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Improvement Organizational Posters
McDonalds is an organization that provides fast food items to the society in numerous parts of the globe. The organization aims at improving the quality of services within its interactions with the consumers and other relevant partners in the industry.
Identify 2 or 3 examples of process improvement opportunities in your chosen organization's industry.
Identification of the process improvement opportunities in the industry would depend on what the entity or entities want to achieve. One of the examples of process improvement opportunities in the fast food industry is the development of standards to guide the delivery of goods and services to consumers. This would enable organizations working under this industry to uphold high standards hence economic growth and development. Consumers would associate with these organizations because of the treatment and services they obtain from the entities. It is necessary to improve the quality of services and products…
Gordon, M.J. (2002). Six Sigma qualities for business & manufacture. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Hakes, C., & Pera International. (2001). Total quality management: The key to business improvement: a Pera International executive briefing. London: Chapman & Hall.
Madison, D. (2007). Process Mapping, Process Improvement, and Process Management: A practical guide to enchanging work and information flow. S.l: s.n..
Mulholland, K.L., John Wiley & Sons., & Wiley InterScience (Online Service). (2006). Identification of cleaner production improvement opportunities. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley- Interscience.
Appellate process is integral to the American judicial system and is a constitutionally protected right. Individual, or corporations for that matter, have the right to appeal a trial on the grounds that the decision was made erroneously or without proper attention paid to evidence or judicial procedure. Basically, the appellate process refers to the specific procedures and practices by which the appellate system in particular works. The appellate courts are generally referred to as "higher" courts, and the trial courts as "lower" courts primarily because of the directional process by which cases are brought to trial, heard, and then re-heard in an appellate case. State Appeals Courts, State Supreme Judicial Courts, and the Supreme Court of the United States are examples of appellate courts.
The appellate system works differently from the trial law system. Appellate courts never hear new evidence or new cases. Only trial courts accomplish the initial role…
"Appellate Procedure," (n.d.). Cornell Law. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/appellate_procedure
Mahacek, J.P. (n.d.). How does the appellate process work? Retrieved online: http://appellatelawyercalifornia.com/id70.html
Massachusetts Judicial Branch (2014). An overview of the appellate process. Retrieved online: http://www.mass.gov/courts/sjc/overview-of-appellate-process.html
United States Courts (2014). The appeals process. Retrieved online: http://www.uscourts.gov/FederalCourts/UnderstandingtheFederalCourts/HowCourtsWork/TheAppealsProcess.aspx
Toyota: Case study
What exactly needs to be improved?
The Toyota Corporation built its reputation upon safety and quality. Based upon its perceived superiority to its competitors, particularly its American competitors, the Japanese carmaker had established itself as 'benchmark' of excellence in the international marketplace. All of this began to change in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Toyota's safety was questioned after a series of highly-publicized recalls. In particular, the revelation that its accelerators could get 'stuck' and cause vehicles to go dangerously fast was profoundly damaging to Toyota's reputation.
Toyota's fall from grace was so disturbing because Toyota's managerial philosophy had been so influential. Pillars of the Toyota Way included the need for long-term planning; lean manufacturing; keeping inventories low; and cultivating strong relationships with suppliers. Toyota had long been considered the paradigm of what to do 'right,' but its response to the recalls seemed…
Greto, Michael, Schotter, Andreas, & Teagarden, Mary (2010). Toyota: The accelerator crisis.
Thunderbird School of Global Management, 1-24
Strategic Management Process
Describe the primary components of a strategic management process, and indicate why a strategic management process is needed for a company.
The process of strategic management, according to Alkhafaji (2013), is made up of four key components: environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and evaluation and control.
Environmental scanning, in the words of the author, "consists of analyzing internal and external factors that may affect the organization and its ability to pursue a given course of action" (Alkhafaji, 2013, p. 33). Of key importance here, therefore, is the collection, scrutiny, as well as provision of information for strategic reasons. Next is strategic formulation, which has got to do with the development of strategic decisions that concern not only an entity's policies, objectives, and mission, but also the approaches to be used in achieving the said objectives and policies (Alkhafaji, 2013). Strategy implementation, on the other hand, "is…
Alkhafaji, A.F. (2013). Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control in a Dynamic Environment. New York, NY: Routledge
Foot Locker. (2014). Foot Locker, Inc. Announces Updated Strategic Plan and Elevated Long-Term Financial Objectives. Retrieved from http://www.footlocker-inc.com/investors.cfm?page=2012-foot-locker-announces-strategic-plan
Harrison, J. & John, C.H. (2013). Foundations in Strategic Management (6th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Flow of Maternity Patients at Arnold Palmer Hospital (APH)
Born w / complications
Taken to an operating room and/or intensive care unit for necessary care; o nce stabilized transferred to care unit and discharged when ready. If additional care needed child transferred to neo-natal and released at a later time.
Mother and baby discharged
Born w/o complications transferred to mother and baby care unit
eady to deliver taken to the
nd floor until the baby is born
Not ready to deliver sent home, asked to return later.
#2 If baby is born in route or imminent goes to #6. Otherwise go to #3
#3 Patient is asked about pre- registration
#4 pregnant woman is taken to Labor & delivery Triage on the
th floor for assessment
born #1 Enter APH's Labor & Delivery check in desk entrance
#1.Through analysis of the flow chart there really doesn't seem…
Braaten, J., & Bellhouse, D. (2007). Improving patient care by making small sustainable changes: a cardiac telemetry unit's experience. Nursing Economic$, 25(3), 162-166. Retrieved from MEDLINE with Full Text database
Pate, D., & Puffe, M. (2007). Improving Patient Flow. (cover story). Physician Executive, 33(3), 32. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
#1 Enter APH's Labor & Delivery check in desk entrance
Process chart without registration process.
Process automation has revolutionized the way that organizations do business and has led to the downsizing of many companies. There are a variety of technology products that are available through process automation which make business operations simpler and less expensive. The purpose of this paper is to discuss process automation and the impact that it has on downsizing. We will discuss the technologies that are available and why these technologies are important to the overall business strategies of corporations. Let's begin our discussion by defining process automation.
According to a whitepaper entitled Requirements and Characteristics of Process Automation, process automation is defined as "Automatic control of an organization's processes, policies, and communications using computer technology which brings about improved productivity and quality." (Matthews) The whitepaper, published by Cypress technologies, states that effective process automation is designed to improve manual processes within an organization. (Matthews) The whitepaper also…
Can Your Process Automation System Deliver in the Collaborative Era? Business Wire. 2002
Global Process Automation and OSIsoft Partner on Enterprise Solutions..2003. BusinessWire.
Issues of Merit. 2002. Merit System Protection Board. 20 June 2003 http://www.mspb.gov/studies/02sepnws.pdf
Key Industry Executives Discuss Future of Automation Business at ARC Forum. 2002 BusinessWire
modernization in early China and Japan
Two Asian countries, China and Japan, have tried to postpone the process of modernization in the occidental sense of the word as long as possible. By definition, modernization comes along with openness. Governments become aware of the technological and scientific revolutions that happen in the rest of the world. China's continuity in culture and civilization was not necessarily a result of its refuse to let different cultures interfere with its one. On the countrary, China's history is closely linked with waves of migration, foreign Asiatic governments and by the time China became "the largest unified empire in the world," towards the end of the eighteenth century, the western world, especially Great Britain was attempting to expand its trading relations with China as well as the cultural exchanges that were by the time almost non-existent. Lord George Macartney, the emissary of king George III, on…
Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol II. Okakura Kakuzo: Aesthetic Pan-Asianism
Rozman, G. The Modernization of China. Simon and Schuster. 1982
The Meiji Restoration and Modernization. Retrieved: Nov 22, 2009. Available at: http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/japan/japanworkbook/modernhist/meiji.html
Cheng, P-K. & Lestz, M with Spence, JD. The Search For Modern China W.W. Norton & Company. New York. London.
