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Oral candidiasis is primarily caused by Candida albicans, in which yeast adheres to the buccal epithelial cellular surface during the earliest phase of infection. This process is predominantly implicated by the hydrophobicity of fungus on the cell surface. The infection process is enabled by penetration of Candida albicans into the oral tissue, which is facilitated by secretion of exoenzymes and the development of hyphae (Calamari et al., 2011).
Following limited exposure to antifungal agents, growth recovery capacity can be measured through the post antifungal effect, which indicates virulence levels of yeast. Increasingly, there has been a demonstrated resistance to antifungals, which is a cause for concern since there are fewer antifungals available in comparison to antibiotics. Therefore, research has been directed toward investigations of alternatives to antifungals for the treatment of Candida albicans. A few of these alternatives include chlorhexidine-based oral rinses, fluconazole, and chitosan. The researchers in the study…
Calamari, S.E., Bojanach, M.A., Barembaum, S.R., Berdicevski, N., Azcurra, A.I. (2011). Antifungal and post-antifungal effects of chlorhexidine, fluconazole, chitosan and its combinations on candida albicans. Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral Y Cirugia Bucal, 16(1), e23-8.
Cutaneous Candidiasis: A Case Study
This case study involves a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with candidiasis of the inner thighs. The goal of this report is to provide the patient with information about the most likely cause of her condition and how best to resolve the infection. In order to accomplish this goal a review of Candida pathogenesis will be presented first.
Members of the Candida genus, in particular C. albicans, can be detected in the oral cavities of 75% of the general population (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). This mostly commensal microbe colonizes oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, anal, and cutanous locations (az-Pasteur, Ullmann, & Berdicevsky, 2011). Candida species are commensal in health people and rarely cause any problems, but in persons who suffer from mild medical conditions with impaired immunity the commensal relationship can quickly evaporate and turn pathogenic (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). For example, Candida is…
Mansur, A.T., Aydingoz, I.E., & Artunkal, S. (2012). Facial Candida foliculitis: Possible role of sexual contact. Mycoses, 55, e20-e22. Doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2011.02075.x.
Mayer, F.L., Wilson, D., & Hube, B. (2013). Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence, 4(2), 119-128.
Raz-Pasteur, A., Ullmann, Y., & Berdicevsky, I. (2011). The pathogenesis of Candida infections in a human skin model: Scanning electron microscope observations. International Scholarly Research Network, 2011, 1-6. Doi: 10.5402/2011/150642.
Scheinfeld, N.S. (2004). Obesity and dermatology. Clinics in Dermatology, 22, 303-309.
It is commonly associated with Staphylococcus aureus (2011). "Studies have shown that 20% of all cases are caused by Candida albicans alone, 60% are caused by a combination of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and 20% are caused by Staphylococcus aureus alone" (2011).
Angular cheilitis can be found in any age group and can be diagnosed by an "erythematous, fissured area" (DH 2011) are the corners of the mouth. The tissue will appear wrinkled and a "superficial crust may be seen superimposed over the affected area" (2011). Accencuated folds in the corner area of the mouth on older individuals can be a great environment for Candida albicans to thrive (2011).
The reason Candida albicans is often misdiagnosed is because an overgrowth of Candida in the human body can cause more than 100 various symptoms related to Candidiasis, making it practically impossible to pin down (Candida Cure Zone 2011). To get…
Candida Cure Zone. (2011). What is Candida? Candida Cure Zone. [Online]. Available: http://www.candidacurezone.com / [February 28, 2011]
Mayo Clinic. (2011). Oral thrush. Mayo Clinic. [Online]. Available: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/oral-thrush/DS00408 [February 28, 2011]
Laskaris, G. (2004). Treatment of Oral Diseases: A Concise Textbook. Thieme; 1st Edition.
RDH. (2011). Case #5: a 37-year-old male visited his family dentist for a prophy. During the oral exam, a white plaque was noted on the dorsal tongue. RDH. [Online]. Available: http://www.rdhmag.com/index/display/article-display/117421/articles/rdh/volume-18/issue-5/columns/case-study/case-5-a-37-year-old-male-visited-his-family-dentist-for-a-prophy-during-the-oral-exam-a-white-plaque-was-noted-on-the-dorsal-tongue.html [February 28, 2011]
Seniors have specific oral health needs. Meeting those needs requires an increase in personal hygiene, an improvement in lifestyle habits, and an increase in oral health service use. When these core needs are met, the specific oral health issues that affect seniors can be minimized, leading to improved health outcomes. Increasing personal hygiene requires shifts in attitudes toward oral health care, access to information, and access to affordable oral health care tools that are designed specifically for seniors. Lifestyle habits have a tremendous impact on oral health. Diet, smoking status, and drug and alcohol use are all factors that impact oral health. Accessing oral health services is difficult for many seniors. Some may live in rural areas where accessing oral health is physically difficult. Others may not be covered. In fact, most seniors do not have insurance coverage for oral health care. Not being able to afford oral…
"7 Oral Health Concerns Most Common in Seniors," (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.123dentist.com/7-oral-health-concerns-most-common-in-seniors/
Lamster, I.B. (2004). Oral health care services for older adults: A looming crisis. American Journal of Public Health 94(5), 699-702. Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448319/
"Oral Care," (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/dental-care-seniors
"Toothbrush Adaptations," (2011). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved online: http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/com-health/tooth-brush-adaptations.pdf
A newer and easy test is the OSOM Vlue, which mixes a swabbed specimen from the vagina with a reagent. The test yields sialidase activity or presence in the vaginal fluid in 10 minutes. Sialidase is produced by V pathogens (Mashburn).
