number. They are seen by the appropriate medical personnel based upon the order…
Conducting a Security Assessment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from Processor Web site:
How to Conduct an Operations Security Assessment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from eHow.com Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_2060197_conduct-operations-security-assessment.html
Methadone Maintenance Treatment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from Drug Policy Alliance
A system possesses authenticity when the information retrieved is what is expected by the user -- and that the user is correctly identified and cannot conceal his or her identity. Methods to ensure authenticity include having user names and secure passwords, and even digital certificates and keys that must be used to access the system and to prove that users 'are who they say they are.' Some highly secure workplaces may even use biological 'markings' like fingerprint readers (Introduction, 2011, IBM).
Accountability means that the source of the information is not anonymous and can be traced. A user should not be able to falsify his or her UL address or email address, given the requirements of the system. "Non-repudiation is a property achieved through cryptographic methods which prevents an individual or entity from denying having performed a particular action related to data... Through the use of security-related mechanisms, producers and…
Introduction to z/OS Security. (2011). IBM. PowerPoint. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/resources/systems_z_advantages_charter_security_zSecurity_L1_Security_Concepts.ppt
Why is information security important? (2011). Security Extra. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www.securityextra.com/why-is-information-security-important.html
However, this still relatively young application of internet technology does come with a wide array of security concerns that highlight the ethical and legal responsibilities facing these handlers of sensitive information.
ith identify theft and hacking of open source network activities real threats in the internet age, it is increasingly important for online shoppers bankers to be aware of the risks and for online financial institutions to be armed to protect against them.
For the banking industry, which has gone to considerable lengths to continually upgrade security measures, this presents a demand which is simultaneously economic and ethical. Indeed, the transition of users from traditional to online banking methods will be a shift "resulting in considerable savings in operating costs for banks." (Sathye, 325) This highlights the nature of it risks for all companies, which must balance security concerns with the financial optimization often associated with such change.
CMU. 2003. Risk Management. Carnegie Mellon University: Software Engineering Institute. Online at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/risk/index.html
Comptroller of the Current, Administrator of National Banks (CoC). (2005). Authentication in an Internet Banking Environment. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. Online at .
Sathye, M. (1999). Adoption of Internet Banking by Australian Consumers: An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17(7), 324-334.
Stoneburner, G; Goguen, a. & Feringa, a. (2002). Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. NIST 800-30.
Private -- Cloud Computing isks and Challenges -- Bahrain Gov.
Cloud Computing Experiences of Other Countries
Focus on Japan
Japan has in the past had the rather lousy record of being an unwilling (or late) adopted of non-Japanese technology. Indeed, as a matter of fact, most of the country's businesses were rather reluctant to embrace West-developed technological innovations including but not limited to Twitter and Facebook. It hence comes as a complete surprise that the country received an excellent BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard ranking. In the words of BSA (2013), "the scorecard examines major laws and regulations relevant to cloud computing in seven policy categories as well as each country's ICT-related infrastructure and broadband deployment." Some of the factors that carry significant weight in the said scoring system therefore include but they are not limited to cloud computing rules international harmonization, presence of effective anti-cyber crime penalties, intellectual property…
Assia, N. (2012). Privacy Implications of Cloud Computing in Israel. Retrieved from http://www.otusgroup.com/legal-issues-surrounding-cloud-computing/
BSA (2013). 2013 BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard. Retrieved from http://cloudscorecard.bsa.org/2013/index.html
Harada, Y. (2011). Study on Cloud Security in Japan. Retrieved from http://www.isaca.org/Knowledge-Center/Research/Documents/Cloud_Sec_ITGIJapan_23Feb2011.pdf
Katz, J. & Seller, B. (2013). Legal Issues Surrounding Cloud Computing. Retrieved from
Security Sector eform
Overview of the relevant arguments regarding Security Sector reform
The objective of security sector reform has to take care of the threats to the security of the state and the safety of its citizens. These arise often from the situation within the state and military responses may not be suitable. This leads on to an analysis of the government. The second article talks in a wider, more theoretical and less action oriented tone. It says that "existing constitutional frameworks have been used to maintain status quo than promote change." This much is certainly true and it is true not only of the countries with a security problem, but also of even United States wherein recently a justice of the Supreme Court was appointed, though she had no experience of being a judge, but she was a friend of the Chief Executive of the country. There are and…
Anderson, Major Will. Wiring up Whitehall: Ensuring Effective Cross -- Departmental
Activity. Journal of Security Sector Management. Volume 3 Number 3 -- June 2005. Retrieved from http://www.jofssm.org/issues/jofssm_0303_AndersonW_Wiring_up_whitehall_2005.doc?CFID=939029& CFTOKEN=57506392 Accessed 6 October, 2005
Ball, Nicole. Enhancing Security Sector Governance: A Conceptual Framework for UNDP. 9
October, 2002. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/jssr/4_resources/documents/UNDP_Ball_2002_SSR%20Concept%20Paper.pdf Accessed 6 October, 2005
Even though there is always some form of a risk involved in the coding technique together with the deployment methods of a website, some technologies such as PHP and MySQL form some of the worst aggravators of online website security. The loopholes that exists in the use of these technologies results in some of the worst hack attacks and security breaches ever experienced in the field of web design. The internet is bustling with a lot of activities. Some of the activities that are officiated over the internet are very sensitive due to both the nature of the information exchanged or even the information stored in the database.
