Luke And Associates Interview Methodology


¶ … Luke & Associates depicted low rates of employee retention. Retention levels did not promote sustainability in the organization, and did not generate any significant revenues in case of some departments of the organization. Recruitment, hiring, and employee training processes incurred high costs. Although these costs proved equitable when amortized over 8-10 years, they weren't sustainable when absorption was required within 2-3 years. The organization's management expressed anxiety over these low retention levels. Management was also concerned about the recurring ill fit of newly hired personnel with company culture and position demands, in relation to basic knowledge and demonstrated competences. To tackle this problem, the firm decided to take into account a venture involving action research program to study various tactics for improving key recruitment interview processes. Action research, which comes under the participatory research category, involves stakeholders affected by practices, strategies and systems linked to specific situations or issues, which form a part of their professional life (Tiffany, 2006). In general, this kind of research aims at making an official critical thinking analysis regarding a practice issue, to ascertain the most suitable alternative, and to define an implementation strategy that has great chances of garnering the acceptance of stakeholders. Luke & Associates' action research plan would be executed under the tutelage of the company's department of human resources. This included staunch backing and approval from management executives, and significant involvement of workforce across every organizational level. In the form of a two-branched process, action research enabled this company to focus on its needs. First of all, it underlined that change necessitated action- the company aimed at attaining this. In addition, it realized that effective action was grounded on accurate analysis of the situation, determination of every likely alternative solution, and adopting the solution most suitable to the issue (Burnes, 2004).

Data collection and compilation

Amassed data comprised of information on cultural fit, network fit, and indicated proficiencies. Interview transcripts were studied to seek reference to know-how, values, leader behavior, and career experience. Standards of fit encompassed two kinds of styles: complementary and conformist (this style was in accordance with the views of in-house research panel). Data accumulated was quantitative as well as qualitative, as it took into consideration employment duration, retention rate, chosen candidates' pre, post, and exit interviews, and all-round performance assessment data.

Instruments for qualitative research are devised to assist an analysis of interviewees' world from their perspective. Such instruments accord interviewees the chance for in-depth discussion of subjects, or answering questions; interviewers gain the opportunity of making follow-up inquiries. In case of overly structured instruments, interviewees are unable to speak out their views and experiences. Outcomes from studies employing qualitative techniques can elucidate quantitative research parameters and design, so that quantitative surveys can put forth the right questions. While statistical data might distinguish correlational associations between variables, it fails to properly evaluate how or why such associations exist; nor does it shed light on what is implied by these associations. Aside from utilizing qualitative research techniques, exploring secondary data was appropriate for focus assessment research (Fountain, 2004).

The physical environment wherein feedback was obtained from respondents was kept as neutral as could be to facilitate the data collection process. A major factor in this venture was acquiring access to the study's population. Finances and time determined the method of sampling for the study; however, it is apparent from focus assessment research's definition that it isn't meant to be carried out using a representative target population sample. Instead, purposive or convenience samples are made use of. This particular study employed purposive sampling, incorporating individuals targeted intentionally, as they are assumed to possess information which may facilitate accomplishment of study objectives.


Respondents were assured that whatever information they may pass on to interviewers is confidential and won't be accessible to any individual outside of the research unit. This was applicable to every bit of information obtained, no matter how inconsequential it may seem to the researcher. This moral consideration is especially applicable in instances where respondents reveal personal behavioral information. Data storage is another element in safeguarding confidentiality. Completed questionnaires, interview transcripts and tapes were stored securely, and not left open to free access in the researcher's office. In case of computer storage of transcripts, password protection guaranteed restricted access to designated team members (Fountain, 2004).

Analysis of outcomes

All analytic abilities of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) are retained by participant-driven recruitment (PDR), while enhancing respondent participation in developing research questions and instruments, interpretation of data, and other research process elements. In almost all participatory research programs, researchers...


These companies, in PDR, also find certain limited potential research participants with different outlooks for piloting, reviewing, revising and modification of research questionnaires and content, and serving as 'seeds' (basis of coworker recruitment process). PDR seeds have a critical role in research, with many participation opportunities and responsibilities, aside from their role as coworker recruiters and respondents in RDS. These seeds participated in pilot units for discussing study objectives, evaluating and perfecting instruments of research, and in some instances, extensively co-designing instruments in by partnering closely with researcher (Tiffany, 2006).

