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Management Control System
Designing Management Control System (MCS)
In the contemporary world, most companies apply the use of energy to plan, manage, and execute their operations in accordance with the demands of the market and the industry. This makes energy the most vital aspect of production in business entities. Energy is crucial in running machines, recording of information, execution of communication activities, and provision of lighting within the context of the company. Since energy is essential to plan, managing, and execution of roles within the company, it is ideal for the company to decide on how to minimize consumption of energy footprint in the process of production. This is important because the company needs to cut down the overall cost of production to enhance the profit and revenue levels at the end of the financial year. This makes it critical for UTS to develop management control system with the aim…
Kitamura, S., Mori, K., Ozaki, Y., Shindo, S., & Izui, Y. (2009). A method of estimating energy saving effect and its application to factory energy supply systems. Electrical Engineering
In Japan, 168(4), 14-20. doi:10.1002/eej.20880
Ekmanis, J., Zebergs, V., & Zeltins, N. (2010). Adaption of the general policy assessment methodology for managing the energy saving process. Energetika, (1), 1-7.
Eger III, C. (2006). Integrating methods of statistical analysis to identify energy-saving opportunities. Environmental Quality Management, 15(3), 87-108.
Johanna Hyvonen (2008) reiterates that management accounting systems operate as a link between strategy and performance. he also notes that organic, flexible performance systems are more effective in terms of product differentiation. There is also a positive relationship between customer accounting and market orientation. The premise of Hyvonen's study is that different management accounting systems are required for different types of companies in order to create the best management effect. This indicates that the strategy and management accounting system should operate on the basis of an organic and flexible relationship. In other words, strategy and planning should dictate the accounting measures implemented, while the results of management accounting should also indicate the necessary changes to the planning strategy.
In today's business world, it is recognized that no single system or strategy is universally applicable. Human resources are the lifeblood of a company. This should be taken into account during the…
Accel-Team. 2009. Management Planning and Control Systems. Accel Team Development. http://www.accel-team.com/control_systems/index.html
Hyvonen, Johanna. 2008. Linking Management account and control systems, strategy, information technology, manufacturing technology and organizational performance of the firm in contingency framework. University of Oulu, Feb 8. http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514287091/isbn9789514287091.pdf
Management Control Systems as a Catalyst of Strategic Agility and Organizational Performance
The continual evolution of Management Control Systems as a Package (MCSP) today encompasses accounting, finance, human resources, market-based data, management control and information systems, and the entire culture of an organization, yet defies a precise typology (Merchant, Van der Stede, 2006) (Malmi, Brown, 2008) or a consistent global definition (Cruz, Scapens, Major, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the concept of how management control systems (MCS) have over time evolved into MCSPs, and what advantages can be used for relying on them to increase organizational performance. The issues and difficulties that arise from using MCSPs, their distinctive uses, and the typologies of MCSPs are discussed, along with examples of how they can be used to increase organizational performance.
The Foundational Elements of MCSPs .
The MCSP taxonomies compared in this analysis include the one created…
Cruz, I., R. Scapens, and M Major. 2011. The localisation of a global management control system. Accounting, Organizations and Society 36, no. 7, (October 1): 412.
Ivo De Loo, Bernard Verstegen, and Dirk Swagerman. 2011. Understanding the roles of management accountants. European Business Review 23, no. 3, (May 1): 287-313.
Raef Lawson, William Stratton, and Toby Hatch. 2006. Scorecarding Goes Global. Strategic Finance 87, no. 9, (March 1): 34-41.
Malmi, T., & Brown, D.A. (2008) Management control systems as a package -- Opportunities, challenges and research directions. Management Accounting Research, 19 (4), 287-300.
A broader empirical analysis of the levers of control framework reveals that the differences in the efficacy and appropriateness of this approach depend on whether or not the system of control and measurement is engaged with primarily as a diagnostic device, or more as an interactive system (Widener 2005). As noted above, interaction is a key element of the framework -- arguably the most important element, as the others are entirely useless without proper and adequate interaction between all elements of the organization and the managerial control system (Simons 1995). At the same time, when interactive procedures consume managerial attention, the firm suffers; it is the balance between interactive attention and diagnostic control that makes Simons' framework effective (Widener 2005). This is precisely the balance that is missing from Wincor Nixdorf.
Case Description and Analysis
In the case of Wincor Nixdorf, however, the imbalance is tilted towards the opposite direction.…
Abas. (1999). "Management Control Systems in an Industry in Early Evolution in a Developing Country: A Longitudinal Case Study." Miami university of Ohio. Accessed 5 February 2010. http://www.sba.muohio.edu/abas/1999/WMK2-abas99.pdf
Asel, J. (2009). "Risk Management and Management Control - The impact of the financial crisis on the use of Management Control Systems." 18th EDAMBA summer academy. Accessed 5 February 2010. http://www.edamba.eu/userfiles/file/Asel%20Johannes_%20updated.pdf
Simons, R. 1995. Control in an age of empowerment. Harvard Business Review (March/April), pp. 80-8.
Tuomela, T. (2005). "The interplay of different levers of control: A case study of introducing a new performance measurement system." Management accounting research 16(3), pp. 293-320.
Given the competition in the field, the manufacturing divisions must create competitive advantage in order to develop and maintain a significant customer base. In order to reach such a status, manufacturing divisions must meet a series of requirements of OEM customers.
This means that manufacturing divisions must provide high quality products and services, the prices must be established in accordance with the products' quality, with customers' possibilities, and with the prices practiced by the company's competitors.
The manufacturing divisions are organized as profit centers, which means they are allowed to develop and implemented their own customer and sales strategy, with the condition of aligning these strategies with the general strategy of the company. It is more profitable for them to address the needs of OEM customers sometimes in the detriment of AM Manufacturing.
It is the top management's decision to not allow AM Marketing to sell other companies' products. Therefore,…
1. Neighbour, J. (2010). Transfer Pricing: Keeping It at Arm's Length. OECD Observer. Retrieved September 21, 2010 from http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/670/Transfer_pricing:_Keeping_it_at_arms_length.html .
The objectives in the organization are the following: customer/supplier satisfaction, market share, customer satisfaction, supplier satisfaction, employees well being. All of these factors are involved in optimum management control and all orbit around communication which is 95% of key for success particularly since we promise delievery of our services in a timely and prompt manner. The organization, in question, prizes communication, therefore optimum communication is important and can be achieved in the following manner
Geographically close project teams - That information will be passed as rapidly as possible between the different sectors e.g. that there will be good colleague-to-colleague relation and good relaxation with customers/suppliers. Communicaiton is prized in our company
Using the right tool for the job -- technical competence for one's respective field is important. This aids communication
Accurately managed resources - possessing accurate or current information about resources and what other team members are working…
Brandl, J., & Guttl, W.H. " Organizational antecedents of pay-for-performance systems in nonprofit organizations." International Society for Third-Sector Research 1, (2007): 176-199.
Chaudron, D. Assessing and Improving your Organization, Organized Change Consultancy, Retrieved on 1/12/2011 from: http://www.organizedchange.com/assess.htm
Nisbett, R. (2003) The geography of thought: how culture colors the way the mind works. Ann Arbor, Mich.