Reliablism & Bonjour's Objections
The central belief of process reliabilism is the belief in the reliability of the causal process. Its central tenant is what is observed regularly or reliably as a chain of events in a process can be relied up. However, the philosopher Louis Bonjour objects firstly that such a presumption will always be tenuous because one does not know if the senses in question that observe the causal connections are reliable. Thus, one cannot verify the senses accurately or reliably, because although one may see, one does not have to know how the eye works to apprehend in vision. The process occurs before the apprehension of the reliability of the apparatus of the eye, nose, ear, etc.
Probabilistic inferences are even more problematic when they do not depend upon immediate sensory data, such as clairvoyance. Although it may sound, the author acknowledges, absurd to make a comparison…
top-down and bottom-up programming, testing in these two specific situations is obviously adapted to the specifics of each type of programming.
In this sense, because top-down programming implies that the initial program's functionality is divided into a series of subroutines and each further divided into sub-functions until the smallest remaining unit, testing in this case will be applied to each component in part and will address the functionalities of each unit. The tester, in many cases assimilated to the programmer here, will check that the graph he has designed actually reflects the mathematical requirements or that the Save button actually does what it is supposed to.
On the other hand, because of the particularities of bottom-up programming, bottom-up testing will comprise the entire system's functionality, being referred to, in this case, as integration testing
. In my opinion, such testing may prove more difficult because of the encompassing view it…
1. Types of Programming Errors. Last Modified January 1999. On the Internet at http://atm.ucdavis.edu/~grotjahn/course/atm150/errors.htm
2. Software Testing. On the Internet at http://elvis.rowan.edu/~clamen/classes/S02/SE/1
Software Testing. On the Internet at http://elvis.rowan.edu/~clamen/classes/S02/SE/1
Types of Programming Errors. Last Modified January 1999. On the Internet at
Attaining Knowledge: hy throwing a baseball would not be possible for a neural network.
Learning how to throw a baseball occurs in stages. First, someone, usually a parent instructs a young child on the basic process of throwing the ball, before the child is scheduled to participate in a game. The child is first shown the basic motion as to how to curve his or her body when tossing the baseball, to get the ball across the field with some measure of force. Then, when the child gains a sense of physical confidence in the simple act of throwing, the parent shows the child how to hold the ball in such a fashion that the ball travels farther, with a sharper degree of accuracy.
The physical motion is only the most rudimentary aspect of throwing a baseball. Gradually, over time, the child enters into a real game with similarly skilled…
Smith, Leslie. (1996) "An introduction to neural networks." Center for Cognitive Development. Updated 2001. Retrieved 21 Mar 2004 http://www.cs.stir.ac.uk/~lss/NNIntro/InvSlides.html#what
Moving households is among the stressful household tasks especially if it is because of relocation to another place. Moving households does not only entail the need for energy and strength to endure the tiresome process mostly because of the heavy weight of furniture, but also entails time and money to accomplish the process. Most people who needs to move or relocate to another place gets the service of mover companies to free themselves from stress that moving causes. However, for those who cannot afford to pay much for the task, there are many techniques to make moving easy and less tiresome.
Following is a step-by-step process of moving households, particularly during relocation to another house.
Be 100% certain that the place you are moving to is worth staying for a long time.
Planning to move is important, but before anything else, it is more important to be certain…
Horn, S. On the Road Again.
Retrieved on August 28, 2005, from Online.
Web site: http://www.usma.edu/sja/Legal%20Ease/Ready%20to%20PCS.doc.
Negotiating Union Contracts
The relationship between a city or municipality and its various employee groups is often defined by the collective bargaining process which is used to formulate and finalize contracts between the two parties. From police and other law enforcement officials to firefighters and courthouse workers, city employees are often bound by the terms of contracts which are negotiated by their respective union representatives. The negotiation process between municipalities and unions, which seemingly present a simple and pragmatic exercise in economic policy, can often devolve into a public display of political maneuvering based on the brokering of backroom deals. Ostensibly, city worker contract negotiations are the designated forum through which issues such as salary increases or decreases, pension planning and the allotment of benefits are discussed and agreed upon. Unions fight to expand the scope of their influence, securing gains for their members in the form of…
Borda, P.S. (2011, July 03). Salaries divide city, police: mayor, union to resume negotiations tuesday. Frederick News Post, p. 1-2.
Gillespie, M.H. (1986, July 15). Some philadelphia workers return to jobs. Anchorage Daily News, p. A5.
Kammerer, K. (2011, March 25). City policies on police: can our elected leaders make the calls?. Crosscut.com, Retrieved from http://crosscut.com/2011/03/25/seattle-city-hall/20747/City-policies-on-police:-Can-our-elected-leaders-make-the-calls-/one_page/
Takahashi, P. (2011, June 15). North las vegas plans to cut 83 police positions, including 17 officers. Las Vegas Sun, p. 1-3.
FedEx Quality Management Issue
Process Improvement Tools and Applications in Quality Management
FED-EX Case Study
For the purpose of the present study, the company chosen is that of Fed-Ex. This writer will take on the role of a quality management consultant and submit a recommended direction to implement a quality management initiative to address the quality management related problems identified. An examination of the Fed-Ex company informs this study that Fed-Ex has issues with its software in that other companies are not able to integrate with Fed-Ex software. This presents challenges and some of these challenges are affecting the quality of service delivery of Fed-Ex. An online search via Google's search engine reveals that there are software issues affecting the quality and perceived quality of Fed-Ex delivery services. A February 28, 2011 report states that FedEx had suffered a "major computer glitch…" and the result was system wide computer problems…
Information Technologies - Concepts and Management (nd) MIS. Scribd. Retrieved from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/7047205/MIS-Chapter-02-Information-Technologies-Concepts-and-Management
Krill, Paul (2006) FedEx seeks improved software testing. Computer World. Retrieved from: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9006342/FedEx_seeks_improved_software_testing
Savitz, Eric (2010) FedEx Suffers Tracking Update Issues; iPHone Buyers Jittery. Barron's Tech Trader Daily. 23 June 2010. Retrieved from: http://blogs.barrons.com/techtraderdaily/2010/06/23/FedEx-suffers-tracking-update-issues-iPhone-buyers-jittery/
Sunoco and FedEx Suffer 'Back to the Future' Computer Problems. 8 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://spectrum.ieee.org/riskfactor/computing/it/sunoco-and-FedEx-suffer-back-to-the-future-computer-problems
Strategy Mapping and the Learning and Growth Perspective
Strategy mapping has recently emerged as an important component in strategic planning, especially in relation to the learning and growth perspective. In most cases, the strategic planning process involves developing a strategy map that is in line with balanced scorecard as the outline for strategy development. Generally, strategy mapping is part of the process that is geared towards exceeding customer expectations and eventually creating value for an organization's financial stakeholders. The significance of strategy mapping as a foundation towards organizational success is mainly attributed to its link to performance management and the establishment of value propositions. This article explains the process of strategy mapping and demonstrates how it relates to performance management and establishing value propositions.
Strategy Mapping and Balanced Scorecard:
The modern business world is characterized with crisis in strategy despite the ability of managers to develop good strategies. Therefore, the…
Armitage, H. & Scholey, C. (2007, March). Using Strategy Maps to Drive Performance.
Retrieved July 16, 2014, from http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ ImportedDocuments/Tech_MAG_Strategy_Mapping_March07.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Capital Budgeting and Cost of Capital
Capital budgeting is a multifaceted process that is crucial to good investment decisions by a business or company. This complicated process is defined as a procedure of determining whether an investment is beneficial or not. In essence, capital budgeting helps an organization or company to examine the attractiveness and profitability of an investment opportunity. During this process, companies have several opportunities, which are weighed depending on their potential for the purpose of making a comparison and choosing the most appropriate opportunity. Despite its complexity, capital budgeting is always used by companies as they seek to become more profitable through good investment decisions.
