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Each department has a number of employees who have been trained specifically in ordering and stocking the shelves designated as that department's area of sales. The workers assigned to each department specialize in one particular area of supermarket production and sales and generally do not perform the duties of workers from different departments. For instance, butchers will not perform bakery duties, and vice versa.
hile employees of the various departments are expected to have some general knowledge of the many duties performed within their department, each workers is generally assigned regular duties and usually does not perform other duties within the department. One example could be the bakery department where one worker may be trained as a decorator of cakes while another may be trained to perform the actual baking duties. Each performs one aspect of the overall bakery department duties and these duties usually will not overlap. In this…… [Read More]
However, because radically slashing the Department is not feasible in the current international environment, due to the need to keep Americans safe, there has traditionally been less of an incentive for the DoD to institute effective quality control methods, compared with private industries.
Corruption and waste regarding the awarding of government contracts is of great concern. There is a so-called 'revolving door' whereby government officials work for the government for a number of years, then shift to more lucrative careers in private industry and use their connections and influence to gain government contracts for businesses. These businesses may not offer the least expensive 'bids' or even the highest quality, if their proposals are viewed in an objective fashion.
"Previous attempts to achieve improvements have traditionally consisted of more quality audits, reports, additional testing and inspection, legal battles over contract compliance, and prosecution for fraud…the DoD Total Quality Management (TQM) strategy"…… [Read More]
Scientific management vs. Human relations Management
The theory of scientific management's objective was to improve economic efficacy, especially within the realm of labor productivity, where efficiency was quite variable. The components that comprise the theory of scientific management include analysis, synthesis, logic, rationality, empiricism, work ethic, efficiency and elimination of waste, standardization of best practices, disdain for tradition among other components of the theory contribute to it's objectives. With these components, the ability for individual production to be transformed into a mass production entity is possible. This theory tends to look at a workforce through the lens of standards and rigidity which will transform individuals in being a successful unit, especially when mass producing certain things. Though in contrast, the human relations management attempts to pay increasing attention to "the human factors" (Acel-Team, 2011). This approach has a tendency to study the "industrial fatigue" and other "employee problems in…… [Read More]
36). The "differential piece rate" was intended to eliminate this problem, and it meant substituting piece rates for day rates. This led to new problems, for "when the piece rate increased daily earnings, the rates were reduced" (Wrege & Greenwood, 1991, p. 39). Taylor found a way to address this problem, though it took many years to implement the two steps involved:
1) give each workman each day in advance a definite task, with detailed written instructions, and an exact time allowance for each element of the work; and 2) pay extraordinary high wages to those who perform their tasks in the allotted time, and ordinary wages to those who take more than they have been allowed.
The work of Frederick Taylor on scientific management constituted a major phase in public personnel management. Taylor focused his attention on the private sector, but the acceptance of the merit concept and the…… [Read More]
In a way, they are right. Taylor's glowing descriptions of the humanity of scientific management often did not match the reality of what management actually practiced. Many managers were quick to implement the rigid procedures and standards that were the basis for scientific management, but somehow never got around to implementing the raises and bonuses when the workers increased production..(Freeman, 1996, p. 43)
While concentrating on improving the processes, Taylor spent little time on actually improving the working environment from a human perspective.
Others have also pointed out that through Taylorism created more skilled jobs and specialist in the area of scientific management, it thereby negated the savings in worker reduced employment on the production line. He had increased the role of white-collar jobs in this new regime. While certainly this may be true to a certain extent, however the compensatory increase in company productivity, and the origin of the…… [Read More]
"Schein's level of organizational culture" to my public agency
At City Hall, organizational culture is the prime factor in providing the ease to continue embracing the risks of change and being innovative. It also hugely affected how effective the organization recruits new employees, externally and internally, to the firm's new approaches. Because of its subterranean and pervasive nature, Schein suggests three levels on which the organizational culture establishes its presence:
Culture artifacts include the visible items in the organization like the technology, physical environment, and manifestations, which are clear and necessary. The environment of City Hall is an artifact of deeper cultural levels comparable to the visible behavior of the employees. Thus, technology is the visible behavior of City Hall's culture. In the organization's research and development division, its employees are working to minimize emission and energy consumption in the course of production. This means that efforts are focused…… [Read More]
Inefficient Healthcare Routines, Examples of Participative Decision-Making in the Workplace
Routine practices are performed on the premise that all clients, patients, their families, visitors and residents are potentially infectious even without visible symptoms (PIDAC, 2009). These practices are conducted in order to prevent exposure to the various vehicles of infection and their spread. The major ones are risk assessment, hand hygiene, control of the environment, administrative controls, and immunization (PIDAC). ut continued increase in new medical information and technologies, heightening regulatory neglect, an aging population, raised consumer awareness and expectations now reduce the capacity for unified patient care (Deutschendorf 2011). Other contributing factors are the dismantling of traditional care delivery models due to cost constraints, more and more experienced care providers, which led to shortages in most healthcare categories. These lowered clinical quality and level of safety outcomes (Deutschendorf).