Pearce, J.A., & Robinson, R.B., (2011). Strategic Management. Formulation, Implementation, and Control (12th ed.). New York: McGraw - Hill Companies
Management control systems" Kenneth a. Merchant Wim A. Van der Stede Part A completed.
In order to properly evaluate the established management control system, it is important to organize regular reviews that can be implemented company-wide every three or six months. This type of reviews will evaluate the management control system instruments based on several key indicators: the degree to which the control system was able to discover, in due time, a potential problem in the organization; the direct cost savings that the control system was able to create; the direct financial gains that the system made and whether the management control system that has been implemented is aligned with the company's strategic objectives.
For each of the management control system instruments that have been implemented, the indicators can be customized so as to reflect the specific area of activity. For example, the financial indicators can be customized to show…
Hasbro Interactive. Please focus, emphasizing Management Control Systems: o Identify corporate / business unit strategy. o Identify current management control system. o Evaluate control system effectively supporting company's business unit's strategy.
Management control systems: Hasbro Interactive
Management control systems: Hasbro Interactive
Hasbro Interactive's strategy
Hasbro Interactive was a unit of one of the largest toy companies in the world, the Hasbro Corporation. Hasbro manufactures entertainment and educational games for children. The company has been producing toys such as Play-Dough, GI Joe, and Mr. Potato Head for many generations. It is striving to capture the imaginations of children and their parents today by expanding its technological and marketing outreach to suit the needs of contemporary children, while still holding true to its founder's intention.
The Hasbro Corporation deploys an intensely people-focused strategy in its use of managerial controls. As a creative company where new ideas and talent are a vital part…
Hasbro Interactive. (2011). Absolute Astronomy. Retrieved February 3, 2011 at http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Hasbro_Interactive
Talent management. (2011). Hasbro. Retrieved February 3, 2011 at http://www.hasbro.com/corporate/corporate-social-responsibility/hasbros-socially-responsible-workplace-talent.cfm
Management Control Systems Vary According to Organizational Size
All organizations go through different life cycle stages: even the largest multinational was once a relatively small entity, usually-based domestically, with a relatively narrow range of customers. This variation in terms of organizational size and scope of mission generates the need for different types of management control systems. "Service control systems might need to change throughout the life cycle to fit in with changes in the competitive environment, business mission and generic strategy. Failure to account for the stages of the life cycle in budgetary policies has been found to result in inefficiencies of resource allocation" (Auzai 201056). For example, a small entity might find that relatively inexpensive marketing efforts are necessary in relation to its other, more immediately pressing financial needs. Word-of-mouth advertising and general, low-cost methods of promotion such as free social media content might be sufficient -- in fact,…
Auzai, S. (2010). Organisational life cycle stages and management control systems in service organisations. International Journal of Business and Management, 5 (11): 56-65. Available at: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijbm/article/view/8052/6081 [1 Feb 2015]
Grill Kabob Marketing Plan Management
In order to attain the set goals for business, controls in the pertinent areas aiming at monitoring the performance of business is necessary (Smolianov & Aiyeku, 2009). The controls will look into the actual result against the target annual sales, profits and capital growth. The employees service value to the customer will be assessed against customer number inflows and the value customer have on them. The range of products produced and sold in the restaurant will be assessed for its marginal contribution to offsetting the running expenses and profits earned by the business. These controls will adequately serve to advice the business management on the corrective and emphasis decisions to take (Smolianov & Aiyeku, 2009). The function of monitoring and evaluation will be carried out through both internal and external measure.
The implementation plan for the business presents the flow of activity that…
Sengupta, S. (2005). Brand Positioning: Strategies for Competitive Advantage. New York City, U.S.: McGraw-Hill Companies, Incorporated.
Smolianov, P., & Aiyeku, J.F. (2009). Corporate Marketing Objectives and Evaluation Measures for Integrated Television Advertising and Sports Event Sponsorships. Journal of Promotion Management, 15(1/2), 74-89.
Management Quality ontrol
Dr. Kaoro Ishikawa is one of the world's idealized leaders in quality management control. He joined Japanese union of Japanese scientists and Engineers in 1949 to research on quality, after knowing that America's produce such as toys and cameras was cheap and defective. Ishikawa's greatest concern was to improve quality management involving every employee from top management to the front-line staff, without relying on professions. His significant contribution to evolution of quality management when he introduced the "fishbone" diagram that emphasized on quality services to customers made him known, and this could only be achieved by quality organization first in production of quality goods and services (Dahlgaurd 2005).
Kaoru was born on July 13th 1915 in Tokyo, and was the eldest son among the Shikawas, and in 1939, he obtained a degree in the University of Tokyo for applied chemistry. This knowledge helped him in construction,…
Cencus, B. o. (1983). Operations Management. Chicago: United States Department of Commerce.
Dahlgaurd, J.K. (2005). Fundamentals of Total Quality Management. Denmark: Routledge publishers.
Ishikawa, K. (1985). What is Total Quality Management -- the Japanese Way. Korea: Prentice-hall publishers.
Controlling Function at Google
Analysis of the Control Management Function at Google
Google's ability to innovate quickly indicates how agile and quickly adaptive the company is in interpreting opportunities and threats. The highly innovative culture of the company is continually being improved through intensive hiring, management and management control processes. One of these is the highly successful ule of 20%, which provides engineers the freedom of using up to 20% of their time on potential new product concepts and ideas (Machlis, 2009). The challenge for Google is controlling the very rapid pace of innovation and growth from a managerial perspective without stopping the momentum of new venture creation and development. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the controlling function at Google.
Analysis of the Control Management Function at Google
The Google culture is highly collaborative by nature, having 360-degree feedback processes in place to ensure each project team…
Hamel, G. (2006, Apr 26). Management a la Google. Wall Street Journal.
Licker, P.S. (2006). Global technology management in the age of economies of style. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 9(3), 1-4.
Machlis, S. (2009). Innovation and the 20% solution. Computerworld, 43(5), 21-21.
Stone, B. (2011, Jan 31). Larry page's Google 3.0. Business Week,, 1.
Evaluate the impact of globalization and management across borders
After its retrenchment in the U.S., Starbucks is still considering expanding its operations China. "Despite its long presence in the Chinese market -- Starbucks opened its first shop in Beijing in 1999 -- the Seattle coffee giant only has 376 stores on the China mainland, compared with 878 in Japan" (Sanchanta 2011). Starbucks has tried to learn from some of its mistakes domestically in the U.S., such as its super-saturation of certain marketplaces, while incorporating many of the successful lessons of its other ventures, such as its ability to tailor product offerings to local needs. "Cracking the code in China for any company is not an easy task -- there will be a number of winners and lots of losers of people who go there and rush to judgment and don't succeed…The thing I am most interested in when I go…
Clark, Taylor. (2008). How Starbucks colonized the world. The Sunday Times. Retrieved July
21, 2011 at http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article3381092.ece
Leadership and management. (2011). Team Technology. Retrieved July 21, 2011 at Retrieved July 21, 2011 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/leadership-basics.html
Sanchanta, Mariko (2011). Starbucks plans major China expansion. The Wall Street Journal.
