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rutal Murder or Self-Defense?
oston Massacre is known as the cornerstone of Revolutionary war which resulted into a series of events causing changes in the world's map. On face value, it can be perceived as an incident in which the innocent citizens were murdered by the tyrant government but a careful analysis would reveal that basic reasons of the oston Massacre are rooted in the years of tension and strain that existed between the ritish government and colonists. oston Massacre is a controversial event reflected differently in ritish and American history.
It is evident after careful unbiased analysis that oston Massacre was a result of self-defense by the ritish army troop instead of an unprovoked gunfire, in response to attacks by ostonian colonists.
In order to understand the oston massacre, it is important that the events leading to this incident and aftermaths are critically evaluated. On the other…… [Read More]
The initial cause of the Boston Massacre is a mystery because the testimonies of the witnesses conflict with each other in several areas. The testimonies presented do not seem to support the fact that Thomas Preston was guilty as charged. If anything, these testimonies serve to prove that there is more to eyewitness accounts than meets the eye.
Captain Preston's deposition leads us to believe that the mob was definitely aggressive toward the soldiers. They were, in his opinion, encouraging the soldiers to fire. Preston claims he was in between the mob and the soldiers urging them to resolve the matter peacefully, "but to no purpose" (81). The mob was closing in on the soldiers, striking them and their weapons. At this point, he claims that someone asked him in the mob if he intended to order the soldiers to fire. His reply is a staunch no, and…… [Read More]
" (eady, 2009) This account is a summary of rather detailed events that occurred on the night of March 5, 1770 that resulted in what many claim to have been an event destined to happen as the British overriding authority in the colony presented a threat to the autonomy in the daily operations of the colonists. The purpose for the pilgrimage from the British ruled Empire to the New World centered around the desire to live freely from the tyrannical rule of the Monarchy and establish a new system of governance. A constant oversight in the activity and the resulting impediment of colonist movement created a hostility that enabled the fuel necessary to instigate a battle against British troops.
Allison ., "The Boston Massacre." Commonwealth Editions. (2006) etrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Ndz-eKUMfEC&oi=fnd&pg=P5&dq=the+Boston+Massacre&ots=bLUY1FbAP_&sig=aMmkV4wD6Dsh5wgsFDw-D1Ih5k#v=onepage&q&f=false
Archer ., "The charge is murder; the Boston Massacre wasn't what you might think. (2010) a historian argues for…… [Read More]
The Boston Massacre: A Rousing Event
The Boston Massacre refers to an altercation that occurred when America was a new land, and still technically a colony of the British Empire. The facts of the Boston Massacre are as follows: the parties involved were a group of British soldiers and a group of colonists or patriots. Some historians refer to this event as a “street fight” and others view it as more of violent scuffle.[footnoteRef:1] While this altercation was not a technical battle, it was definitely one of the issues that had a direct impact towards the revolutionary war, and gathering support within the colonies to fight against the stifling British presence there and ultimately lead to the Revolutionary War and the increasing sense of patriotism within the colonies.[footnoteRef:2] This patriotism was essential in securing their own independence, as it increased a sense of commitment and internal loyalty. The Boston Massacre…… [Read More]
This bias permeates throughout social circles and businesses seeking qualified job applicants. Yet, oston's strong economy accommodates growth for anyone who is motivated to succeed.
Culturally, oston is no New York. but, for a city of 600,000, great cultural activities are available without the burden of dealing with an overwhelmingly large city.
The city's numerous theaters include the Cutler Majestic Theatre, oston Opera House, the Wang Center for the Performing Arts, Schubert Theater, and the Orpheum Theater. Performing arts groups are some of the best to be found in the country and include the oston allet, oston Symphony Orchestra, oston Pops, oston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society. Free summer concerts on the Charles River Esplanade are a joy with excellent acoustics and a festive atmosphere. oston also has several fine museums such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum…… [Read More]
The name of Horace Mann is still known today, the first Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, as he tried to make a practical education available to all, including recent immigrants, which he argued would be an important part of their socialization into the national culture (Browne, 2003, p.3).
Boston suffered a great deal during the Great Depression. "ith the outbreak of ar II, factories were retooled for the war effort, and people went back to work on the production lines. Again Boston was a major arms manufacturer during wartime" (Banner 2008). And because of the new importance of science and technology, its considerable intellectual capital proved a great source of profit, and continues to, to this day. Today, Boston has become a leader in the computer and other technology-dominated industries. Financial and service industries are also strong. Fenway Park, the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Freedom Trail…… [Read More]
com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." (iboston.org). Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In iboston.org). Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" (iboston.org). The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…… [Read More]
The shifting perceptions of 1096, particularly when seen against the backdrop of the historical
"reality, have much to teach us."