There is a growing belief in the United States that people…… [Read More]
The use of scientific management is critical to allow employees to measure their contributions. Giving employees and associates the opportunity to measure their contributions over time is one of the most powerful motivators there are. The synthesis of scientific management and informal organizations can serve as the catalyst for lasting change and high performance within organizations over time. Bureaucracy and its implied top-down control over activities needs to be avoided. Today's organizations thrive on ownership and informal organizational flow of information, not on hierarchical organizational structures.
In terms of using these three concepts within a critical justice organization, the need for infusing ownership and accountability throughout the informal organization just as much in the formal one is critical. The use of scientific management approaches to allowing employees to have a say in the metrics that are used for managing them and how they are calculated further increases ownership in tasks…… [Read More]
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…… [Read More]
Abraham H. Maslow and Douglas M. McGregor both believed that in order for people to work to their full potential, they're basic needs have to be satisfied. (Herzberg, 1964) Douglas McGregor also put forth the concept that people's management-behavior is dependent upon their view of human beings and work. (McGregor, 1960) rganizational design concepts have been constantly evolving since the last fifty years. Change is good and should be used as a strategy for organizations to achieve their goals and objectives. (McNamara, 2003)
This thesis will be based on primary as well as secondary research. Initially an extensive secondary exploratory research will be conducted on the topic of management styles used globally, the culture and values of the Middle East and management styles that were used in the past and those that are currently used. This phase of the thesis is expected to take about a month and…… [Read More]
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
KATZ model of management skills necessary at various levels of management?
The Katz model of management skills may be argued as dated. The theory, developed by Robert Katz and popular in the 1950's, is based on the idea of three core skills areas; technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills. When examining this approach, it may be argued each of these skill areas is relevant to management at different levels. Technical skills refers to knowledge and proficiency in specific areas associated with the activities relevant to the organisation, human skills refers to inter-social skills, such as the ability to communicate and skills required to lead effectivity. Conceptual skills are the ability to conceive and develop abstract ideas and visions which may be used to support decision making and strategizing. Katz argued at lower management levels, the first core area of technical skills is most important, with human skills still being…… [Read More]
Leadership in Local Small Businesses
• General Topic and Purpose of Your Study
This research proposal will focus on three to five small organizations in the local community and the types of leadership that can be found within those organizations. The first step will to compile a list of leadership models that would most likely to be found within these organizations and then develop a questionnaire or interview process to see which models would fit best in the organizations. By identifying the leadership styles that are used in the organizations, it could be useful to the organization to understand leadership models and adapt or improve the current styles of leadership that are used in the business
Leadership is a complex concept and there are a variety of different models that have been developed to try to understand the different styles that can be used. It is likely that…… [Read More]
Evolution of Management
A Brief History of the Evolution of Management Principles and Models
The evolution of management theories and principles in modern management thought began in the late nineteenth century and advanced rapidly all through the twentieth century up until the present day. The need to define management and the role of managers became a vital part of production as well as the need to effectively complete many business functions. This led to the foundation of various management theories that were aimed at orchestrating different business functions in an environment where the separation of labor demand some level of coordination. Classical management theories focused on the best methods for assigning the labor of various individuals and there related tasks. This line of thinking was not only necessary, but evolved into a robust field of academic study as well as professional practitioners that specialize in management. This paper…… [Read More]
Management as a discipline is generally concerned with the art and science of getting a group of people to achieve a defined goal or objective (Griffin, 2008). The discipline has evolved significantly over the last one century or so (Roth, 1998). In the first half of the 20th century, emphasis was largely placed on structure, authority, and production; with little or no attention to employees (Adetule, 2011). There has, however, been a tremendous shift of management focus from structure and authority to people (employees) over the years (Griffin, 2008). The evolution of management theory over time depicts the ever changing role of managers or leaders in organizations. Each management orientation or school of thought, however, presents its own merits and demerits. With reference to Galaxy Toys, Inc., an American toy manufacturing company, this case study provides an analysis of how the style of management in the organization has evolved from…… [Read More]
Management - Is it an Art or a Science?
Management is Art
Management has a lot more closely attached to art than it is to science. usiness management is about working with, as well as influencing other people to fulfill the goals of both the corporations and its associates (2).
Managing in the New Era
Quick transformations that are far-reaching all through each and every feature of business today prompts the corporations to reorganize the method they do things. Even though the customary management replica has developed quite a bit, it is still geared to an unbending composition and command -- and manage state of mind (3). This replica is well modified to an atmosphere where transformation is sluggish and evolutionary rather than fast and radical. It helps put in order procedures and promote a sense of responsibility, order, and discipline (4).
What it is short of is elasticity making…… [Read More]
Management, Science, and Technology
Who Is a Manager?