Where, the benchmarks will show if the system is helping or hindering the company from achieving its objectives. This is significant, because when it is used in conjunction with flexibility, you can be able to effectively adapt to changes in the markets. With flexibility providing the necessary ingredients to implement such changes, while the use of benchmarks will identify when a management system is becoming unproductive. (Ireland, 2008, pp. 33 -- 39)
The use of knowledge management is when an organization is collecting and analyzing the total amounts of knowledge at their disposal. This would include analyzing all available: resources, employee / managerial skills and documents. This is significant, because it provides a way for an organization to quickly collect and analyze a wide variety of information. At which point, managers can be able to effectively place the different resources and personnel of the company, in those areas where they…
Symptoms of a Dysfunctional Organization. (2005). Retrieved July 9, 2010 from Copper Comm website: http://www.coopercomm.com/dysfnorg.htm
What are Management Control Systems. (2010). Retrieved July 9, 2010 from Wisegeek website: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-management-control-systems.htm
Flamholtz, E. (1998). Case Studies in Changing the Game. Changing the Game. (pp.81 -- 90). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ireland, D. (2008). Promoting Integrity and Ethical Behavior. Understanding Business Strategy. (pp. 33 -- 39). Mason, OH: South Western.
Control Mechanism: Advance Financial Management
Real corporate governance and financial control comprise of the utilization of monitoring and inducement mechanisms to bring into line different interests that are between managers and shareholders and urge the creation of shareholder value. Monitoring is not just a simple mistake, nor a conventional control, but founded on the control monitor. The United States, orld, Com Enron, Lam Tin, China's Guangxia, came from magnificence into ashes, weak in-house financial control is one vital reason. ' Theoretically, China's accounting auditing and profession it seems that there is management and disrepairs the worth controlled by, or would like to state control of mistake to evade such a propensity of thinking' (CAI Chun 2001). It is this propensity exists, that makes surveillance and controls the activities that are within the company fundamentally stop at the levels of supervision, fail to have control of the height.
Company's in-house financial…
Anon., 2004. Chinese commentator calls for mechanism to prevent, control AIDS.. BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, 32(4), pp. 1-1.
Anon., 2004. internal control mechanism and in-house management were both improved. Almanac of Chinas Finance and Banking, 7(9), p. 24.
Anon., 2011. FM for strict budget control mechanism.. Kashmir Times, 7(6), p. 34.
Campbell, K. & . M.-v. A., 2008. Gender diversity in the boardroom and firm financial performance.. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(2), pp. 435-451.
By monitoring these results, the company's managers can control and determine whether the company has achieved its objectives, and whether the company's efforts are justified.
Problems that arise during the production process outsourced to India as also caused by individual workers. Such problems include fluctuations in the degree of quality and of craftsmanship of Indian workers. As a consequence, it is necessary to implement an operational control system that would better monitor the activity and the results of each employee.
Production outsourcing has become one of the solutions implemented by small or large manufacturers as a response to increased production costs on national level. India has become one of the most targeted production outsourcing destinations, especially for small companies.
The advantages provided by the country justify the efforts made by companies in order to overcome the numerous barriers that India also presents. The cheap workforce in India seems to…
1. Kotler, Ph. (1986). Principles of Marketing. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Third Edition. Retrieved January 6, 2010.
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4. Waddell, D. et al. (2004). Contemporary Management. McGraw-Hill, Sydney. Retrieved January 6, 2010.
Managing the Effectiveness of the Audit Process
Mission and Objectives of the International Audit Department
The IAD stakeholder power-interest grid
The Audit Process
Objectives, Scope and Approach of the Research
Purpose and Mandate
Sustaining People Excellence
Tools and Technology
Infrastructure and Operations
Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is an international tobacco business that is operated by Japan Tobacco Inc. Japan Tobacco Inc. is the third largest player in the international tobacco industry with a market capitalization of 32 billion USD and a market share of 11%. JTI was established in the year 1999 when Japan Tobacco Inc. purchased the operations of United States multinational R.J. Reynolds, for 8 billion USD.
The Internal Audit Department (IAD) of the organization is accountable to the board of directors. The department is headed by the Global Internal Audit Vice President. He took his position in…
Anupindi, Ravi. 2006. Managing Business Process Flows. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Leseure, Michel. 2010. Key Concepts in Operations Management. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Mahadevan, B. 2009. Operations Management. New Delhi: Published by Dorling Kindersley (India), licensees of Pearson Education in South Asia.
Slack, Nigel. 2009. Operations and Process Management. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.
Any business that seeks to become internationally viable needs an export strategy. There are certain steps that managers must follow to create such a strategy. According to Adams (n.d.), such a strategy must be well planned in order to create a profitable international venture. According to the author, this involves steps like determining the target market, recognizing internal and external expertise, establishing marketing tactics, and determining the amount of commitment to international ventures within the company. After the international venture has been implemented, there should also be a long-term strategy in terms of evaluation and re-evaluation throughout the stages of the strategy.
As the first step, proper planning is the most important component of ensuring the success of the export strategy. Planning means the assessment of information like facts, constraints, goals, and objectives. Plans also need to include time schedules and milestones. These will then help to assess the…
Adams, J.A. (n.d.). Developing a Successful Export Strategy Within a Small or Medium-Sized Business. http://smallbusiness.house.gov/UploadedFiles/Small_Business_Export_Guide.pdf
Export Strategy (n.d.) Assessing a Product's Export Potential. Retrieved from: http://www.crfonline.org/orc/pdf/exportstrategy.pdf
International Trade Centre. (2005). Innovations in Export Strategy: competitiveness through export clustering. Retrieved from:
Branching out into new sectors of retailing - Wal-Mart has become a major pharmacy, an automotive repair shop, and a grocery retailer. This is just one example of success. It demonstrates Sam Walton's vision of being the best retailer around. After a store expands physically and geographically, it must then expand in terms of what they sell by branching out and competing with other businesses.
The conventional retail business of Wal-Mart has been to sell discount and house wares and plastic goods, clothing, sporting goods, and toys. Other departments have include but have not been limited to stationary and office supplies, hardware, home improvement, paint supplies, arts and crafts, cosmetics and toiletries, shoes, books and magazines, greeting cards, and confectionery. Wal-Mart has also branched out into home electronics, automotive supplies, pharmaceuticals, jewelry sales, photo finishing, travel planning, along with home gardening. After that Wal-Mart moved into the grocery store business…
Caban, Jennifer. (2007). Financial Success of Wal-Mart. Retrieved July 23, 2010, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/260675/financial_success_of_walmart_pg2.ht ml?cat=55
Carmichael, Evan. (2010). Wal-Mart - Sam Walton's Success Story. Retrieved July 23, 2010,
from Ezine Articles Web site: http://ezinearticles.com/?Wal-Mart-Sam-Waltons -
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36 [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Function of Control
Ekanayake, S. (2004). Agency Theory, National Culture and Management Control Systems.
The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge. 4(1/2), 49-54.
Credibility: Author Analysis
Dr. Samson Ekanayake is a senior lecturer with the Faculty of Business & Law at Deakin University in Victoria, Australia. His work is in the School of Accounting Economics & Finance at Deakin University. Ekanayake was educated at the University of Kent (UK) and at Lancaster University (UK). He has had substantial experience working in private industry, including serving as finance manager for Mitsubishi Machinery Industry and serving as an economist with the Fiji Sugar Corporation.
