This article can be used in the proposed writing study because it presents information on how students view rubrics and rubric teaching. The article states that there is nothing more frustrating for a student than receiving a project with little or no description on how the project will be graded. The article also states that standards must be measured or assessed in order to know whether the students are meeting the prescribed outcomes. This article seems to be stating that one of the reasons why the California standards are so difficult to meet is due to the lack of specificity in the standard's directions or instructions. The study can certainly take that viewpoint into consideration.
Jacobs, G.E. (2008) We learn what we do: Developing a repertoire of writing practices in an instant messaging world, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Vol. 52, Issue 3, pp. 203 -- 211
This study is seeking to determine what are some of the root causes for student difficulty in passing the California Writing Standard 1.4. One of those root causes might be that students (especially young ones) are more inclined to communicating via instant messaging than they are by actually learning what it takes to write in a comprehensive and understandable manner. The study's author suggests that the use of Instant Messaging can affect the use of poor spelling and grammar. The author also suggest that writing communities via instant messaging may promote good writing skills in students.
Bruera, E.; Willey, J.; Cohen, M.; Palmer, J.L.; (2008) Expressive writing in patients receiving palliative care: A feasibility study, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Vol. 11, Issue 1, pp. 15 -- 19
This study sought to determine whether expressive writing could assist patients receiving palliative care. It is an interesting study to include in the proposed study due to its unique nature. What the study seems to be stating is that expressive writing can assist in helping patients who are having difficulty in coping with their palliative care. In other words, writing can make them feel better. The study showed how patients with advanced cancer who are receiving palliative care can overcome some of the severe physical and psychological effects of that treatment through expressive writing. Therefore, learning to write comprehensively can actually be beneficial to one's health.
Linn, R.L.; Kiplinger, V.L.; Chapman, C.W.; LeMaheiu, P.G.; (1992) Cross-state comparability of judgments of student writing: Results from the New Standards Project, Applied Measurement in Education, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 89 -- 111
This particular study was conducted early in the process of changing how America evaluated the learning of students. The study suggests that writing standards be created, not on a national basis, but on a regional basis instead. The thinking behind such a recommendation was that if the students were required to write based on state standards that differed from state to state, then some of the students may actually be at a disadvantage when compared to other students living in different areas of the country. The study determined that there existed a common view of writing competency, and perhaps developing standards based on that common view would be beneficial.
Feder, T. (1998) California pulls together a science standards writing team, Physics Today, Vol. 51, Issue 3, pp. 79-80
Writing standards in California is always a very political fireball. Educational standards are written based on a variety of viewpoints and many times those viewpoints are competing instead of compatible. The proposed study will be evaluating why students have difficulty with California's writing standards, therefore the evaluator must be able to understand how those standards were compiled in the first place. This article presented how writing standards within the different curriculums were initiated and the troubles that resulted from the competing points-of-view. The article determined that teaching standards for science related curriculum and how writing played a role in that curriculum was one of the sticking points in the process of creating the standards.
Reading Today (2009) Setting the standards; IRA, NCTE issue revised standards for the assessment of reading and writing, Vol. 27, Issue 3, p. 10
As evidenced by this article the issue of educational standards pertaining to how and what students are taught, and how that teaching is evaluated is a very hot issue. The article sets forth a set of guidelines as coordinated by the International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE). The article emphasizes the fact (as perceived by the IRA and NCTE) that students do not necessarily have to be tested in order to meet assessment standards. The article also puts forth the joint statement that reaffirms the IRA/NCTE's position that the primary purpose of assessment must be to improve teaching and learning for all students. The proposed study will necessarily consider whether the California standards is accomplishing that objective, and if not, why not?
Egan, K.L.; Ferrara, S.; Schneider, M.C.; Barton, K.E.; (2009) Writing performance level descriptors and setting performance standards for assessments of modified achievement standards: The role of innovation and importance of following conventional practice, Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 84, Issue 4, pp. 552 -- 577
One consideration that the proposed study would likely have to keep in mind is that students learn in a variety of ways, and testing all the students in the same manner would not necessarily present a true and honest assessment based on how those students are taught and how they learn. This article presents the thought that disabled students who are now a regular component of the educational system may be having difficulties in any number of areas (including writing) and that those difficulties should be considered when writing assessments. The article states that test designers have little if any direct contact with these students and therefore do not fully understand how to assess them.
Isaacson, S. (2004) Instruction that helps students meet state standards in writing, Exceptionality, Vol. 12, Issue 1, pp. 39-54
This article provides some good ammunition for the proposed study. The article studied how writing standards are initiated in various states as well as nationally, and the components of those writing standards. The study compared the different genres used in writing assessments and how various teaching practices can make differences in how students learn, especially the students with disabilities. State assessments test all students, even those with disabilities, and the study determined that all students should have access to the state's general curriculum. The study also noted that teachers are becoming much more cognizant of teaching writing and its components in schools around the country.
McMurray, S. (2006) Learning to spell: Raising standards in spelling and independent writing, Support for Learning, Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp. 100 -- 107
This paper can be used by the proposed study as evidence of how an intervention can be used to raise the standards in spelling and writing if it is designed correctly. The proposed study seeks to determine why students are having difficulty with California writing standards and as such will also look at different interventions and how they can be used in conjunction with those standards. This specific intervention contained a number of different 'innovative features within the program's design" that allowed children to study and learn together 'regardless of their ability'. This study could be used as part of a program to help students in their efforts to pass the California's writing assessment.
Adamus, R. (2006) Higher standards for English and Algebra recommended by California Community College Board, Community College Week, Vol. 18, issue 18, p. 3
The reason why California writing assessments are so important is because they play a role in how students perform in college. According to this article; California community college students will soon have to adhere to even higher standards in both English and Mathematics. The reasons behind higher standards are the lack of consistency between high school standards and the colleges and, even more importantly, the study determined that the standards are not keeping pace with California's labor market and the global community. This is an excellent article for explaining why there are standards in the first place, and for raising those standards, not lowering them.
Shiel, G. (2003) Raising standards in reading and writing: Insights from England's National Literacy Strategy, Reading Teacher, Vol. 56, Issue 7, p. 692 -- 696
This paper espouses the fact that California and the United States are not the only entities that require assessments or teaching methods be employed. Other countries and systems also require the same things. The proposed study could consider what other countries are accomplishing and the methods that are being used to accomplish their objectives as compared to California's methods and objectives. This article determines that The UK have a National Literacy Strategy (NLS) and that those standards meet certain guidelines and uses certain methods in teaching and assessing student's reading and writing skills.…