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Era (1890s-1920s) coincided with the epublican government that followed the defeat of William Jennings Bryan and the gold standard and culminated in the establishment of the Federal eserve and the Great Depression. Like all progressive movements, any progress that was made was in a direction favorable to a small majority -- in this case Wall Street and the WASP elite, who during this era kicked off a eugenics campaign against "undesirables" such as foreign (Catholic) immigrants and African-Americans. Other causes of the Progressive Era were prohibition and women's suffrage. This paper will analyze the effect of the Progressive Era on society and government.
The Progressive Era essentially started with the watershed year in which the Democratic Party split and McKinley gained the White House. A new age of politicking was ushered in with McKinley's campaign fund raising tactics, led by Mark Hanna, who saw a flood of corporate dollars lift…
Friedman, L.J., McGarvie, M.D. (2003). Charity, Philanthropy, and Civility in American History. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control.
South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Sann, P. (1957). The Lawless Decade: A Pictorial History of the Roaring Twenties.
The Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1919, and the following year Prohibition took effect in the United States. Although uninformed parties tend to assume this was the result of some early twentieth-century fad, the reality was that the movement toward Prohibition had been occurring for decades. For example, in 1842, the great American poet Walt Whitman published a novel, Franklin Evans, or The Inebriate. Whitman's book (published over a decade before the poetry that would make him famous) is a so-called Temperance novel, a piece of writing designed to convert people to shunning alcohol -- and Whitman was writing nearly eighty years before Prohibition would become a reality.
To some extent, this eighty year process represented a remarkable development: the integration of women into the American political process. In 1920, the same year that the Eighteenth Amendment made Prohibition a reality, the Nineteenth Amendment…
In the 1920's groups of rural migrants "brought their native musical styles into the growing urban centers of northwestern Algeria," (Gross, McMurray, and Swedenberg p. 200). Their pulsating groves and concordant dance moves took root in the then-liberal port town of Oran, and it was soon to make waves on distant and foreign shores. Yet right from the start, the music represented the underrepresented: the peasants, the prostitutes, and the poor. Sang in the Orani language by female vocalists, early rai music was already a synthesis of a variety of tribal cultural traditions before it became blended with urban Algerian sounds and sentiments. Rai combined risque lyrics and dancing on top of its solid musical foundation. These harbingers of world music soon integrated the urban Algerian sounds, styles and personas into their already complex rural genre. Rai was, and remains, as much a cultural and political expression as a…
Gross, J., McMurray, D., and Swedenberg, T. "Arab Noise and Ramadan Nights: Rap, Rai, and Franco-Maghrebi Identities." Displacement, Diaspora, and Geographies of Identity. T. Swedenberg and S. Lavie (Eds.). Duke University Press, 1997, 119-155.
city symphonies made in the 1920s (each films). Describe the films in specific way: scenes and music.
Film comparison: City symphonies of the 1920s
During the silent era of cinema, the scores used to accompany various films were used to enhance the experience of watching the production. Director alther Ruttmann and photographer Otto Umbo's Berlin: Symphony of a Great City (1927) portrays the city of Berlin from dawn to dusk, beginning with a train pulling out of the station early in the morning to the nightlife that brings the day to a close. The film chronicles the rhythms of the city as they gradually build, grow more intense, and finally climax at night, just like the corresponding music itself. The film suggests that Berlin's natural rhythms are a symphony and the music strives to highlight this phenomenon. The images are lush, over-the-top, and Romantic, just like the music itself. "Berlin:…
Karreau, Ash. "Buried Treasure." 23 Mar 2006. 9 Feb 2013.
"Manhatta (1921, Paul Strand and Charles Sheeler)." The Stop Button. 12 May 2011.
9 Feb 2013. http://thestopbutton.com/2011/05/12/manhatta-1921/
minimum sources... research 1920 sport write ... A thesis, attention catcher, topic sentence?
Nationalism: What were its effects in the 20th century?
