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In a post decolonized environment, the self-interest prevented productive social and civil plans from being carried out. Not until 1963 was a 120-mile stretch of railway that was vital to the economy of both Kenya and Uganda completed.
The African nations, to the extent that they did come together, did not accomplish much, and the three elements of regime change that authors and researchers Jinks and Goodman, there seems to have been a tendency towards acculturation in the Black African perspective on decolonization. Although there are, too, examples where the other two elements of coercion and persuasion seem evident, the ultimate tendency was one of acculturation.
Acculturation because if there was a prevailing influence that existed amongst the colonies as they came together in discussion on decolonization, that influence was one of nationalism and self-interest. The colonial experience had not served Africa well, and as such the focus was on…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107496839
Betts, Raymond F. Decolonization. New York: Routledge, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107496920.Internet . Accessed 19 May 2007. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010979809
Goodman, Ryan, and Derek Jinks. "How to Influence States: Socialization and International Human Rights Law." Duke Law Journal 54, no. 3 (2004): 621+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010979809.Internet . Accessed 19 May 2007. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24218210
Hargreaves, John D. Decolonization in Africa. 2nd ed. London: Longman, 1996. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24218306.Internet . Accessed 19 May 2007. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98522556
Miller, Norman, and Rodger Yeager. The Quest for Prosperity. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98522752.Internet . Accessed 19 May 2007. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53347982
The original inhabitants of Jamaica are long forgotten, their name barely a footnote in Caribbean history. The main legacy of the Arawak Indians has been the word "Xamayca," meaning "land of wood and water," ("A Brief History of Jamaica"). Xamayca gradually became rendered as Jamaica, an island nation with a tumultuous but vibrant history. The first non-native settlers on Jamaica were the Spaniards. Christopher Columbus included it in Spain's territorial acquisitions in 1494. Soon thereafter, a small Spanish settlement existed on the island until 1655. The Spaniards killed every last Arawak, either via use of force or exposure to disease. Moreover, the Spaniards bought African slaves and brought them to Jamaica to work on the budding sugar plantations. Growing interest in sugar was fueling the Age of Imperialism. Britain was poised to strike the Caribbean.
In May 1655, a convoy of British ships arrived and startled the Spanish settlement.…
"A Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~beckf20s/classweb/History.html
"Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/History/Jamaica-history.htm
Draper, N. The Price of Emancipation: Slave-ownership, compensation and British society at the end of slavery. Cambridge studies in economic history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Freedom. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
British Empire in the 1950's
In the aftermath of the Second World War the British Empire was began to disintegrate with a number of colonies engaging in conflicts aimed at driving the British out and gaining their independence. In response to these uprisings, the British used a variety of strategies with a varying amount of success. The outcome of these "small wars" in colonies such as Kenya, Aden, Cyprus, and Borneo depended upon how the British operated in that particular area and their individual response to the uprisings. In short, each conflict was unique, contained unique circumstances, and therefore required a unique response on the part of the British.
The British operated their colony in Kenya as a place to resettle British citizens in the lush farmland formerly owned by the native Kenyans. As a result, when the native Kikuyu tribe revolted, the British used the revolt as a means…
Carver, Michael. 1981. War Since 1945. New York: Putnam.
Goktepe, Cihat. 2003. British Foreign Policy Towards Turkey, 1959-1965. London:
Frank Cass Publishers.
Walker, Jonathon. 2011. "Red Wolves and British Lions: The Conflict in Aden." In
E.M. Forster's the Life to Come, on the other hand, is a tale divided into four parts: Night, Evening, Day and Morning. Its main character is a young missionary by the name of Paul Pinmay who is sent to spread the word of Christ to the native people. All prior attempts to proselytise these people have failed. During his attempt he meets with the tribal chief, who approaches him to learn more about "this god whose name is Love." The two then sleep together and the tribe becomes Christian.
This leads to Pinmay being appointed by the Bishop to become the minister of the new district. The chief again asks Pinmay to sleep with him, and Pinmay orders the chief not to mention the night ever again. This causes the chief to question the new religion. Eventually this relationship dissolves and the story ends with the chief killing Pinmay.
These Acts, along with the Quebec Act, which extended the southern boundary of Canada into territories claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut and Virginia, proved to be the last straw and hurtled the country into the Revolutionary ar ("Intolerable Acts").
Although it is still debatable whether the American independence from the British was inevitable, there is hardly any doubt that the required the series of legislation enacted by the British Parliament between 1764 and1774, outlined in this essay, served to greatly antagonize the American colonists. Almost all measures taken to tax the American colonies and tighten British administrative control met with resentment and, ultimately, open hostility. These measures proved to be a major reason for the Revolutionary ar, and eventual independence of America.
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html
British Actions After the French Indian ar." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html
British Actions After the French Indian War." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
Cogliano, Francis D. "Was the American Revolution Inevitable?" April, 2001. November 26, 2008. BBC Web site. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/american_revolution_01.shtml
Intolerable Acts." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. November 26, 2008. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761579222
, 10). Certainly, it is no mystery that given this reliance upon the mother country that the British government would be surprised and ill equipped to deal with a full scale and united rebellion in the American colonies on the eastern American seaboard.
The policy of the British prior to the period of the evolution had largely been hands off. However, the Tea Party went too far and the British had to respond (one wonders what else they would have done). They had just won the equivalent of world war in 1763. British had fought in almost every of the globe from India to Canada, India, the Philippines and the 13 American colonies. Unfortunately, to borrow an apt analogy, the British had only the military in the tool kit once their tax collection efforts failed. If a hammer is all one has in the toolbox, most solutions will look like…
Beer, George Louis. British Colonial Policy, 1754-1765. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University
Press, 2010. (accessed February 9, 2012).
McDougall, Walter. "The Colonial Origins of American Identity." Orbis (2004): 7-19.
White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region.