A manager is someone who knows how to take charge, organize, direct, and be accountable for individuals and groups of people operating under his guidance. Anyone who shows leadership skills can be a manager. A manager's goal is to work towards the common good. This means keeping persons on pace to meet their objectives, budgeting time wisely, and instilling in his inferiors a desire to care.
Top management impacts ethics within an organization by setting the tone and the standard for ethical practice. Superiors shape inferiors, not the other way around. Therefore, if top management encourages unethical activity through its own unethical behavior, an organization will, ultimately, be comprised of several unethical attitudes. A great example of this is Enron Corp. Top management of Enron encouraged poor ethical practices by practicing in a disingenuous manner themselves. They hoodwinked investors…… [Read More]
Management of Technology in Developing Countries Such as Iran
Technology management arrangements of developing countries vary from those of first world ones. The requirement for skill in these states is not growing from within, but somewhat cropping up from new wares imported from first world countries. Technological growth in addition does not consequence from inner data and research, but resulting upon the technology transmission from abroad. In these environments, technology management by customary way is barely effective. These are troubles facing the Islamic epublic of Iran these days and as a consequence organizations controlling the technology management endure non-compliance, then technological development does not trail an accurate trend (obertson, 2002).
Lack of distinctive management, vagueness of technological precedence's, misunderstanding of policy-making roles and inter-organization implementation and management, tremendous government involvement in all fields and lack of specialist manpower are amongst the vital troubles of the topic (Sveiby et. al 2001).…… [Read More]
As our CEO is known for being technology-savvy when he started using the new CM in pilot mode on his laptop and started giving presentations based on the analytics applications still in testing, it suddenly became commonplace for see Vice Presidents, Directors and managers all doing briefings using analytics from the new CM system. The CEO had been able to squelch negative politics by making use of the analytics data ground-breaking. Our CEO also praised people and departments he found feely sharing data to make the new CM system function more efficiently. In this regard he was using a positive reinforcement strategy to unify potentially conflicting teams (Lui, Chan, 2008). This was very effective as soon Vice Presidents sent out e-mails telling everyone to look for opportunities to collaborate with other divisions, and discuss how the data they had could help other divisions. This made the task of system analysis…… [Read More]
Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture
On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).
Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…… [Read More]
Innovation in its simplest form can be termed as something new or newly introduced into the market. Innovation in the business field is quite necessary since it forms the backbone of a company's growth and that of the economy as a whole. Innovation is the success of every business and must be managed effectively and efficiently (Limerick, 2002).
The ever changing technology and instant global communication have made it easier for companies to find answers to some problems they encounter and more so come up with innovations to improve on the current ones. Companies are also faced with pressures arising from global competition and by this; most of them are seeking the need to manage their innovations. Companies are nowadays attracting and managing innovations by having rewards or prizes for individuals within the company who manages to come up with brilliant and innovative concepts. This will give the…… [Read More]
" (fom Wold envionmental news, Intenet edition)
Besides developing flexible legislation that will distibute the functions of ecycling between manufactues and municipal sevices thee has to be a definite and developed pogam that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electonic waste, eduction of e-waste landfills and incineation. Recycling pogam should not be limited to the ecycling of CRT monitos, as thei ownes ae moe likely to bing the whole obsolete compute system to the ecycling, not just compute monitos.
The benefit of integal pogam of ecycling is that it allows using a vaiety of mateials used in the electonics manufactuing like pecious metals, semi-pecious metals, and some electonic items in the euse.
The most impotant pat of the e-waste management is seach of the most appopiate and qualified patnes in the technical o pactical pat of the poblem solution. This poblem is of the essential…… [Read More]
Influence on organization
Influence can be defined as "a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige…" (wordnet, 2011). It is due to influence that in an organization many may like a particular individual in a department or a particular manager and not the other.
There are nine ways according to Johannsen (2011) that a leader can exert influence on others in an organization. The nine ways can be discussed in brief as follows;
Influence with authority; is one that comes due to the position the person exerting the authority holds. It is top-bottom and is based on obedience like patience to doctor due to authority
Influence by coaching; where one provides new knowledge and skills and in the process influence them in the organization. This may also involve mentoring and also teaching.
Influence by persuasion; this has been used for long time in history. It…… [Read More]
Business Success Through Da Vinci's Philosophical Orientation
The 1999 text How to Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci by Michael Gelb is a useful and entertaining discussion on how the philosophical principles of one of history's greatests thinkers can be applied to modern business practices as well as to self-improvement on an everyday level.
Thinking Like a Manager and Evaluating a Company:
One of the overarching beliefs driving the Gelb philosophy is that one need not necessarily be a genius in order to think like one. To the point, Gelb argues that Da Vinci was particularly graceful at training his mind to think in certain ways, to observe matters according to certain principles which are today applicable to models of leadership. Gelb offers what he calls "seven steps to genius every day" as influenced by the life and working habits of Da Vinci. The seven steps call for the…… [Read More]
He or she is also entitled to proper medication to deal with the disease.