Nationalism is characterized by a belief in the uniqueness and integrity of one's nation and culture. It is a form of 'national pride,' which, if taken to an extreme, can result in the sentiment that one's own nation is 'better' than other nations. Over the course of the 19th century, a number of the relatively loose confederacies of states in Italy and Prussia were consolidated to become distinct, unified nations. "Nationalism taught that people were defined by their membership in a nation and that nation deserved their loyalty" (Shubert & Goldstein 2012: 1.3). Nationalism did not replace the old ties to religion, clans, and professions that had existed previously, rather it intensified them. During World War I, nationalism was a critical component in how Germany enforced authority over…
Shubert, Adrian & Goldstein, Robin Justin. (2012). Twentieth-Century Europe. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Fashion Trends and Women's Empowerment in the 20th Century: A More Masculine Upheaval.
This research proposal attempts to demonstrate that as women have historically made strides towards equality, women's fashion has adapted as well. With each step forward toward a more evolved society and one which makes more allowances towards women, women's fashion tends to become more masculine and/or androgynous. This paper will attempt to suggest a research proposal describing this trend as it connects to the female silhouette as well, and discusses the research methods used to prove this hypothesis. The research methods will rely heavily on intergenerational women and their participation.
How have fashion trends reflected the growing empowerment of women in the 20th century?
As society changes, reflections of that change cannot help but be seen clearly throughout society -- in the ways we live, the ways we communicate, the ways we travel, eat, socialize and dress.…
Berger, A. (1998). The Postmodern Presence: Readings on Postmodernism in American Culture. New York: Rowman Altamira Press.
Brown, A., & Dittmar, H. (2005). Think "Thin" and Feel Bad: The Role of Appearance Schema Activation, Attention Level, and Thin -- Ideal Internalization for Young Women's Responses to Ultra -- Thin Media Ideals. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology: Vol. 24, 8, 1088-1113.
Gilmore, A. (2009). Fashion Trends: A Reflection of Our Political Culture. Retrieved from Upenn.edu: http://www.tip.sas.upenn.edu/curriculum/units/2009/02/09.02.04.pdf
Kawamuira, Y. (2004). Fashion-ology: An Introduction to Fashion Studies. New York: Berg.
Great Depression and the response of the federal government to the economic crisis of 1930's
The response of the American government and people to the economic crisis of the 1930's was mixed, at first. There was an initial desire on the part of the Hoover administration to maintain the American government's hands-off role in regards to the economy combined with a faith in classical economic monetarist policy that had created American prosperity in the nation's past. However, there was also a corresponding desire, later embodied in the Democratic administration of FDR, for greater federal involvement in the economy.
It was at first uncertain as to what policies could ameliorate the spiraling out of control of the American economic future. The 1920s had been an era of unmatched prosperity for the American nation. High levels of employment in combination with peacetime left Americans unprepared to weather any economic calamity, much less…
Gould, Lewis. America in the Progressive Era. New York: Longman, 2000.
Leuchtenburg, William E. The Perils of Prosperity, 1914-32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.
" Journal of Band Research 47(2) (2012, Spring): 27-31. Print.
This journal article provides a concise biography of Hindemith as well as a comparative analysis of three recordings of one of his symphonies. The point is made by these authors that Hindemith is still widely regarded as one of the leading musicians of the 20th century and was without peers during his lifetime.
Bowles, Paul and Timothy Mangan. Paul Bowles on Music. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003. Print.
These authors provide a brief but insight analysis concerning how many of Hindemith's works have been rewritten by modern composers to the point where much of their originality and crispness to come through and provides salient examples from recent performances.
Cooper, Martin. The Modern Age, 1890-1960. London: Oxford University Press, 1974. Print.
This text provides a concise but thorough biography of Hindemith, as well as a discussion of the evolution…
Berz, William and Andrew Yozviak. "A Comparative Analysis of Three Recordings of the Symphony in B-Flat Conducted by Paul Hindemith." Journal of Band Research 47(2) (2012, Spring): 27-31. Print.
Bowles, Paul and Timothy Mangan. Paul Bowles on Music. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003. Print.
Concert Music for Brass and Strings. (2016). Kennedy Center. Web.
Cooper, Martin. The Modern Age, 1890-1960. London: Oxford University Press, 1974. Print.