Impact of British ule in Sub-Continent 1857-1947 [Pick the date]
The era of British rule in Subcontinent comprise of centuries. Starting from a smart invasion in this land called. "The golden bird." Colonels slowly and gradually controlled the reins of this region. After gaining complete control over subcontinent, various reforms were introduced by British which were later on amalgamated with the existing structure of the political system of subcontinent. This later on, of course had its impact on the inhabitants of sub-continent, socially and economically. During this period, a system was established which was based on British ideology of governance and authority, quite similar to their owns. However, it was an impeccable implementation of this system was impossible. Mainly because of two reasons; firstly the culture variants were highly strong and secondly the main nations i.e. Hindus and Muslims, were not very cordial towards each other. Therefore,…
Maddison, A. 1971. Class Structure and Economic Growth: India & Pakistan since the Moghuls,
Retrieved from:Chapter 3: The Economic and Social Impact of Colonial Rule in India
Metcalf, Thomas R. 1994. Ideologies of the Raj, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
British Rule & the Sub-continent Page 2
In regard to the naval force of the British, these frictions affected in particular the effective number of the marines that made up the fleet, despite the fact that the threat of the American uprising was looming and that the British strategists were well aware of the fact that the English power relied mostly on the naval forces. Therefore, once this aspect of the military force was weakened, the eventual failure of the naval operations was obvious. The internal situation in the Empire also led to a lack of consideration for the treatment of the sailors who had constantly rebelled against the negligence and the mistreatment they had been throughout the years subject to. (Trevelyan, 1962) Even more, following the actual clash with the American revolutionaries, the state of the navy was, according to Trevelyan, "a deplorable one (as) its ships were being evicted from the Mediterranean Sea, where the…
Boatner, Mark M. (1966) Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: D. McKay & Co.
Gardner, Allen. (1913) a naval history of the American Revolution. Boston, Houghton. Retrieved 30 May 2007. http://www.americanrevolution.org/nav1.html
Halsall, Paul. Thomas Paine's Common Sense. Penguin: New York, 1982. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 30 May 2007 http://www.ushistory.org/paine/commonsense/singlehtml.htm
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
ritish Pound from 1965-2000
Around the world, the different countries have adopted different currencies for its uses. For instance, America uses the dollar, France uses the franc, Pakistan uses the rupee; and so forth. The type of currency situates each country according to its value. The sterling pound is another type of currency, which is used in many countries of the world. However, it is most used in ritain, and has been in use for many years.
The terms pound, shilling and pence abbreviated as L, s. And d. are derived from Latin words. The initial L. comes from the Latin word librius which means pound or in this case a pound of silver. The initial s. comes from the Latin word solidus which was a roman gold coin and d. comes from the Latin word denarius which was a roman silver coin efore 1975, England stopped using a thousand-year…
Davis, Jim -British Coinage from 1961-2000
Davies, Glyn. A History of money from ancient times to the present day, 3rd. ed.
Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2002. 720p.
British Imperialism Be Explained?
In the colonial period, Africa became the land of opportunity for Europeans who exploited the people and resources for profit. When Europeans went to Africa, home of black skinned people, they looked at the land as available to use as they wished. They never considered that this land belonged to its original inhabitants. Neither did they consider themselves thieves. They did not bother to think of black natives as human beings, but rather sought every way possible to use them to make money. Rather than openly admit their mercenary motives, whites assumed an attitude of superiority and declared that they were acting out of generosity to bring civilization and Christianity to primitive peoples. The thesis of this essay is that the colonial period in Africa was characterized by the arrogance of whites and atrocities committed against blacks. The focus will be on the British Empire and…
Moreover, "corruption and inefficiency have exacerbated problems," ("Fidel Castro: Cuba's Communism Not Working" 2010). Because of the problems currently plaguing Cuba, communism is likely wane gradually by an opening of Cuba's markets even if American-style capitalism is not the replacement. The rise and fall of communism in Cuba has taken place over a relatively short period of time in human history: less than a century. Because of this, the example of Cuba is a world historical event that significantly illustrates the theme of power, governance, and authority.
Themes in history such as geography, historical systems of power, institutions as mechanisms of social change, and science and technology as engines of economic growth and development can be illustrated by specific historical examples. The British aj's infiltration of Fiji and the trafficking of Indian indentured servants is an example of how geography and environmental factors impact the development of human societies over…
Blodgett, E. (2011). Fijian Sugar Plantations and the Ethnic Battle to Govern an Island Nation. TED Case Studies, Number 621. Retrieved online: http://www1.american.edu/ted/fiji.htm
"Castro's Communist regime in Cuba" The First Post. August 7, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.thefirstpost.co.uk/4984,news-comment , news-politics, pros-and-cons-of-communism-in-cuba
"Enron Scandal At-a-Glance," (2002). BBC. August 22, 2002. Retrieved online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1780075.stm
"Fidel Castro: Cuba's Communism Not Working" (2010). FoxNews. September 9, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/09/09/castro-admits-cubas-communism-doesnt-work/
British Invaded Egypt
The Egypt Uprising -- the anti-British Involvement
easons for the war 6
The Nationalist eaction to British Influence
The British Invasion
The British invasion of Egypt occurred in 1882 and it is also known as the Anglo-Egyptian War. The war was between the British forces and the forces from Egypt and Sudan who were led by Ahmed 'Urabi'. The war was fought on the pretext to stop a nationalist uprising in Egypt that against the khedive Tewfik Pasha. The war helped establish and expand the British Empire in Africa (E-International elations, 2009).
The then ruler of Egypt and Sudan, Tewfik Pasha was considered a failed ruler and was accused of making wrong investments on behalf of the country. This led an Egyptian army officer, Ahmed 'Urabi also known as Arabi Pasha, to orchestrate a mutiny against the ruler. The reason of the mutiny was apparently…
Bbc.co.uk,. 2011. 'BBC - History - British History In Depth: The Suez Crisis'. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/suez_01.shtml .
Brendon, Piers. 2008. The Decline And Fall Of The British Empire, 1781-1997. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Cleary, Vern. 2015. 'Thesuez Canal And The British Conquest Of Egypt'. Webs.Bcp.Org. http://webs.bcp.org/sites/vcleary/ModernWorldHistoryTextbook/Imperialism/section_6/suezcanal.html .
E-International Relations,. 2009. 'The British Invasion Of Egypt, 1882'. http://www.e-ir.info/2009/03/23/the-british-invasion-of-egypt-1882/ .
British constitutional history has largely been a slow and deliberate process of evolution over a period of centuries. The following comments of a political scientist are thus largely true:
Nowhere else has the world witnessed a political evolution so relatively free from great civil commotion. Britain has not had a revolution comparable with the French Revolution of 1798 or the Russian Revolution of 1917. It is true that there have been threats of Revolution and so-called revolutions in Britain, but they did not deflect the main current of political development.
In this essay we shall discuss why the above comments are a reasonably accurate observation of the British political history.