It is paramount that websites be provided with secure and personalized databases. One inevitable fact however is that once a site is deployed on the internet, it becomes a resource to be accessed by everyone as postulated by Kabir
Secure website development…
Bloch, M (2004). "PHP/MySQL Tutorial - Introduction." ThinkHost. .
Friedl, J (2002). Mastering Regular Expressions, Second Edition. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates Inc., 2002.
Kabir, MJ (2003) Secure PHP Development: Building 50 Practical Applications.
Indianapolis, in: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Security Audit for FX Hospital EH/EM Systems
The study carries out the security audits for the FX Hospital EH/EM information systems to identify the vulnerabilities in the systems. The study uses the BackTrack as an auditing tool to penetrate the website, and outcomes of the auditing reveal that the website is not secure and can be subject to different vulnerabilities. After carrying out the auditing, the study is able to collect as much patients' data as possible revealing the website can be subject to vulnerable attacks. One of the vulnerabilities identified is that the website UL starts from HTTP showing that an attacker can easily break into the website and collect sensitive information. Moreover, all the data in the website are not encrypted making them easy for an attacker to collect patients' data.
By consequence, the FX Hospital can face lawsuits for failing to protect patients' data because if patients'…
Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009). Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.
Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.
Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.
Mell, P.Bergeron, T. & Henning, D.(2005).Creating a Patch and Vulnerability Management Program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Security professionals should know what that kind of cooperation entails and what the possible limitations are, and really what the professional expectations are for investigative cooperation, so as to not impede or otherwise hinder active investigations.
While private security as a profession has boomed in many ways, there are some key ways in which the industry still lags behind. One of these ways is accurate data collection, data presentation, and collection of other relevant statistics. This must be a modern issue that security professionals take seriously. Statistics may be dry to some, but that trait does not diminish the value or the necessity of accurate and up-to-date statistics about the industry, including demographics, tools used, success rates, rates of collaboration with other agencies, and more. With modern tools such as data visualization, it is relatively more simple to represent large quantities of data in visually appealing ways in a condensed…
Gunter, W., & Kidwell, J. (2004). Law Enforcement and Private Security Liaison: Partnerships for Cooperation. International Foundation for Protection Officers, Web, Available from: http://www.ifpo.com/articlebank/lawprivateliaison.html. 2013 June 28.
Strom, PhD, K., Berzofsky, M., Shook-Sa, B., Barrick, PhD, K., Daye, C., Horstmann, N., & Kinsey, S. (2010). The Private Security Industry: A Review of the Definitions, Available Data Sources, and Paths Moving Forward. United States Department of Justice, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, Web, Available from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bjs/grants/232781.pdf . 2013 June 28.
The Law Enforcement-Private Security Consortium. (2009). Operation Partnership: Trends and Practices in Law Enforcement and Private Security Collaborations. United States Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Web, Available from: http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p169-pub.pdf. 2013 June 28.
Introduction to Security Measures
The history of security is fairly lengthy. Security has always accompanied organized civilizations for nearly as long as they have been extant. Initially, security was begotten from the need to protect important personages who, not infrequently, were in the private sector. Therefore, the history of security can be traced to the private security guards who were appointed to protect the Pharaohs and the rulers in Egypt. It is worth noting that these security personnel worked for those in the public sector, yet were themselves comprised of individuals from the private sector. In general, this trend would continue to this very day, in which there are currently private security companies engaged in services in which they are combating forces of ISIS for the public sector.