The development of the Rhineland Massacres, often looked at in history as a linear first example of official Jewish mass persecution by the Christians, wavers in importance to the modern scholar, as well as the modern Jew and Christian. Was it a warm up for mass persecution, or a warm up for crusade actions against the Muslims? Historically it is safe to say that it is all of these things, an important period in Jewish and Christian history. One that would have served as a good lesson for detractors of reinvigoration of anti-Semitism that pervaded not only the Nazi mentality but that of much of western thought, notorious anti-Semites existed all over the world during the rise of the Nazi regime. In fact the WWII genocide could be seen as…… [Read More]
As an inciting event, it gave a direct reason for the
colonists to oppose British imposition on their lives. This minor incident
turned in a deadly attack that gave way to the beginning of the American
This is because another key player emerged that helped to spread the
anti-British sentiment and contribute to the resulting action from the
Boston Massacre. This player was Paul Revere, who 21 days after the Boston
Massacre began selling color prints entitled, "The Bloody Massacre
perpetrated in King Street" (Achieving Early America). By selling the
prints so quickly, Paul Revere cemented his status as an American Patriot
and helped to spread the events of the Boston Massacre that went on to lead
America towards independence. His engraving is very one sided in its
depiction of the Boston Massacre, as it shows the British Redcoats ordered
by a commander to mow down a group of…… [Read More]
Captain Preston's Actions At Boston Massacre
When it comes to American history, one of the most commonly cited periods that is focus on is the run up to the American Revolution and the aftermath once the United States was founded and the war was won. One of the specific events within that period that is commonly focused on is the Boston Massacre, which happened in 1870. There are a few names that come to the surface when it comes to that event. Whether it be Crispus Attucks, Governor Hutchinson or others, there is no shortage of intrigue when it comes to the people involved. The biggest name in the eyes of many, however, would be Captain Thomas Preston. While the involvement of Captain Preston in the Boston Massacre is without doubt, his overall behaviors and guilt (or lack thereof) when it comes to the actions during the same is the…… [Read More]
George Robert Twelves Hewes was an interesting figure in the American Revolutionary period was born in oston, on September 5th 1742. The environment in which he lived saw many transformations throughout his life and Hewes also experienced more inward transformations as well. Hewes life can be defined by some of the more significant events that we personally witnessed and/or participated in. These events also happened to be defining moments in American History. One such incident that worked to transform Hewes as a person was undoubtedly the oston Massacre in 1770. During this period the city was occupied with a large concentration of ritish troops that were stationed in oston to enforce and collect tax obligations from the colonies.
Hewes worked as a shoemaker and one day he had made shoes for a soldier who claimed they were for the captain and then refused to pay for…… [Read More]
One of the most important events in the history of the United States is the American Revolution, which is regarded as more important in the country development that ideas, trends, and actions. The significance of the American Revolution in the nation's history and development is highlighted in the fact that it was one of the seminal instances of the Enlightenment. During this period, the political philosophy of the Enlightenment was established and utilized in creating an entirely new country that has developed to become the world's super power. However, the American Revolution was fueled by a series of several major events and incidents brought by various factors including rebellion by the American colonies and Declaration of Independence.
Overview of the American Revolution
As previously mentioned, the American Revolution is one of the most important and remarkable events in the country's history given its role in the birth of…… [Read More]
To quote Noble's article negotiations commonly follow a four-step path: preparation, information exchange, explicit bargaining, and commitment. ... Negotiation is, in short, a kind of universal dance with four stages or steps. And it works best when both parties are experienced dancers."
So, beginning with step one, there must be preparation. The ground rules must be spelled out and meetings, policy making and ratification procedures need to be drawn up. Secondly, one the ground work can be done there is the education process that must take place where information is exchanged. Thirdly, negotiations must go on. Fourthly, commitment must be secured from the negotiation parties. This will spell out in the establishment of a monitoring and facilitation regime that will ensure that the policies are carried out. Attorney Noble then spells out these steps in greater detail, one that is far beyond the scope of this short policy paper (Noble,…… [Read More]
The American tea party
The Tea Party is a populist movement that promotes several conservative values which include the following;
Limitations on the authority of the U.S. federal government
eduction of government spending and the national debt
eduction of personal and corporate taxes
This is a party that has been known over the historical moments to pull frustrated and concerned Americans together to protest against excessive government spending coupled with increased debt burden. This conservative group has it that the government's growing involvement in business and indulgence in individual freedom is a deviation from conservative values.