Until the Middle Ages, Britain was a feudal kingdom that gradually transformed into a strong centralized monarchy. The monarchy came into its own in the middle ages and the monarchs felt secure enough in their position to seek the advice…
Kishlansky, Mark. "United Kingdom." Section on History. Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2002
Belanger, Claude. "The British Constitution." Quebec History. February 26, 2001. Marianopolis College Web Site. December 6, 2002. http://www2.marianopolis.edu/quebechistory/index.htm
Certainly, the reign of Elizabeth I "was indeed the Golden Age of England," due to her personality, love for her country and the adoration of millions of Englishmen and women, not to mention several foreign kings and rulers who during her lifetime were bitter enemies, but following her death became ardent admirers ("Death of Queen Elizabeth I," Internet).
In 1588, some fifteen years before her death, Elizabeth I gave a speech to her faithful and loyal troops at Tilbury camp, where she arrived "in a great gilded coach and was escorted by 2000 ecstatic troops." James Aske, an eyewitness to this event, describes Elizabeth as "king-like and a sacred general" just before she began to address those in presence with "one of the greatest orations of British history, all the more extraordinary for being delivered at a moment of such trepidation." This speech truly reflects the atmosphere of Elizabeth's reign…
Death of Queen Elizabeth I." Elizabethan Era. Internet. 2007. Retrieved at http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/death-of-queen-elizabeth-i.htm .
MacCaffrey, Wallace T. Elizabeth I: War and Politics, 1588-1603. New York: Princeton
University Press, 1994.
Schama, Simon. A History of Britain at the Edge of the World, 3500 B.C.-1603 a.D. New York: Hyperion Press, 2000.
Unlike the ideas of the ritish which stated that the sovereign was the king, in the Republican line of thought "there was no one sovereign, the people collectively were the sovereigns. In July 1776, immediately after the Declaration of Independence, spontaneous popular ceremonies were staged up and down the land. In several of them, royal crests and other emblems were broken into pieces and distributed among the crowd" (Cunliffe, 2003). Therefore, taking into account these signs of manifestation, it was clear that the U.S. colonies were no longer willing to accept a superior power other than that of the people.
In relation to the idea of the sovereignty of the people which is today described as democracy, the issue of the equality of rights stands out. In this sense, according to most beliefs, the rights of women were discussed and the mere mentioning of them underlines the need and desire…
Cunliffe, Marcus. Republicanism and the Founding of America - Republican Government May Be Seen as a Middle Path between Monarchy and Democracy. World and I. Volume: 18. Issue: 2. 2003. News World Communications.
From Revolution to Reconstruction. "Taxation without representation." An Outline of American History 2006. 29 April 2008. http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1990/ch2_p6.htm
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Republicanism. 2006. 29 April 2008. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/republicanism
So alike yet distinct did these early writers create, that they are now required reading in British schools (Duquette).
In terms of religion, American culture emulated Britain less than many of the early settler were reactionary against British conservatism. Several of the original 13 Colonies were established by English, Irish, and Scottish settlers who were fleeing religious persecution. By 1787, in fact, the United States became one of the first countries to place a freedom of religion code into law, even if it was only at the Federal level (Gaustad).
Thankfully, America has a taste for more exotic foods and cuisine than the British, but if we think of many of the celebrated Holidays, they either derive from or are part of the British tradition. Thanksgiving, for instance, is now a traditional American holiday evolving from the Pilgrim's plight during the first winter of their landing. Christmas, Easter, and Lent…
Ciment, J., ed. Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History. New York: Sharpe Reference, 2005.
Duquette, E. Loyal Subjects: Bonds of Nation, Race and Allegiance in 19th Century America. Trenton, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.
Gaustad, E. Proclaim Liberty Througout All the Land: A History of Church and State in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Gienow-Hecht, J. "A European Considers the Influence of American Culture." 1 Febuary 2006. America.gov - Engaging the World. .
For instance, Algerians saw the defeat of the French as a means to their own independence.
When the French were defeated by the Vietminh, the French were so humiliated and embarrassed in the eyes of the world that they decided to stiffen their resistance to others seeking independence. This led to a decade long war in Algeria which the French were resolved not to lose. Unlike Indochina, there were large numbers of native French living in Algeria, and the French viewed it as an integral part of France. But the French no longer had the military resources to maintain their Algerian colony by force, and the French people were forced to accept Algerian independence. In fact, more than 90% of the French public had grown tired of the war, and the atrocities that were being carried out in the name of France, and favored independence for Algeria. But there was…
mechanics of the mercantilist doctrine from the incipit of the early modern period in Europe, with special focus on the role of the North American colonies in the ritish mercantilist endeavors.
Mercantilism was the leading economical belief system to support the attempts of regimes and great European powers of the 17th century to organize their economic existence. The reasons standing behind mercantilism originated from the need to provide a solid structure for the financial foundation of "the nation-state -- the emerging post-medieval governmental mode that rapidly replaced feudal localism in northern and Western Europe after the mid-fifteenth century" (McCusker, 1996, p. 337), in order to ensure the survival and prosperity of the state. Specifically, nationalism held the promise of political stability and better living prospects for everyone, bringing considerable improvement to the prior era's imbalance.
The majority of early modern Europe countries, starting with Spain, Portugal, and Great ritain, adopted…
Feldmeth, Greg D. "Early British Colonial Trade Regulations" U.S. History Resources. Last modified June 24, 2004. http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html
McCusker, John J.. "British Mercantilist Policies and the American Colonies." In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, edited by Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman, 337-363. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 26 April 1996.
Fielding suffers from a strong attachment to English literalism and rationalism, in which he feels himself obligated to support British colonialism because it is not only inevitability but also a positive influence upon India. Aziz allows suspicion to harden into grudges and a strong feeling of distain for both the British and loyalists. Even when Aziz is ultimately acquitted the reaction of the individuals involved in the case reveals the strong hyperbole of loyalists vs. revolutionaries. Aziz sees himself as tainted and fed up with the culture of the British. While Fielding sees the inevitable confession of Adela as the actions of a strong willed individual standing up to her peers to do the right thing. It is in their different perspectives that we see the truth behind the loyalist vs. revolutionary dichotomy; it is a strong desire on either side to find confidence in their own actions and ability…
In many ways, the entry into World War II was very similar to World War II for all the countries involved. Germany, just as before, was the main instigator of the war, and many people feel they would not have had the strength and opportunity to do this if their army had been disbanded after their defeat at the end of World War I. This was not done, and it gave them enough power to attempt to take over most of Europe under their leader, Adolph Hitler. German aggression started this war, and it helped develop new allies among European nations, and ultimately the world.
In March 1939, the Germans took over Czechoslovakia, and in September, they invaded Poland. The Nazis, under Hitler, were aligned with Italy and later signed a "non-aggression" pact with ussia, while Great Britain was aligned with Poland and France. Germany was bent on taking over…
Pullman, P. The golden compass. New York: Ballantine Books, 1997.