It is noticeable, however, that despite illustrating the image of 'good life' among American consumers, it seemed that these ads were catered only to white Americans, which are often depicted as belonging to the elite to middle social classes. Further analysis also showed that apart from the under representation of minorities in these ads, white American women were the 'staple' elements contained in an ad. Although some of the ads appropriately use a woman -- that is, usage of a woman to advertise a food product -- there were also instances in some ads, specifically car ads, wherein women seemed to be objectified. Car ads are classic examples of the objectification of women in advertisements, wherein oftentimes, association between the cars advertised and woman depicted are inevitably linked together, creating the impression that a car is a want that needs to be achieved, in the same way that the consumer…
Because they lived in constant fear that they would fall victim to white aggression, African-Americans in the South were virtually powerless and had little to no chances to get involved in restructuring the Southern community. In spite of the fact that Republicans were initially devoted to helping black people in the South as they struggled to take advantage of the rights they were granted, matters slowly but surely changed and Northerners became less interested in fighting for the African-American cause, since they believed that black people could not assist the Republican Party in any way.
During the Second Reconstruction period, numerous politicians seized the opportunity of getting voters from the South and thus realized that it was essential for them to support African-American enfranchisement. The Kennedy Administration in particular decided that black people played a very important role in assisting the country's local and international dealings. The international context regarding…
Valelly, Richard M. (2004). "The two reconstructions: the struggle for Black enfranchisement." University of Chicago Press.
1920s transportation changes. Specifically it will discuss how the growth of the automobile industry in the 1920's changed the world and what positive and negative influences it had on society. By the 1920s, automobiles were much more common, and American society was becoming more accepting of them. They changed the way Americans viewed transportation, and really altered society in many different ways.
The automobile was firmly established by the 1920s. More people could afford them due to mass production and competition between manufacturers, and that meant people had greater freedom and mobility. Previously, the only methods of transportation where horse and buggy or carriage, train, or public transportation like streetcars. However, by the 1920s, this was not the case. Editors at the Smithsonian Institution note, "By the time this photo was taken in the 1920s, automobiles had changed the city streetscape, and the carriage was becoming a rarity" ("America on…
Drowne, Kathleen Morgan and Huber, Patrick The 1920's. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.
Editors. "1920s Automobiles." 1920-30.com. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.
Editors. "America on the Move." Smithsonian Institution.edu. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.
1920s and Social Values
The 1920s and their many excesses were quite disturbing to religious conservatives like Protestant Americans. To them, the 20s were a time of fast cars, loose women, booze, jazz, and lax morals among young people. This was especially difficult because the morals of the Victorian era, which had just ended, were extremely strict and confining, so older people were extremely disturbed by the changes they saw in society. They saw the sexual freedom of the 1920s as a threat to the very core of a society that was built on hard work, ethics, and religion. The rural areas of America still tended to be agricultural, and so, these conservative farmers were not caught up in the faster pace of city life, and did not understand the youths and their wild lives and abandon.
One major response to the threat these values placed on conservative society was…
1920-1945, significant expansion reforms higher education. Reflect opportunities attend college women time period. omen made 40% undergraduate enrollments 1940. This remarkable women permitted earn a bachelor's degree 60 years prior 1940.
Throughout history there have been a series of advocates lobbying with regard to women being provided with equal rights, but matters seemed to be different at the onset of the twentieth century. omen actually appeared to be looked at from a different perspective and the numerous movements meant to have society acknowledge the important role women played in the social order were more powerful than ever at the time. The women's suffrage movement is closely connected with their right to attend educational institutes. Although many women today successfully attend higher education, some of them know little to nothing regarding the efforts that women in the past needed to go through in order to make it possible for them to…
Rury, John L., "Education and Social Change: Contours in the History of American Schooling," (Routledge, 21.08.2012)
"Women in the Twentieth Century and Beyond," Retrieved April 24, 2013, from the Illinois Valley Community College Website: http://www2.ivcc.edu/gen2002/twentieth_century.htm
"Why choose a women's college?," Retrieved April 24, 2013, from the Simmons Undergraduate College Website: http://www.simmons.edu/undergraduate/admission/womenscollege/
minimum sources... research 1920 sport write ... A thesis, attention catcher, topic sentence?