It's not just the responsibility of medics to offer health care but the family members of the sick too play a very important role in caring about health. y accompanying the sick person to hospital and administering the prescribed medicine at home. As well, family members offer support by praying and giving the sick member company. Did you know that even loneliness is a health hazard.
Quality health care is individual responsibility. Every individual is supposed to make sure they have the best health always. Contagious diseases should be avoided at all costs, however, should we contact them then we should care for ourselves. A sick person should maintain bodily cleanliness and eat the right foods. Ones health should not also cause harm to neighbors at home and in public. Global concerns are also rising quickly…… [Read More]
Fool-proofing a service operation.
In the banking industry, a significant service industry in any country, optimized operations are essential to ensure that the public has maximum confidence in the operators of this industry. ank of America and its operations have been selected for discussion in this study. The bank has grown tremendously in the past few years. CEO, Ken Lewis realized that the bank could gain a wider market share and customer base if it was able to streamline its operations and the level of service. Incorporating concepts of process management was considered essential to the improvement process. (Cox and ossert, 2005) Some of the tools such as six-sigma were used to ensure that a high level of quality was maintained in the service that the provided to the customer.
ank of America recognized that customer satisfaction was paramount in ensuring that the customer was loyal and would…… [Read More]
Change often occurs in our society and previous experience has thought us that the primary instinct is that of reticence to the new features. Change can be brought about by both the company as well as the stockholders. Stockholders are represented by all individuals and groups which are directly or indirectly affected by the company's actions. As such, a company's stockholders include, but are not limited to, its purveyors, its clients, its shareholders, its investors, the general public or the state's government.
In order for a change system to function, it has to be properly designed and modelled. "System modelling is a technique to express, visualise, analyse and transform the architecture of a system." It generally includes drawings, diagrams or any other visual features that might ease the understanding of the system. Change systems are complex models which cannot be universally valid. As such, they have to be…… [Read More]
Quality is the essence of the output. In judging the performance of a teacher, one does not ask how many students there can be in his or her class. Instead, one asks how many students learn anything -- and that is a quality question. In appraising the performance of a medical laboratory, the question of how many tests it can run through its machines is quite secondary to the question of how many test results are valid and reliable. This is true even for the work of the file clerk. Productivity of knowledge work therefore has to aim first at obtaining quality -- and not minimum quality but optimum if not maximum quality. Only then can one ask: "hat is the volume, the quantity of work?" This not only means that we approach the task of making more productive the knowledge worker from the quality of the work rather than…… [Read More]
Transforming H Management to a More Strategic Partner
Importance of H Management Transformation:
Throughout the years, human resource management has continued to be an important aspect in many organizations because of its impact on productivity. As a crucial department in the effective functioning of an organization, human resource management has mainly been used as a synonym for personnel management. In order to improve an organization's productivity, human resource management has primarily been centered on administrative and operational functions. However, the concept has been changed to a more strategic partner with the emergence of the transformation of H management. The transformation of H management into a more strategic partner has been carried out because of its huge importance to organizations.
Background of H History:
The term human resources management has been widely used as a synonym to personnel management in the United States from early 1950s. Unlike human resources management, personnel…… [Read More]
Taylorism' / 'Scientific management.'
Introduction to the Evolvement of Management Theory during the 19th and 20th Century
With the coming of the Industrial age at the turn of the Century, and a new era, came the need for more efficient management techniques. Several Classical Theories evolved during the early years of this discipline. Fordism arose from a synthesis of the other earlier theories. Fayolism philosophy included close communication between bosses and workers. Taylorism developed a theory known as "Scientific Management" to study and set appropriate work quotas based on research. Lillian Gilbreth believed that workers were motivated by both direct and indirect motives. Arthur Gantt developed a task chart to help monitor and plan projects more efficiently.
After the Classical theorists, the Human Relations Movement began to take into account the reasons for individual responses. The first of these theorists was George Elton Mayo who conducted experiments at the General…… [Read More]
Skills and Functions for Management
For a manager to succeed in his or her job role they must blend complex managerial skills and functions with the managerial role. This paper will discuss the development of the management role, the definition of management, management functions and roles to help the reader discern how combining the functions, skills and behaviors of management leads to success within the workplace. The paper will also explain how management continues to change with changes in organizations and in the workforce. Management has transformed from a science to an art form that requires an increasingly complex set of skills and competencies among managers to not only manage change but also teach employees how to do the same.
Development of Management
Early management theory developed as a science suggesting that management was something that could be analyzed and interpreted based on scientific principles. Early human relations theorists focused…… [Read More]
Other specific branches of management study have been developed for multinational enterprises (MNEs) and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).