Mughal Empire and the Indian Identity
In a certain regard, the Mughal Empire was inherently foreign when it assumed the seat of power that would see India through several hundred years. Descendent from the same Mongolian seat of power which produced Genghis Kan and the Tartars, heavily influenced in its culture by the Persians and initiated by a royal descendent ruling in Afghanistan, the Mughal Empire is something of a hybrid. It is thus that its claims to 'Indian' heritage are called into question. However, a consideration of Indian culture today and in a retrospective regard suggests that our current understanding of the Indian identity is necessarily shaped at least in part by the Mughal influence. Therefore, as to the discussion of the Mughal Empire's claim to Indian identity, it is appropriate to suggest that it would be a prime determinant of the Indian identity as we know it today.…
Abrams, H.N. & Welch, S.C. (1963). The Art of Mughal India. New York City: The Asia Society, Inc.
Bowle, J. (1962). Man Through the Ages. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Lane-Poole, S. (1970). Mediaeval India Under Mohammedan Rule (A.D. 712-1764). Haskell House Publishers, Ltd.
Malik, H. (1963). Moslem Nationalism in India and Pakistan. Public Affairs Press.
Hapsburg Empire in the Half entury before World War I
At the outbreak of World War I, The Hapsburg Empire was one of the last vestiges of Holy Roman Empire to be found in Europe. The eventual defeat of the Austrian Haspburgs culminated a demise that began in the half century before the war started.
The reason for the longevity of the Hapsburg Empire rested in its ability to form advantageous political alliances whether they be through marriage- Maria Theresa and Joseph II, religion- acceptance of Protestants ending discrimination against Jews or militaristic- alliance w / Germany, in nature. During the half century before the World War, The Haspburgs created some allegiances that would prove to be faulty.
During the rimean War (1853-1856) the Haspburgs flirted with siding with the France and England against Russia if Russia did not leave Romania. Russia withdrew but not without hard feelings towards the…
Conflicting National Interests
Military Casualties of W.W.I http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/casualties.htm
There has been a lot of debate and discussions on how exactly these so called heritage films must be interpreted, in academic circles as well as in the mainstream press, and in the more specialized film publications.
As a part of the debate, certain issues became more important than others, and some of them were that a limit must be imposed on this type of trend in production, and that in terms of subject matter of the film, the sources from which the film would draw, the casting in the film, and the style. Would all these factors be able to make up and contribute to a major genre of films? As a matter of fact, heritage films do indeed operate at the culturally respectable end of the market, and they are also the main players in the British Art Film genre. The heritage film generally has a sort of…
Biography for Colin Welland. Accessed 22 August, 2005; Available at http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0919815/bio
British Cinema in the eighties, Cinema, - Review - Book Review. Film Quarterly. Summer, 2001. Accessed 21 August, 2005; Available at http://www.gobelle.com/p/articles/mi_m1070/is_4_54/ai_76997332
Chariots of Fire, 1981. Accessed 22 August, 2005; Available at http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0082158/
Frederic; Brussat, Mary Ann. Spirituality and Health, Movie Review, Maurice. Accessed 22 August, 2005; Available at http://www.spiritualityhealth.com/newsh/items/moviereview/item_9017.html
Celtic history and influence in Britain spanned several centuries: between the 7th and 1st centuries BCE. The Celts originated in Central and Western Europe and they eventually migrated to the British Isles. The Celts would have a huge impact on early British linguistic and cultural development. They would later be considered adversaries of the omans, who successfully dominated and nearly obliterated Celtic culture on the islands. After the downfall of the oman Empire and waning oman rule in Great Britain, Celtic culture enjoyed a small resurgence. However, Druidic religion and culture would be overshadowed by Christianity.
However, the lingering effects of Celtic culture remained strong throughout British history. Celtic influence on British culture focuses on language, weapons, culture, religion, and art. Language and cultural identity are inextricable from Celtic influence, and many Celtic languages are still spoken throughout the British Isles today including Welsh, Manx, and both…
"The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle on Alfred the Great."
The Aztecs, who referred to themselves as Mexica, were a powerful tribe of people speaking the Nahuatl language. They founded one of the biggest empires in Central America which is believed to have lasted from the 1300s to the 1500s. One of the most renowned cities of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan; this city was located in the middle of a lake where the present-day capital of Mexico, Mexico City, now stands (Johnson, 2015).
The Aztec empire was begun in the Valley of Mexico. When the Aztecs came upon the valley, they found that other tribes were already there. These tribes had occupied the best land for agriculture in the region. The Aztecs moved on to the swampy and less attractive lands on the shores of Lake Texcoco. Despite not having much to begin with, the Aztec were not bothered. The Aztecs were not only a very ingenious…
ATWOOD, R. (2014). Under Mexico City. Archaeology, 67(4), 26.
Berdan, F.F. (1988). "Principals of Regional and Long-Distance Trade in the Aztec Empire," in J. Kathryn Josserand and Karen Dakin (Editors), Smoke and Mist: Mesoamerican Studies in Memory of Thelma D. Sullivan, part ii, pp. 639-656, British Archaeological Reports, International Series vol. 42, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Deal, T.E. And Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Duran, D. (1967). Historia de Las lndias de Nueva Espana, 2 vols (ed A.M. Garibay K.). Mexico City: Pornia.
Fellowship Proposal: ussian Studies, Sovietology, and Orientalism
The motivation for this proposal is based on personal interest in the former ussian Empire. The proposed dissertation that will result from this research will consist of an introduction that will discuss the importance of this study, followed by three main chapters, and a conclusion that provides a summary of the research and important findings concerning the issues of interest. Each of the chapters will cover a specific historical period characterized by a different set of American views, studies, and assumptions about Central Asia prior to the end of the Cold War period. Ending the proposed dissertation with the early Cold War era is also apt because it was a pivotal moment in the formal establishment of Central Asian Studies, albeit as a sub-discipline within ussian and Soviet studies.
Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia was comprised of five…
Baldwin, Kate A., Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: Reading Encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.
Bookwalter, John, Siberia and Central Asia. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1899.
Carew, Joy Gleason, Blacks, Reds, and Russians Sojourners in Search of the Soviet Promise. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008.