An example of a capital budgeting decision a company might need to make is the consideration of purchasing new equipment. A company may need to consider buying new equipment as part of its measures to enhance its production capacity. The expansion of…
Marzec, E. (n.d.). Three Primary Methods Used to Make Capital Budgeting Decisions. Retrieved April 26, 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-primary-methods-used-make-capital-budgeting-decisions-11570.html
Peavler, R. (n.d.). Internal Rate of Return -- A Capital Budgeting Decision Method. Retrieved April 26, 2015, from http://bizfinance.about.com/od/Capital-Budgeting/a/internal-rate-of-return.htm
Purchasing Process Flowchart
The organization is classified as a small business retail business in the beverage and food industry. Specifically, the business is an independently owned coffee roaster and coffee shop. The products sold by this merchant include coffee beans roasted in-house, hot and cold handcrafted coffee beverages, pastries, and hot and cold sandwiches. The target market for this business is primarily the people who work in the downtown area where the shop is located. This means that the target market accesses the products and services mainly during the weekdays when they are at work in the urban area characterized by mixed-use development. One target market segment lives and works in the urban area, while another major target market segment commutes to the urban area for work and may occasionally visit the museums, theatres, restaurants, and bars after hours or on weekends. The market niche that supports this business is…
E-Draw Flowcharts. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.edrawsoft.com/flowchart-examples.php
PC Magazine. (2010). Definistion of flow chart. Retrieved from http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/43329/flowchart
Quality Digest. (2014). Flowcharting: An essential tool. Retrieved from http://www.qualitydigest.com/jan98/html/flowchrt.html
FlowBreeze. (2008). Flowchart symbols and their meanings. Retreived from http://www.breezetree.com/article-excel-flowchart-shapes.htm
The author of this report has been asked to write a brief report relating to strategy mapping and hot it relates to performance management and the establishment of value propositions. The above touches on three important dimensions of any business and they should all be planned for accounted for in the best and most effective ways possible. The report below will explain this in more detail or all three dimensions.
Strategy mapping, in a nutshell, is the planning of a strategy from what it can do in theory and then extended to how profitable it can be in the future. Just because the strategy mapping process is started does not mean the project can or should go forward and it does not mean that the project would ever be profitable. All it means is that the path to potential path to profitability is being mapped out. It may…
CIMA. (2007, January 1). Management Accounting Guidelines. CIMA Global. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from ImportedDocuments"
Combined Milk Products Pty. Ltd. (CMP) is an organization based in Victoria that was established in the year 1963 by Peter Frost. The company started out as a local milk processing business for the dairy farmers and has now developed into a mixed-product company with a gross value amounting to millions of dollars. The firm has a strong penetration in the Australian market and is an evolving exporter. Michael Johnson has recently become the general manager of the company after the retirement of the founder Peter Frost. CMP can employ Web 2.0 applications for collaborating in order to engage with its consumers. Web 2.0 applications have proved to be of great importance and significance to any organization. Two of the Web 2.0 applications recommended for CMP are social networking websites and Web Application. By engaging in and making use of social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Google +…
Alqahtani, F.H., Watson, J. & Partridge, H., 2010. Users' Adoption of Web 2.0 for Knowledge Management: Position Paper. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Management. p. 19.
Brown, R., 2009. Public Relations and the Social Web: How to Use Social Media and Web 2.0 in Communications, Kogan Page. Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books/about/Public_Relations_and_the_Social_Web.html?id=b6zZAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1 [Accessed July 11, 2015].
Curry, B. & English, B., 2008. Business Intelligence with SharePoint and Excel. In Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 Best Practices. Microsoft Press, pp. 28 -- 36. Available at: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-gb/office/.
Flew, T., 2008. New Media: An Introduction, Oxford University Press. Available at: https://books.google.com/books?id=DajYGAAACAAJ&pgis=1 [Accessed July 11, 2015].
Reading is a complex process and as with most other cognitive processes there are generally two approaches considered when trying to understand it. A bottom-up process occurs when an individual takes the stimuli from the external environment, in this case letters and words, and attempts to process that information without referencing stored or higher -- level knowledge. A top-down process is guided by the person's prior knowledge and expectations. During top-down reading strategies whole words and phrases are comprehended based on prior experience. Reading has been proposed to be a procedure that uses both top-down and bottom-up processing in concert in order to extract meaning from the stimuli.
When an individual is reading a new or unfamiliar article there will still be quite a few familiar words. For instance, conjunctions such is "and" and familiar words such as "cat" will be recognized as whole words with specific meanings by the…
Ethical Decision Making Models
The case scenario given involves an attending physician who is caught up in a situation where two parents make conflicting decisions about their daughter and the doctor has the role of not only listening to the directions from the parents, but also saving the life of the child. The dilemma is that in the process of saving the lives of the child, she cannot ignore the advice that is given by the parents of the child since he needs their consent and direction to commence treatment.
The ethical dilemma here is that the physician has the moral obligation to listen to the parents for direction on what to do and doing otherwise could lead to legal prosecution, and yet the parents give mixed advice and the physician has to now make a decision on what to follow. Despite the fact that the mother is not the…
Cathy F., (2012). Major Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing. Retrieved July 22, 2015 from http://www.nursetogether.com/ethical-dilemmas-in-nursing
Lunenburg F.C., (2010). The Decision Making Process. National Forum of Educational administration and Supervision Journal Volume 27, Number 4, 2010. Retrieved July 22, 2015 from http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fred%20C.%20The%20Decision%20Making%20Process%20NFEASJ%20V27%20N4%202010.pdf
Medical reconciliation and process errors continue to be an integral aspect of waste within the healthcare industry. Technology, which is either antiquated or not properly integrated, has become cumbersome. This has created errors in processing that lowers customer service and delays treatment. The steps the often lead to error are simply and straightforward
Bring patient in or visit patient
Check paper work and blood group (ERRORS OCCUR WITH INPUTS AND PROCESSING HERE)
(Errors with lack of actual information checking)
(Errors occur with meds, amounts, and administering treatment)
Update Treatment Status
(Errors occur entering information properly)
Identification of possible prevention and recovery steps for the undesirable event
JCAHO will be surveying the agency in August of 2016. Quality must be improved prior to this survey. Prevention and recovery steps are both simple and straightforward. The general premise that underlines preventions is accountability. The organization must…
4. Research the supports the information provided
1. Blake, Martin; Wijetilaka, Shehan (2015). "5 tips to grow your start-up using SWOT analysis"
2. Ommani, Ahmad ( 2011). "SWOT analysis for business management" African Journal of Business Management: 9448-9454
processed foods and diet has had a negative effect upon many populations, particularly contributing to obesity and potential Type-II diabetes and a host of other problems. Medical doctors, scholars, researchers are all in agreement that there is a complete link between what we eat and drink, and the consequences to our overall health. Technology has certainly done wonders for learning, but has also contributed to children preferring video games to outdoor exercise. This, in combination with diet and sugary sodas at school has negatively impacted children's health. Dutch researchers in public health and epidemiology were so alarmed by these trends they developed a study to measure the effects of using fruits and vegetables as an intervention during mid-morning school breaks (Tak, et.al., 2010). These researchers are very well qualified on this topic, as they are professionals in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Public Health with major universities in Holland. The information contained…
Sample Selection- The study included 705 mixed gender children aged 9-10 years old in 4th grade. Fifty-five schools participated; 31 segmented for intervention and 24 as control. There were schools in five cities that met all participation criteria and there were slightly more girls who completed the study than boys. Enough extra participants were recruited during the initial stages of the study to result in the 705 completed; thus having a large enough population that was statistically viable and longitudinally appropriate. However, the Schoolgruiten research group selected the intervention cities, set the control parameters, and although there were baseline differences between the intervention and control groups, quantitatively speaking there was not necessary adequate adjustments for many demographic or psychographic variables within the study groups. From a quantitative perspective, a more clustering of variables (income, age of parent, educational level, and more) should have been structured into the study as opposed to using governmental mandates for certain groups (Halkidi and Vazirgaiannis, 2001). The research groups provided consent, teachers knew which groups had fruit and vegetable intervention, but the governance of the research was more administrative and political than scholarly in orientation.