Perhaps the most notable security advancements to initialize within Westernization are found in the history of ancient Rome. The Vigiles Urbani was…
The relevance of physical security cannot be overstated when it comes to the prevention or minimization of instances of unauthorized access, loss, or even theft. In this text, I concern myself with physical security and the relevance of several of its components. The components I will address in this discussion are building security, grounds security, access control systems, perimeter security, and information systems and technology security.
Physical Security: Brief Overview
In the assessment of security vulnerabilities, physical security is generally regarded a critical issue. This is particularly the case given that it is the said physical security that presents the most serious obstacle to an attacker seeking to execute a break-in. In that regard therefore, the various components of physical security, some of which are discussed in significant detail in this text, should seek to secure people and organizational assets from intruders. For this reason, physical security could…
Dempsey, J.S. (2010). Introduction to Private Security (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Fennelly, L.J. (2012). Effective Physical Security (4th ed.). Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Purpura, P.P. (2007). Security and Loss Prevention: An Introduction (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Smith, C. & Brooks, D.J. (2012). Security Science: The Theory and Practice of Security. Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
When considering their security needs, businesses will be faced with whether to develop an in-house, proprietary team or to outsource their security to a contractor. There are significant differences between contract security services and proprietary security, as well as costs and benefits associated with each. With proprietary services, the company can control and monitor all their security needs, change security strategies as needed, and conduct all training in-house. Security personnel are also directly reporting to the company, creating a safer and more internally cohesive security strategy. Yet few companies can afford to develop a security staff from scratch, maintain that staff through ongoing and important skills upgrades, and monitor security internally. Contract security services have become popular among businesses of all sizes for good reason, offering substantial cost savings. Moreover, security contract services can be highly effective and reliable when they ascribe to international standards for professional development in their…
The private security field also underwent significant reforms in connection with the qualifications, training, and (especially) vetting of employment candidates as well Ortmeier, 2009). Ironically, instead of recognizing the comprehensive improvement throughout the private security industry after 2001, many police personnel intensified their pre-existing disdain for all non-sworn security professionals instead (Dalton, 2003).
The Conceptual Significance of Public and Private Spaces
One of the worst consequences of the antagonism on the part of police toward private security forces is that the private security industry could actually provide valuable assistance to the overall interest of national, regional, and local security. Whereas the actions of all government policing and law enforcement authorities is very strictly limited by fundamental constitutional principles (especially in connection with 4th Amendment search and seizure concepts), non-governmental security agents can operate with considerably wider latitude (Larsen, 2007). In general, private security personnel may conduct various types of searches…
Dalton D. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post-9/11 Era. Burlington, MA:
Larsen R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Ortmeier P. (2009). Security Management: An Introduction. Uppers Saddle River,
Vermont's Junior Senator, Bernard Sanders introduced to the Senate the Stop Outsourcing Security Act S. 2398. The Stop Outsourcing Security Act will help solve the lack of oversight of contractors in Iraq by requiring that by June 2008, "the President shall submit to each specified congressional committee a report on the status of planning for the transition away from the use of private contractors for mission critical or emergency essential functions by January 1, 2009, in all conflict zones in which Congress has authorized the use of force" (s 2398). This bill will examine contractor activities and ensure that renewals will only happen if the president certifies that contractors have undergone background checks and are clear of any crimes that could lead to additional problems with their work in the future. It will also allow congress to have access to information of private military companies including, the number of persons…
Addicott, Jeffrey F. "Contractors on the "Battlefield": Providing Adequate Protection, Anti-Terrorism Training, and Personnel Recovery for Civilian Contractors Accompanying the Military in Combat and Contingency Operations." Houston Journal of International Law 28.2 (2006): 323. Questia. 16 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015737160 .
Broder, John M. "Report critical of guard firm; Blackwater sought to cover up Iraq shootings, study finds." 3 October 2007: 4. Lexis Nexis 13 June 2008. http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T3963560559&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T3963560562&cisb=22_T3963560561&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=8357&docNo=5
Greenwald, Robert "Iraq for Sale" (Documentary Film) 2005 Information Website: http://iraqforsale.org/
Krugman, Paul. "Hired Gun Fetish." The New York Times. A29. 28 September 2007. Proquest. 5 July 2008. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1343375061&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1215612063&clientId=27893
The use of private contractors to assist the U.S. military forces in times of conflict is not a new concept. According to author Gordon Campbell, ashington has "always" used contractors in times of war. There are many contemporary issues and potential problems when the U.S. military signs deals with private contractors, as it did in Iraq and is currently doing in Afghanistan. The main issue revolves around the concept of hiring 180,000 private contractors to support and in some cases substitute for U.S. service personnel in the war zone that was Iraq and is today Afghanistan. Is the hiring ethical, is it practical, and does it help the war effort? This paper reviews those issues and provides perspective from both sides of the issue using the available literature on this topic.