Strategic management incorporates much of the work of previous management theorists, in particular including elements of organizational structure, motivation, organizational behavior and the definition of roles. In some respects, strategic management's focus on the human side derives most substantially from the Drucker tradition. Production management, conversely, remains focused on task. Systems such as Six Sigma and TPS follow on Taylor's theories about task specificity and optimization. There remains at this point in management theory there is a disconnect between these two types of management theory. Perhaps the future direction of management theory is to bring the two concepts -- production management and people management together to form a holistic view of the organization.
Most of today's management theories derive from the influence of Taylor, Drucker and other management thinkers of…… [Read More]
Project Information, History, Intent, and Life Cycle
Gray and Larson, (2008) define project as "a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result." (p 5). Essential feature of a project is that it has a defined beginning and end often subject to time or fund constraint to achieve stakeholder's goals and objectives. Gray and Larson (2008) differentiate between project and program. "A program is a group of related projects designed to accomplish a common goal over an extended period of time." (Gray and Larson, 2008 p 6). Major goal of any project is to satisfy customers' objectives, and features of a project are they:
have established objectives.
Have a life span definitely a start and the end.
Usually involve several professionals and departments.
Have specific costs, time and performance requirements.
However, a project is different from program where workers are performing repetitive operations daily within…… [Read More]
Although Frederic inslow Taylor may have built his management model on observations of machines, for people working on machines, he also systematically analyzed human behavior at work. He stressed that just as machine parts were easily interchangeable, cheap, and passive, so too should the human parts be the same in the machine model of scientific organizations. In other words, even if one must lose an employee because of personal and cost concerns, the duties and protocols of the office should be sufficiently clear that another human being can fulfill those duties. (ertheim, 1999) This is not a humane-sounding ideology, but the idea of functions rather than people is the key to the ability of any hierarchy to work in modern times, from the military to management of hierarchical corporations.
Then as now, many workers resist the dehumanization of work. To be fair to the father of scientific management, Taylor also…… [Read More]
, 2010). The model includes several mediator (e.g., knowledge exchange) and moderator variables (e.g., self-leadership competencies of actors) that explain why and when this approach is effective and looks at leadership in more of a comprehensive way than focusing on one individual. Such perspectives have suggested that when employees become involved in the decision making processes then this can strengthen leadership.
Transactional leadership is the leadership model that represents what most people view as the concept of management. Transactional leadership is defined by an exchange relationship between the managers and the employees that are all motivated by their own self-interests and meeting the expectations that are associated with their job description. Transactional leadership consists of monitoring, controlling, and motivating employees through economic incentives and other types of exchange incentives (Bass, 1985). Most of the motivation in this model stems from financial exchanges such as by either salaries, performance…… [Read More]
H in Strategic Management
It was after the Korean War that an entirely new breed of college educated managers appeared on the scene and exuded a greater sense of responsibility that translated into a wave of consciousness for social well-being and social upheaval that swarmed through the second half of the 20th century (Losey 1998). Their influence markedly changed the thought of the American employee. But another group in the 60s and the 70s heightened the established interest in laborers welfare and feelings to the point of affecting all facets of business, including the growth of market research, communications and public relations. This second wave shifted focus from scientific management to the employer-employee relationship. The new gear led to the development of programs that increased wages and fringed benefits and the eliciting of worker ideas and initiative in recognizing the link organizational philosophy or policy to greater productivity (Losey).…… [Read More]
Human esource Management
Although there have been many recent developments in the area of human resources and their management, the concept of managing people in the workplace is not a new one. In fact, according to Ogunyomi, Shadare, and Chidi (2011, p.19-20), the concept has evolved over more than a century, starting with the concept of scientific management created and promoted by Frederick Winslow Taylor at the turn of the 20th century during the height of the Industrial evolution. Since the world of business was dynamic, even from the start of large-scale business and organization, the concept of human resource management has also evolved over time to respond to the dynamic business world.
Today, human resource management is an integral part of any company's business strategy. It ensures not only effective recruitment and retention, but also the effective functioning of the company in general, and its adaptability to a dynamic…… [Read More]
In the contemporary age, management theory pertaining to proper management practice has undergone evolution. The ‘classical’ theories of management cropped up somewhere during the early years of the previous century. They include the scientific model of management that deals with matching activities with individuals for maximizing efficiency, and the administrative theory of management that emphasizes the identification of principles to help formulate the most effective management and organizational system. The behavioral theories of management were proposed prior as well as subsequent to World War II, and revolve around the way leaders ought to control and lead employees for achieving improved performance. The theory of management science, which was formulated in the World War II era, has increased in significance with scholars coming up with rigorous quantitative and analytical methods for aiding managers in measuring and controlling corporate performance. Lastly, management theories were also formulated in the 60s and 70s for…… [Read More]
Human esource Management Methods
Traditional Annual Evaluation Method of Performance Appraisals vs. eal-Time Feedback Coaching Format
Performance appraisals take into account the assessment and evaluation of a person's performance in a methodical manner. It is a progressive technique employed for comprehensive development of the personnel and the organization as a whole. This performance is measured against various elements like quality and quantity of the output, job competence, leadership capabilities, supervision and versatility. Once such evaluations are made, employees can be trained and coached on what to be undertaken. On the other hand, real-time feedback coaching format takes into account the provision of opinion and response in an instantaneous way and therefore the coaching takes place immediately (Deb, 2009).