Design and Data Collection- The design of the study was quasi-experimental and included a pre -- and post-test. Baseline measurements were conducted prior to the start of the intervention and the first follow-up was 1 year later, the second 2 years later. Both children and their parents completed questionnaires about the child's intake of food. Children completed the questionnaire within one school hour and were guided by teachers. All responses were treated confidentially, tagged and coded by independent researchers, and all had appropriate levels of consent. Questionnaires contained parallel questions for parents and children and a single item focus was done to see what the children brought to school vs. their consumption, then habits over the course of two years. Schools were not obliged to change their school policies, although teachers were asked to encourage students to bring fruits and vegetables and a specific section in a special lunch-box was given to students. The major focus of the intervention was to give a piece of fruit or vegetable (apple or orange slices, sherry tomatoes, baby carrots) free, twice a week during the mid-morning break in their own classroom, supervised by the instructor.
This approach used a mixed method of both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods. Because the data was self-reported, longitudinal, and some of the groups were chosen by a non-research body, much of the material measured was not precisely quantitative in nature. From a quantitative standpoint, the numeric analysis of this data did show patterns, and was validated through statistical means. It focused more on the aspects of collecting and analyzing the intervention methods than explaining the causative factors influencing the basic hypothesis of the research. Too, while the data
According to Dowdle, Stevens, & Daly (2007), process-based interventions reflect a particular organizational philosophy, namely that organizations exist as a series of processes which are designed to deliver value to the customer. The presumption is that by setting benchmarks for specific process improvements, the organization will be able to improve in efficiency, cost savings, and ultimately profitability. Processes are not separate from strategy but rather are an integral part of strategy (Rosam & Peddle 2008). Organizational change, however, is often a slow, incremental struggle and there is sobering evidence that attempts at organizational change often result in partial failures and an inability to meet established goals. The problem is often “change management consists of a (limited) set of interventions, which are regarded as objective, measurable and linearly manageable programs that can be realised in a relatively short time,” contrary to the substantial human as well as logistical challenges of making…
Decision-Making Process in Business Environment
The activity of decision-making may be defined as mental processes leading to the choosing of one alternative out of many.
All decision-making processes generate an ultimate choice.
Decision-making output may be a chosen view or action.
Broadly, decision-making represents a process of choosing between numerous alternatives and making a commitment to adopting some particular option for the future (Masood).
The Nature of Decision-Making
Successful decision-making, realizing where one has made the wrong choice, and being quick to respond to one's errors, forms a major component of corporate efficiency.
According to some scholars, decision-making constitutes the most elementary and salient of all the responsibilities of a manager.
The activity of decision-making relates most closely to the activity of planning.
But it also forms part of leadership, organization, and control (icaksana).
Decision-making entails six steps:
a. Problem Identification
• Need for explicitly outlining the issue…
Wicaksana, Seta. Decision-Making. 2013. Web. 8 Sept. 2016.
Chapter 9. Managerial Decision-Making. 2009. Web. 8 Sept. 2016
Masood, Aima. Decision-Making Process. 2013. Web. 8 Sept. 2016.
Critical thinking to me is a useful tool because it allows someone to deduce and interpret scenarios and the world around them. So much relies on making the right choices. From going to a good school to picking a worthwhile major, to who to marry. Everything happens in accordance to how one reacts and does things.
Critical thinking enables a more effective thought process. It promotes asking questions and a desire to see the "whole picture." If one does not try to see things from a varied perspective, one misses what the actual meaning behind something is since subjectivity differs from reality. Various authors like Bedau and Barnet, Chaffee, McMahon and Stout, and Facione will highlight what critical thinking is to them and how one may apply critical thinking to their own contemplations and writing. I define critical thinking as a means of connecting and interpreting thoughts and concepts.
Barnet, Sylvan, and Hugo Adam Bedau. Current Issues And Enduring Questions. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2014. Print.
Chaffee, John, Christine McMahon, and Barbara Stout. Critical Thinking, Thoughtful Writing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1999. Print.
Facione, Peter A. Critical Thinking. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press, 1998. Print.
How is process improvement important to achieving transportation excellence? How might process improvement be extended to other areas of logistics planning?
Process improvements are predicated on cost reduction. Costs, irrespective of company size, often hinder business progress as company profit growth is inhibited. Through the use of process improvements, company's can achieve efficiencies they otherwise may not have attained due to system optimization. Process improvements can come in a litany of different forms depending on the size of the company and the industry in which it operates. For large companies in commodity businesses, process improvements are integral in reducing overall product prices. In commodity businesses with little differentiation, cost is ultimately the determining factor in regards to consumer purchasing behavior. A consumer shopping for an apple for instance is concerned with the overall price of the apple rather than any differentiating factor. As such, the producers of this commodity…
1) Harrington, H.J. (et al.) (1997). "Business process improvement workbook: documentation, analysis, design, and management of business process improvement." McGraw-Hill. Retrieved March 16, 2012. ISBN 0-07-026779-0
2) Kock, Nereu F. (et al.) (1994). The nature of data, information and knowledge exchanges in business processes: implications for process improvement and organizational learning.
This should always be the case and bad things will happen again if Toyota stumbles. The fact that Toyota is not a domestic car maker will be used against them by opportunists.
A struggle that has been encountered by many car makers is the "complex web" (as the case study calls it) of dealers, parts suppliers, offices and so forth that have to be managed when running a car company. Toyota has nearly nine thousand employees in the United States alone and they (as well as the dealers) are strewn across the United States.
The management of inventories, parts and customer support in general needs to be as complex as it needs to be but it should not be made less simple than it can be. Building up the corporate morass of bureaucracy is idea because it limits the company's ability to react to crises, such as the…
Yahoo. (2013, February 24). TM Profile | Toyota Motor Corporation Common Stock - Yahoo! Finance. Yahoo! Finance - Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=TM+Profile
Yahoo. (2013, February 24). TM: Summary for Toyota Motor Corporation Common- Yahoo! Finance. Yahoo! Finance - Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=TM
Yahoo. (2013, February 24). TM Key Statistics | Toyota Motor Corporation Common Stock - Yahoo! Finance. Yahoo! Finance - Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/ks?s=TM+Key+Statistics
Yahoo. (2013, February 24). TM Competitors | Toyota Motor Corporation Common Stock - Yahoo! Finance. Yahoo! Finance - Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/co?s=TM+Competitors
The second area of waste is seen when the customer is asked if they want help for a new product or an existing product, where there is an exiting product query the costumer is taken to a different member of staff. This occurs despite the fact most of the staff have a very good knowledge f the existing products, undertaken as part of their training. This also increases the complexity and staffing requirements of the scheduling to ensure both sections of the store are staffed. It may create a disjointed feeling for the customers who have a query on an existing product; it also increases the costs due to the staff arrangements and lack of inter-changeability when the staff are working.
The last area of inefficiency is seen when a sale is made. If the customer wants a printed receipt it is sent wireless from the hand held sales unit…
In the improved process each of the inefficiencies are improved. The smallest change is with the first weakness, where customers are left alone. A simple change here will be with the sales staff simply informing the customer that if they need help just to let them know; a simple, but small change.