Davis, Raymond and Andrew Steiger, Soviet Asia, Democracy's First Line of Defense. New York: the Dial Press, 1942.
role of religion in the history of European society is a tumultuous one. Christianity, from its obscure beginnings in the classical age, eventually took the reins as the centerpiece of philosophical, literary, and scientific thought. It is true that religion, often, tends to justify actions that might objectively be perceived as incongruous to the established faith. It has historically been the case that when traditional forms of worship become threatened, morally questionable methods are undertaken to strengthen the order. This is certainly the case with Christianity. Since the birth of the Catholic Church in the Roman Empire, Church officials have actively attempted to make their privileged positions in society impervious to assault -- this process has progressed for centuries and, indeed, tens of centuries. For many years this single faith dominated nearly every aspect of European society and was a strong force in maintaining the status quo. However, the many…
1. Haney, David P. "Christianity and Literature." Malibu, Winter Vol. 54, Iss. 2, 2005.
2. Mill, John Stuart. "Utilitarianism." Reason and Responsibility. New York: Wadsworth Publishing, 1999. Pages 571-77.
3. Shelley, Mary. "Frankenstein." The Norton Anthology of English Literature: Seventh Edition, Volume 2. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 2000. Pages 905-1033.
4. Wilde, Oscar. Literary Criticism of Oscar Wilde. Lincoln: Bison Books, 1968. Page, 233.
In effect, his inability to accept the new order forces him to pretend to accept it as part of his complete dedication toward his role as butler; and he maintains his dignity inwardly by giving it up externally.
Stevens' outward acceptance of the new order serves as a metaphor for Britain as a nation accepting the new circumstances it found itself after the dissolution of it former Empire. Ishiguro attempts to demonstrate how many English see their society in the 1950's, and how they attempt to deal with their new situation. Stevens faces this new world by falling back on his old traditions. Ironically, Stevens accepts a more democratic society because his traditional duty requires him to accept his master's point-of-view, without regard for his own feelings. Since his new American employer is more democratically inclined, as demonstrated by his need to banter with Stevens, and even though this was…
Cardullo, Bert. "The Servant." Hudson Review 47.4 (Winter, 2005): pp. 616-622. Web.
20 April, 2012. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3851727.
Ishiguro, Kazuo. The Remains of the Day. New York: Knopf, 1989. Print.
Tamaya, Meera. "Ishiguro's 'The Remains of the Day': The Empire Strikes Back."
European Imperialism and Decolonization:
Spectacular in Some Respects
Not Spectacular in Other Respects
European Imperialism and Decolonization:
Spectacular in Some Respects, Not Spectacular in Other Respects
The term "spectacular" is, in some respects, subjective. The collapse of European empires after 1945 was spectacular in some respects but not in others. The British Empire's decolonization after orld ar II can be logically called "spectacular" in its scope; however, it was not "spectacularly" surprising or shocking, for the Empire began decolonization decades before orld ar II. In contrast to the Empire's decolonization, France's decolonization can be logically called "spectacular" in both its scope and turmoil. According to research, these differing experiences of decolonization can be traced to several national and accidental factors.
Analysis of the British Empire's Decolonization
The Empire and Decolonization Prior to 1945
The most common type of imperial control was the "colony," directly ruled by a Governor representing the…
Devine, T.M. "The Break-Up of Britain? Scotland and the End of Empire: The Prothero Lecture." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, 6 (2006): 163-180. Print.
Doody, Richard. "French Empire Timeline - 1940-1945." n.d. World At War Web site. Web. 24 March 2012.
Encyclopedia Britannica. "Statute of Westminster." 2012. Britannica.com Web site. Web. 24 March 2012.
Luscombe, Stephen. "British Empire in 1924." n.d. Britishempire.co.uk Web site. Web. 24 March 2012.
The elephant's death is also a symbol for the slow death of Burma. Before the arrival of the empire, Burma was free but now it struggles for its last dying breaths under British rule. The meaning of this is clear because the narrator doesn't even try to hide his feelings about the monarchy at all. The British crown is abusing and killing everyone it oppresses and it wounds their officers by making them take part in activities that make all of them go totally against their inner will.
The elephant is the most powerful symbol of all and he finally dies but with alot of agony nor is it guilty of anything but being what it is. Those under British rule are also behaving like they really are and being what they were born to be but the power of the empire is forcing them to bend and behave in…
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…
Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.
Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.
Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.
Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
Industrialization in Europe increased the development of machines, production of goods and new energy resources of other societies. However, it had many positive and negative effects to the society. The building of new empires enabled Europe to gain access to their armies, exports, finances and strategic locations. The paper will analyze how Industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies and what made the European Armies so effective against native resistance.
There are various reasons why industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies. The first reason was the availability of larger consumer markets. Industrialization in Europe allowed other countries in spreading their influence to weaker countries. Because of the spread, the industrialized countries managed to create markets for the manufactured products along with producing some specific products to be sold in these markets. The second reason was the availability of raw materials that was used…
European Imperialism and Reactions. (1914) China, Ottoman Empire, and Japan; effects of European imperialism
The British Empire. (2003). The British Empire. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://www.britishempire.co.uk/
The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism. (2001). Wake Forest Student, Faculty and Staff Web Pages. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://users.wfu.edu/watts/w04_industr.html
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…
Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website: http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/
Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/
Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
Merchants of Cool
On February 27, 2001 the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program Frontline aired The Merchants of Cool. The program examines the efforts of corporate America to exploit the teenage market. At the time of broadcast there were 32 million teenagers in the United States, the largest generation ever, spending 100 billion dollars annually on their own while their parents spent another 50 billion on them. This ability to impact the economy has made this generation the most studied in history. Robert Mc Chesney, media critic, has characterized the behavior of corporate America toward this youth market as analogous to the British Empire's takeover of Africa. I believe a valid comparison can be made between these two otherwise unconnected events.
Briefly, the earliest British colonies on the west coast of Africa were dedicated to creating wealth through the trade of slaves. Gold and ivory also attracted investors to the…
"Africa: British Colonies -- History of British Colonial Rule in Africa, Precolonial Racial and Ethnic Relations in British Colonial Africa." Online Encyclopdi,. n.d. Web. 5 February 2013.
"The Merchants of Cool." Frontline. Writ. Rachel Dretzin. Dir. Barak Goodman. Public Broadcasting System, 27 February 2001. Web. 4 February 2013.
Uzgalis, William. "John Locke." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosopy. Edward N. Zalta, ed. Summer 2010. Web. 4 February 2013.
setting background presented set main tenets major legal systems explain select preferred forum resolving legal disputes business, . This assignment intended demonstrate basic understanding legal system adopted United States identifying main tenets comparing contrasting main tenets major legal system.
The United States of America is currently the largest economy of the globe, and the source of most technological innovations and social advancements. Aside from these accomplishments, the U.S. is also reputable for its approach to people, given that it implements a legal system protecting the rights of the people, rather than seeking to stifle them, as it happens in other regions of the globe.