Credibility: Intended Audience
The intended audience for this scholarly article is not clearly explained but it appears to be an ideal way to introduce students and other interested parties to agency theory, and how agency theory dovetails with management control systems. Those recent university graduates who plan…
Performance Management Plan eview
The value of measuring and identifying key skills and attributes is essential to an evolving organization. The following performance management plan is tailored to the Stonefiled Limousine business.
Location: Austin, Texas
Type of Business: Limousine Service
Number of Employees
Current Predicted Annual Net evenue: $50,000
year evenue Growth Objective: 5%
Turnover ate: 10%
The purpose of a performance management plan is to track and guide an organization's employee's contribution to the organization. It is necessary to first identify the problems and objectives of the organization in order to get an appreciation for the industry and type of products and services they offer. The most important aspect of any performance management plan is that the organizational strategy is aligned with other facets of this improvement such as the Human esources and operations aspects of the company. Put simply, the company must understand what is being asked of…
Armstrong, M., & Baron, A. (2000). Performance management. Human resource management, 69-84.
Otley, D. (1999). Performance management: a framework for management control systems research. Management accounting research, 10(4), 363-382.
Horn of Africa experienced what was termed the worst drought in 60 years. The drought, caused by the failure of the rains for two consecutive seasons, led to a severe food crisis across Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and killed more than 100,000 people while placing hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation. According to Hiller and Dempsey (2011), the greatest tragedy was that the world had seen this disaster coming, but little had been done to prevent it. From as early as 2010, there had been clear indications of a looming crisis and its consequences. La Nina, a climate condition that would lead to drier than normal conditions over the entire area had already been confirmed. Further warnings of the crisis were repeated and became more strident in 2011. In light of all the warning signs, it is, therefore, rather surprising that proper response from the international aid system…
Bart, C., 1988. Budgeting Gamesmanship. Academy of Management Executive. vol.(2)4, pp. 285-294.
Hiller, D & Dempsey, B., 2011. A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa. Oxfam International and Save the Children. Available at https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-dangerous-delay-horn-africa-drought-180112-en.pdf. [Accessed 25 April 2015]
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D., 1996. The balanced scorecard: translating strategy into action. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press
Mintzberg, H., 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review. Vol. (65)4, pp. 66-75.
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…
The use of managerial accounting to keep profit margins where they need to be and make sure that individual product offerings are not a net drain on the company is not the only thing that Thai Airlines can and must do to keep a competitive edge and to protect themselves from things like corporate malfeasance and terrorists attacks, but it is certainly a major thing that should be take into account and otherwise dealt with in a timely and complete nature. It will not be easy for Thai Airlines to keep their competitive edge largely because other firms will be doing the exact same calculations and measurements. However, not doing so would be ceding progress and adeptness to their competitors. As such, not doing managerial accounting should be a non-starter for Thai Airlines.
AccountingExplained.com. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting Introduction | Accounting Explained. Accounting Explained | Financial and Managerial…
AccountingExplained.com. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting Introduction | Accounting Explained. Accounting Explained | Financial and Managerial Accounting Notes. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://accountingexplained.com/managerial/introduction/
CEIBS. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Decision-makers_CEIBS. China Europe International Business School. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.ceibs.edu/execed/index/8079.shtml
CSUN. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting. California State University, Northridge. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.csun.edu/~hfact004/Managerial.html
McGraw-Hill. (2013, May 12). The Work of Management and the Need for Managerial Accounting Information. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073526703/student_view0/ebook/chapter1/chbody1/the_work_of_management_and_the_need_for_managerial_accounting_information.html
Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…
Knudsen T.(2003).Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(2),42-45.
Humphreys, M. (2005). Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4), 23-36.
Kindler, H.S. (2005). Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace. London: Thomson/Course Technology.
Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
Controlling Benefit Costs
One of the most serious dilemmas facing organizations today is how to maximize profits in an extremely competitive global environment. Of course, organizations need employees, and there is a cycle that has been growing over the past three decades or so in which employees and other stakeholders are expecting greater benefit packages in order to stay with their employer. The reality of 21st century organizational environments is so competitive for some positions that employers are faced with the issue of having to increase benefits or lose top employees. Governmental regulations are now encroaching into this paradigm as well, and employee costs are now almost always one of the top two expenses for the organization. For most employers, managing these costs has a direct relationship to profitability, the ability to remain competitive in the marketplace and even new business development. However, over the last few years these benefit…
Effron, M., & Goldsmith, M. (2008). Human Resources in the 21st Century. New York: Wiley.
Harrison, J.D. (2013). Health care law's aggregation rules pose a compliance nightmare. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/on-small-business/health-care-laws-aggregation-rules-pose-a-compliance-nightmare-for-small-businesses/2013/12/09/87b2dcc6-611d-11e3-bf45-61f69f54fc5f_story.html
Nather, D. (2013). How Obamacare affects businesses -- large and small. Politico. Retrieved from: http://www.politico.com/story/2013/09/how-obamacare-affects-businesses-large-and-small-97460.html
Walker, J. (2004). What's a Strategic HR Leader to Do? Human Resource Planning. 27(4): 61-9.
One is to stem the tide of bad behavior. A clear code of conduct will set forth the rules; the rules will be enforced by a clear code of punishment. It is important in a bureaucratic control system to establish expectations of the workers, and then have a clear-cut means by which to assess their performance against those expectations. Failure and deviations are therefore easily defined and the actions to address these behaviors easily prescribed. This will allow me as chief to gain control of the department. It will provide me with recourse to eliminate problem behaviors and implement the structures needed to manage staff behavior. The problems of old stemmed from the inability to manage staff behavior. By establishing a strong hierarchy, I will be able to establish firm control mechanisms that will be used to control behavior.
Barnat, Ryszard. (2005). Bureaucratic Control. Strategic Control. Retrieved December…
Barnat, Ryszard. (2005). Bureaucratic Control. Strategic Control. Retrieved December 1, 2008 at http://www.strategic-control.24xls.com/en111
Nieminen, Anu & Lehtonen, Mikko. (2008). Organizational control in programme teams: an empirical study in change programme context. International Journal of Project Management Vol 26, No. 1 pp.63-72.
The Improve Phase of the DMAIC process is also essential for managing the piloting and testing of the Six Sigma solutions discovered. It is also essential during the new product development process for measuring and quantifying the unique value proposition of the product or service being produced as well. The final phase, Control, is essential in both a Six Sigma and new product introduction process as well (Pestorius, 2007).
The DMAIC process aligns very well to the new product development and introduction process and is used extensively for that purpose in applying Six Sigma to marketing. Six Sigma can change an entire company's culture and make the many processes synchronized and in unison in making new product introductions more profitable and capable of gaining market share as a result.