The inquiry approach I presented might seem to be slightly idealistic. Impersonal workplace practices, competitive social morals, and authoritarian control styles enforce themselves as perpetual work conditions. Institutionalized systems- those acknowledged commonly as 'the manner of doing things'- appear highly common and universal, and individuals can't often envision other approaches to working, despite conventional approaches being unsuccessful, or in some instances, unfavorable to their aims. The stresses of professional life, competition in advancing up the career ladder, and resource scarcities, constantly work against endeavors to democratize and humanize research programs (Stringer, 2007).

Whether or not action research methodology is acknowledged as scientific is reliant on how we define science. In a sense, it is undoubtedly rigorously empirical, to the extent that it requires individuals to clearly define and study the phenomena being researched. Studies depict action research as being emphatically scientific, although not in terms that quantitative or experimental researchers propound. One misrepresentation of contemporary organizational and professional life is- scientifically-based processes will offer the way to attain effective results in any kind of service -- business, health, education, welfare, etc. "Scientific" management practices aim at identifying "best practices" and formulating processes to apply it in clear-cut detail. This represents a continuous cause of frustration in those whose job is performing these tasks or attaining results stipulated by educational institutions, government agencies and departments and healthcare organizations where they work. Obviously, the problem lies in the fact that precisely and rigorously controlling human behavior, as demanded by physical science procedures, is impossible. Social life's dynamism and human behavior's willful, innovative elements prevent the high levels of control entrenched in technological production and scientific processes (Stringer, 2007).

Change denotes a planned action research outcome: not groundbreaking revolutions that political protestors and extremist social theoreticians envisage, but more gradual changes that are brought on by developing new practices or altering existing ones. These alterations and developments should, however, essentially be painstakingly planned and developed from research processes for offering individuals the means for more effectual handling of issues studied. Action research takes realistic, confined approaches to investigations, exploring specific problems and issues in specific sites at specific instances in interacting groups' or individuals' lives. Its aim is providing participants with fresh understanding of a problem defined as crucial by them, and the method for carrying out corrective action. Processes employed are essentially participatory, and allow every affected individual to speak out and participate actively in the research process (Stringer, 2007).

Reflection / Future

In case of customary methods of sampling, researchers pick respondents depending on a pre-fixed design and accumulate data via a process which can be guided and supervised. However, in case of hidden populations, these researcher-chosen samples may most likely be biased; also, they are typically logistically impractical. RDS sampling shifts sampling tasks typically conducted by researchers to respondents, counting on a coupon system for keeping track of recruitment, and a system of dual-incentive for inspiring involvement. RDS sampling is shown to be effectual in gathering large assorted samples in diverse settings; however, engaging respondents in the process of sampling means that data generation in RDS is essentially outside the researcher's control and view. However, in spite of its extensive use, little is presently known regarding the real (in comparison to theoretic) RDS performance; some recent studies indicate causes for concern (Salganik, 2012).

Earlier efforts in assessing RDS performance typically went into three groups: (1) simulation studies, (2) studies employing hidden population data, and (3) analytic outcomes. All these approaches come with their pros and cons, but considering them with regards to trade-off between relevance and precision can prove useful. Certain strategies- like simulation studies and analytic outcomes- enable precision and perfection in inferences; however, these inferences may not be relevant in actual RDS research as they may rely on assumptions having insignificant associations with what happens in actual practice. Alternatively, studies that involve data obtained from…

Sources Used in Documents:


Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and the planned approach to change: a re-appraisal. Journal of Management studies, 41(6), 977-1002.

Fountain, J. (2004). Focus assessment studies: A qualitative approach to data collection (Vol. 6). United Nations Publications.

McCreesh, N., Frost, S., Seeley, J., Katongole, J., Tarsh, M.N., Ndunguse, R., ... & White, R.G. (2012). Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(1), 138.

Salganik, M.J. (2012). Commentary: respondent-driven sampling in the real world. Epidemiology, 23(1), 148-150.
Tiffany, J.S. (2006, November). Respondent-driven sampling in participatory research contexts: Participant-driven recruitment. Journal of Urban Health, 83(Supplement 1), 113-124. DOI: 10.1007/s11524-006-9107-9. Retrieved from

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