The second change is the biggest change. In the new process once a customer is asked of they would like some help and they tell the sales person what help they need, they are then able to help the customer regardless of whether it is for a sale or for support on an existing product. In the majority of cases the sales people can help, this will reduce the need to differentiate the staff on each shift between sales and support, as they have had the same training. The empowerment of the staff in this way may also increase motivation, as they are able to do more (Mathis and Jackson, 2010). It may also reduce the wasted labor needed to staff
resource ownership, namely a process that includes a virtual address space to hold the process image. he process is the key to the system. Each process is constantly in one of three stages: Ready, Running, or Blocked. he operating system keeps track of its state and manages its movement amongst the various states. It is in charge of operating, managing, and terminating the various processes as well as seeing that its activities are coordinated, managing conflicting demands, and allocating system resources to the processes. A running process can also be interrupted either by an even outside the process (an "interrupt') or by execution of the operating system.
he two main elements of the process are the program code and the set of data that is connected with that code. Every process also contains the following elements:
Identifier -- a unique tag that separates it from other processes
State -- i.e.…
The other sort of resource that can become deadlocked is consumable resource, which can be engineered and removed, such as signals or messages. Deadlock occurs if a signal (for instnace0 is obstructed so that it cannot be received. There is no single system that can remove all the different types of deadlocks that can possibly occur and the best way is prevention, in other words designing a system in such a way that none of the 4 conditions of deadlock can occur. Deadlock avoidance can also be practiced where three conditions for the deadlock situation may be allowed to exist, but the user endeavors to ascertain that a deadlock situation will not occur. Finally, detection too can be used where the user wishes to check for deadlock in order to take action to break it (Stalings, 269)
Stalings, W. (2009). Operating systems: Internals and design principles, 6th ed. Prentice Hall.
The Selection Process for Aspirant State Police Officers
Becoming a police officer at the state level requires dedication, courage and tenacity. Indeed, the process for state officers can often be more streamlined, bureaucratic and selective than that engaged at the municipal or local levels. Therefore, becoming a State Trooper will call for a commitment to the recruitment, preparation, testing, and training processes that are streamlined and specific to each state. As the discussion here shows, there are a number of eligibility requirements, guidelines and expectations which can help the aspirant officer navigate the process.
According to the Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC), the process of being hired into a department as a state level officer can actually take up to 9 months. This is because of the lengthy testing, monitoring and training periods which follow the acceptance of the candidate's application. According to the LEPC, "the requirements to…
Indiana State Police (ISP). (2009). State Troopers. In.gov.
Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC). (2010). How To Become a Police Officer in Your State. Passthepolicetest.com.
Learning Express Editors (LEE). (2010). Becoming a Police Officer: The Selection Process. Education.com.
Federal Procurement Process
Highly publicized incidents such as the federal government purchasing at $500 hammer or $2,500 toilet seat continue to capture headlines as examples of a federal procurement process gone awry, but these notorious examples have become few and far between in recent years, due in large part to significant reforms such as the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 that minimized some of these problems. Despite these substantive reforms, the federal government continues to receive criticisms concerning the manner in which it administers the procurement process. In order to gain new insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to describe the legal and administrative framework and socio-economic considerations of the federal procurement process. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
At present, federal procurement contracts are governed by a number of…
Farazmand, A. (2001). Privatization or public enterprise reform? International case studies with implications for public management. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Nou, J. (2009). Privatizing democracy: Promoting election integrity through procurement contracts. Yale Law Journal, 118(4), 744.
Sparks, H.C. & Wichmann, H. (2007). Help clients get government contracts: Quick, who is the biggest customer in the world? Journal of Accountancy, 203(3), 32-34.
Any department adopting the civil service procedure to hire is expected to use a hiring ratio, which in most cases is based on criteria that are non-objective. In conjunction with the civil service process, a federal process known as the affirmative action is used, and its main aim is to ensure there are no gender discriminations or biases in relation of ethnic background. it, therefore, helps in transparency during the selection of law enforcement officers. The police agencies should be ready to abide to these criteria for them to acquire the best workforce (Bagley, 2007).
The issues of promotions in the police workforce are also determined by the civil service agency, and the police departments hardly have any mandate to promote their employees. After a certain study, there was a revelation that over 80% of the police bodies and departments in most of the cities, including Iowa, were under the…
Kotchegura, a. (2008) Civil Service Reform in Post-Communist Countries: Netherlands, Amsterdam University Press.
Bagley, P.D. (2007) the Everything Guide to Careers in Law Enforcement: A Complete Handbook: New York, Everything Books.
Cordner, G.W. & Scarborough, K.E. (2010) Police Administration: New York, Elsevier.
Richard, M.A., Emener, W.G. & Hutchison, W.S. Jr. (2009) Employee Assistance Programs: Wellness/Enhancement Programming: New York, Charles C. Thomas Publishers.
Process map the "current" situation or process for completing new JPF policy applications. Highlight and color code the different kinds of MUDA that exist(ed) in the process and describe how the MUDA impacted quality, cost and customer satisfaction.
Transportation -- the processes were set up in functional departments as opposed to trying to create a value chain. As a result, office mail had to move files to various floors creating inefficiencies in file transportation.
Inventory -- Inventory (applications for service) was processed in large batches and contained a mix of different complexities of applications. Thus inventory would build up and not flow.
M: Motion -- Due to the large batches, the motion of the process was intermittent and ineffective. There was no flow through the processes until this was recognized.
W: Wait -- Since some applications required more work than others and these were not separated, the easier…
international business expansion process.
International recruitment and selection brings a number of challenges for business organizations. They not only face difficulties in hiring the desired skillful staff from the host country, but may also have to deal with severe financial and cultural diversity issues. Through this research study, an effort has been made to highlight the major challenges and issues which make the international recruitment and selection process more complex and challenging for multinational organization.
The research report starts with an ample introduction to the esearch question and proceeds by highlighting the core objectives of the research study. The research question clearly states the major objective of this research study in a quite precise and succinct manner. The most important section of the research report is Literature review which has been written after a comprehensive research from a number of academic and industry journal articles and books; most of which…
Ashamalla, M.H. 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63.
Andeason, A.W. 2003, Expatriate Adjustment to Foreign Assignments. The International 6 tyJournal of Commerce and Management, 13 (1): 42-60.
Andersen, T.M., & Svarer, M. 2006, Flexicurity -- the Danish Labor Market Model. Available from [Accessed July 26th, 2012]
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813 -- 816.
Statistical Process Control
Activities in Daily outine
Application of Statistical Process Control and Solving the Problem
(a) Statistical Process Control: X-bar Charts
(b) Weekly Morning Time Utilization Chart
Observations from the chart
Effect of Seasonal Factors
Usefulness of Confidence Intervals
This paper is on process control of activities that happen on daily basis. Statistical Process Control (SPC) involves application of statistical methods and procedures (such as control charts) to analyze the inherent variability of a process or its outputs to achieve and maintain a state of statistical control, and to improve the capability, also called statistical quality control . (Business Dictionary, 2010). The total time taken from waking up till reaching the office after going through various chores is 85 minutes. The person wants to cut it down to 60 minutes. He thinks of foregoing his leisurely sipping of coffee and watching news for 20 minutes and substitute…
[1.] Business Dictionary (2010). Retrieved August 30, 2012 from www.businessdictionary.com [2.]"Statistical Process Control: Process and Quality Views"(2008) Retrieved August 30, 2012 from http://www.cheresources.com/spczz.shtml [3.]"Statistical Tutorial: Confidence Intervals"(2010) Retrieved August 30, 2012 from http://stattrek.com/AP-Statistics-4/Confidence-Interval.aspx?Tutorial=Stat
[4.] Umarporn Charusombat & Andy Sabalowsky (1997) "Confidence intervals, Tolerance Intervals and Prediction intervals" Retrieved August 30, 2012 from http://www.cee.vt.edu/ewr/environmental/teach/smprimer/intervals/interval.html#appc [5.] Chase, R.B., Jacobs, F.R., & Aquilano, N.J. (2006). Operations management for competitive advantage (11th ed). New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin
[6.]Cook, Sarah (1996). Process Improvement: A Handbook for managers. Retrieved from http://books.google.com / [7.] Bob Raczynski and Bill Curtis (2008) Software Data Violate SPC's Underlying Assumptions, IEEE Software, May/June 2008, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 49-51
[8.] Paul H. Selden (1997). Sales Process Engineering: A Personal Workshop. Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press.