Brian Cocolicchio (2007). Sales and Marketing the Six Sigma Way. Quality Progress, 40(9), 79. Link: http://www.sixsigmaselling.com/six_sigma_selling/2006/07/about_sales_and.html
Fundin, a.P., &…
Brian Cocolicchio (2007). Sales and Marketing the Six Sigma Way. Quality Progress, 40(9), 79. Link: http://www.sixsigmaselling.com/six_sigma_selling/2006/07/about_sales_and.html
Fundin, a.P., & Cronemyr, P. (2003). Use customer feedback to choose six sigma projects. ASQ Six Sigma Forum Magazine, 3(1), 17-21. Retrieved from http://asq.org/sixsigma/2005/03/use-customer-feedback-to-choose-six-sigma-projects-en.pdf
Hasan, M., & Kerr, R.M. (2003). The relationship between total quality management practices and organisational performance in service organisations. TQM Journal, 15(4), 286-286.
The two basics to keep in mind is that managerial accounting should be used early and often and not just internal stakeholders should be heeded and listened to (Tutor2U.net, 2013).
In conclusion, Thai Airlines would benefit greatly from an entrenched and well-managed managerial accounting framework. It should supplement and complement both the financial accounting mechanisms of Thai Airlines as well as general process management, general product management, marketing, other accounting matters and general business decision making for Thai Airlines. Part and parcel of all of that is integrating stakeholder's expectations and conversely managing the expectations and perceptions of those same stakeholders is also vital on a number of levels. However, if all of the above is managed and managed well, then the outcomes for firms like Thai Airlines that use managerial accounting effectively will tend to be very good.
Holtzman, M. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Dummies…
Holtzman, M. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Dummies Cheat Sheet - for Dummies . How-to Help and Videos - for Dummies. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/managerial-accounting-for-dummies-cheat-sheet.html
Money-Zine.com. (2013, May 12). Financial vs. Managerial Accounting. Money-zine.com Home Page. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.money-zine.com/investing/investing/financial-versus-managerial-accounting/
Singha Beer International. (2013, May 14). Singha Beer International. Singha Beer International. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.singhabeer.com/
Tutor2u.net. (2013, May 12). Accounting - Introduction to Stakeholders. tutor2u | Economics | Business Studies | Politics | Sociology | History | Law | Marketing | Accounting | Business Strategy. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.tutor2u.net/business/accounts/stakeholder_theory.htm
The document states the plan of an organization in different phases. For each phase there will be a different management strategy. The document has described the management strategy and the effects that they will have on the performance of the business and why that particular management strategy has been chosen.
Management structure needs to be examined carefully when a new business venture is setup. In order to develop and build on the business plan a compact management structure is necessary. The managers are the people who are responsible for steering an organization towards achieving the business objectives. In the second phase the business plan will be implemented on the basis of geographical region and the management structure will be based accordingly.
The four key functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling the business. The type of managers which are selected for the business venture must be…
Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19.
Kleiman, Lawrence S. (2010). " Management and Executive Development" Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business
Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries (2003). The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26
Richard Barrett (2003). Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51
Furuholt, (2006) argues that lack of management engagement to the acceptance of information systems has been a barrier to the implementation of information systems. The issues are even common with organizations in the developing countries where management does not give enough priority to the information systems implementation. Importantly, implementation of information systems requires management support since management will need to approve fund that would be used for IS implementation. Generally, younger people are more interested in the it tools than older people. In a situation where number of older working team outnumbers younger working team within an organization, the IS implementation may be cumbersome.
More importantly, lack of knowledge of information systems may serve as barrier to its implementation. In the developed countries, private and public organizations have already aware the importance of information systems to the organizations. Many organizations in developed countries already realize that it tool is a…
Abukhzam, M. & Lee, a. (2010). Factors affecting Bank Staff attitude towards E-banking adoption in Libya. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries: 42(2): 1-15.
Ali, S.N.A. (2010). E-government services: an exploration of the main factors that contribute to successful implementation in Libya. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
Bartol, K.M. (1982). Managing Information Systems Personnel: A Review of the Literature and Managerial Implications. MIS Quarterly.
Boh, W.F. & Yelling, D. (2007). Using Organizational Architecture Standards in Managing Information Technology. Journal of Management Information Systems. 23 (3): 163 -- 207.
This allows for proper safety since Via Christi is located in Wichita, Kansas, which is the biggest city in the state (Via Christi, 2011).
In regards to the internal environment, all employees and patients are treated with dignity and respect. The facilities' each have in place safety measures for fires and tornadoes. Each person is asked how they can get assistance, and clinical staff tells the patients what it is they are going to do before they do it, so that no harm or offense is done to anyone without their consent. Infection Control is taught and enforced, such as frequent hand washing or using hand sanitizers for anyone who enters or leaves the hospital (Via Christi, 2011).
Explain how management contributes to its effective or non-effective performance
Via Christi management contributes to the effective performance of the hospital. They maintain and stress that everyone is treated with "human dignity,…
Via Christi . (2011, January). Standardized Orientation for Personnel. Retrieved April 9, 2011,
from Via Christi Hospitals Inc.:
This concept originated with the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM).
The notion that only managers play a role in controlling work activities is based on two false ideas. One is the antiquated notion of totalitarian management. Modern management does not follow this style, as it is often not consistent with organizational objectives. The second false idea is that the manager can control the employee at all times. In practice, managers merely provide instruction and guidance with respect to work activities. Employees often devise their own ways of performing different tasks, and it would be near impossible for management to control this. Thus, employees do exert some control over work activities.
Q3. Operations management can be applied to any managerial function.
Operations management techniques are based around analysis of processes. Control is merely one aspect of the role, even within the operations setting. In fact, operations management also consists of…
In terms of human relations skills, some examples in this sense include the ability to understand human behavior or the abilities to communicate and motivate.
Similar to control, the organizing function is addressed through the gradual completion of four distinct processes: identification of activities, departmentally organizing the activities, classifying the authority and coordinating authority and responsibility. In the case of organizing the resources for instance, it would be necessary to identify the overall and departmental requirements. Then, the responsible people would be assigned and their tasks would be outlined.
Each of these actions requires several special skills. For instance, at the level of activities identification, the manager has to possess the ability to identify necessary activities and prioritize them. At the level of departmental organization of activities, there is the need for the ability to combine similar activities and form groups with them, but also the ability to…
Colenso, M., 1998, Strategic skills for line managers, Butterworth-Heinemann
Erven, B.L., Planning, Ohio State University, 1999, http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~mgtexcel/Planning.html last accessed on November 16, 2010
Gitman, L.J., McDaniel, C., 2008, the future of business: the essentials, 4th edition, Cengage Learning
McShane, S.L., Travaglione, T., 2005, Organizational behavior on the Pacific rim, McGraw-Hill
Good leadership depends on the use of power, influence, vision, persuasion, and communication skills to coordinate the behaviors of individuals and groups so that their activities and efforts are in harmony and to encourage employees to perform at a high level (Jones & George 2006, p. 12). Not all managers are good leaders and vice versa, but to truly excel in management, a manager must train to be a leader. eing able to lead people enables a manager to achieve organizational objectives at a better rate and with excellent results. A fine example of leadership is illustrated with a look into practices at Flight Centre, a risbane-based travel company with strong and sustained growth. The company is 'highly decentralised,' (McShane & Travaglione 2005, p. 501) meaning that employees within the hierarchy are empowered. Their belief in themselves as stakeholders is amplified. Good leadership, then, is not totalitarian rule, but a…
DeBruyn, S. 2007, 'Mortgage Master,' BRW, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 26-28.