Since its inception to date, the mission of the Tea Party Coalition has been to organize and launch in a rapid response fashion special nationwide projects that will help to advance the goal of a return to a constitutionally limited government that does not go overboard, through whichever arm to disenfranchise the…… [Read More]
Certainly there were myriad slave rebellions, in the American South and elsewhere, before Douglass's time. But Douglass came along when the time was right for social change, when the South had been recently defeated and American slavery was in its most precarious state ever. Therefore, Douglass and Abolitionists like him: black and white; male and female, seized the moment, and in 1865 slavery was outlawed.
The name Frederick Douglass is a household word in most American households. However, it was not until publication, in 1999, of Alfred F. Young's historical biography of the Shoemaker and the Tea Party (Boston: Beacon Press) that a brave shoemaker who risked his life in the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party, George Robert Twelve Hewes was known to history at all. Though he, too, was a man of his era, Hewes was not nearly as representative as Douglass. Nor was Hewes's era representative…… [Read More]
These Acts, along with the Quebec Act, which extended the southern boundary of Canada into territories claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut and Virginia, proved to be the last straw and hurtled the country into the Revolutionary ar ("Intolerable Acts").
Although it is still debatable whether the American independence from the British was inevitable, there is hardly any doubt that the required the series of legislation enacted by the British Parliament between 1764 and1774, outlined in this essay, served to greatly antagonize the American colonists. Almost all measures taken to tax the American colonies and tighten British administrative control met with resentment and, ultimately, open hostility. These measures proved to be a major reason for the Revolutionary ar, and eventual independence of America.
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html
British Actions After the French Indian ar." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
Cogliano, Francis…… [Read More]
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…… [Read More]
In 1775, Patrick Henry gave his famous speech ("give me liberty or give me death") to lawmakers in Virginia; he urges a citizens' army to defeat the British. The first shots of the Revolutionary ar are fired after Paul Revere rode his horse through Concord and Lexington to warn colonists that the British soldiers are coming. Also in 1775, George ashington is given command of the Continental army, and John Hancock is appointed president of the Second Continental Congress. In August of 1775, King George III makes a declaration that the colonies are in open rebellion against the British.
The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, by the Continental Congress. "e hold these truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal..." is the beginning of the declaration. Thomas Jefferson is given credit for most of the writing of the declaration, along with John…… [Read More]
American Revolution happened between 1775 and 1783 and to others it is known as the U.S. War of Independence while others call it the American Revolutionary War. It was not until the Seven Years' of War ended in 1783 that few colonists in the Northern Part of America gave objections to their position in the ritish Empire. The imperial system of the ritish people saw it reap many benefits and the costs linked to the system were few. Indeed, the American colonies had been left alone all along but in the early 1760s, the eruption of the Seven Years' War changed everything. Many Americans referred to this War as the War between the French and Indians, and the winning team was ritain, which had come at a great cost since the Empire had a staggering war debt that influenced many of its policies over the decade. The Americans tried to…… [Read More]
They were seen as being more punitive than pragmatic. Certainly the British needed revenue after the French & Indian War to support their standing army in the colonies, but to tax the colonists in order to police them with multitudes of Redcoats, was absurd, and caused the colonists -- many of whom had tried to stay loyal to the King -- to become cynical, skeptical, and in the end, very angry.
FOUR: How did the colonists respond?
Certainly -- as the text reports on page 138 -- the colonists thought they were British subjects, and of course they were. But when the Sugar and Stamp Acts were handed down, many colonists it seemed unfair and "in deep violation of what they perceived to be their rights and liberties" as British subjects. In time, large street protests were helping to build the demand for new policies. One of the colonists' most…… [Read More]
Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…… [Read More]
The Short-Term Causes of the American Revolution
Essayist Colin Bonwick writes that a short-term cause from the British perspective was the loss of revenue from taxes generated by American businesses and trading companies. And the short-term legislative measures by the British government were called the "Intolerable Acts" (Bonwick, 2002). More on the Intolerable Acts later on this page, but from the prospective of the colonists, their short-term causes included their rage at the " . . . indebtedness to rapacious British merchants and of navigations acts requiring them to trade through Britain" (Bonwick, 70).