The Ethics of Paying Civilians to Enter Harm's way
The American military hired private contractors to pull…
Campbell, Gordon L. (2000). Contractors on the Battlefield: The Ethics of Paying Civilians to Enter Harm's Way and Requiring Soldiers to Depend upon Them. A paper prepared for Presentation to the Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics 2000. Retrieved June
17, 2012, from http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE00/campbell00.html.
Lardner, Richard. (2010). DynCorp, Other Private Contractors in Afghanistan Behaving
Badly. Huff Post. Retrieved June 17, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Ethical Considerations for the Use of Technology to Meet Selected Homeland Security Objectives
The Digital Age has transformed the way the world works for better or worse. Technology exists to bring down nations’ infrastructures without ever firing a missile (Ten, Manimaran & Liu, 2010). New technology has been developed that can allow agencies to spy, snoop, monitor, and retrieve conversations had online, through email, on cell phones, or via text messaging. To meet security needs, using this technology has very real and practical advantages. At the same time, there are privacy rules and regulations that have to be considered as the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution clearly gives people the right to privacy. Nonetheless, Homeland Security requires that the nation consider the evolution of terrorism and view it not just as an external threat but also as an internal threat. In other words, terrorism is not just a…
According to the same source, the Australian market proves to be very fertile for the U.S. companies which already account for the greatest import share (over 50% in 2004). Such data are outlined by the following table:
Total market (million of dollars)
Total imports (million of dollars)
Imports from U.S. (million of dollars)
2002 2004%Change 2002-2004%Change 2002-2004%Change Australia 950-1400 47% 380-560 47% 185-285 54% 51% Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.
The U.S. home security market is another outlet offering promising perspectives. According to Frost & Sullivan's report (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=365296),one of the levers responsible for increased demand is the emergence of new homes as a result of the low interest rate. The U.S. Census ureau studies showed that, in 2002, 1.7 million new houses were built in comparison with 2001 when 1.6 million new constructions were made. Moreover, the number was expected to grow in the near future.
Other reasons for a…
Brown, C., (2000). Australians' attitude to security. On the Internet at: www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx.Retrieved February 20.
Best Export Markets for U.S. Security and Safety Equipment (2005). On the Internet at: www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.Retrieved February 20
Environmental Scan of the Security Industry (2006). On the Internet at http://www.asial.com.au/default.asp?page=/media%20centre/research+and+articles/environmental+scan+of+the+security+industry.Retrieved February 20, 2007.
Home Security Market Goes Hi-tech (2006). On the Internet at: svconline.com/resav/hitech_home_security_06192006. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
Physical Security Survey
The following will be an overview of the aytheon Company. Business information will be included as well as security issues the company might have. A physical security survey will be presented as well as an analysis of the results. Certain changes that are needed will be proposed.
Background on aytheon
aytheon Company is an innovation and technology pioneer with expertise in security defense, and civilian markets across the globe. With a background marked by development measuring 92 years, aytheon produces advanced electronics, integrated mission frameworks and different abilities in the ranges of sensing; impacts; and charge, control, intelligence and communication frameworks; and services in mission support (aytheon History).
Amongst the first technology companies, aytheon was formed in Cambridge, Massachusetts., home of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, on 7th July, 1922 as the American Appliance Company (aytheon History). The founders were Vannevar Bush, who eventually became the dean…
Raytheon: History. (n.d.). Retrieved January24, 2015 from http://www.raytheon.com/ourcompany/history/index.html
115). Congress certainly has the sole right to enact the legislation with which administrative agencies must comply. Moreover, the Congress has an oversight function, and it can and does react when people respond negatively to administrative actions, as occurred in the SSI and disability review examples (Derthick, p.153). Of course, the Court system is the major overseer in the United States. Derthick maintains that courts and administrative agencies perform sufficiently similar roles, making their potential for conflict great (Derthick, p.131). Both courts and administrative agencies are tasked with filling in statutes, but courts are generalists while administrators are specialists, making conflict between their decisions almost inevitable (Derthick, p.131). Moreover, courts may interpret laws differently in different jurisdictions, meaning that a single federal agency could ostensibly have to meet several different federal guidelines (Derthick, p.131). In both the SSI and the review scenarios, court involvement complicated the agency's task, with some…
Martha Derthick. Under Stress: the Social Security Administration in American Government.