Jones, G.R. & George, J.M. 2006, Contemporary Management, 4th ed, McGrawHill/Irwin, Boston, MA.
McShane, S.L. & Travaglione, T. 2005, Organisational behaviour on the Pacific Rim, McGraw-Hill, North Ryde, N.S.W.
This can come in a number of forms, including rules, "best practices" and job descriptions. Output controls place the focus squarely on the output, with significantly less attention on the behaviors that lead to the output. For example, when a sales person has a quota, that is an output control because the behavior is driven entirely by the end result. Input controls works by placing constraints on process inputs as a means of exerting control. An example might be setting a strict budget for a project. This focuses the manager on sticking to that budget, a process that the organization feels will result in the goals being achieved.
Benchmarking is useful for most firms. The exception would be firms that for one reason or another are not in a competitive environment. For those firms that are in a competitive environment, they can benefit from benchmarking because the benchmark sets the…
McNamara, Carter. (2008). Basics of Action Planning. Free Management Library. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from http://managementhelp.org/plan_dec/str_plan/actions.htm
No author. (2009). Create an Entrepreneurial Culture Among Your Employees. Score. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from http://www.score.org/culture_employees.html
Wheelen, T.L., and Hunger D.J.,(2008). Strategic Management and Business
Policy, (11th ed) Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…
Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.
Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov
Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
The "Tylenol Scare" of the 1980's resulted in a rededication to J&J's core ethical values. As stated in its corporate responsibility section:
Each Johnson & Johnson business unit or facility is required to measure, monitor and report on its environmental performance and evaluate its Environmental Management System for effectiveness (J&J, 2007).
J&J maintains a small central administrative and finance staff at its headquarters, called "the Tower," in East runswick, New Jersey. The top members of the Executive Committee are all operating managers -- each has a group President role for about one-fifth of J&J's companies. Each interacts regularly, with their offices next to one another in close proximity. Thus, the key value at J&J is operating excellence, not the ability to play politics.
From an anthropological point-of-view, J&J's "tribe" supports operations, not staff. J&J top management emphasizes the elements of control which matter most to the corporation:
Put control where…
Atherton, E. a. (1998). Practices of the best companies in the medical industry. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 173-176.
J&J. (2007). Governance. Retrieved October 22, 2007, from J&J: http://www.jnj.com/community/governance/index.htm
Snell, S. (1995). Human resource management and firm performance: testing a contingency model of executive controls. Journal of Management, n.p.
This is a relative term: J&J has been criticized for its bureaucratic approach, particularly when related to joint ventures and acquisitions.
A cheap product will not be able to survive in this rapidly changing business environment. Organization is another extremely important aspect of the necessary managerial skills for any manager desiring guaranteed success at their individual Verizon location. Organization can be as simple as instituting training at work in a pattern that overlooks no single employee. A good manager cannot expect employees to train themselves or improve their work manners without additional help. A strong organized training program is sure to enhance even the most successful company.
A strong leadership team is another necessary important aspect for businesses engaged in the phone industry. Verizon's leadership team must be instituted and adopted without fear at the workplace, because employees who fear their supervisors simply cannot evolve into successful employees interested in the growth of the company. A strong leadership team will effectively manage the business with the overall objective of accomplishing the…
Bass, B.M. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership. Alexandria: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Oak, C. & Schoeffler, B. (2002). Management for the 21st Century. Retrieved March 13, 2007, from Insurance Journal Web site: http://www.insurancejournal.com/magzines/southcentral/2002/03/11/mindyourbiz/18984 .
Verizon. (2007). Verizon. Retrieved March 17, 2007, at http://www.verizon.com .
Control and the AIS
Control and the Accounting Information System
This paper discusses the process of integrating controls into the accounting information system (AIS) using enterprise risk management (EM) components. EM is defined as "a process, effected by an entity's board of directors, management and other personnel, applied in strategy setting and across the enterprise, designed to identify potential events that may affect the entity, and manage risk to be within its risk appetite, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of entity objectives." (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, COSO, 2004, p.2).
According to COSO, EM encompasses:
Aligning risk appetite and strategy
Enhancing risk response decisions
educing operational surprises and losses
Identifying and managing multiple and cross-enterprise risks
Improving deployment of capital (COSO, 2004, p. 7).
EM integrates concepts of internal control and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Internal controls of accounting systems are intended to protect…
Enterprise Risk Management Framework. (2010). Retrieved on April 6, 2011 from http://www.emrisk.com/2010/12/20/enterprise-risk-management-erm-framework/
Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. (2010). Enterprise Risk Management -- Integrated Framework Executive Summary . Retrieved on April 6, 2011 from http://www.coso.org/Publications/ERM/COSO_ERM_ExecutiveSummary.pdf
Karimi, Sabah. (2011). About Internal Controls of Accounting. http://www.ehow.com/about_4571081_internal-controls-accounting.html
Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information. (2006). SOX-Online. http://www.sox-online.com/basics.html
Whereas the other functions of management focus on methods, and operations, and policies, and organizational structure, leadership pertains exclusively to people. Management also includes various functions that relate to personnel, such as the establishment of hierarchical structure, and supervisory policies and practices. However, even in these personnel-oriented functions, management and leadership are substantially different.
Leadership includes the use of specific styles (such as transactional, charismatic, transformational, and servant leadership). On one hand, certain leadership styles have proven to be more appropriate or likely to be successful in specific types of organizations and industries; on the other hand, leadership style is ultimately a matter of choice and any leadership style could (at least in principle) be used in any organization. However, management functions are largely determined by the nature of the industry and the processes required for organizations to function properly in given industries. Therefore, unlike leadership style, approaches to business…
The company needed greater agility in managing how it responded to customer demands, and also needed to have much greater control over inventory management as a process as well. In responding to these strategic weaknesses in the company, Mr. Nardelli invested $1B in new information systems and created entirely new information systems platforms for the more efficient sharing of sales data between stores and with regional and worldwide headquarters in Atlanta. As a result of this system, Home Depot was able to capitalize on the building boom of the 1990s that lasted into the 21st century, and soundly beat their financial estimates of performance as a result. These systems were also directly responsible for the company gaining market share over Lowes' and other do-it-yourself chains globally as well (eingold, 2008). The use of it as a strategic advantage, combined with its reporting accuracy of key metrics, was used by Mr.…
Richard H. Franke, Anthony J. Mento, Steve M. Prumo, & Timothy W. Edlund. (2007). General Electric Performance over a Half Century: Evaluation of Effects of Leadership and Other Strategic Factors by Quantitative Case Analysis. International Journal of Business, 12(1), 137-150.
Grow, B., Brady, D. & Arndt, M. (2006). Renovating Home Depot. Business Week, March 6, 2006, Issue 3974, Pages 50-55, 2003
Jennifer Reingold (2008, September). HOME DEPOT'S TOTAL REHAB. Fortune, 158(6), 159.
Jack and Suzy Welch. (2007, September). Tough Guys Finish First. Business Week (Online),1.