On the subject of the Intolerable Acts (also called Coercive Acts), the short-term cause was created by the anger and frustration the colonists felt when Britain handed down unreasonable laws, designed to pinch the colonists in their pocketbooks, and basically punish them for their drift towards independence. The Boston Massacre happened on March 5, 1770, when…… [Read More]
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…… [Read More]
start of the 16th century. This was largely because society began to develop its initial modern practices during this time. Many things throughout this time had a large impact on the world, and still affect us today. Three things, however, can be singled out as being most important. The American Revolution, the founding of America by Christopher Columbus, and the reformation of the Catholic Church were all instrumental in affecting our world.
In the political arena, the American Revolution was extremely important. The revolution was not a single isolated event; rather, it encompassed occurrences from the 1660's all the way into the late 1700s. Many acts were passed during this time, including regulations on navigation, printed materials, and many everyday items. The Boston Tea Party also occurred during this time, as well as the Boston Massacre. Many battles were fought during the American Revolution which finally led to the drafting…… [Read More]
Similarly, when parliament passed the Sugar Act and the Currency Act in 1764, colonialists viewed the British with contempt. The Sugar Act included tariffs on most luxury goods that were imported from Great Britain and was not limited to sugar alone; the act was devised as a legitimate means to collect taxes from the colonies, which demonstrated a successful agricultural industry. Debt incurred by the wars on both sides of the Atlantic had drained the British budget significantly enough to warrant domestic taxes in England. Imposing a tariff on goods ranging from textiles to wine was therefore a natural attempt to raise more money in the interest of offsetting national debt.
The Crown asserted its right to impose the tariffs because of the role the colonies played in the French and Indian War but the colonialists rejected the argument, instead pointing out that only the British supported the war effort.…… [Read More]
Why does Zinn disagree with the interpretation that history books say the U.S. constitution creates a neutral level playing fields where one can prove their worth & any inequality in wealth is not due to unfair rules but to unequal abilities. Be specific & give examples.
Zinn's portrayal of pre-revolutionary America differs substantially from the more widely accepted accounts of history. Zinn showed how many of the founding fathers of this country actually stood to benefit personally from the economic conditions the war would set into place. Zinn used the Boston Massacre as an example of the wealthy business class creating false arguments and staged fights to control the aggressions of the numerous poorer class (67). The revolution and its events were actually a transfer of power from one group of wealthy to another . According to Zinn, the document designed to protect this elite class of revolutionaries, the…… [Read More]
There were a number of causes of the American Revolution, both short-term and long-term. The colonists were mainly of British descent, and so they had roughly the same culture as the ruling English, but over time there were enough differences and disagreements that ultimately would lead to the Revolutionary War. At the core of the disagreement was the economic status of the colonies and the people that lived in them. This was the primary long-run tension that led to the revolution.
Great Britain was the world's most powerful nation at the time, and was in the process of building an expansive empire, all over the world. The empire was still rising at the time of the revolution, and would only peak in the 19th century. Great Britain essentially saw its colonies as a source of wealth. The people that lived in those colonies were British subjects. Both Crown…… [Read More]
Domestic Homicide in South Carolina
The law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal bread," wrote French intellectual and social critic Anatole France in The Red Lily in 1894 and in doing so he summarized the often great distance that exists between laws and people's concepts of justice and truth. Justice is a slippery concept and the truth even more so - and this is perhaps nowhere more evident than in the practices of the "truth commissions" established in a number of countries newly accustoming themselves to democracy. The Orwellian sound of "truth commission" is not inappropriate, for the connection between the actions of these commissions - in places like Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala and South Africa - and the truth of experience or any sense of absolute justice was both tenuous…… [Read More]
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]
National Incident Management Systems
Duty esponsibilities of Commander
National Incident Management System (NIMS) (PAT 1)
As the commander of the National Management System (NIMS), I have viewed the situation in a considerable amount of attention. The situation at hand needs to be carefully monitored and put into effect a counteractive method of operation. I and my unit's mission are to conduct this operation in the best way possible in order to rescue the hostages and apprehend the said terrorists who have no place in this kind of our society.
