Sample Selection- The study included 705 mixed gender children aged 9-10 years old in 4th grade. Fifty-five schools participated; 31 segmented for intervention and 24 as control. There were schools in five cities that met all participation criteria and there were slightly more girls who completed the study than boys. Enough extra participants were recruited during the initial stages of the study to result in the 705 completed; thus having a large enough population that was statistically viable and longitudinally appropriate. However, the Schoolgruiten research group selected the intervention cities, set the control parameters, and although there were baseline differences between the intervention and control groups, quantitatively speaking there was not necessary adequate adjustments for many demographic or psychographic variables within the study groups. From a quantitative perspective, a more clustering of variables (income, age of parent, educational level, and more) should have been structured into the study as opposed to using governmental mandates for certain groups (Halkidi and Vazirgaiannis, 2001). The research groups provided consent, teachers knew which groups had fruit and vegetable intervention, but the governance of the research was more administrative and political than scholarly in orientation.
Design and Data Collection- The design of the study was quasi-experimental and included a pre -- and post-test. Baseline measurements were conducted prior to the start of the intervention and the first follow-up was 1 year later, the second 2 years later. Both children and their parents completed questionnaires about the child's intake of food. Children completed the questionnaire within one school hour and were guided by teachers. All responses were treated confidentially, tagged and coded by independent researchers, and all had appropriate levels of consent. Questionnaires contained parallel questions for parents and children and a single item focus was done to see what the children brought to school vs. their consumption, then habits over the course of two years. Schools were not obliged to change their school policies, although teachers were asked to encourage students to bring fruits and vegetables and a specific section in a special lunch-box was given to students. The major focus of the intervention was to give a piece of fruit or vegetable (apple or orange slices, sherry tomatoes, baby carrots) free, twice a week during the mid-morning break in their own classroom, supervised by the instructor.
This approach used a mixed method of both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods. Because the data was self-reported, longitudinal, and some of the groups were chosen by a non-research body, much of the material measured was not precisely quantitative in nature. From a quantitative standpoint, the numeric analysis of this data did show patterns, and was validated through statistical means. It focused more on the aspects of collecting and analyzing the intervention methods than explaining the causative factors influencing the basic hypothesis of the research. Too, while the data