The most reliable criterion for detecting V is a pH>4.5 (Mashburn, 2007). A normal pH should, therefore, rule out V. A pH >4.5 can also indicate trichomoniasis or muco-purulent cervicitis. Vaginal inflammation more strongly suggests trichomonas or muco-purulent cervicitis, in turn associated with gonorrhea or chlamydial trachomatis (Mashburn).
The patient's pH level is 6, indicating V.
These are an inexpensive and relatively easy screening procedure for the most common sexually transmitted diseases, such as V (Iglesias, Alderman & Fox, 2000). The practitioner should be appropriately trained and experienced in using this procedure. Hence, the proper protocol and quality control are needed to insure accurate diagnosis.…
Alfonsi, G.A.; Cshlay, J., and Parker, S. (2004). What is the best approach for managing
Recurrent bacterial vaginosis? Journal of Family Practice: Dowden Health Media,
Inc. Retrieved on July 7, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_8_53/ai_n6169486/?tag=content;col1
Brown, M (2007). Treating a case of bacterial vaginosis -- case study. Health and Republic News: Health Republic. Retrieved on July 12, 2009 from http://www.healthcarerepublic.com/res/clinical/article/572868/treating-case-bacterial-vaginosis
The sores may last 3-10 days and are infectious. ecurrent infections are usually mild and caused by stress, sun, menstrual periods, trauma or physical stress. Oral and maxillofacial are not significantly involved in their cure. However they do treat herpes when they become more problematic and dangerous such as with HIV or cancer-related immune suppression
6. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS)
This is when there is a burning sensation on lips, teeth, mouth, or gums. It has been linked to various conditions such as menopause, dry mouth and allergies and often occurs in middle-aged women. Derivatives may be anxiety, depression and social isolation. The field of oral and maxillofacial pathology still has found no cure for this and treatment includes hydrating agents, pain medications, vitamin supplements or the usage of antidepressants. (Elad et al. 2010).
This condition is indicated by the tongue being fissured and is often common in smokers and…
ADA.org: Dentistry Definitions.
The Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (AAOMP)
Current Areas of esearch
Much of the current research on staphylococcus aureus centers on the emergence of antibiotic-resistance strains. In particular, the resistant strain MSA is resistant to methicillin and related drugs. This has created a number of issues for medical practitioners, as staph infections are one of the more common infections that occur in a health setting.
One of the threads of research in this regard concerns the spread of staph infection in the hospital setting. It has long been believed that s. aureus infections were transmitted between patients. Where outbreaks have occurred, the response has generally reflected this view, with patients being segregated, and other similar remedies. ecent research has shown, however, that transmission between patients in the intrahospital setting does not occur nearly as much as previously thought (Long, Beres, Olsen & Musser, 2014). This is an important finding for health care facilities, because it changes…
Haba, E., Bouhdid, S., Solana, N., Marques, A., Espuny, M., Celma, M. & Manresa, A. (2014). Rhamnolipids as emulsifying agents for essential oil formulations:
Antimicrobial effect against Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Vol. 476 (2014) 134-141.
Kriegeskorte, A., Block, D., Drescher, M.., Windmuller, N.,Mellmann, A.,Baum, C., Neumann, C., Lore, N., Bragonzi, A., Liebau, E., Hertel, P., Seggeweiss, J., Becker, K., Proctoer, R., Peters, G., & Kahl, B. (2014). Inactivation of thyA in staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression. mBio. Vol.5(4) 1-15
e. incurable cancer; (2) referral to the Department of Palliative Medicine. The exclusion criteria for the study were: (1) estimated prognosis of less than 1 week; (2) significant cognitive impairment, i.e. unable to provide consent; (3) significant physical impairment, i.e. unable to complete protocol; (4) clinical evidence of dehydration; (5) current/recent (less than 2 weeks) use of antifungal medication. (Davies, railsford and eighton, 2005)
Davies, railsford and eighton (2005) report that the clinical component of the study involved "...completion of a study questionnaire (demographic data and clinical data), completion of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, clinical examination of the oral cavity, measurement of the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR), measurement of the stimulated whole salivary flow rate (SWSFR), and performance of an oral rinse." ( p.698) The study results states that all patients/participants "...had either locally advanced, or metastatic cancer. The prevalence of different cancer diagnoses were: carcinoma breast…
Davies, Andrew N., et al. (2008) Oral Candidosis in Community-Based Patients with Advanced Cancer. Oral Candidosis in Advanced Cancer. Vol. 35, No. 5, May 2008. U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee.