The NIMS occasionally deals with domestic incidents, but the situation at hand involves terrorists and Israeli citizens making this event a matter of international interest. My command structure will have the incident command system (ICS) which comprises of five major functional areas, the command, operations, logistics and finance/administration. The situation at hand being a complex situation has led to the need…… [Read More]
Many colonists had come to the new world in search of a lifestyle infused with greater freedom. The colonists' ideas about government differed greatly from their English counterparts. hile the English still focused on the power of the monarchy, the colonists had been holding popular assemblies since 1763 ("The American Revolution: First Phase"). They began to believe in rights that they saw the English and their stationed guards as there to violate. In addition, they believed that they, not a country across the ocean, should have the right to control or at least have a say in the political decisions that would affect their lives.
In addition to these highly popularized economic and ideological causes of the revolution, social causes also added fuel to the fire of revolution. As the 1700s wore on, More and more Americans came from European countries other than England. As these people began to immigrate…… [Read More]
Their Impacts on Immigrants in 19th Century
Settlement Houses were an attempt of socially reforming the society in the late nineteenth century and the movement related to it was a process of helping the poor in urban areas adopting their modes of life by living among them and serving them while staying with them. What today's youth would know as a Community Center, 'Settlement Houses' initially sprang up in the 1880's? At these facilities, higher educated singles would move to Settlement Houses and get to personally know the neighborhood and immigrant people that they were converting, studying, and/or teaching. Working together, they passed labor laws and changed the way the U.S. does business. Where these educated professionals stayed with the community and served them, the main intent of these reforms was to transfer this responsibility of social welfare to the government in the long-run.
An interesting fact…… [Read More]
ole of Media in Vietnam
There can be various reasons for a nation to get involved in war and conflict of cultures is considered to be the major reason. Silence can be men's greatest enemy and history is evident that many wars are fought to break vicious circle of silence, pain and agony. It is not easy for humans to get out of their comfort zone and raise their voice against the injustice, unethical practices and even government policies. When a situation comes where individuals realize that human spirit no longer existed and their self-esteem is being engulfed by the so called principals of justice in the hands of law; this point is the verge of tolerance, forbearance and moderation and ultimately gives rise to uncertainty and turbulence.
Nations are in continuous thirst of power, territorial usufruct and control over resources to gain economic control. In this battle of power…… [Read More]
Sandy Hook Case: Reintegrating Adam Lanza Into Society
The tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School will never be fully understood. How anyone could reign such terror on innocent children is mind numbing. Yet, if Adam Lanza were to have survived, he would have to deal with life after such a horrible massacre. If he had successfully been treated in a state mental health facility, it might have been possible for him to have one day re-entered the community. In such a situation, there would need to be ongoing treatment and supervision of Lanza himself, along with special health care services provided to Peter Lanza to help care for the ongoing treatment of his son. Overall, the community would also need to stand together and work towards a positive change in light of the tragic events that occurred in the sleepy Connecticut town.
Plan of Action
There are several areas in…… [Read More]
Laws & regulations not adequate enough:
egistration & Licensing
National ifle Association (NA):
Sandy Hook and Colorado:
No need for assault rifles:
Government and Private protection:
Political and Social pressure:
Counter Argument & ebuttal:
Public will not be able to protect itself:
Hand guns and law enforcement enough for public protection:
The possession of guns is considered as a matter of tradition and heritage of the society. However the usage of automatic guns in violent crimes has initiated a concern for society to urge government for imposition of strict gun control laws. The previous laws should be changed to restrict automatic rifles possession and sales. The high powered weapons should also avoided by the public to evade unnecessary violence. United States is country that allowed its citizen to…… [Read More]
George ush & Charles Taylor
General Analysis; current affairs; George ush & Charles Taylor"
The Objective of this paper is wholly to illustrate and depict what President Charles Taylor done to have been ordered by President George ush to relinquish his power
One of the most significant and relevant happenings within the contemporary world has been, arguably, the achievement of ultimate global, strategic and military power by the United States of America, an occurrence that the country appears to be intensifying and fortifying in so much as enhancing the ostensible war on terrorism incepted as a consequence of the ghastly September 11th attack (s) on the WTC and the Pentagon.
Subsequent political influence
The U.S., as a result of contemporaneously being the nation wielding supreme power, finds itself in a position demanding monumental commitment and responsibility, such as resolving particularly deteriorative issues around the globe. This is something that becomes…… [Read More]
Organized crime has existed in society for hundreds of years in one form or another. It generally exists in prosperous societies where strong class distinctions -- sometimes brutally enforced -- exist. The history and dealings associated with major crime organizations have been well documented. In this paper, the effect of La Cosa Nostra (Our Thing or Cause) will be discussed in relation to its effects on modern society. This paper will also discuss the efforts and results of law enforcement on the Mafia.