The legal system in the U.S. then is centered on the people and their well-being, and the laws and legislations are created based on the Anglo-American common law system. At this level then, the focus of the current project falls on the assessment of…
Lengeling, D. 2008. Common law and civil law -- differences, reciprocal influences and points of intersection. http://www.consulegis.com/fileadmin/downloads/thomas_marx_08/DLengeling_paper.pdf accessed on January 22, 2013
2011. Key features of common law or civil law systems. World Bank. http://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/legislation-regulation/framework-assessment/legal-systems/common-vs.-civil-law accessed on January 22, 2013
2013. Common law system. The Free Dictionary by Farlex. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Common+law+system accessed on January 22, 2013
Historians and scholars maintain that had that decision not been made, the war would have a mute point. But as history indicates, not only did ashington strike a decisive victory at Hessians, he then had another victory shortly thereafter at Princeton. ith the extension of enlistments by many soldiers and ashington's decision to spend the winter in Morristown New Jersey, the British had no choice but to withdraw (Billias 1969, p. 123).
ashington's delegation of the fortification of New York to Charles Lee was seen as a serious mistake by many. hat contributed to this decision was Congress' insistence that the gateway to the Hudson River be defended despite the problems that defensibility presented. Another contributing factor was the need for additional troop to bolter efforts in Quebec. Because of the broad and increasing threat levels, internal friction between regions erupted as well as the spread of dysentery, smallpox and…
Bilia, George. George Washington's Opponents. New York: William Morrow, 1969.
Ferling, John. First Men: The Life of George Washington. University of Tennessee Press, 1990.
Toth, Charles. Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite: The American Revolution and the European
Response. Troy, NY: The Whitston Publishing Company, 1989.
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
1857 Indian Rebellion been elusive to characterize as "The first war of Indian independence?"
Lack of Strategy
Shortage of Military Skills
Unity in Communities
The first war of Indian independence in 1857 is also characterized in terms of mutiny and the movement of civil disobedience. A brief about the historic events taking place during 1957 revile that the movement started with a notion to refuse using the cartridges used by the ritish Military. The greased cartridges were provided to the native soldiers of the military. The solider MangalPanday of arrackpur in engal refused to use these cartridges on 28th April 1957 and he also shot two of his superior officers of ritish military. He was caught and hanged for instigating a single-handed revolt on 8th April, 1957. He is also named as the first martyr of freedom movement. [2: .RaghunathRai. Themes in Indian History (New Delhi: VK Publications,…
Bibliography:Alison Blunt. "Embodying war: British women and domestic defilement in the Indian -- Mutiny --, 1857 -- 8.," Journal of Historical Geography 26, no. 3 (2000): 403-428.Andrew Ward. Our Bones Are Scattered: The Cawnpore Massacres and Indian Mutiny of 1857, London: John Murray Publishers, 1996.Bipan Chandra, eds. India's Struggle for Independence: 1857-1947, New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 1989.Clare Anderson. The Indian Uprising of 1857-8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion, New York: Anthem Press, 2007.George Bruce Malleson and Colonel Malleson. Kay's and Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny of 1857-8, Vol. 1, London: Hesperides Press, 2006.Mukherjee, Rudrangshu. Awadh in revolt, 1857-1858: a study of popular resistance, New Delhi: Permanent Black, 2002.Pati, Biswammy, eds. The Great Rebellion of 1857 in India: Exploring Transgressions, Content, and Direction New York: Rutledge, 2010.Rai, Raghunath.Themes in Indian History, New Delhi: VK Publications, 2011.Richard Collins. The Great Indian Mutiny: A dramatic account of the Sepoy Rebellion, USA: Dutton & Co, 1964.SailendraNath Sen. History Of Freedom Movement In India (1857-1947), New Delhi: New Age, 2009.Samuel Matrin Burke and Salin al-din Quraishi.The British raj in India: A Historical Review, London: Oxford University Press, 1997. Simon Paul Mackenzie. Revolutionary armies in the modern era: a revisionist approach, New York: Routledge, 1997.Taylor, P.J.O. What really happened during the mutiny: a day-by-day account of the major events of 1857-1859 in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.The Great Mutiny: India 1857. Christopher Hibbert; Viking Press, 1978.]
The rebellion events of the 1857 war were started through a soldier revolting the orders of its superiors and killing the officials of British authority. The results of violent actions against the rebel soldier sparked a wave of revolution and instigated the rebel activities. The later review of the reasons and motives behind the rebel actions provides an account elaborating these actions. The actions of the soldiers were primarily religious. The reasons of disobedience were that the soldiers believed that the cartridges provided to them are coated with the pig and cow fat which is not allowed in their religion.
The religious ground so the revolt soon turned into a national revolt after the execution of the rebel soldier. The soldiers of his regiment and others showed their solidarity with the forces and started a revolt movement. The movement soon turned into a violent activity as soon the locals joined the forces to ensure that the British forces are fought and sent back to their country. The local lords and land holders did not patronize with the revolutionary forces and sided with the British occupation. The turning point of the movement from purely a religiously motivated action into a national independence war is observed when the unsatisfied locals aided the rebel soldiers. The locals fought side by side with the forces and captured various strategic and symbolic places of the foreign establishment.
The question rises that the rebel actions and nationalized efforts of locals to regain their freedom from the British forces remains acts of revolt and rebellion events. They fall short of a national movement and a nationwide war for independence. More importantly the actions of the rebels also remained unaccepted as to be noted as the first war of Indian independence. The historians provide various reasons after the review of events and the effects of the war. The major reasons are described as the lack of national motive, bad generalship, and lack of war skills.
Colonial life was like in two different areas. The writer compares and contrasts the way of life experienced during colonial times in the Chesapeake area and the new England area during Colonial America. The writer used ten sources to complete this paper.
Each year as Thanksgiving approaches students throughout the nation dress in traditional colonial garb and put on skits and meals to portray colonial life in America. While this has become a tradition for American students it has also become a blended generic portrayal of colonial life with little attention paid to area differences and similarities. Colonial times shared many similar facets as the nation of America began to build its foundation, but within that era there were also region and culture specific differences that set populations apart from each other. The new England Colonial life and the Chesapeake area colonial life can be held side by side to…
Life in Colonial America
In New England
Why were the Northern colonies settled?
The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred…
History Naval Warfare
What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?
"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…
BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]
The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.
Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.