There are aspects of similarity between these two methods of appraisal. To begin with, both methods are purposed to and give rise to change and coaching. Subsequent to the evaluation of…… [Read More]
Managing All Stakeholders in the Context of a Merger Process
Review of the Relevant Literature
Types of Mergers
Identifying All Stakeholders in a Given usiness
Strategic Market Factors Driving Merger Activity
Selection Process for Merger Candidates
Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations
The Challenge of Managing All Stakeholders in the Context of a Merger Process
Mergers and acquisitions became central features of organizational life in the last part of the 20th century, particularly as organizations seek to establish and maintain competitiveness in an increasingly globalized economy (Nevaer & Deck, 1996). Mergers are generally described as being the formal joining or combining of two corporations or business (Prichett, 1987), although both the framework and the method of merger vary greatly. The reasons for mergers are different based on what a company is trying to accomplish. The acquiring firm may seek to eliminate a competitor; to increase its efficiency; to diversify its products, services,…… [Read More]
"To start off with the consumer's needs for a significant change is often the most direct way of defining new knowledge and new technology, and of organizing purposeful and systematic work on fundamental discovery" (Drucker, p. 506).
Innovation is what social gaming is all about. Platforms are changing and devices are not only becoming less expensive, but more and more powerful with larger amounts of memory, quicker processors, and yet the decision is easier in deciding what games people want, "If you know what your friends are playing, the Facebook distribution model scales a lot better" (Chang, p. 21). This type of product is the epitome of what Drucker called an "innovation design" -- yet both innovation and entrepreneurship continue to change. Strategically, Drucker's maxims apply, though: 1) Be the "fastest with the mostest," first to market never hurts; 2) Hit them "where they aint" -- take from the winners,…… [Read More]
Management and Planning at KBR
For organizations which operate on an enormous scale to develop infrastructure, engage international markets and contribute the capital to prodigiously expensive projects such as those contracted by national governments, decision-making and action are facilitated by a multi-layered bureaucratic structure. This makes spontaneity neither desired nor appropriate where strategic orientation is concerned. Instead, careful and rational planning is required to accommodate such massive public concerns as commodity speculation, military development and civil engineering. It is thus that strategic planning plays a key role in functional capacity of KBR, formerly known as Halliburton subsidiary Kellogg, Brown & Root. KBR is largely recognized as one of the most resource-capable construction companies in the world.
KBR's identity is deeply tied to its roles in both the military development industries and civil engineering sectors -- fields themselves which are inextricably linked. Both are highly specialized industries in which the…… [Read More]
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…… [Read More]
Human esource Management
Two Motivation Strategies
Motivating Minimum Wage Service Workers
The Importance of the Individual
Individual Work to Teamwork
Employers will usually want to maximize the productivity of their employees. Different employers may use different strategies to support and improve productivity. It has been demonstrated by a number of theorists, such as Mayo, Maslow, and Herzberg, that one of the most effective ways of improving employee performance is through the use of motivational strategies (Tohidi, 2011). The aim of this paper is to look at the development of a motivational plan, identify two potential motivational strategies and consider the way that a minimum wage worker may be motivated.
A good motivational plan may allow the employer to motivate employees by supporting high levels of jib satisfaction, which will support positive behavioral traits, including low turnover, high produced and high quality work. For employees…… [Read More]
The Motivation Plan
Summary of Moat Important Elements of the Plan
Motivating the Minimum Wage Service Workers
The elevance of the Individual Worker
Individual to Teamwork Chart
The development of an organizational motivation plan to improve performance within a company should take into account the different needs of different employees as well as the requirements of the employer. The Hawthorne studies by Mayo indicated that when employees were happy and motivated at work they would work harder and display more positive behavioral traits. If the firm is suffering from traits associated with poor motivation, such as poor performance levels, developing a plan to increase motivation may result in desired changes in the behavior, especially if the plan is designed with the needs of the employer in mind.