Chang, AM, Molassiotis, A, Chan, CWH, and Lee, IYM (2007) Nursing Management of Oral Mucositis in Cancer Patients. Hong Kong Med J. Vol 13 No 1 Supplement 1 February 2007.
Alred, Michael J. (1991) Oral Health in the Terminally Ill: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Survey. Special Care in Dentistry, Vol 11 No 2, 1991.
Davies, Andrew N., Brailsford, Susan R. And Beighton, David (1991) Oral Candidosis in Patients with Advanced Cancer. Oral Oncology. 15 Sept 2005.
This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.
In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Lee, H., Park, Y., Jung, J. & Shin, W. (2003). Chitosan oligosaccharides, dp 2 -- 8, have prebiotic effect on the Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus sp.
Elsevier Science Ltd. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9T-48BKR97 -
Prevention and Treatment
HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…
Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004 http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html
Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004. http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html
Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004. http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html
Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
Treatment to Patients
The main objective of providing treatment to patients is to relieve symptoms along with decreasing the progression of the disease as well as the mortality or morbidity. However, in some cases, this objective is not fully achieved, especially in the case of the patients who are admitted to the ICU with some serious and almost always a terminal stage of the disease. For example, when old patients are admitted in the ICU, their immunity is extremely low and this is the perfect time for the opportunistic infections to make matters worse for these patients. There are many infections that are specifically associated with patients admitted in the hospitals. Pseudomonas Aurigeonosa is a micro-organism that is well documented to cause bacterial pneumonia and bacteremia in the patients who are terminally ill and are receiving treatment in the hospital setting. Since most of the patients in the ICU are…
Beekmann, SE;Diekema, DJ; Chapin, KC;Doern, GV (2003) Effects of rapid detection of bloodstream infections on length of hospitalization and hospital charges.J ClinMicrobiol, 41:3119-3125.
Boussekey, N, Leroy, O, Georges, H, Devos, P, d'Escrivan, T, Guery, B (2005).Diagnostic and prognostic values of admission procalcitonin levels in community-acquired pneumonia in an intensive care unit.Infection, 33:257-263.
Charles, PE, Dalle, F, Aho, S, Quenot, JP, Doise, JM, Aube, H, Olsson, NO, Blettery, B: Serum procalcitonin measurement contribution to the early diagnosis of candidemia in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med, 32:1577-1583.
Digiovine, B; Chenoweth, C; Watts, C; Higgins, M (1999)The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. RespirCrit Care Med, 160:976-981.
There are as many sentiment analysis techniques as there are reasons for conducting sentiment analysis. Analysis techniques are employed to discern sentence, phrase, word and text meanings, and predictive, machine-related, emotional and psychological aspects are measured by sentiment analysis as well. This literature review will attempt to navigate the various avenues presented by such diverse usage of sentiment analysis and provide information that categorizes and differentiates between the various techniques employed.
The review will focus on a number of different analytical techniques, including sentiment analysis, predictive analysis, text, phrase, sentence and word analytics, and why and how the different arenas approach the use of their specific style of analysis.
Sentiment analysis has been described as using a lexicon "with information about which words and phrases are positive and which are negative" (Wilson, Wiebe, Hoffman, 2009, p. 400) and as an analytical tool that "focuses on identifying positive and negative…
Ahmad, K. & Almas, Y.; (2005) Visualizing sentiments in financial texts? Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information, Visualization, Vol. 1, pp. 363 -- 368
Alpern, P. (2010) Forecasting the future with predictive analytics, Industry Week, Vol. 259, Issue 7, pp. 47-48
Chaovalit, P. & Zhou, L.; (2005) Movie review mining: A comparison between supervised and unsupervised classification approaches, Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Big Island, HI, USA
Chemla, E.; Mintz, T.H.; Bernal, S.; Christophe, A.; (2009) Categorizing words using frequent frames: What cross-linguistic analysis reveal about distributional acquisition strategies, Developmental Science, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 396-406
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues
Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…
Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://220.127.116.11/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6
Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.
Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.
Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.