Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking
Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking
Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been demonstrated possible, and thus the behavior carries risk. If unpleasant consequences become probable or the only option, psychology could contribute explanation as to why individuals repeat costly and unpleasant / dis-satisfying behavior patterns.
This applies particularly to new drinkers because they don't have a prior source of reference yet. They may have heard about or know people who have suffered consequences from drinking too much but this is secondary experience and many more people do not suffer consequences so by definition a new drinker does not have first-hand negative experience. This core epistemological constraint of not knowing what one does not know, requires they must have...
5), but cannot assess the functional value of something they have not experienced yet? Therefore habit entails either an initial desire for perceived benefits or a first accidental, "fortuitous" (Bandura, 1999, p. 11) experience, which then become perpetuated through agent-environment reciprocity. If the first experience was unpleasant some personalities may crave those as second-best substitutes. Therefore habit begins when pleasurable and for some even negative consequences result from some fortuitous fact-finding incident. Bandura (and thus social cognitive behaviorism, largely) calls this "triadic reciprocal causation" (1999, p. 5), where agents encounter, select and create different aspects of their environment rather than simply respond to unidirectional external stimuli (determinism).
Consensus generally accepts belonging as a plausible possible motivator for the functionally similar population 'new / young drinkers aged around twenty,' for which my example provides a potential case study. Other plausible justifications include stress relief and desire for new or reinforcing situations but if a drinker is new then there can be no reinforcement without an initial precedential experience. With new drinkers (who match the case), belonging becomes associated with contextual factors and so those come to represent or become associated with factors that transmit successful belonging satisfaction (Oullette & Wood, 1998, p. 835). This process leads to nonvolitional (habit) response, particularly if the increasing probability of negative consequences resulting from a growing sample of experiences reduces the intensity of belonging reward. Thus occurs a transference from specific individuals onto the settings and referentiality of the once-pleasurable experience and, as substitutes were necessarily pursued less often given the exclusive social drinking time, there would be…
Problem Solving: There are times when the patient can find himself in a situation, which may present problems for the recovering alcoholic. For this reason, these patients are taught a series of techniques to determine the correct solution of a given problem. The training involves a number of simulated scenarios and the patient is made to come up with moral solution to resolve the situation. This may involve the patient
It also relaxes them and helps build rapport, and it can give you ideas to use for treatment...Everybody has natural resources that can be utilised. These might be events...or talk about friends or family...The idea behind accessing resources is that it gives you something to work with that you can use to help the client to achieve their goal...Even negative beliefs and opinions can be utilised as resources. (p.
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls. It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort.
Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia Social anxiety or social phobia is the most common anxiety disorder and affects millions of Americans. The effects of social anxiety can be quite devastating. There are several scales that have been developed to assess social anxiety in people, but there are few scales that consist of less than 20 items. The Social Anxiety Questionnaire, a 14-item scale to measure social
Psychology Theory Demographic Information Mr. C, a 38-year-old married male recently contacted a faculty anxiety clinic seeking treatment. At the time he contacted the centre, he self-reported that he experiences social anxiety in different settings, for instance, when talking to strangers, speaking or writing in front of a group, and/or in hostile situations. Furthermore, Mr. C also reported that he often avoided settings such as the ones mentioned above because of social
Parenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth Ross Master of Science, Mental Health Counseling, College, January, 2008 Clinical Psychology Anticipated; December, 2016 The health hazards that are associated with adolescent alcohol use are well documented, and there is growing recognition among policymakers and clinicians alike that more needs to be done to address this public health threat. The purpose of this study will be to examine the effects of different parenting styles