Information System Briefing
the Process of selecting & acquiring an Information System (IS) for Healthcare:
Any medical organization planning to go for an IS must choose an efficient Electronic Patient ecord -- EP which is the starting point of any computerized system. Effectiveness of the following points must drive the process of selection and acquisition of an IS. These are (i) Patient care which is the documented record of every patient undergoing process at the medical care unit. (ii) Communication: Patient records constitute and important means through which doctors, nurses and other are able to communicate with one another regarding patient requirements. (iii) Legal documentation: Legal documentation is important as these keep track document care as well as treatment, can become legal records. (iv) Billing and reimbursement: Patient record delivers the documentation which is used by patients to verify billed services. (v) esearch and quality management: Patient records are used…
Anderson, James. G; Aydin, Carolyn. (2005) "Evaluating the Organizational Impact of Healthcare Information Systems" Springer.
Keshavjee, K; Bosomworth, J; Copen, J. (2006) "Best practices in EMR implementation"
AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2006; 2006: 982. compete-study.com [PDF]
Wager, Karen A; Lee, Frances W; Glase, John P. (2009) "Healthcare Information System -- A
Nike's Marketing Process:
Marketing is generally defined as a social process through which individuals and groups acquire what they need by developing and exchanging products and services with others. This process involves planning, evaluation, execution, and management of programs that are developed keenly to facilitate free transfer of values with the intended audience to accomplish the objectives of the business. The success of any private or public company is dependent on its core marketing concepts and the various elements of the marketing process. One of the major examples of a public limited company that has demonstrated superb marketing skills is Nike. The firm's marketing skills have emerged from the fact that it has developed the ever-present swoosh into one of widely recognized brand symbols across the globe.
Nike's Marketing Concepts and Marketing Process:
As previously mentioned, Nike's superb marketing skills are evident through the power of its logo and brand…
Bhasin, H 2010, Marketing Mix Nike, Marketing 91, viewed 26 December 2012,
Chow, R 2012, International vs. Domestic Marketing, Business Master, viewed 26 December
map, process chain) ScrewFast Inc. ( information case instructions Slack, "Operations Management," Chapter 5 flow charts) • Analyze interfaces departments ( case instructions) • Prepare a flow chart redesigned process • Provide detailed recommendations improvement ScrewFast Inc.
Screw Fast Inc. is a global company of screws and nuts and it is currently looking to restructure its processes and to improve its operations. The current project addresses this need by forwarding several recommendations.
Process flow chart
The chart below reveals the structure of the processes completed at Screw Fast Inc., and the lines below explain the flow chart.
The first process at Crew Fast Inc. is that of registering the orders, step which is completed with the aid of Customer Master Data and Article Master Data systems.
The new orders are processed based on the nature of the products demanded. Standardized products are ordered by the warehouse and non-standardized…
Case study of Screw Fast Inc. In Management Results
Applying Statistical Process Control Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
The use of applied statistics in studying a pharmaceutical manufacturing process is examined in the work of Tiani (2004) reports that health care quality is critically important in society and the quality of health care is important to all individuals. It is important that treatment is given in an accurate manner and this is particularly true of medications given to patients as it is expected that "the bottle of medicine has the specified number of tablets and that each tablet contains the specified quantity of the correct drug." (Tiani, 2004)
Legal and Regulatory Framework
There are legal and regulatory requirements set out in the law of the United States that the quality of medications be controlled in the pharmaceutical industry. The regulations are contained in federal statutes and outline "a quality control functions that emphasizes inspection and defect detection, and pharmaceutical quality control technology."…
Shanley, Agnes (2011) No Time for Process Control? PharmaManufacturing Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/articles/2010/123.html?page=full
Janardhan, 2011, Pala Bashanam (2011) Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Embracing Process Analytical Technology. Pharma Focus Asia. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmafocusasia.com/manufacturing/pharmaceutical_manufacturing_pat.htm
Moore, V (2003) Statistical Process Control. Chapter 24 9 Apr 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/marson/360chapter24.pdf
Guidance for Industry Process Validation: General Principles and Practices (2011) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Jan 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/wp_downloads/pdf/FDAProcessValidationJan2011.pdf
The last step is rating the elements on the constructs based on a 5, 7 or 10 point rating system Smith, 1980()
Another method is work sampling whereby the proportion of time a worker spends on a particular activity such as fixing a machine or designing a new system is measured. Hierarchical task analysis is another method and it involves giving a description of the performance of the employee based on the organization's hierarchy. This method involves describing the interactions between the employee, their supervisor and other managers in the hierarchy Shepherd, 1985()
Problems with job analysis
The job analysis process involves a variety of methods, detailed plans, tools and human effort which makes it prone to problems and challenges. One major problem that comes with job analyses is the lack of support by the management team. This is a huge problem that arises when the job analyst is unable…
Carter, R.C., & Biersner, R.J. (1987). Job requirements derived from the Position Analysis Questionnaire and validated using military aptitude test scores*. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60(4), 311-321. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1987.tb00263.x
Dessler, G., Griffilhs, J., & Lloyd-Walker, B. (2007). Human resource management: Theory, skills & application (3rd ed.). Australia: Pearson.
Muchinsky, P.M. (2011). Psychology Applied to Work. Summerfield, NC: Hypergraphic Press.
Nel, P., Plessis, A. d., Fazey, M., Erwee, R., Pillay, S., Mackinnon, B.H., . . . Millet, B. (2012). Human Resource Management in Australia and New Zealand. Victoria, Australia: OUP Australia & New Zealand
planning process. The roles played by the employees, managers and organizations in the development planning process are also being highlighted in this paper. In addition to that, the impact of e-learning on the employee training and development process has also been discussed in the preceding paper.
Today in the present world, the companies' structure has changed and more innovative methods are in demand for the training and development of the employees. Training and development is an important part of the company's operation. Training and development provide the employees with an ability to learn the job and off the job new techniques. It also enables the employees to adapt new abilities through planned schedules. This provides the basis for the prosperity and growth of the company, and the other stakeholders as well. ("Managing and developing," 2005)
Development planning process consists of six major steps which are, the realization of the opportunity…
Brigham Young University-Idaho, Human Resource Department. (2005). Managing and developing employees. Retrieved from Brigham Young University-Idaho website: http://www.byui.edu/Documents/human-resources/ManagingandDeveloping.pdf
Noe, R.A. (2010). Employee training and development. (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.
Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…
Latchman, D. (2009). Eukoryotic Transcription Process. New York: Cengage Learning.
Alvis, F. (2010). New Approach to Translation Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Singer, M. (2011). Genes and Genomes. New York: Cengage Learning.
Campbell, M. (2009). Biochemistry. London: Oxford University Press.
logistic processes of Wal-Mart that can be improved over a course of short time span. The three processes which are identified for this assignment are discussed in detail with the recommendations to improve performance of the overall organization.
The organization that has been chosen for this project is Wal-Mart. It is an American retail corporation that operates on a global level. Wal-Mart is a large warehouse store and operates a number of large retail chain stores all over the world. Wal-Mart is chosen for this assignment because it is one of the largest public corporations and employs around two million people all over the world. It is indeed the biggest retailer in the world. Wal-Mart is one of the most valuable businesses in the world despite the recent decline in their profits in some of the global operations.
Wal-Mart was founded in the year 1962 by Sam Walton. It was…
Norman, Al (2004). "The Case Against Wal-Mart." Raphel Marketing, p. 7.