Organized crime in the United States has been around for a long time. Since the early 1900's, "organized" crime has existed and continues to exist in the United States today. Organized crime is generally prevalent in regions of high population density, where there are sufficient opportunities available to make money illegally. Organized crime can be therefore classified as a society-influenced crime. In recent years, however, the growing…… [Read More]
Tighter egulations for Buying Guns
The argument essay tighter regulations buying guns proposed. An requirements word file.
In the recent past, there have been mass shootings that have taken place in different states within the United States. These mass shootings have caused many innocent people to loose their lives, and this has led to the citizens and leaders pushing for stricter control for firearms. In 2012, there were three major shootings that prompted legislators to take action against gun control. The first was the Chardon High School shooting, where a student went on a rampage killing three students and injuring several other students. The second event was the Colorado Theater shooting. In this event, the shooter killed 12 people and injured 58 others. The final event took place in December 2012. The incident occurred at Sandy Hook Elementary School where the shooter killed six adult staff and twenty children. The…… [Read More]
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]
Rise of Taiwanese Nationalism and Implications for Cross-Strait Affairs
The evolution of Taiwanese nationalism has policy ramifications not just for Taiwan but also for China and the United States of America.
This story of the evolution of Taiwanese nationalism and its interaction with the process of modernization and democratization is important to understand. In spite of the common "roots" mainlanders and Taiwanese share, the Japanese colonization of Taiwan for half a century, the ill-conceived policy of the garrison government that questioned the loyalty of the Taiwanese and culminated in the February 28, 1947 massacre, and the domination of the government by mainlanders who accounted for only about twenty percent of the population together have given rise to this "peculiar kind" of nationalism on Taiwan. Once formed and released, Taiwanese nationalism was the major catalyst precipitating Taiwan to make a transition to democracy, which, in turn, empowered the Taiwanese electorate to…… [Read More]
And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. He was the Messiah. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, just as the divine prophets had spoken of these and countless other wondrous things about him. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not died out (18.63-64)
This paragraph has also been very controversial, because many believe it would not be likely that Josephus would have written that Jesus "appeared to them on the third day, living again." Some scholars say that Josephus had given up all his Jewish leanings by this time, but others say that this was not the true…… [Read More]
As Vickers (1989) notes, "…the size and intensity of U.S. intervention was met by escalation in the size and intensity of opposition to the war here at home'. (Vickers, 1989, p. 100) Vickers and many other critics state categorically that the anti-war movement in the country was "…a critical factor in preventing the U.S. from achieving victory over communist forces in Vietnam…" and that,
American public opinion indeed turned out to be a crucial 'domino'; it influenced military morale in the field, the long drawn-out negotiations in Paris, the settlement of 1973, and the cuts in aid to South Vietnam in 1974, a prelude to final abandonment in 1975." (Vickers 1989, p. 100)
As events in the war accelerated so did the public opposition to the war and protest changed into active resistance. A new stage of anti-resistance came into effect between 1967 and 1969 as a result of a…… [Read More]
The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. hile demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. hen Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. hile tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.
The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of…… [Read More]
On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three humanitarian aid workers in West Timor, establishing a civilian audit of armed forces expenditures, and granting humanitarian workers access to Aceh, West Timor, West Papua, and the Moluccas."
Following are two very recent bills and rulings by the U.S. Congress concerning the Indonesian presence, changes, and sanctions.
In the House resolution, number 666, urton (R-IN), Wexler (D-FL), and lumenauer (D-OR) congratulate the Indonesian people and government for a successful election process, supported Indonesia in political and economic transformations, expresses gratitude to Indonesian leadership for arresting 109 terrorists, supports the emerging legal framework, commends Indonesia for "discovering new ways of working with regional law enforcement and intelligence communities in a sincere effort to root out domestic radicalism, and urged Indonesia to conduct…… [Read More]
It is however as if the United States government was looking for needy terrorists to supply with arms. When Turkey's need was met, Colombia became the leading recipient of arms from the United States. This country is well-known for being an atrocious human rights violator, especially during the 1990s. Chomsky's premise that the United States government is essentially terrorist in nature does not appear to be far from realistic.