William Shakespeare and Robert Burns are both iconic figures in the UK. Also known as the Bard of Avon, Shakespeare is often regarded as England’s national poet. Shakespeare is also considered the world’s greatest English writer and dramatist. During his time, Shakespeare authored tens of plays, over a hundred sonnets, and several narrative poems and verses (Marche, 2012). Shakespeare’s work has been translated into virtually all major languages of the world. Also, his work is performed more regularly than any other work. Robert Burns, born close to one and a half centuries after the death of Shakespeare, was also a prominent poet. Similar to Shakespeare, Burns is regarded as Scotland’s national poet (Hogg, 2008). Referred to as the Bard of Ayrshire, Burns is also recognised worldwide for his work (Cairney, 2000). As poets and playwrights, both Shakespeare and Burns have substantially influenced English literature and language as well as…
In this regard, Meyers concludes that, "As for Flory, environment has been too much for him, for he is not really alcoholic or crapulous by nature, and he regrets it when a girl from England arrives to stay at Kyauktada; she is a poverty-stricken little snob on the look-out for a husband, but he has not seen a spinster for a decade, and he succumbs on the spot whereupon his discarded Burmese mistress makes a scene in front of her and every one else, and he ends by committing suicide" (Meyers 52). hile it may seem that Flory simply got what he deserved given his wishy-washy nature and lack of fortitude when it came to standing up for his friend, Dr. Veraswami when put to the test, but the suicide of the protagonist provides a useful literary vehicle whereby Orwell advances the plot and highlights just how shallow the friendship…
Aung-Thwin, Maitrii. 2003, "Brave Men of the Hills: Resistance and Rebellion in Burma, 1824-
1932." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34(2): 376-377.
Brunsdale, Mitzi M. Student Companion to George Orwell. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
The ritish came to impose serious taxes as a result of the French Indian war. These in turn were unacceptable to a people which considered itself not to be responsible for the causes of the war. The confrontation had been in fact another matter of European dispute that had to be solved outside the continent in the colonies.
Third, there is a disagreement in the way in which the war was perceived at the local level. The American colonies viewed this struggle as a need for independence from a regime that continued to impose an undemocratic control over its institutions and the lives of the people. On the other hand, the ritish saw it as a rebellion that must be immediately squashed. In its view, it was a war for the maintenance of a certain order, while the Americans viewed it as one of disruption of this order. While the…
Brainard, R. (2005) "Shays' Rebellion." 18th century history. 11 June 2008. http://www.history1700s.com/articles/article1120.shtml
British Battles. (N.d.) the War of the Revolution 1775 to 1783. Accessed 11 June 2008 http://www.britishbattles.com/american-revolution.htm
Calliope. (2008) "Shays' Rebellion." A Historical Synopsis. 11 June 2008. http://www.calliope.org/shays/shays2.html
Jenkins, P. (1997) a history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.
In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…
Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html
Ethnologue. "English http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng
Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad. http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm
Middle East/Gulf region has a complex history and has experienced a series of important events both during and in the years following Muhammad's influence in the territory. hile Muhammad's ruling played an important role in shaping thinking in the region, his legacy was actually more important, taking into account that it practically influenced people in taking on certain attitudes and in expressing great interest in wanting to promote Islamic thought.
The Arab Caliphate greatly expanded the Islamic Empire and turned it into one of the greatest in all of history. It lasted from 632 until 1513 and it involved a series of leaderships: the Rashidun period, the Umayyad period, and the Abbassid period. These three dynasties kept Arabs together and provided them with a sense of unity and cultural identity. Introducing Arab as an official language further contributed to making individuals in the Middle East feel as if they were…
Barakat, Halim, "The Arab World," (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1993).
Hourani, Albert Habib, "A History of the Arab Peoples," (Harvard University Press, 2002)
The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.
6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire
People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…
9. Wilson, H.W., "The Great War: the standard history of the all Europe conflict. Digging in," (Trident Press International, 01.12.1999)
10. Wolf, Eric L., "Peasant wars of the twentieth century," (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)
11. Woloch, Isser, "Revolution and the meanings of freedom in the nineteenth century," (Stanford University Press, 1996)
12. "The State and Revolution in the Twentieth Century: Major Social Transformations of Our Time," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
democracy and representative government central inspirations for European feminists in the 19th and early 20th centuries? Were there other issues that inspired the feminists?
urning in the heart of each person is the desire to be free and to be recognized as a valuable part of society while at the same time receiving recognition as an individual. This desire is not trained into us by our society, because regardless of the social organization, or culture, all men and women feel this burning desire equally. The desire to be free, independent and recognized as valuable is a part of what separated men and women from animals. We are important, and our contribution to the social order is an important process by which we make carve out our own identify, and self-worth.
However, this desire for identity and recognition should not be confused with, nor forcibly molded into a desire for sameness…
Sources of the Western Tradition: From the Renaissance to the Present, 5th edition, Volume 2 - written by Marvin Perry, Joseph R. Peden & Theodore H. Von Laue - 2003
History of World Societies: Since 1500, 6th Edition, Volume 2 - Written by John P. McKay, Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Patricia Buckley Ebrey - 2004
The argument surrounding the recent conflict in Iraq was two sided: one favored ridding Iraq of Saddam Hussein; the other did not. Arguments of the anti-war sides bordered on accusing the United States of being an imperialist and colonialist power. That America had become an occupying force that sought to impose its will on a weaker nation found favor among most of the Middle Eastern Islamic countries. Though this argument might prove philosophically and intellectually disingenuous; there is historical precedence to colonialist ambitions. The Dutch, Spaniards, French and ritish and to a lesser extend the Danish colonized most of the world for more than five hundred years. The legacy that we see today in the world's lingua franca, the English language, is testament to that fact that the ritish were largely victors in the intra-imperialist wars. "ritannica" ruled the world for several centuries. Over the last century, most…
Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Ferguson, Niall. Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books, 2003.
Hiatt, L.R. Arguments About Aborigines: Australia and the Evolution of Social Anthropology. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Kearney, Milo. The Indian Ocean in World History. Themes in World History. New York, NY: Routledge, 2003.
The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. hile demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. hen Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. hile tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.
The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of…
Dubois, Laurent and John D. Carrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2006. Print.
Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chain: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. Print.
" There is a more calm feeling to his description. This is not to say that the author was portraying war as being a patriotic act, but the author was not as graphical in his describing what the soldiers were seeing and going through. The reader is more connected to the actions of the poem and not the fact that someone is dying. He ends his poem by referencing "hell" and the reader is left wondering whether the hell that he is referring to the war that is being left behind, or to dying itself.