Smith, H. (2006). Who Calls the Shots in the Global Economy?. PBS.
Will, G. (2006). "Democrats Vs. Wal-Mart." The Washington Post.
Criminal Law Due Process
Due process is an essential guarantee of basic fairness for citizens based on law. It has two basic goals; to produce accurate results through fair procedure to prevent wrongful deprivation of interests and to make people feel the government treated them fairly by listening to their side of the story (Procedural Due Process). Due process requires fair procedures when governments take actions against citizens, whether it is the federal government or a state government that is taking action.
Due process is divided into two categories, substantive due process and procedural due process (Due Process of Law - Substantive due Process, Procedural Due Process, Further Reading, 2013). Substantive law creates, defines, and regulates rights. Substantive due process makes the laws that give rights to citizens by due processes. Procedural law enforces those rights or seeks redress for violation of those rights. Evidence presented against a citizen will…
Criminal Procedure. (2010, August 19). Retrieved from Cornell University Law School: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/criminal_procedure
Due Process of Law - Substantive due Process, Procedural Due Process, Further Reading. (2013). Retrieved from JRank: http://law.jrank.org/pages/6315/Due-Process-Law.html
Fifth Amendment. (n.d.). Retrieved from Cornell University Law School: http://www.law.cornell.edu/we/fifth_amendment
Procedural Due Process. (n.d.). Retrieved from University of Missouri: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/proceduraldueprocess.html
intelligence analysis process have been discussed. This paper puts light on what basically is intelligence analysis and how can it be improved. It discusses ways via which intelligence analysis can be made more focused and more effective. It puts light on how better sharing and provision of information, collection and analysis of correct data and fact and figures can benefit the intelligence analysis process.
This paper also puts light on different psychological issues that are being faced by intelligence analysts and it also examines the ways through which analysts can overcome such hurdles.
Before discussing how to improve intelligence analysis it is necessary to have proper understanding of the terms intelligence and analysis. Intelligence can be defined as an information which has added value in it whereas analysis is a process via which you can evaluate your intelligence, it helps you to understand a situation and then to…
Federation of American Scientists. (1996). Improving Intelligence Analysis. USA: FAS. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/int012.html .
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. (2011). Criminal Intelligence. New York: UNODC. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.unodc.org/documents/organized-crime/Law-Enforcement/Criminal_Intelligence_for_Analysts.pdf .
Heuer, R.J. (1999). Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. USA: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 21, 2012 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/PsychofIntelNew.pdf .
Heuer, R.J. (2005). Limits of Intelligence Analysis. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.worldaffairsboard.com/attachments/staff-college/20727d1273228985-ebo-sod-limits-intelligence-analysis-fpri-winter-2005-heurer-.pdf.
Presidential Disaster Declaration Process
Preparedness and Mitigation from Disasters in the Twentieth Century
Numerous disasters have always brought intensive destruction to the environment and human lives over the years. The twentieth century, however, has experienced rather greater disasters, which have called for intervention through ensuring mitigation and preparedness. The presidential disaster declaration process is aimed at fulfilling the ambitions of preparing for disasters. These disasters include both the man-made and natural ones, ranging from the outbreak of fires, contagious diseases that need extreme control, earthquakes and hurricanes, the nightmare of global warming, political instability and many others. The essay evaluates analytically, the need for preparedness through the presidential disaster declaration process, which is a strategy to getting assistance. The evolution of the process in the twentieth century to strengthen hazard management is also discussed in the content.
I. What is the presidential disaster declaration (PDD) process?
Bellamy, J.S. (2009) Cleverland's Greatest Disasters!: 16 Tragic True Tales of Death and Destruction: New York: Gray and Company.
Ec-Council (2010) Disaster Recovery: New York, Cengage Learning.
Kapucu, N. & Alpaslan, Z. (2011) Managing Emergencies and Crises: MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing.
Oliver, J. & Aldcroft, H.D. (2007) Economic Disasters of the Twentieth Century: New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.
SMEs Internationalization Process
TADITIONAL MAKETING APPOACH
Uppsala model (the classical model)
EXPOT ENTY MODES
INTEMEDIATE ENTY MODES
Hierarchical entry modes
Traditional Marketing Approach:
An American born British economist, Edith Elura Penrose has described the traditional marketing approach in his exceptional work "The Theory of the Growth of the Firm." The writer has described how the firm grows and how effectively and efficiently it can grow at a faster pace. Penrose had participated in a research which reviewed the growth of the firms. After the through research she found out that the theory which existed at that time related to the growth of the firms was not sufficient enough to clarify the growth of the firms. The growth of the firm which is in theory is different from the practical circumstances that the firms have…
Root, Franklin R. (1994), Entry Strategies for International markets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Yoshino, M.Y.; Rangan, U.S. (1995), Strategic alliances: an entrepreneurial approach to globalization, Harvard Business Press
Foley, J. (1999), The Global Entrepreneur: taking your business international Age, Dearborn,
Hoy, F.; Stanworth, J. (2003), Franchising: an international perspective, Routledge
Sometimes, only network design enhancements are needed for existing networks that are still functional.
Characterizing the network infrastructure is the next step in designing a new network. To be able to develop a network map, different methods must be used. It is possible to figure out the architecture of the existing network by locating the cabling in the physical environment (Oppenheimer, 1998). The accessibility to major hosts and storage spaces can also be determined by taking a good look at the physical set up of the network. The location of the major internetworking devices as well as network segments is very important. All cables and their types or uses should be documented. The lengths of the cables are also important in order to be able to check the quality of connections. Environmental constraints can be seen within the physical environment of the network.
Developing a network map can only be…
Farr R.E. (1988). Telecommunications Traffic, Tariffs and Costs -- an Introduction for
Managers. New York: Peter Peregrinus Ltd.
Oppenheimer, P. (1998). Top-down Network Design. Cisco Press. Indianapolis: Macmillan
Industrialization in America
The process of industrialization can be categorized as the first step towards a social and economic transformation which affected the whole world in ways beyond comprehension. In a nutshell, the world we live in today was nowhere near what it is today before industrialization changed the face of the world. America too greatly adapted to this change and saw itself changing and advancing in the face of the new inventions and advancements. However, with the benefits of the phenomenon came some drawbacks which could not be ignored. The next sections focus on two ways in which industrialization proved to be a blessing for the Americans as well as two ways that it created problems (Alonso, 1994).
One industry that saw phenomenal changes after industrialization came about was the American agricultural industry. The farming techniques became greatly advanced and mechanization made things much easier and reduced the…
Alonso, I.T. (1994). Trade, Industrialization and Integration in the 20th-Century Central America. Praeger Publications.
Amsden, A.H. (2000). The Rise of the Rest: Challenges to the West from Late-Industrialization Economies. Oxford University Press.
Walker, R. (2004). The roots of American Industrialization. The Geographical Review .
management process. Also, I will give a personal example of how I would incorporate that task into my ideal position of a food service manager. Lawn (2013) suggested that the food service industry should be an important market to make significant gains in the near future. He reported that "foodservice in business and industry has recovered from the recessions doldrums and performed and should also grow significantly in 2013. " This exercise is practical examination of this industry and how management processes can make real and effective changes towards an organization's performance.