In the case of the firm making the WooWoo widgets, there are currently some problems; the main symptom is a…… [Read More]
The primary goal of both private- and public-sector medical organizations is, of course, to provide the highest standard of medical care to their patients. This requires, of course, professionals who are trained in the latest scientific and medical techniques and both private and public health-care institutions in Great Britain in general accomplish this element of their task. However, providing quality health care is not simply a medical issue: It is also a question of management principles and in this area it is all-too-often the case that health-care organisations fail. It is perhaps inevitable that publicly run health-care institutions are even farther a field in their management style from the best run corporations than are privately run health-care institutions (which are legally constituted along the lines of other for-profit firms) and this fact has a number of important drawbacks for institutions that are a part of the NHS. However,…… [Read More]
One of the crucial elements towards the realization of organizational success and profitability is creating a suitable working environment for all employees to thrive as they carry out their respective responsibilities. In essence, employees' contributions towards the achievement of established business goals/objectives is largely influenced by the nature of the working environment and working conditions. However, employees' behaviors also play a crucial role in determining their productivity in the workplace. Self-defeating behaviors in the workplace contributes to stress, which in turn affects employees' input to work processes and the overall profitability of an organization. This paper examines the management of stress brought by self-defeating behaviors in the workplace. The evaluation includes recommendations of suitable solutions to this issue based on organizational theory concepts and the concepts of organizational behavior.
The organization I work for has several divisions or department that are mandated with various responsibilities and tasks towards…… [Read More]
The success of leaders and managers is contingent on the following three key capabilities: positive intelligence, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence (Kaifi, 2013). Management and leadership modification focuses on leaders' capability of motivating subordinates to deliver extraordinary performance. Further, it relies on leaders' efficacy of creating opportunities capable of facilitating personnel transformation of problems into achievements, in difficult periods. Emergency management necessitates robust leadership which may spur enterprise growth, produce change, and thus reshape the firm's business operations as well as long- and short-term stakeholder perceptions regarding the firm (Fragouli & Ibidapo, 2015).
A successful leader can grasp the fact that he/she is best- equipped for decision making because of his/her thorough organizational knowledge. While specialists' narrow focus is necessary, it only supplements and doesn't replace a leader's thorough organizational knowledge. Change management constitutes a well- discussed subject in corporate efficacy and management literature. Among the most difficult…… [Read More]
feature of the contemporary workplace is the convergence of, and collision among, traditional and new talents from four different time zones: the Greatest Generation of World War II in the 40s and the 50s; the aby oomers born between 1946 and 1964; Generation X individuals born between 1964 and 1976; and Generation Y individuals born between 1976 and 1995. With different orientations and meeting in common grounds, the problem is how to set them together to produce their generational best without sacrificing corporate objectives and hurting anyone's rights or point-of-view. In other words, how to manage the generations' wide differences in the workplace without tilting the balance towards any particular side or sector.
Let us take a good look at these generations in the labor market. The Greatest Generation on top of the ladder consists of those born before 1946 are the brave souls of World War II who very…… [Read More]
Information that crawls into the databases or warehouse might be utilized for reasons beyond those initially planned by those filling and amassing the data (Phillips, 1997). Data that might be pleasing in quality for functional databases can be not viable in warehouses that confirm practical strategic business decisions. For case in point, the correctness of the analysis code in an insurance firm's functional database had been immaterial when disbursing insurance claims but might trigger a risk analysis to stop working.
From the above mentioned facts it is clear that research needs to be carried out on data mining so as to clarify and recommend solutions to the problems being faced by business executives in their data mining efforts. The purpose of this research is to explain the functions of data mining in favor of business decisions and to define some of the obstacles to its effectual deployment in companies and…… [Read More]
I seek a PhD in Management Science to further round out my knowledge of technology with the most effective strategies of managing and motivating people. My future goal within the next five to ten years is to become a Chief Information Officer (CIO), a profession that merges technical and managerial science. Some of most exciting aspects of my work at Hawaii Pacific University involved providing technical support to computer labs, updating websites and working as a web production assistant. I loved working with people, making new technology comprehensible to others, and using my knowledge of human needs to deploy technology to meet creative and artistic objectives.
Being client-focused is the core of my professional philosophy. My work experience in web designing, systems analysis and design, and updating systems for 2M Solutions Inc. In Arlington, Texas over the course two years was also dependant upon understanding the practical needs of a…… [Read More]
Mekong River Delta
The Management of the Mekong River has long been an issue of great debate and inquiry. The body of water is essential to the livelihoods of millions of people and must be managed accordingly. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate human-ecosystem conflicts. The research will analyze the nature of the conflict, the impacts on the natural ecosystem involved (you need to include raw scientific data that show human impacts), a description of the stakeholders involved, the options for dealing with the conflict (is this a good example of a sustainable solution to the conflict, the option selected and an evaluation of whether this is working including an update for the older case studies.
The Mekong River
The Mekong River is a perfect example of human-ecosystem conflict. According to a report entitled "People and ecosystems: The fraying web of life" the Mekong River is the 12th…… [Read More]
Randomization properly done
Baseline comparability reported
Same data collection for all arms
Subjects blinded to treatment assignment
Care givers blinded to treatment assignment
Treatments clearly described
Co intervention monitored
Compliance monitored and equal in all groups
Side effects assessed
Outcomes defined, measurable and valid
Blind assessment of outcomes
Section I: Author's key results and conclusions
Including quantitative estimates, e.g. relative risk, reduction in risk, confidence intervals, and p values)
The average magnitude of BP declines achieved by participants was no greater than the magnitude of decrease observed in the placebo arms of 7 pharmaceutical trials analyzed by the Individual Data Analysis of Antihypertensive Intervention trials (INDANA) research committee. Results suggest that 6 weeks of twice-weekly sessions of fully individualized TCM acupuncture are unlikely to achieve clinically meaningful reductions in SBP or DBP for the average patient with mild-to-moderate hypertension relative to invasive sham acupuncture.
