The Journey to America S Independence Research Paper

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American Revolution happened between 1775 and 1783 and to others it is known as the U.S. War of Independence while others call it the American Revolutionary War. It was not until the Seven Years' of War ended in 1783 that few colonists in the Northern Part of America gave objections to their position in the British Empire. The imperial system of the British people saw it reap many benefits and the costs linked to the system were few. Indeed, the American colonies had been left alone all along but in the early 1760s, the eruption of the Seven Years' War changed everything. Many Americans referred to this War as the War between the French and Indians, and the winning team was Britain, which had come at a great cost since the Empire had a staggering war debt that influenced many of its policies over the decade. The Americans tried to raise money through enforcing tax laws, reforming the colonial administration, and placing of troops all led to conflict with colonists. Mid of the 1770s the American and British administration relations had strained and became acrimonious.

History

The American Revolution began the mid-1700s and ended in 1783 when the Treaty of Paris was signed. According to John Adams, "The American Revolution was effected before even the commencement of the war. It said that the revolution was in the people's mind and heart." After the War between French and India, colonists felt the confidence rise from within and asserted that this was where victory would begin for them. As such, they began to view themselves as a separate entity and were able to defend themselves against the opposing threat. However, the views of King George III and that of Parliament were different and affirmed their need for colonies to remain to be world powers and hence, would generate revenue through trade and taxes. It is this perception that prompted the British government to increase their control over colonies and levied taxes, which in turn led to the famous American Revolution.

Taxes

In 1764, the Sugar Act was an imposed tax on the colonists, and the arguments of Prime Minister George Grenville were that they should be helped to in paying the accrued debt made by the Indian and French War. Sugar and molasses were affected by this Act; the aggrieved colonists made the British to take great strides in enforcing the law. Besides, the Stamp Act was proposed in 1765 where colonists required paying for either a stamp or seal that was placed on paper goods bought. The paper products were things like licenses, playing cards, newspapers, legal documents, and pamphlets. The condition of the Act were strict and mandated people to buy the stamps refusing to buy for the colonists would mean a jail time or even a fine. Nevertheless, colonists boycotted the Act and in 1776, merchants requested the Parliament to repeal the law[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Guemide, Boutkhil. Revolutionary Massachusetts (1763-1775): History of the American Revolution in Massachusetts. (New York: Editions Publibook, 2014), 122.]

The Townshend Act is the replacement of Stamp Act that came in 1767 and duties were placed on imported lead, glass, tea, paper, and paint. The collected money covered the military costs and the salaries of governors in the different colonies. The increase in British control saw the rise of women who played a critical role in supporting the resistance and through this cooperation; they formed the Daughters of Liberty. The movement encouraged other colonists to boycott British goods[footnoteRef:2]. Between 1768 and 1769, the "Boston Massacre" happened and in March 1770, a fight ensued between a dockman and a soldier. Upon seeing this, the Redcoats retaliated, and they started placing notices warning people of the upcoming attacks if the raucous behavior persisted. After all this, the Tea Act was passed in 1773 that allowed the East India Company to sell their tea at affordable prices to the colonists. The aim of the parliament was to reduce the tea boycott and decrease smuggling, but this did not happen. Instead, they made a united front against the Tea Act, which saw the colonial merchant out of business[footnoteRef:3]. [2: Ibid., 66] [3: Ibid., 66 Guemide, Boutkhil. Revolutionary Massachusetts (1763-1775): History of the American Revolution in Massachusetts. (New York: Editions Publibook, 2014), 67.]