Should the outcomes perform well against the goals, then the performance appraisal process must undergo a re-evaluation. Theories about the underperformance of key outcomes can be matched against feedback from the appraisers and the employees. From that point, a course of action can be developed that will alter the appraisal process to better align it with its objectives. The final step in the control mechanism is the adjustment process. The new ideas must be incorporated into the existing appraisal system. These new ideas must then be tested to determine if they have been as effective as intended, or if they have even moved the outcomes further from the objectives. At this point, the manager is engaged in a feedback loop that exists to continuously improve the performance appraisal process.
Performance appraisals are often conducted poorly, and this has led to considerable criticism of the tool. There are three fundamental…
Heskett, Jim (2006). What's to be Done About Performance Reviews? Harvard Business School. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5563.html
No author. (2008). Performance Reviews. Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.cmu.edu/hr/hr_services/performance/reviews.html
Culbert, Samuel a. (2008) Get Rid of the Performance Review! MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://sloanreview.mit.edu/wsj/insight/hr/2008/10/20/
No author. (2004) Performance Appraisal Handbook. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.doi.gov/hrm/guidance/370dm430hndbk.pdf
Indeed, the control function will create a feedback mechanism that will allow the leader or manager (at all levels of the organization) to be constantly informed as to the way that benchmarks are reached, as well as to any potential problems that might appear along the way. This means that the control function is the first phase in actually correcting the potential errors that might appear in the organization.
In Jack Welch's case, the control function as he applied it allowed him to monitor his group of human resources so as to emphasize the most important and most productive 20% and the underperforming 10%. y monitoring and controlling this benchmark, he was able to induce and maintain an organizational culture based on performance as one of the fundamental and defining goals.
5) One of the strategies by which a healthy organizational culture can be maintained proposes to support a close…
1. Welch, Jack. 2005. Straight from the Gut. Warner Books.
2. Welch, Jack. 2005. Winning. Collins
"The most important issues which have to be addressed here are precise monitoring (diagnosis) of current results and their comparison with what has been planned. Effective managerial control must always be followed by feedback for correcting initial plans " (http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm).
The observation of the way in which people within an organization behave is of extreme importance. ut leaders and managers obtain feedback not just from observations, but directly from people. This provides them with a better understanding of the relation between the actions performed by the individuals and the beliefs which guide their behaviour. An efficacious control upon these factors implies the contribution to the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture.
There are various strategies that an organization can choose to implement in order to make sure it preserves a healthy organizational culture. Among them we can mention the adoption of various principles, such as the following: a…
Baker, Kathryn (2002), Organizational Culture, 19 May, 2007, <
Four Management Functions, 19 May, 2007, http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm
Schein, Edgar, H (1992), Organizational Culture and Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey -Bass Publishers
Managing Quality in Practice Settings: Six Sigma at Floyd Medical Center
By examining an organization's approach to establishing, measuring, and evaluating performance and outcomes, it is possible to develop a firmer grasp on how the quality control process functions in practice. To this end, this paper provides a review of the literature concerning quality management practices at Floyd Medical Center in ome, Georgia, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Meaning of "managing quality" and what it means at Floyd Medical Center
Managing quality at Floyd Medical Center is the responsibility of all staff members and the hospital's stated goal in this regard is to "provide excellent care while ensuring the comfort, privacy and safety of our patients and visitors"; the medical center adds that its healthcare teams are "dedicated to continually improving your experience by providing quality health care that…
Cohen, J. (2008, May). CHAP and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Nursing and Health Care
Perspectives, 21(3), 151.
Gowen, C.R., Stock, G.N. & McFadden, K.L. (2008). Simultaneous implementation of Six
Sigma and knowledge management in hospitals. International Journal of Production
Management and Leadership DIscussion
For decades, school management processes have been popular among schools around the nation. School management processes put more responsibility on the local teacher and administrator basis in order to influence more positive results. The success of student learning depends heavily on "community participation, decentralization or teacher empowerment" (Wohlstetter & Mohrmon, 1994). This allows principals to step up and take a managerial approach to implementing individual and strategies unique to the needs of their schools. Ultimately, there are then variations within leadership processes. Thus, "some school districts dictate that structure, as in San Diego; others leave it up to the schools themselves, but hold the principal accountable for ensuring that all parties are given the opportunity to contribute, such as in Prince William County" (Wohlstetter & Mohrmon, 1994). The principal is thus a facilitator of change and an innovator that works to motivate individual teachers and administrators…
Murray, Martin. (2012). Total Quality Management. Manufacturing. Web. http://logistics.about.com/od/qualityinthesupplychain/a/TQM.htm
Spillane, James P., Diamond, John B., Burch, Patricia, Hallett, Tim, Jita, Loyiso, & Zoltners, Jennifer. (2013). Managing in the middle: School leaders and the enactment of accountability policy. Northwestern University. Web. http://www.sesp.northwestern.edu/docs/mngingmiddleSPIDIABUR.pdf
Wohlstetter, Priscilla & Mohrman, Susan A. (1994). School-based management: Promise and process. Issues and Research in Educational Finance. Web. http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/CPRE/fb5sbm.html
A second problem can be seen in the differences in cultures. This is especially apparent when looking at management styles. What might be considered acceptable in the United States might often be a cultural nightmare in another country. Trying to manage personnel in other parts of the world also brings about issues with communication. The ways in which people communicate is very different around the world. Again, something that would be perfectly acceptable here may often be seen as offensive in another part of the world.
A leader and manager must evaluate organizational competencies and intellectual capital and create and integrate models in order to establish a framework for application of duties to the employees so as to create a good healthy working condition. This will help to motivate all the employees to do their best at the work that they perform. An organization has to focus on determining different…
Globalization. (2010). Retrieved from Answers.com Web site:
Leadership vs. Management. (2010). Retrieved February 28, 2010, from Changing Minds Web
At the same time, he then acts as an interface and communicates to the team the general directions in which the company is moving. However, the project manager also acts as an internal motivator within the team, a coordinator and organizer.
A similarly important role will be played by the project manager in his capacity to act as an interface between the different entities and shareholders involved in a certain project. In order to control scope, several documents should be used, such as, for example, the statement of work, as part of the requests for proposals, or scheduling and budget estimates. For these, the project manager will work with representatives from other departments (marketing and sales etc.), but also with the clients. At the same time, the project manager will have consulted previously with his own team, thus being able to carry to these meetings their own evaluations and estimates.…
A Comparison of Management and Leadership
Management and leadership are often mistakenly considered to be the same thing. In truth, management and leadership are different processes and involve different activities. This means that a good leader is not necessarily a good manager, and that a good manager is not necessarily a good manager. This will now be discussed in more detail by comparing leadership and management and by comparing the traits of a leader and the traits of a manager.
Management can be broadly defined as the ability to manage resources to achieve goals. In practice, this refers to controlling both material resources and people to achieve the goals of the organization. Management can be further divided into the tasks of organizing, planning, controlling, and directing. The manager's role is to manage tasks and people on a consistent basis to ensure that goals are met.
Leadership is defined as…
Robbins, S.P. (2001). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.
The performance of each team member depends on the performance of all others, this being a team project. Constraints include time and financial resources; as such improvement requires permanent improvement effort.
isk Management. No risk has been identified related to the project's completion.
Monitoring and Controlling Mechanisms. The data analysts will develop a metric system to measure each member's performance on a weekly basis. This weekly performance will be submitted to the project manager for potential adjustments.