Indeed, according to interviews conducted with Chomsky by arsamian (2001), Chomsky elaborates on the more subtle practices perpetrated by the U.S. government in order to coerce its public into obedience. The Reagan administration for example put barriers in place in order to boost the U.S. industry rather than providing its citizens with the best possible products available. Thus, overseas dealers were barred to the point of impossibility while the public funds were put to use in order to keep the local…… [Read More]
Louvigny returned to Quebec and was considered by Canadians to have ended the first Fox War. He returned to the area in 1717 to continue the policing of the Meskwaki forces, yet made little progress in making contact or forcing the provisions of the previous treaty. In later communication with the government, Meskwaki chiefs expressed their own desire for peace. During the period between 1714 and 1727, the French were able to reopen waterways and move freely throughout the areas previously hindered by the danger of Indian encounters. However, other communications between the French and the American Indians were failing. Among these, the greatest failure was the inability of the French to include the Indian groups in the agricultural settlements they had attempted, including the one at Detroit.
Though the city groups of Indians and white men did not last, the area remained secure enough for the French and Americans…… [Read More]
Native Societies and Disease
Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…… [Read More]
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]
Also, the death penalty still in use in a great deal of countries might provide another subject for debate from the point-of-view of human rights.
A minimalist set of human rights, meant only to keep people safe from humiliation and pain cannot be effective. This is mainly because while certain human rights seem to be of little necessity, they are actually indispensable. Economic, civil, and political rights are of great importance because they assist society's interests.
Human rights are not likely to have any decisive effect in international relationships, and they are also not expected to be of any use when it comes to the stopping perpetrators from breaking the law. The best thing to do in order to make the world a better place would be to promote the concept of good, so as to influence the masses into contributing to preserve human rights.
1. Forsythe D.P.…… [Read More]
Overall, it can be concluded that John Brown was and remains a controversial figure in the history of the United States. His personality has been the subject of debate, as well as his intentions to incite the American people to rebellion against the system. However, probably the most important question his existence raised was over the actual legitimacy of the use of violence in attaining one's goals, no matter their moral justification.
Buchanan, Patrick J. "One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter." Information Clearing House. April 2004. 13 Nov. 2007. http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article5873.htm
Chowder, Ken. "The father of American terrorism." The American Heritage. Mar. 2000, vol. 51, issue 1. 13 Nov. 2007. http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2000/1/2000_1_81.shtml
Davis, John. "John Brown: Terrorist or martyr?" The Dailey.. 25 May, 2005. http://www.decaturdaily.com/decaturdaily/books/050529/book1.shtml
Fleming, Thomas. "Verdicts of History: The Trial of John Brown." American Heritage. Online. 1967. Vol 18, issue 5. 11 Nov.2007 http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1967/5/1967_5_28.shtml
Jenkins, P. A…… [Read More]
People can no longer decide on their selves, and there the rulers of the country must intervene. The measures proposed will have as finality the reduction in violent attacks, and more tranquil life in American cities and ghettos. The feasibility of the legislative intention is also demonstrated with logical arguments, which would deter the behavior of individuals with an aversion to violence.
The violence is a sign of weakness, both of the individual and the society on one hand and of the laws that govern the society on the other. Some individual is not capable to think things clear, or maybe he is not familiar with the legal proceedings, so his only solution is violence oriented to other citizens. The authorities are not able, up to present times, to control this violence issue through specific measures - legal, in general. The current proposals could be a viable solution for the…… [Read More]
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…… [Read More]
John Brown's Raid On Harper's Ferry
John Brown and his raid at Harper's Ferry have a symbolic importance, as he himself was well aware, to suggest that not all white people counted themselves complicit in the persistence of slavery within the antebellum United States. In other words, Brown was engaged in what old-style Marxist revolutionaries used to refer to as "propaganda of the deed." His letters from prison were consciously intended as propaganda, as he asked for them to be circulated (and indeed published): "Please let all our friends read my letters when you can; & ask them to accept of it as in part for them."(Earle 98). And although his stated intention at Harper's Ferry -- to seize the weaponry there, arm the slaves of western Virginia, and thus begin Spartacus-style uprising -- failed, Brown craved martyrdom as justification, claiming: "I have now no doubt but that our seeming…… [Read More]
ups and downs of Russian music throughout the Soviet Union's tumultuous history and will also describe the impact that music has on the Russians today. This paper will describe the music during the pre-revolutionary years, post-revolutionary years, the Stalin years, the post-Stalin years and Gorbachev's perestroika years.