3) Rites of Passage Activity
In speaking to my grandmother, I was able to find out what it was that she took when she first left her home. At the age of sixteen, she was married to my grandfather and was getting ready to start her knew life as a wife and very soon, as…
Baumgarten, Linda. (2002). hat Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America: The Colonial illiamsburg Collection. New Haven, CT: Yale University
Bilhartz, Terry D., and Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States, Volume 1. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Crunden, Robert Morse. (1996). A Brief History of American Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Fisher, John Hurt. (2001). "British and American, Continuity and Divergence" in the
Cambridge History of the English Language: English in North America, Eds. Hogg, Blake,
Algeo, Lass, and Burchfield. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grigg, John a., and Mancall, Peter C. (2008). British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. estport, CT: ABC-CLIO.
Horsman, Reginald. (1981). Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-
Saxonism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jandt, Fred Edmund (2007). An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community.…
Baumgarten, Linda. (2002). What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America: The Colonial Williamsburg Collection. New Haven, CT: Yale University
Bilhartz, Terry D., and Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States, Volume 1. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Crunden, Robert Morse. (1996). A Brief History of American Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Looking at art and historical artifacts can tell us immense amounts of information regarding the society and culture from which these objects came from. Art can be revealing and informative in the same manner that books can tell readers about history and cultural conventions, many times providing specific details about its origin. These details can then provide viewers with an informed and comprehensive view of cultures and societies. Art is a reflection of not only the artist which creates the piece, but also a reflection of the atmosphere in which the artist lived. These reflections through art can point to specific themes and subjects that were important during the times that these artists lived. Power and Status are themes that can be considered universal in virtually all cultures regardless of their respective geographical location or historical era.
The intention of this essay is to provide the historical background…
"Bis Pole, Arts of Africa, Oceania and The Americas." MetMuseum.org. The New York Metropolitan Museum. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
Stone, Richard E. "A Noble Imposter, The Foothil Ewer and The Early 19th Century Fakery." Metropolitan Museum Journal 32 (1997). Print.
" By commerce, one should read the relationship between master and slave in general. Here, Jefferson speaks as a true man of the Enlightenment who cannot accept the degrading submission of a human being.
On the other hand, some of his arguments against slavery are related to manners. Manners should probably be here less regarded as the social conventions of the time, but rather as some sort of collective conscience that should oppose the idea of enslaving another individual. More so, the people's morale, as well as the respect for people tolerating slavery, will be broken by perpetuating slavery.
3. The Sally Hemings Case
The controversy surrounding Sally Hemings is well-known, although it has never been fully proven. Sally Hemings was owned by Jefferson's father-in-law and rumors appeared that Jefferson had fathered five children with Sally Hemings. At that moment, the controversy started as a political quarrel in fact, in…
1. Armitage, David. The Declaration Of Independence: A Global History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2007
2. Koch, Adrienne, Peden William. The life and selected writings of Thomas Jefferson. Modern Library. 1998.
From Armitage, David. The Declaration Of Independence: A Global History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2007
The Sons of Liberty, a clandestine network of individuals dedicated to the freedom of enterprise and the fairness of government that the British Crown once stood as the protector of, have caused enough damage with their secretive acts to both the Crown and the forces here that oppose it. ould it not be better to move their actions from the shadows they have been forced into do to the label of sedition they have been branded with, and allow for the airing of the legitimate grievances and concerns of the people inhabiting these several colonies? ould not the Sons of Liberty, and indeed all Sons of Man, be better served by an open declaration of our independence from the Crown rather than continued unnecessary belligerence?
It has been well argued by the loyalists here that to denounce the King and his Crown as authority figures here would be a matter…
Nash, Gary; Jeffrey, Julie; Howe, John; Frederick, Peter; Davis, Allen; Winkler, Allan; Mires, Charlene; Pestana, Carla. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, 6th Ed. New York: Longman, 2007.
Oliver, Susan. "Creating Demand for Revolution: Thomas Paine's Common Sense." Accessed 12 July 2009. http://www.cerritos.edu/soliver/American%20Identities/Thomas%20Paine/thomas_paine.htm
Fresia's contention that the United States failed to live up to its revolutionary democratic promise and instead was captured by the powerful plutocratic elite has appeal, it oversimplifies the process by which the elite take and retain control over resources and governmental power. In reality, at the time of the American evolution, there was little dispute that the outcome of the evolution would be to give greater power and freedom to those leading the evolution; the founding fathers. While the promise of democracy was offered to common men, it was members of the ruling elite of the colonial Americas that made the decisions to declare America independent from England and drafted both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. Therefore, it is unsurprising that the Constitution does not engage in the type of re-distribution of wealth that Fresia appears to believe is necessary in order to establish a…
Fresia, Jerry. 1988. Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and other
Illusions. Boston: South End Press.
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
With localized colonial governments, world leaders demonstrated that empires could be founded on mastery of regional trade routes. At the beginning of the 20th century nations like Japan were at the forefront of the new model of imperialism.
Q3.Explain WWI? World War 1.
World War One was a natural outcome of the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the subsequent imbalance of power those downfalls entailed. Moreover, the First World War was a direct consequence of the ages of imperialism, colonialism, and industrialization. The war paved the way for emerging states to create a free market economy based on capitalism or on the other hand, a closed-market system based on state-controlled resources.
Q4.The Paris Exhibition had two famous sculptures: one of Paris in an evening gown and the other of Rodin's the Thinker. Elaborate upon the meaning of both and its lesson for us in the…
Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).
Leades in Bitish Engineeing
Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…
references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).
Possible predictions about the future of British engineering
In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).
Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.
Therefore, this information is identifying how: specific events and attributes would shape the kind of queen she became in the future. As the information is helping t: tie all of these different events together, in association with the other articles that were discussed earlier.
The Life of Elizabeth I
Over the years, there are those leaders who have such a profound impact that they can change the course of a nation forever. Such is the case with Elizabeth I of England, as she is considered to be one of the greatest leaders in all of ritish history. This is because she assumed power at time when the country was at its weakest point. What happened was England became known a pawn between: the rival powers of France and Spain. Where, both nations had made: a tremendous number of discoveries in new world and they were competing with each for access…
Elizabeth I. (n.d.). Hyper History. Retrieved from: http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/people_n2/persons6_n2/elizabeth.html
Elizabeth I. (n.d.) Tudor Place. Retrieved from: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/aboutElizabeth.htm
Elizabeth I. (2011). History Learning Site. Retrieved from: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/elizabeth_i.htm
Queen Elizabeth I of England. (2005). Kings College. Retrieved from: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/elizabeth.html