Section S: Conclusions…… [Read More]
Arnold Palmer Hospital
Managing Service, Processes and Supply Chains
Hospitals and Supply Chains - Overview
Hospital Supply Chains - Advancements
Standard Supply Chain
Vendor Managed Inventory
Automated Point of Use Systems
The Next Step in Supply Chain Evolution
Arnold Palmer Hospital Supply Chain
The Arnold Palmer Hospital is one of the country's leading hospitals for women and children. It is located in Orlando, Florida and is currently a part of a national purchasing group in which it utilizes to provide supply chain purchases. Even though being a part of the purchasing group has some cost advantages stemming from the collective bargaining power, there are also many disadvantages that are not entirely consistent with the organizations priorities. These disadvantages can be mitigated by equipping the hospital with more modern supply chain technology. Therefore, an investigation was conducted that identified the supply chain options available for the…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to read the case study and to answer the questions of: (1) What are some possible consequences if data is mismanaged? (2) In the case of Dr. Sears, what could have been done to avoid losing the data? And (3) What are the best practices for sharing data during collaborations?
(1) Possible Consequences if Data is Mismanaged
Mismanagement of data results in loss of data and many times the data is no longer retrievable and forever lost. Data management requires methodological documentation in a systematic manner that is recorded in more than one form and in more than one location. Finally, data should be available to more than one actor to ensure that the data will be available in the event that, such as in the case of Dr. Sears, someone dies and the data in the possession of that individual is lost.…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia is considered to be one of the most sever psychiatric disorders. The incidence of the condition each year is approximately 15 in every 100,000 people, and the lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is 0.7% (Tandon et al., 2008). Family history and genetics have been identified as contributing to the development of schizophrenia in 80% of cases (Tandon et al., 2008). Some environmental factors associated with increased likelihood of the development of schizophrenia include prenatal malnutrition or infection, use of cannabis, birth complications, and winter birth (Tandon et al., 2008). However, the mechanisms by which genetic and genetic-environmental factors interact to cause the onset of schizophrenia are not well understood. It is important that effective treatments be developed to help individuals cope with this serious and debilitating psychiatric disorder. What types of therapies outside of pharmaceuticals have been found to be successful in the treatment of schizophrenia? Is any type…… [Read More]
Financial Analysis of Mergers and Acquisitions
In the past few years, the amount of mergers and acquisitions have dramatically increased, raising the importance of the strategies and financial analyses performed before the merger or acquisition is expected to occur. Financial, operational, and technical due diligence have become routine undertakings before companies consummate a merger or acquisition. A review of the literature indicates that the strategies employed have a significant impact on whether the merger or acquisition is a success. An example of a very successful strategy that has been implemented several times in the acquisition or merger of companies is the strategy employed by Pfizer. A strategy that did not work out as well is portrayed by Matsushita in its' failed acquisition with MCA. This paper will illustrate and analyze the strategies employed in such transactions in addition to the financial outcomes of the deals.
Pfizer's overall business philosophy has…… [Read More]
Sidpers Program isk Management Plan
Project description and Objectives
Project Manager (PM)
The identified Sources of isk in the SIDPES Project
Summary isk eport
isk Breakdown Structure
Double P-I matrix
Hillson, D and Simon, P (2007).Practical Project isk Management: The Atom Methodology. Management Concepts.
This document contains details of the isk Management Plan for the SIDPES Project and defines the risk management process to be used in the risk management process that is to be used through the duration of this project. The Project Manager is to be the one who is responsible for the review as well as maintaining of this Management Plan throughout the project. This is to ensure that the risk process sis maintained at an appropriate level necessary for dealing with the level of risk that is faced by this specific project (Simon &…… [Read More]
Another aspect of the security management area of a network management system is the development of policy-based auditing and alerts by role in the organization
(Merilainen, Lemmetyinen, 2011). This is one of the areas of knowledge-enabled security management, specifically in the area of role-based access and advanced auditing and reporting.
Fault management is also an area that no single suite of network management systems can completely meet per the ISO standards today. This requires the CIO and network managers to define specific goals in this area including the extent of fail-over support and use of advanced fault tolerance technologies (Netak, Kiwelekar, 2006). Accounting management baseline performance includes the ability to generate logs of performance and also define benchmarks for performance. This is the minimal level of functionality a CIO and network manager need to consider when selecting a network management system. Configuration management systems requirements range from the relatively simplistic…… [Read More]