Washington, D.C., Brookings Institution, 1990.
Private University is selling a share, or something else. At the outset of the Act, "security" is defined as "any note, stock, treasury stock, security future, security-based swap, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate…" and many others are subject to the law. The key is that the security creates a share of income for the holder, whether in the form of debt or equity. Options for later purchase are also included in the definition of security.
The asset in question is a "share" that entitles the bearer to college credits in any school at the future date. A college credit is not a claim to a cash flow, nor it is claim to equity. Therefore, this is not a security. Rather, it is a coupon by which a product can later be acquired. There is no difference between this asset…
FTC. (2013). The antitrust laws. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://www.ftc.gov/bc/antitrust/antitrust_laws.shtm
FTC. (2013). Horizontal merger guidelines. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://www.ftc.gov/os/2010/08/100819hmg.pdf
Securities Act of 1933. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://www.sec.gov/about/laws/sa33.pdf
Stewart, J. (2011). Antitrust suit is simple calculus. New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/10/business/att-and-t-mobile-merger-is-a-textbook-case.html?pagewanted=all
ole of Private Banker
What is the typical role of a Private Banker?
A private banker is someone who will help affluent clients to invest their money effectively. This involves focusing on a number of areas to include: financial planning, probate, asset protection, reducing taxes and transferring wealth from one generation to the next. At the same time, the private banker has a fiduciary responsibility to reduce risks for their customers and offer sound advice. This means that they must provide objective analysis and recommendations. That will help the client achieve a variety of goals over the long-term. ("Private Banker," 2012)
Moreover, private bankers assist their customers to connect with other services they require (i.e. accountants and lawyers). This ensures that the strategy is effectively coordinated. When this happens, there is less risk and greater amounts of stability associated with the client's net worth. In the future, this…
How to Become a Private Banker. (2012). E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.co.uk/how_6403015_become-investment-banker-college.html
Investment Advisor. (2012). E How. Retrieved from:
Next, firewalls capable of blocking IP addresses need to be installed and used (Becker, Clement, 2006). The focus on these efforts is just the first phase; there needs to be a monthly audit of IP addresses in the departments where P2P file sharing has occurred to make sure it isn't happening again. This an be accomplished using a series of constraint-based configuration tools that will trap on P2P known client footprints or digital signatures and immediately block them (Hosein, Tsiavos, Whitley, 2003). This technology will also work to isolate any inside IP addresses which attempt to reach P2P client-based download sites and immediately log and block all IP activity for the address. This will make a given IP address inoperable and immediately delete it, which will make any subsequent hacking attempts of the system useless. This is precisely the strategy the U.S. Government is using today to ensure a very…
Bailes, J.E., & Templeton, G.F. (2004). Managing P2P security. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 47(9), 95-98.
Becker, J.U., & Clement, M. (2006). Dynamics of illegal participation in peer-to-peer networks -- why do people illegally share media files? Journal of Media Economics, 19(1), 7-32.
Hosein, I., Tsiavos, P., & Whitley, E.A. (2003). Regulating architecture and architectures of regulation: Contributions from information systems. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 17(1), 85-85.
Controlling IM risks. (2003). Risk Management, 50(7), 6-6.
Security in Healthcare
The recent advances in technology -- databases that store personal medical records and information -- are bringing tools to patients, doctors and other healthcare professionals that were simply not available just a few years ago. There is hope that eventually, a doctor in Hawaii that is treating a medical emergency for a tourist from Florida, will be able to access the digitally kept medical and healthcare records for that injured tourist. In other words, there will likely be in the foreseeable future a national database -- that perhaps links state databases with each other the way the FBI and local law enforcement agencies are linked -- that will be of enormous benefit to citizens and their healthcare providers.
But before that nationally linked database can become a reality, there are a number of potential problems that need to be ironed out. For example, legislation needs to be…
Dogac, Asuman, and Laleci, Gokce B. (2005). A Survey and Analysis of Electronic
Healthcare Record Standards. ACM Computing Surveys, 37(4), 277-315.
