Using Antibiotics Essay

Length: 5 pages Sources: 4 Subject: Medicine Type: Essay Paper: #98812868 Related Topics: Vertigo, Gonorrhea, Meningitis, E Coli
Excerpt from Essay :



Mechanism of Action

Penicillin G, when injected into the patient, will act against actively proliferating penicillin-sensitive strains of bacteria (, 2011). This does not include several strains of staphylococci producing penicillinase or bacteria that are quiescent. The mechanism of action is inhibition of cell-wall mucopeptide biosynthesis. Penicillin G. works best against staphylococci groups A, B, C, G, H, L, and M, pneumococci, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponemapallidum, and many others.

Clinical Uses

Penicillin is used to treat serious infections, such as septicemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, empyema, and meningitis (, 2011). Penicillin is also indicated in cases of anthrax, botulism, actinomycosis, diphtheria, listeria infections, erysipelothrix endocarditis, severe infections of the oropharynx, lower respiratory tract, and genitals. Penicillin is also used to treat gonorrhea, syphyilis, rat-bite fever, and Haverhill fever. Only penicillin-sensitive bacteria should be treated due to the risk of creating penicillin-resistant strains. Although treatment should begin immediately in urgent cases, the sensitivity of the infectious agent should be determined in all cases to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

Adverse Effects

Penicillin should be used cautiously in individuals with a history of allergic disease and should an allergic reaction occur, it use should be discontinued, unless penicillin is the only viable treatment for a life-threatening condition (, 2011). The estimated prevalence of penicillin allergy is between 0.7 to 10%. In patients with syphilis or other spirochetal infections, the following may occur within two hours and resolve within 24 hours: fever, chills, myalgias, headaches, tachycardia, hyperventilation, and vasodilation. This may be due to the release of pyrogens into the system. Gastrointestinal distress can occur: nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, and black or hairy tongue. High doses in renal patients can cause hemolytic anemia, serious or fatal electrolyte imbalances (due to sodium content), congestive heart failure, kidney damage, seizures, and coma.


Mechanism of Action

Gentamicin belongs to a class of antibiotics defined...


Gentamicin is harvested from the Micromonospora purpurea cultures. The bactericidal activity of gentamicin depends on the binding of the aminoglycoside group to bacterial ribosomes, thereby inhibiting translation. Gentamicin is active against both Gram-positive and -negative organisms.

Clinical Uses

As with most antibiotics, the use of gentamicin should be based on culture results and local epidemiological data to minimize the emergence of drug-resistant strains (, 2014a). Gentamicin is effective against sensitive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, indole-positive and -negative strains of Proteus species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia species, Citrobacter species, and coagulase-positive and -negative Staphylococcus species. Common uses include serious cases of neonatal sepsis, meningitis, and infections of the urinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tracts.

Adverse Effects

Given Gentamicin's toxicity, its use in initial urinary tract infections is not recommended unless the organism is resistant to less toxic antibiotics and susceptible to gentamicin (, 2014a). The organs affected by gentamicin toxicity include kidneys and the nervous system. Neurotoxicity is most common in patients with impaired renal function and can lead to the development of dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, irreversible hearing loss, and other auditory problems. Peripheral neurotoxicity can cause numbness, tingling, twitching, convulsions, and Myasthenia gravis-like symptoms.


Mechanism of Action

The bactericidal activity of azithromycin results from binding to prokaryotic 23S ribosomal RNA, thereby inhibiting assembly of the 50S ribosomal unit and subsequent translation (, 2014b). The distribution of the drug to sites of infection may be mediated by the accumulation within phagocytes, at levels 30-times higher than in serum.

Clinical Uses

Azithromycin is recommended for routine treatment of adult airway infections, including patients suffering from community-acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (, 2014b). Azithromycin treatment is contraindicated in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, bacteremia, or who require hospitalization. Other uses include treatment of uncomplicated skin infections, urethritis, cervicitis, and genital ulcers. Similar uses are recommended for pediatric patients.

Adverse Effects

The most common adverse effect of azithromycin treatment is caused by multiple-dose…

Sources Used in Documents:

References (2011). Penicillin G. Sodium Injection (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from (2013). Septra (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from (2014a). Gentamicin Sulfate (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from (2014b). Zithromax (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from (2014c). Doxycycline (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from (2014d). Ciprofloxacin (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from

Cite this Document:

"Using Antibiotics" (2014, December 09) Retrieved January 20, 2022, from

"Using Antibiotics" 09 December 2014. Web.20 January. 2022. <>

"Using Antibiotics", 09 December 2014, Accessed.20 January. 2022,

Related Documents
Antibiotic Resistance
Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Medicine Paper #: 89176129

Antibiotic resistant organisms has become a topic of much debate in recent years. Antibiotic resistance is a serious concern because of the health care implications that occur as a result of this problem. The purpose of this discussion is to explain antibiotic resistance development in humans. The research will also provide a General overview of specific strains, causes and effects. Antibiotic Resistance Development According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Antibiotics When Antibiotics Quit Working When They
Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Medicine Paper #: 72136864

Antibiotics When Antibiotics Quit Working When they first began to be used, antibiotics were considered miracle drugs because they cured infections that normally killed many people. Over the decades, these compounds have come to be a common treatment for bacterial infections. But as the use of antibiotics has increased, a seriously dangerous side-effect has developed: antibiotic resistant bacteria. Almost every bacteria that has been treated with antibiotics over the years has become

Antibiotics Have Saved Millions of Lives, Their
Words: 1794 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Medicine Paper #: 77843622

antibiotics have saved millions of lives, their efficacy is diminished over time because of antibiotic resistance. Many pathogens possess the ability to multiply and mutate rapidly in response to the presence of antibiotics, and those mutations that are the hardiest will survive, making successive generations even more resistant. To determine how these antibiotic resistant processes operate and what steps researchers have taken in response, this paper provides a review

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria the Prevalence
Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Medicine Paper #: 79556368

One organism, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), kills approximately 19,000 Americans annually, which is more than HIV / AIDS, Parkinson's disease, emphysema, and homicide combined (5). In the mid-1980s, the incidence of MRSA isolates was close to zero, and by 1998 the incidence of MRSA was approximately 70% in Japan, 40% in Belgium, 30% in the United Kingdom, and 28% in the United States (1). Every year, 2 million Americans

Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci There Are More Than
Words: 1606 Length: 6 Pages Topic: Medicine Paper #: 92069765

Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci There are more than thirty different species of streptococcal bacteria. The infections that strep causes in humans range from "strep throat," which is caused by Group A strep and relatively easily treatable, to diseases such as pneumonia and serious wound infections, both of which can prove deadly.(1) Antibiotics were first developed during World War II, and have saved many millions of human lives since then that would have been

Antibiotic Resistance and Probiotic Interactions
Words: 1866 Length: 7 Pages Topic: Disease Paper #: 20210019

Conventional approaches including bacterial therapy are becoming less effective and in some cases completely ineffective for combating bacterial infection. Bacteria are evolving, becoming smarter and more virulent, and increasingly resistant to traditional treatment including antibiotic use. While scan the literature available on probiotic use supports use of probiotics for treating drug resistant strains of bacteria in some cases (Diped, 2003). If nothing else the literature supports the use of