The Revolutionary War

The first shot was fired in April 1775: this would eventually become the war for the independence for the American population. Preparations had been underway at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts a few months before, and here the patriots had gathered arms and powder. Additionally, training of people was done to fight the Britons if it deemed necessary. The news of the bloodshed rockets spread fast along the eastern seaboards, and this saw the convergence of thousands of volunteers on Cambridge, Mass. Rumors had been formed and the day before the attacks, the British army had sent their troops to attack the Americans, but the colonial militia was awaiting them. The surprise attack was aimed at avoiding bloodshed, but that did not transpire and a firefight ensued shortly, but no evidence was there to show that the conflict would lead to war. During this time, the opinion of the Americans was split since others wanted independence to be declared while others were hoping that the reconciliation process is quick. For the majority of the Americans, they were undecided and hence waited and watched from a far distance[footnoteRef:4]. [4: PBS, "Liberty! The American Revolution," The PBS, posted in 2004, accessed November 17, 2015, http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/chronicle.html]

The British Army being challenged by the Massachusetts militiamen

In June 1775, a Continental Army was created on paper by the Continental Congress and the Commander appointed was George Washington. George's arrival in Boston saw him accomplish his first task of taking charge of the ragtag paramilitaries that had assembled and was supposed to create an army. The task was daunting and had problems such as training and discipline, recruitment, payment for services offered by the soldiers' and supply among others. The realization of Washington, however, was that the army needed to be kept in the field and hence, he made it his sole objective to ensure that they are in the battleground. June 17, 1775, is when the first major war action was experienced because the colonial soldiers had no experience but were holding off the hardened British veterans at the Breed's Hill, which lasted for over two hours. They tried their best, but they were forced to abandon their position that included their high ground that overlooked Boston at Bunker Hill. Moreover, the Patriots showed their resilience and were not intimidated by the long lines consisting of red-coated infantrymen.

The British had 2,200 men in the fields half of who ended up being wounded and others dying. In November 1775, British formed an alliance with Patriots' slaves under the governance of Lord Dunmore, who was the governor of Virginia[footnoteRef:5]. He issued a proclamation to the Patriots' slaves offering them freedom in case they joined forced with British lines. The slaves became enticed, and many of them formed allies with the British because thousands of the African-American people wanted their freedom. However, there are those who stood with other Patriots despite the presence of policies that discouraged their enlistment. [5: Bohannon, Lisa Frederiksen. The American Revolution: Chronicles of America's Wars. (Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 2004), 6.]

At Moores Creek, the loyalists were defeated on February 27, 1776, and a majority of them were from the descent of Scots. The defeat led the loyalists to quit their activities for three years and was a major setback. June 28, 1776, saw the invasion of the British army who tried to force mounts on Patriot force on the Island of Sullivan. However, the invaders were not able to land their troops on the island, and the attempts of the British navy to take Charleston were frustrated by the tricky waters of the Harbor. Eventually, in defeat, the fleet retires, and South Carolina remained untouched by the British for three more years. During these two years of the American Revolutionary War, fighting was mostly done between the British and Patriots in the north. In the beginning, the British had their way because they had superior sea power compared to the Americans, but they also attained victories by Washington at Princeton and Trenton[footnoteRef:6]. [6: PBS, "Liberty! The American Revolution," The PBS, posted in 2004, accessed November 17, 2015, http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/chronicle.html]

Americans of the Scot descent were defeated at Moores Creek Bridge as they rallied to the crown.

The lack of coordination by the British army led to the rebellion in 1777, and the patriot forces that was commanded by General Gates Horatio was able to achieve a significant victory in October 1777 at Saratoga, New York. With this victory, France was induced to sign an alliance treaty and commerce with America. We can say that in retrospect, the involvement of the French became the war's turning point. At the Valley Forge, the Washington troops benefitted from the…

Sources Used in Document:

Bibliography:

Bohannon, Lisa Frederiksen. The American Revolution: Chronicles of America's Wars. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 2004.

Boucher, Jonathan. A View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution. London: The Pennsylvania State University Library, 1797.

Guemide, Boutkhil. Revolutionary Massachusetts (1763-1775): History of the American Revolution in Massachusetts. New York: Editions Publibook, 2014.

Morrissey, Brendan. Boston 1775: The Shot Heard Around the World. USA: Osprey Publishing, 1995.

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