It is commonly associated with Staphylococcus aureus (2011). "Studies have shown that 20% of all cases are caused by Candida albicans alone, 60% are caused by a combination of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and 20% are caused by Staphylococcus aureus alone" (2011).
Angular cheilitis can be found in any age group and can be diagnosed by an "erythematous, fissured area" (RDH 2011) are the corners of the mouth. The tissue will appear wrinkled and a "superficial crust may be seen superimposed over the affected area" (2011). Accencuated folds in the corner area of the mouth on older individuals can be a great environment for Candida albicans to thrive (2011).
The reason Candida albicans is often misdiagnosed is because an overgrowth of Candida in the human body can cause more than 100 various symptoms related to Candidiasis, making it practically impossible to pin down (Candida Cure Zone 2011). To get an idea of the havoc an overgrowth of Candida can wreak on a person's body, here is a list: gas, irritability, brain fog, low energy, chronic fatigue, headaches, indigestion, depression, eczema, depression, rectal itching, acid reflux, sweet cravings, and low sex drive (to name a few) (2011).
According to Laskaris (2004), the diagnosis of candidiasis is normally based on clinical criteria (p. 30). A direct smear microscopic examination with potassium hydroxide and culture are often helpful; Biopsy and histophathologic examination may also be required or helpful in certain cases (p. 30).
Laskaris (2004) says that there are a few basic guidelines for treating oral candidiasis. First, elimination of systematic and/or local predisposing factors are essential in order avoid a reoccurrence; secondly, maintenance of high level oral hygiene and the reduction of the Candida reservoir in the mouth, esophagus, and genitalia is required; thirdly, an accurate diagnosis of oral candidiasis is absolutely vital; next, a topical or systematic treatment needs to be used, depending on the form as well as the seriousness of the disease; lastly, the majority of the available...
In systematic treatment of oral candidiasis, systematic azoles are the best drugs, according to Laskaris (2004, p. 31). Itraconazole capsules 100mg/day or flucanazole for acute pseudomembranous candidiasis and Candida-associated lesions (p. 31). The erythematous and nodular forms usually require therapy for 2-4 weeks (p. 31). The secondary forms need long-term administration of the above drugs in a dose of 100-200mg/day for anywhere between 1 and 3 months (p. 31). Ketaconazole capsules 200mg/2 day for 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the form of oral candidiasis, may also be utilized (p. 31). In patients who have resistant Candida species, in neutropenic patients, or in patients with malignancies, transplants, and AIDS, itraconazole oral solution 2.5-5mg/kg per day is required (p. 31). Ketoconazole has a much greater bioavailability than itraconazole and also has a topical effect; because of this, it may have additional benefits over the other oral agents in the treatment of this disease (p. 31). Laskaris notes that it must be remembered that in order to have a successful treatment, correction of the predisposing factors is vital (p. 31).
Nyastatin oral suspension 4/day or miconazole oral gel 5 ml/4 day for 1 to 2 weeks is indication, especially for oral acute pseudomembranous candidiasis in infants or children or for adults where systematic treatment isn't required (Laskaris 2004, p. 31). Angular cheilitis (perleche) is treated with topical antifungal ointments (p. 31).
There are future therapies in the works. Third generation triazoles (voriconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole), echinocandins (main representative caspofungin) and the incorpotation of nyastatin into liposomes are being researched as possible other alternative treatments.
Candida Cure Zone. (2011). What is Candida? Candida Cure Zone. [Online]. Available: http://www.candidacurezone.com / [February 28, 2011]
Mayo Clinic. (2011). Oral thrush. Mayo Clinic. [Online]. Available: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/oral-thrush/DS00408 [February 28, 2011]
Laskaris, G. (2004). Treatment of Oral…
This could hardly be seen as a way to lower the healthcare costs of people in this country. Still, though, it is apparent that something must be done. Healthcare is extremely expensive anymore, and there are more and more people in this country that no longer have health insurance. Because of the lack of insurance that is available to these people, they do not go to the doctor when they
Oral candidiasis is primarily caused by Candida albicans, in which yeast adheres to the buccal epithelial cellular surface during the earliest phase of infection. This process is predominantly implicated by the hydrophobicity of fungus on the cell surface. The infection process is enabled by penetration of Candida albicans into the oral tissue, which is facilitated by secretion of exoenzymes and the development of hyphae (Calamari et al., 2011). Following limited exposure
Cutaneous Candidiasis: A Case Study Candidiasis This case study involves a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with candidiasis of the inner thighs. The goal of this report is to provide the patient with information about the most likely cause of her condition and how best to resolve the infection. In order to accomplish this goal a review of Candida pathogenesis will be presented first. Candida Pathogenesis Members of the Candida genus, in particular C. albicans, can
Oral Health Seniors have specific oral health needs. Meeting those needs requires an increase in personal hygiene, an improvement in lifestyle habits, and an increase in oral health service use. When these core needs are met, the specific oral health issues that affect seniors can be minimized, leading to improved health outcomes. Increasing personal hygiene requires shifts in attitudes toward oral health care, access to information, and access to affordable oral
Aureus Current Areas of Research Much of the current research on staphylococcus aureus centers on the emergence of antibiotic-resistance strains. In particular, the resistant strain MRSA is resistant to methicillin and related drugs. This has created a number of issues for medical practitioners, as staph infections are one of the more common infections that occur in a health setting. One of the threads of research in this regard concerns the spread of staph
The sores may last 3-10 days and are infectious. Recurrent infections are usually mild and caused by stress, sun, menstrual periods, trauma or physical stress. Oral and maxillofacial are not significantly involved in their cure. However they do treat herpes when they become more problematic and dangerous such as with HIV or cancer-related immune suppression 6. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) This is when there is a burning sensation on lips, teeth,