V. Operations management plan
Operations Strategy. An easy way to understand the meaning of operations strategy is to break the word into the two separate words: operations and strategy - these words being the opposite of each other (Slack & Lewis, 2002). 'Operations' is about the functions and procedures regarding the day-to-day processes, while 'strategy' is about the direction and scope of an organisation over a long period of time. The operations strategy…
Aberdeen Group. 2008. Operational KPIs and Performance Management -- Are Your Daily Decisions Based on Fact?, http://www.aberdeen.com/
Cooper, M. & Lambert D. 2000. Issues in Supply Chain Management. Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 29: pp. 65-83.
Johnson, J. C. And Wood, D.F. 1996. Contemporary Logistics, N.J.: Prentice Hall Upper Saddle Creek.
Keah C.R.K. And Handfield, R.B. 1998 .Supply Chain Management: Supplier Performance and Firm Performance. International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management: pp.2-9.
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…
1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific
2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374
3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html
4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
Management Case Study
Where the Rubber Meets the Road
Total quality management (TQM), defined in the most simplistic of terms, is the incremental improvement of all facets of a business to increase customer satisfaction and, in turn, company viability. Although TQM is often applied first to manufacturing functions in an organization (zero defects, on-time production), the intent of TQM is equally meaningful in all aspects of business, from administrative (zero defects in billing and timely collection of accounts receivable), to distribution (no breakage, just-in-time delivery) to management (appropriate incentive structures, timely and accurate stakeholder reporting). The increased efficiency and competitiveness created through TQM initiatives is not limited to only the manufacturing sector, with many of the benefits of TQM occurring in the service sector, too.
In the case of ridgestone/Firestone, TQM was not pursued prior to the recall of its 6.5 million tires in 2000, as evidenced by the magnitude…
Case study: Where the rubber meets the road
As organizations become larger in both scope and scale, the need for both management and leadership compounds. Many organization problems today, correlate heavily to a lack of true management. Aspects such as fraud, high employee turnover, product recalls, and strikes, all have origins with management. To better combat many of these negative influences, companies must hire, attract and retain talented management. In order to do so, many companies use the administrative management theory of management. This theory emphasizes the use of planned procedures, job specialization, and merit pay to help facilitate business objectives. I believe this theory to be the most useful in regards to managing an organization. For one, specialization of labor helps increase operational efficiencies with a business. In addition, planned procedures allow both employees and management to have clearly defined goals and job expectations. Finally pay based on merit provides incentive for employee and management to…
1) Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26 (2003).
2) Stroh, L.K., Northcraft, G.B., & Neale, M.A. (2002). Organizational behavior: A management challenge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
3) Paul C. Dinsmore et al. (2005) The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35-42
4) Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-147160-X p.110- 116
This would allow IM to find individuals from other countries and also to take a more global approach to training and staff development. Hire the "best and the brightest" to rapidly reenergize the organization and product line.
Grow existing lines and existing customers -- Instead of trying to grow rapidly, IM could target its current user base and simply solidify their needs by using market research to contact them and find ways to improve and maintain market share while retaining talent in the current geographical model. This model would be more conservative about hiring and wages, and would of course allow for some expansion, but keeping most of the &D in Waterloo, Canada. This would also retain more control over the design and marketing of the product for those in the organization who prefer to manage each instance and aspect of the organization from a Central --( field mentality.
Research in Motion: Managing Explosive Growth. (2008). Ivey Management Services. Cited in:
Patel, N. (January 22, 2010). Motorola Asks ITC to Ban Blackberry Imports. Endgaget.
Cited in: http://www.engadget.com/2010/01/22/motorola-asks-itc-to-ban-blackberry-imports/
Sweeney, a. (2009). Blackberry Planet: The Story of Research in Motion and the Little Device
This is also conducive, the realization of a 'higher' but clear objective in the command of someone with clear accountability to keep about company order, or principle ten. For social order to prevail there must be an appointed place for every employee and every employee must be in his appointed place.
Ethical violations are interesting to compare in light of the previous questions principle of eleven, of equity. For all personnel to be encouraged to carry out their duties with devotion and loyalty to the organization and its ideals and specific goals, people must be treated with kindliness. A sense of equity results from combination of kindness and justice. Equity excludes neither "forcefulness nor sternness," merely fairness. This can be seen with a common organizational problem of 'time theft' where individuals use work hours for personal matters without making note of this on their time sheets. If the management…
When all the needs or expectations of the stakeholders are met, the business will continue to thrive.
Core Human esource Functions
Involuntary turnover is rampant among employees of high talent. These employees form then crucial asset that determine the overall success of the organization. Involuntary turnover occurs due to issues such as frequent absences, premature termination of contracts, sexual harassment or by the mere fact that an employee becomes overqualified for a particular job. Supposing I were a top H manager in my firm I would hire people who are qualified to fill any vacant positions taking keen attention to exclude overqualified persons so as top avoid the occurrence of involuntary turnover in the future (Taylor, 2005).
Additionally, I would introduce strategies that seek to retain employees in the organization. One of the strategies would be to introduce teambuilding activities such as retreats and workshops. I would also ensure that…
Svensson, G., & Wood, G. (2003). The dynamics of business ethics: a function of time and culture -- cases and models. Management Decision, 41(4), p350.
Taylor, S. (2005). People resourcing. London: Chartered Inst. Of Personnel and Development.
Undercover Boss is a great show for illustrating core management concepts. A season five episode features the CEO of the Larry H. Miller Company, owner of the Utah Jazz along with eighty other concerns. This episode features issues related to occupational health and safety, customer service and marketing. In the episode about Modell's Sporting Goods, a family-owned business that has been around since 1889, issues related to logistics, wages, and social justice come to the fore. In the first season episode featuring the CEO and president of 7-11, issues related to management and corporate structure, customer service, and quality assurance are brought to light. These three episodes can all be used to better understand textbook concepts, from the particular skills managers need to succeed to ethics and social responsibility. Of these three episodes, the most engaging was the one about Modell's because of the way the owner came to…
Schermerhorn, J.R. (2012). Exploring Management. 3rd edition.
Undercover Boss Utah Jazz: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_Tc3qCOj68&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss Modell's: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8jadl9usH3s&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss 7-11:
He wished to build the happiest place on the planet and this message continues to be handed over to the new recruits who join the organization presently also. Disney exists to give a guarantee to the Americans that are there for real. Disneyland is not just unreal, rather it is hyper-real. As a result it is possible to express of the corporate culture of Disney as being created. ("eading Organizations from behavior and experience to representation and experience," n. d.)
4) Explain how the four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture
The four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture as it leads to planning, organizing, leading and coordinating of resources and it is these 4 activities which recur across the institution and are extremely unified. Present features relating to management cover claims leading are distinct from…
Arnold, Paul. V. (2002) "Fixing manufacturing" MRO Today Magazine, Retrieved at http://www.progressivedistributor.com/mro/archives/mro%20coach/Lynch/FixingJJ02.htm
Bryman, Alan. (1995) "Disney and His World"
N.A. (2007) "Disney Institute Homepage" Retrieved at http://www.disneyinstitute.com/index.cfm