1920s sport: Swimming
The 1920s was called the 'Roaring 20s' in America. It was accompanied by expanded prosperity for many middle class Americans and the rise of the 'flapper,' the sexually liberated and independent young woman. The rise of the middle class and the larger percentage of Americans with considerable disposable income and leisure time also allowed greater participation in sports. "The 1920s has been called the Golden Age of American Sports. It also has been called the Age of the Spectator" (Summer 2004:1). Thanks to the strength of the U.S. economy, more stadiums for professional and recreational sports were constructed, and radio and newspapers enabled fans to keep abreast of the latest developments of professional teams. "Improvements in roads made it possible for fans to travel to athletic events in distant cities. For the first time,…
Carter, D. Robert. 1920s swimming craze captures Provo's heart. Daily Herald. 16 Jun 2007.
[5 February 2013].
Drowne, Kathleen & Patrick Luber. The 1920s: American popular culture through history.
This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however,
On the periphery of these upper class enclaves, however, impoverished Italian immigrants huddled in vile tenements located from 110th to 125th Streets, east of Third Avenue to the Harlem iver. To the north of Harlem's Italian community and to the west of Eighth Avenue, Irish toughs roamed an unfilled marshlands area referred to by locals as "Canary Island."
In this sense, it can be said that in the beginning, Harlem represented the escape place for many of the needy in search for a better life. From this amalgam, the Jews represented the largest group, the reason being the oppressive treatment they were continuously subject to throughout the world. Still, the phenomenon that led to the coming of a black majority of people in this area was essential…
African-American Odyssey. "World War I and Postwar Society." Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart8b.html ,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Ames, William C.. The Negro struggle for equality in the twentieth century. New dimensions in American history. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.. 1965, 90-1
Black Americans of Achievements. "Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.." Home to Harlem website. http://www.hometoharlem.com/harlem/hthcult.nsf/notables/a0d3b6db4d440df9852565cf001dbca8,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Capeci, Dominic. The Harlem Riot of 1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.
Values in 1920 America were changing rapidly from the Victorian attitudes that preceded them, and the novel "The Great Gatsby," by F. Scott Fitzgerald clearly epitomizes these changing values. In business and in pleasure, the people Gatsby associates with are shallow, materialistic, nihilistic, and disloyal. These people lived hard, played hard, and often died young, as Myrtle and Gatsby indicate. They were celebrating the end of World War I and a new beginning for America, when it was prosperous and excessive. These new young Americans frightened their elders because they danced risque dances like the Charleston, smoked, drank, and spent large amounts of cash as often as they could. There were increasingly interested in material possession, including the ostentatious mansions of East and West Egg. Continually throughout the novel, Fitzgerald portrays them as shallow, uncaring, selfish, and incapable of real friendships and relationships. They are mostly interested in…
Browne, Karyn Gullen, et al., eds. Gatsby. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. "The Great Gatsby." OnlineLiterature.com. 2004. 24 June 2004. http://www.online-literature.com/fitzgerald/greatgatsby/
Gale, Robert L. An F. Scott Fitzgerald Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Gross, Dalton, and Maryjean Gross. Understanding the Great Gatsby A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
U.. Foreign Policies during 1920s and 1930s
The United tates was at a crucial point in its international relations after WWI. ome scholars say that the U.. pulled out of world affairs, that it didn't actively participate in post-war reconstruction of Europe, and that it failed to behave as a powerful nation should. They most often cite the enate's failure to ratify the treaty establishing the League of Nations as evidence of this unwillingness to participate in world affairs (Constitutional Rights Foundation 1).
Other scholars, however, say that in the post-war period "the U.. emerged as world's most respectable country," (Howard 1). They note that the U.. became more involved economically, that it joined in enforcing penalties against Axis powers and that it contributed immeasurable amounts of influence on world cultures.
One answer to this difference might be that the U.. did participate in world affairs, but that it did…
Hampton, Mary. The Wilsonian Impulse: U.S. Foreign Policy, the Alliance, and German Unification. Westport:Praeger, 1996.
Lake, David. Entangling Relations: American Foreign Policy in its Century. New Jersey:Princeton University Press, 1999.