The years before the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the Russian revolution of 1917 are considered the pre-revolutionary years. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an unsuccessful attempt to topple the ruling czar and it all started with the Bloody Sunday Massacre. The Russian revolution of 1917 succeeded in overthrowing the imperial government and replacing them with the Bolsheviks.
The pre-revolutionary years, in Russia, were filled with Byzantium liturgical chants, nationalistic folk songs, operas, and symphonies. In 988, Prince Vladimir of Kiev decided that Russian's national religion would be Byzantine Orthodoxy and that's how the Byzantium liturgical chants ended up in Russia. However,…… [Read More]
Patton, directed by Franklin J. Schaffner. Specifically, it will contain a critical review of the film, which will briefly summarize the film and provide some analysis, which will look at the historical accuracy of the film and George C. Scott's portrayal of General George S. Patton, Jr. Patton is as accurate as any Hollywood film can be, while still entertaining an audience. Scott's portrayal of Patton is deadly accurate - he captures the nuances of a man alternately known for his cruelty and his pathos. The film is historic because it does attempt to portray the real man, the real war, and the real emotion men faced in battle.
PATTON was obsessed with the belief that the war would end before I got into it." (General George S. Patton Jr.)
General George S. Patton, Jr. was probably one of the most controversial and yet admired generals in the history of…… [Read More]
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…… [Read More]
Terrorism Affects Tourism in Istanbul
The terror group, Islamic State, caused an explosion near Istanbul's historic Sultan Ahmed Cami Mosque (popularly known as the Blue Mosque). This raised serious concerns with regard to tourism in the country of Turkey. This recent explosion, which claimed the lives of ten tourists, followed another terror bombing incident in the country's capital Ankara, on 10th October, 2015, which claimed the lives of over a hundred individuals. Following the nation's tense situation, travel specialists from Turkey started raising concerns (Parvan, 2016). Turkish tourism could suffer a serious blow in light of the 12th January terror attack, in Istanbul's historical hub, near the famed Blue Mosque. According to Turkish travel specialists, considering that Turkey borders Syria and has been a target of terror attacks earlier, tourists were already uneasy about visiting. Thus, the events that transpired on January 12 will do nothing, but aggravate their qualms…… [Read More]
How was the war similar or different to previous U.S. attempts at "containment"?
What were the key mistakes the U.S. made, in your view?
What where the key turning points of U.S. involvement?
Why did the U.S. lose the war?
How was the war similar or different to previous U.S. attempts at "containment"?
The policy or strategy if the U.S. of 'containment' originated during the formative years of te cold war and it aimed to defeat the Soviet Union by means of stopping it expanding its influence and the territories under its communist control. This was the primary reason for the conflict and the strain in relations between the two superpowers. This policy of containment by the U.S. found some success during the Korean War and the Cuban Missile Crisis. However, critics claim that the Vietnam War was a failure and not a true reflection of the policy…… [Read More]
The increasing and gruesome mass killings in schools and other public arenas is connected to military type assault rifles and hidden handguns, carrying large amounts of ammunition magazines. These artilleries of war are modeled to cause overwhelming damage within short periods without reloading (Rosenthal, 2016). There is an upcoming logical debate to convince the government to ban these artilleries among the public.
A large number of Americans prefer banning "assault weapons"; the same case applies to the majority of students who strongly support criminalizing the possession, receipt, transfer and manufacture of assault weapons. The congress of 1994 permitted the assault weapons ban. It expired in 2004. Arguments to renew the ban happen periodically and a number of federals have enacted the bans.
The Sandy Hook basics school massacre in Newtown, Connecticut, which took place in December, 2012, caused a new round of ideas in relation to banning assault weapons as…… [Read More]
Anglicization and Americanization
While the revolutionary period in American history may have been perceived by many as the most glorious time in the history of colonial America, the truth is that there were still some people who did not believe in Independence and trusted the British. These were called the Imperialists and whether they were British themselves or simply the victims of colonial rule who subscribed to British way of life, they all viewed Britain as a benevolent force that was working for the so-called benefit of the British American colonies. British way of life, English values and customs, and their way of thinking was introduced in the colonies merely to keep all colonies glued together and loyal to British Monarchy. This is an interesting paradox. On the one hand, colonies were becoming more sophisticated and enlightened because of their adoption of British lifestyle and ideals, but on the other,…… [Read More]