Planning is very important part of the management process. It is the basis of which all of the other steps grow from. Planning means to have a long-term goal or objective. ith that objective in mind, plans should be systems of action that support the organization reaching those goals. Planning should be customized to meet the unique…
Lawn, J. (2013). FM 2013 Foodservice Market Outlook. Food Management, 11 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://food-management.com/colleges-amp-universities/fm-2013 - foodservice-market-outlook
United States Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook. "Food Service Managers." Viewed 14 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/food-service - managers.htm
Vasilion, L. (2005). Emerging Trends in Food Service. Dietary Manager, October 2005. Retrieved from http://www.anfponline.org/Publications/articles/2005_10_074Trends.pdf
diffusion process? Briefly describe the individuals who make up each grou
The first stage of a diffusion process is the awareness stage. In this stage the consumer becomes aware or informed about the existence of a new innovation. However this group of individuals is only know about the existence of the idea such as a brand name but do not know any further details about the product or the idea. The second stage is of interest where an individual shows interest in knowing more about the idea and how will it be useful to him. In the evaluation stage the customer applies the idea mentally to his situation and evaluates as to what degree is the idea or the product useful to him. In the trial stage, the individuals use the idea or the product but only for experimental purposes. If the individuals are satisfied after using the product in…
Burke, M.A., Fournier, G.M., & Prasad, K. (2007). The Diffusion of a Medical Innovation: Is Success in the Stars?. Southern Economic Journal, 73(3), 588+. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5019432466' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.
Types of Cognitive Processes
The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.
Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)
Judgment -- (Thinking…
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Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.
Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17
Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
Strategic Management Process
Strategic management entails the steps taken and combination of managerial decisions which sums up the future performance of a particular company. It entails the four pillars of management. The strategic plans give a framework for the entire company to not only use but also apply. The strategic management consists of steps that shape up the implementation, strategic planning as well as evaluation (Wheelen and Hunger, 2004).
First step: The initial step is to decide the mission of the company and its aims and objectives. Each company requires a mission. When the aims and objectives of an organization are crystal clear, then the managers can work with identifying the viability of its services and products. The managers also need to recognize the goals put in effect at present and strategies being worked upon. The aims and objectives of a company can decide the criteria for performance that employees…
Wheelen, T. And Hunger, D. (2004).Strategic Management and Business Policy.Prentice & Hall, New Jersey.
Knight, B. (2008).Strategic management of British Airways Company. Retrieved on November 10, 2013: from http://bizcovering.com/business/strategic-management-of-british-airways-company/
Wheelen, T. And Hunger, J.(2007). Concepts in strategic management and business policy: Achieving sustainability. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Alter the Forensic Dynamics during an Interviewing Process
In this paper, we reveal how professional's attitudes, views, and knowledge do not necessarily match forensic research findings. Witness issues will then be discussed concerning research community. The study identifies some of the key factors that can alter or improve forensic dynamics during the interviewing process. This study focuses primarily on forensic dynamics relating to the interviewing young children and the associated challenges.
Expert knowledge and attitudes
It has been proven that professionals and social researchers (biased) towards information confirming their initial beliefs by refuting established opinions. Once established, beliefs and impressions challenged to contrary proof. Thus, belief systems and generalization can create a confirmation prejudice that may result in faulty understanding and wrong presentation, adversely affecting important decisions. egarding child victimization situations, such prejudice may result in dramatic repercussions presenting a serious risk to a person's legal rights or presenting a…
Bull, R., Valentine, T., & Williamson, T. (2009). Handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing: Current developments and future directions. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
The methodology used was to study a selected group of children. While the results are useful in examining this cognitive process, it could also be argued that the group was too small to make general assessments and that further studies would have to be undertaken to compare the results of this study over a wider range of children. This would also take into account other variables such as ethnic group etc.
The study of cognitive process provides us with valuable insight into the way that children and adults perceive the word around them. The way that we perceive, filter and retain our reality plays a vital part in the way that we react and behave and in our personal development. The issues of perception, sensory memory and social cognitive factors all play a cardinal role in human development. The more that we study and understand the various…
Cropley, A.J. (1999). Creativity and Cognition: Producing Effective Novelty'. Roeper Review, 21(4), 253. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5001272839' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
An effective logistics strategy is crucial for an organization that operates in the business of providing a range of products and services. The logistics strategy is important for such organizations because of its role in the company's health in relation to maintaining service levels at the highest levels at all times. The strategy is also vital for bigger companies with complex organizational and operational structures in order to ensure an effective and efficient supply chain management system. In this case, logistics is a term that refers to the network of systems or processes that control the flow of resources from one company to another through a supply chain or production process. As the increased competition has become a characteristic of modern business world, companies have been forced to change their approaches towards supplying products and services to customers. This change of focus has made logistics personnel and departments to…
Biondo, K. (2013, July). Business Process Improvement? Flexibility. Retrieved July 9, 2014,
Rodrigues, E.J., Alexandrino, P.A., & Carvalho, M.S. (2013, July 5). Implementation of a Logistics Process Improvement System -- a Case Study. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, 1, 1-5. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from http://www.iaeng.org/publication/WCE2013/WCE2013_pp470-474.pdf
The areas where there is a divergence from the desired outcomes can then be examined to identify why there is a divergence and assess how that divergence may be decreased (Breygogle et al., 2001).
Different approaches to implementation of 6 Sigma exist, DMIAC is one of these, with the different stages being define, measure, analyze, design and verify.
The definition of the issue for Riordan is how to improve the supply chain. It is a key aspect of the firms' ability to manufacture fans, if there are delays in the supply of goods there will be delis in manufacturing. As the firm has a level supply strategy for the majorly of the products, and goods are supplied out of stock when they are ordered, a delay due to supply chain issues may create delays in supplying customers,. Furthermore, to overcome this, the firm may need to invest more…
Influences on the Communication Process
Communication takes in many ways and for many reasons; the communication itself may also be impacted by many influences. To understand the process it is necessary to look at both the reasons for communication and the influences that may impact that communication.
There are three main purposes for communication; information, persuasion, and motivation. Although each of the different purposes will be examined separately, it should be remembered that in many cases a single message may include more than one purpose as the processes are not mutually exclusive (osengren, 1999).
Information may be seen as the most recognized communication purpose; it takes place on many ways, where information is communicated in many different types of scenarios'. For example, employers may communicate with employees to tell them of their job requirements, changes to the job requirements, or changes in goals. Information communication is also seen with…
Rosengren, Karl Erik, (1999), Communication: An Introduction, Sage Publications
Thompson, Neil, (2011), Effective Communication, Palgrave Macmillan
Another example of pure job costing is web development, where the processes themselves vary hugely from project to project, meaning the cost and time involved also varies.
Dosch & Wilson (2010) do seem to do a good job of defining job and process costing, and the person who posted this seems to have understood these definitions fairly well in the abstract -- that is, the definitions provided seem reasonable and the application of these definitions to businesses chosen by the poster are explained in a way that clearly links them to these definition. At the same, the poster seems to have had some trouble accurately identifying companies where job costing might be employed, despite grasping the abstract technicalities of the definition of job costing. While it is likely that an individual laborer might be able to identify that they worked on a particular section of an airplane or wall…
Chan, Y. (1993). Improving hospital cost accounting with activity-based costing. Health care management review 18(1).
Dosch, J., & Wilson, J. (2010). Process Costing and Management Accounting in Today's
Business Environment. Strategic Finance, 92(2), 37-43. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
The main hazards related to LNG include:
upture due to Corrosion
upture while excavation
upture while excavation
upture during an earthquake
upture due to mechanical failure
upture at compressor
upture at inspection stations
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Blow-out of gas at head and subsequent fire
Gas leak from infrastructure
Fire involving combustible
LPG or Diesel
Diesel pump fire involving equipment brittle fracture valve Leaks
Welding failure welding casting failure
Mechanical overstressing of equipment Vibration
Failure due to external loading or impact
Underground pipe rupture of transmission pipeline
Pipe rupture at main line valve sites.
upture of adjacent gas pipeline
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Gas leak from pipeline infrastructure
Drop of pipe from pipe lifts
Accommodation fire involving combustible construction LPG or Diesel
Diesel fire involving mobile fuel tanker
Uncontrolled release of LNG
Uncontrolled release of refrigerant gas
Uncontrolled release of by- product…
Acutech Consulting (2009). The HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) Method
American Petroleum Institute (August 2009). Analysis of U.S. Oil Spillage. p26