Glaser, John, and Aske, Jennings. (2010). Healthcare IT trends raise bar for information security.
Healthcare Financial Management, 64(7), 40-44.
" (Muntenu, 2004)
According to Muntenu (2004) "It is almost impossible for a security analyst with only technical background to quantify security risk for intangible assets. He can perform a quantitative or qualitative evaluation using dedicated software to improve the security of the information systems, but not a complete risk assessment for the whole information system. Qualitative assessment based on questionnaires use in fact statistical quantitative methods to obtain results. Statistical estimation represents the basis for quantitative models." Muntenu states conclusion that in each of these approaches the "moral hazard of the analyst has influence on the results because human nature is subjective. He must use a sliding window approach according to business and information systems features, balancing from qualitative to quantitative assessment." (2004) qualitative study of information systems security is reported in a study conducted in U.S. academic institutions in the work of Steffani a. urd, Principal Investigator for…
Burd, Steffani a. (2006) Impact of Information Security in Academic Institutions on Public Safety and Security: Assessing the Impact and Developing Solutions for Policy and Practice. Final Report." NCJ 215953, United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice, Oct 2006.
Muntenu, Adrian (2004) Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma
Full text PDF: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/215953.pdfMunteanu , Adrian (2004) the Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma. Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions.
security of the U.S. And Canadian border is in peril. There is an unprotected route allowing the free-flow of terrorists from around the world into Canada and then into the U.S. This is a national security situation that threatens our way of life. hat are our options for eliminating this threat?
By definition a liberal is a man or a woman who believes in liberty. Liberalism as a philosophy has evolved as a defense of individual citizen's liberties against the potential tyranny of his or her ruling state. Liberals such as John Locke have typically maintained that humans are naturally in 'a State of perfect Freedom to order their Actions ... As they think fit ... without asking leave, or depending on the ill of any other Man," In other words, unless the individual's liberty impinges upon the liberty of another individual, than that individual should do as he or…
Gaus, Gerald. "Liberalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2001. Available online November 3, 2004 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/liberalism/
security crisis that is plaguing e-commerce as it transforms into the epitome of global business. It attempts to analyze the possible repercussions of this problem and then put forward various possible solutions to rectify the biggest obstacle limiting the path of e-commerce progress. The ideas and references used in this proposal have been cited from five different sources.
E-commerce has changed the way the world do business, plain and simple. It has single-handedly brought more people, countries, enterprises and governments together to the same world market than all other forms of conducting methods, combined. This name, given to the electronic method of executing business, has made the task of buying every available merchandise exponentially easier and has therefore made all the more products accessible to the general population as well as businesses and industries. The boom in online trade is gaining alacrity and is destined to become the method of…
1) Ghosh, AK, 1st edition - January 21, 1998, E-Commerce Security: Weak Links, Best Defenses, John Wiley & Sons.
2) Raisinghani, M, (editor), January 7, 2002, Cases on Worldwide E-Commerce: Theory in Action (Cases on Information Technology Series, Vol 4, Part 3), Idea Group Publishing
3) Hills, R, 23 April 2003, Key risks to e-commerce security, "My IT Adviser," Retreived on 20th February, 2004, from:
Corporate Security Challenges
Critically discuss the assertion by Briggs and Edwards (2006, p.21) that corporate security departments face the same challenges as any other business function: "they must keep pace with their company's changing business environment and ensure that how they work, what they do and how they behave reflect these realities
The world has become a global village through globalization. Business undertakings have come to be more and more intricate. This in turn has altered and transformed the structure and the strides being taken in the corporate realm (Tipton and Krause, 2003). This is owing to a number of aspects. To start with, the inundation of traditional markets is causing organizations to move towards risky directions. For instance, in the contemporary, the advancement of business strategies, such as having offshore companies, enable the management of organizations from afar (McGee, 2006). In addition, the rise of accountability of organizations through…
Albano, G. L., Calzolari, G., Dini, F., Iossa, E., & Spagnolo, G. (2006). Procurement Contracting Stategies. Available at SSRN 908220.
Briggs, R. and Edwards, C. (2006). The Business of Resilience: Corporate Security for the 21st Century. London: Demos.
Brooks, D. J. (2013). Corporate Security: Using knowledge construction to define a practising body of knowledge. Asian journal of criminology, 8(2), 89-101.
Cavanagh, T. E. (2005). Corporate Security Measures and Practices: An overview of security management since 9/11. New York: The Conference Board.