The shift in the market macroenvironment engages these function for the strategic advantage of the organization.
The Zack KM cycle and the Bukowitz and Williams KM Cycle are complementary by the fact that the Zack KM cycle can provide the information (external) to be utilized by the Bukowitz and Williams KM Cycle.
Knowledge capture strategies
The knowledge possessed by experts and employees could be tacit (Cairns, 2010) and can be captured using a variety of techniques. For the One who is highly outgoing, very social and has been actively involved in a variety of training activities., the technique that can be employed are the active one such as on-site observation and blackboarding. As for the one who prefers to be given a list of questions that he will have to answer before each interview and seems fairly reluctant to embark upon the project, a repertory grid can be used in which the would conceptualize the problems presented using their own models .I anticipate the major obstacles to the strategies and techniques to be employed for each of the individuals is their personal preferences and feelings. As an example, some experts don't like being observed thereby ruling out the employment of on-site observation. The base technique would be achieved by using other knowledge capture tools such as electronic brainstorming should the others fail.
The Organizational factors that could help facilitate the forming of a CoP
A community of practice (CoP) may be defined as a group of individuals sharing a craft, an interest, a profession and a craft. The group may come up naturally since the member is interested in particular areas and domains. Besides, it may be specifically created with the aim of acquiring knowledge that is related to the fields of the individuals involved. When the group shares experiences and information amongst themselves, the members get learn from one another. They also have the opportunity of developing themselves both professionally and personally (Lave & Wenger, 1991).
Interventions that based on CoP are falling among the preferred plans of the knowledge managers. CoP intervention is directed at the enhancement of the sharing of knowledge. When it does not succeed in providing a distinction between the knowledge produced by CoP and the information that is produced from CoP, then it should not be an intervention of KM but an intervention of information management (IM). A number of CoP interventions are always intended to improve the sharing of knowledge. They however do not offer ways of differentiating information and knowledge. Hence, a number of them are not interventions of KM at all.The members of CoPs are more effective and efficient conduits of experiences and information. As organizations try to give manuals that meet employees training needs, CoP improves the storytelling process among the workers. This in turn, enables the workers to improve on their skills (Seely Brown & Duguid, 1991)
Studies indicate that employees spend 30% of their total time to look for information. The employees will always turn to their co-workers than turning to other explicit information sources like manuals, books or databases.Davenport & Prusak, 2000). In CoPs, the workers are capable of discussing and brainstorming openly regarding a project. This is capable of leading which to fresh capabilities.
There are a number of reasons that may make an organization to come up with a CoP. The following are some of the key reasons for the formation of CoPs in organizations.
Motivation is one of the reasons that make organizations to come up with CoPs. Sharing of knowledge is vital for success. Studies indicate that people are motivated to be active participants when they perceive knowledge to be for the good of the public, or a moral requirement. CoP members may be motivated to take part through the use of techniques like tangible returns such as bonuses, intangible returns like reputation and the interest of the community.
Collaboration is also a reason that makes organizations to come up with CoPs. Collaboration is vital as it ensures that CoP is thriving. Research has established that a number of factors may show a greater collaboration level in the exchange if knowledge in business networks likes the organizations (Sveiby & Simon, 2002).
Communication with other people in CoP involves the creation of social presence. social presence is believed to influence the likelihood of a person's participation in CoPs, majorly in online marketing. (Tu, 2002).
Some of the organizational constraints that could hinder the successful development of a CoP and how would you address these.
Management of CoP always faces numerous barriers that are capable of inhibiting people from taking part in the exchange of knowledge interventions of KM that try to come up with the application of storytelling to be a tool of sharing knowledge are experiencing similar difficulties with the interventions of CoP. The difficulty that is shared is that both of them are not helping in the provision of distinctions between knowledge and information.
Social network enablement is a management intervention that is directed to enhance the formation and the maintenance of social network. Hence, it can't be a KM intervention method except when applied in the building of KM external relationships or when used as a help in team building interventions or as a help in CoP.
The combination of CoPs and journals are capable of creating systems that are capable of bringing new knowledge while at the same time balancing the knowledge with a rationale scheme. The CoP and the journal should meet through a multi-tiered validation system that transports CoP style informal conversational knowledge into fully validated explicit knowledge.
It is vital for organizations and firms to nurture acknowledge and apply the probable pool of knowledge residing both in teams and also in individuals. Despite the fact that CoPs have been identified as effective and efficient vehicles for exploiting the tacit and explicit knowledge in the organizations, very little information is known regarding the factors facilitating and impeding their growth and birth.
The knowledge support systems for the company with over 20 years of existence and that of company that is a recent start-up should be both ontology-based to allow for the evolution of the systems with the changes in data, information as well as knowledge (Vines et al.2011).The differences in these knowledge management systems would be that the one for the older organization must have ways of capturing and processing mostly explicit information and fewer tacit inputs while the younger organization would have more tacit inputs and few explicit inputs. This is due to the fact that the older information already and a knowledgebase stored in explicit forms.
Job title: Knowledge and Information Manager
Responsible to: Chief Manager, Knowledge Sharing Group
To provide support to the Knowledge Sharing Manager in coming up with work programs regarding knowledge and information management. This entails giving technical assistance to both consultancy clients and partners to enhance their capability in the management of knowledge and information.
1. Enhancing and supporting programs that are funded by grants.
2. To come up with plans, manage and develop collection of consultancy programs, grants and projects, that ought to be receptive to the needs of the clients and partners that have been identified, participating in the enhancement of their knowledge and information management capability.
3. To offer technical support to consultancy programs and grants. This should include information needs evaluation, providing advice on information management systems and the development of the resource centre.
4. To promote the development of training modules for the training of technical advisers.
5. To promote the growth of strategies and relationships with the new and existing clients and partners.
5. To manage and commission consultants to provide technical support that is related to Knowledge Management and Information Management.
Job title: Knowledge and Information Manager
• Degree in knowledge management
Post graduate Diploma in information management
• Minimum of five years work experience in knowledge management area
• An experience in Project management
• Experience of effectively working as a team
• Experience of working with many people and firms
• Experience of managing and developing databases
• Experience in international development
• Should be experienced in coming up with and writing project and funding proposals
• Experience in the supervision of workers.
• Excellent information technology skills, particularly database-related
• Excellent written and oral communication skills
• Excellent organization skills including ability to manage multiple tasks and projects and an ability to prioritize and work to deadlines
• Financial management skills
• Information searching skills
• High level of competence in word processing, spreadsheets, office administration systems and electronic media
• Experience in the management of websites or given sections of the website
• Facilitation and training skills
• Experience in the creation of web pages
• Experience of Internet use to get required information