No author, "The Evolution of U.S. Foreign Policy," Howard University AFROTC notes, Powerpoint, available online at http://www.howard.edu/howardlife/AFROTC/files/sld407_policy.ppt
No author, "War in Iraq," Constitutional Rights Foundation, 18 paragraphs, available online at http://www.crf-usa.org/Iraqwar_html/Iraqwar_foreignpolicy1.html
history of the 1920's, a colorful era of tycoons, gangsters, bohemians and inventors. Areas covered include the arts, news and politics, science and humanities, business and industry, society fads and sports. The bibliography includes fives sources, with five quotations from secondary sources, and footnotes.
The 1920's are commonly referred to as the 'Roaring Twenties', an appropriate title for a decade that did indeed roar out of the Victorian Era. Gone were the corsets and up went the skirt hems as flapper girls bared their legs and speakeasies with bathtub gin dominated the nightlife.
Tycoons became America's royalties while bohemian lifestyles bore the twentieth century's most influential era of art and literature. Inventions brought us into the modern age of convenience and history making events.
The twenties began with a serious but short-lived post-war recession, following World War 1.
Yet, by the mid-twenties, business and industry had created legends that have…
Bryer, Jackson R. Edited. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Novels and Stories 1920-1922.
Library of America. September 2000.
http://classiclit.about.com/library/weekly/aa100100a.htm . (accessed 02-14-2002).
S. Those who had lived for generations in the U.S. were unsettled and wary as these changes occurred. Immigration soon became a social and political issue among the public, groups began to form based on beliefs held which were similar from group to group, and the prevalence of organizations experienced growth with the KKK being no exception to the rule. The KKK used phrases such as "America for Americans" (Ludwig, nd) Ludwig additionally states: "Anti-Catholic prejudice was alive and even rejuvenated in some quarters in the twentieth century. Protestant "fundamentalists" and other new Christian denominations revived anti-Catholicism as part of an insistence on "original," pre-Rome Christianity. Americans, goaded on by hate groups, feared that Catholics would pay allegiance to their "foreign King" (the Pope) rather than their new country (Pencak, 110). Although there was a strong argument for this, as much of the Italian immigrant population consisted of devout Catholics,…
Bustamante, David (2006) Through the Golden Door: Immigration to the United States. United States Consulate General in Milan, 12 Dec. 2006.
Kasherova, Mina (2003) Ku Klux Klan. September 2003. Online available at http://www.acs.bg/Tolerance_museum/9_3/museum/Mina/Mina.doc .
Werner, Suzanne (2007) the Effects of the Fear Surrounding the Fall of the Victorian Age. Michigan State University Online available at http://www.msu.edu/course/mc/112/1920s/Immigration/Suzannespage.html .
Ludwig, J (2007) American Exploits: 1920s Italian Immigrant Discrimination. Michigan State University. Online available at http://www.msu.edu/course/mc/112/1920s/Immigration/Jamiespage.html
American History Between 1870 and 1920
The years between 1870 and 1920 had been the period of astonishing changes because of the political, social and military upheaval that occurred during the period. Typically, the United States had witnessed several changes that affected the American way of life during the period. For example, period of 1877 -1900 had witnessed the rise of the industrial revolution. The years between 1870 and 1920 were the period of momentous and dynamic changes in the American history because they set in motion the industrial and socio- economic development that shaped the country for several generations which include industrialization, labor strike, westward expansion, immigration, urbanization, and integration of millions of freed American Americans.
The objective of this paper is to explore the fundamental changes that occur between 1870 and 1920 and the impacts on the American life. The paper also explores different labor strikes and massacres…
It is essential to realize that strike had played a major role in the economic, social and political life of the United States during the period. In 1880s, workers in the United States fought equally with their peers in Europe. Unlike the strikes in Europe, the United States recorded the bloodiest fatalities in the American labor history. The outcome of the strikes had influenced the life of workers because during the process, workers had been able to win increase for wages, and improved working condition that led to the increase of workers standard of living.
The study explores the American history between 1870 and 1920 revealing that the period has witnessed a fundamental change in the American history. The period marked the time of American industrial revolution, rise of mechanized agriculture and economic boom. In this period, the United States also witnessed the influx of immigrants from different part of the world that the country had ever experienced. People from all over the world immigrated into the United States to search for the economic opportunities. