All business organizations seek to maximize the profitability using the least available resources. The bottom-line in realizing such coveted success is by making their management processes efficient. In this regard, managers will often employ various techniques in developing and improving their existing management styles. This is because new issues always would come up and have to be addressed through the necessary change management initiatives. This study will look at the various techniques that would develop effective management practices for a business organization. The study will discuss the management development techniques, which are necessary for an effective business organization. This significant area of study enhances the effectiveness of organizations in addressing the challenges they face through the development of various management techniques.
Various management development techniques may be employed by organizations in different contexts. This is because various business organizations are faced with dynamic challenges, which may require unique approaches to handle. However, keeping this aside, various management development techniques have been advanced by various authors. Indeed, different schools of thoughts have brought the various management development techniques employed by various organizations. The changing business environment has also brought about new demands in management of organizations. This development has been contributed by issues of business IT, the dynamic global business market, and intense competition among businesses, and the development of business new communication media among others.
This research will outline the various management development techniques, which may be embraced in organizations. The study will outline the various techniques argued by various authored literatures. This study will be crucial in enhancing my skills of training on how effective a business organization can be maintained through employing the discussed techniques. This study will also equip me with management skills and attitudes, which will make me a better business leader in the practice. It would also enhance the progress of management skills among its audience.
Objective of Research
The research aims at establishing various management development techniques, which should be employed in streamlining management in business organizations.
2.0 Literature Review
There are various management development techniques employed by business organizations. This is because, new business challenges have come up, thus making it necessary for the development of new techniques to address these issues with time. In addition, the quest by the business community to develop new management development techniques has also contributed to this. Over the years, the business world has turned global, with many businesses getting to the international market. This has resulted to new management demands to meet the market demands. Authors have advanced different views on management development techniques, and they feel these techniques addresses organizational needs.
Scott and Ulrich (2004) advance on technological innovation and product development techniques of management. They advance that efficiency in management cannot be achieved without technological innovation, and development of products. In their view, this is the best approach to develop an effective management system in any business organization. Their article reviews works on technological innovation, published in various management science publications. The authors emphasize on the need for business organizations to embrace technological innovation and entrepreneurial virtues. In their view, management can only be developed when managers of an organization are open to change and embrace new technology in their capacity. Innovation in technology and development of products of the company is the best technique in boosting the effectiveness of the managerial process (Scott & Ulrich, 2004).
Ravichandran and Rai (2000) also advance on the need to employ management development techniques in boosting the effectiveness of work in an organization. They, however, advance on the need to embrace an IS (Information System) technique in addressing management issues. The article proposes the need to ensure quality output throughout the process of management. This will require the development of an effective information system, and the use of total quality management approaches in addressing these challenges. From authors' perspective, any business in pursuit of excellence cannot underscore the impact of information technology on the market. The view comes from an empirical study; they conducted among organizations, which have employed the information system approach in addressing management issues. They support this technique because of its effectiveness in management. The empirical results collected indicate that a number of organizations, which have done well by embracing the appropriate IS techniques, have faced challenges. These challenges include conformity of the senior management leadership to the system, and inadequate mechanism that fosters learning within these organizations (Ravichandran & Rai, 2000).
Michael Earl advances on the knowledge management strategy as the best management development technique for managers of the day. Earl (2001) shows the importance of managers, to consider the various schools for knowledge management in handling management tasks at their organizations. The author further emphasizes on the need for business executives to initiate knowledge management projects in their organizations based on various factors. The factors he lists are the goals of the organization, and the organizational values and cultures. He also mentions the technological, economic, and behavioral traits of the organization. The article insists on the need to manage knowledge in an organization effectively. In other words, the author applauds the need for managers to ensure that they control the flow of knowledge among the members of the organization. This is noteworthy because most processes that take place at the workplace relate to the use of knowledge. Effectiveness in task performance can be assessed by checking on the effectiveness in the use of knowledge (Earl, 2001).
Marrewijk and Timmers (2003) have supported the behavioral approach in management. They advance that management of any given organization can be developed through a human capital development approach. The Human capital school of thought is one of the recent approaches of management that have been developed. This approach has roots on the traditional personnel management approach. The authors advance that this approach is vital for the successful management of today's and tomorrow's business organizations. This view is weighty on account that the human capital technique aligns the organization, and its workers, thus creating the synergy, which boosts the overall organizational performance. However, it affects the stability of influence between the administration and employees (Marrewijk & Timmers, 2003).
Ravichandran and Rai (2000) further add their voice to their proposed IS-technique of management, by proposing that it should be linked with quality management in system development. They advance that viewing a business as a structure with parts that correlate makes necessary for the use of a total quality management approach in addressing management issues. They advance the effectiveness of this approach. In this case, the approach has the capacity to handle a sophisticated management infrastructure, boost the participation of stakeholders in the management processes, whilst addressing top management leadership issues and building efficient management. They carried an empirical study by surveying a number of IS business managers, who embraced this approach. The results were that this approach creates a dynamic management infrastructure, which allows the stakeholders to be involved in the management processes within the organization (Ravichandran & Rai, 2000).
Alavi and Leidner (2001) echo the knowledge management approach of developing an effective management system, as developed earlier by Earl (2001). He advances the importance of this approach by analyzing its history. The article advances that knowledge management as a subject that grew from an abstract notion in the Greek era. However, the author moves on to indicate that, in the recent past, this approach has grown to be a subject of interest among an increased number of organizational management. He advances on the importance of employing knowledge management strategy in developing a refined management system in an organization. However, he goes beyond Earl (2001) by suggesting the importance of embracing the new knowledge management system. He suggests that this system is beneficial because it creates, transfers, and implements structures for effective management (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).
Schultze and Leidner (2002) also emphasize the importance of organizations embracing management development techniques in streamlining their management practices. However, they advance on that such techniques should be selected after taking into account the merits and faults of the suggested approach. The authors also advances that knowledge management approach of developing management is appropriate. However, the article attempts to expose the pros and cons of use of knowledge in improving management. In their view, knowledge management will often involve the regulation of expertise within an organization. This they argue comes with benefits and setbacks. However, they advance that on overall knowledge management technique has dual effects. Evidently, when the members of the organization have limited information, this may lead to costly mistakes. On the contrary, if members of the organization have much knowledge, it may destruct accountability, through causing unwanted accountability (Schultze & Leidner, 2002).
Smith and Goddard (2002) add their voice into this matter by presenting an altogether a different management development technique. The authors advance on the need for managers of organizations to embrace a performance management approach in managing the process of management. In this regard, managers should endeavor to develop management processes in their…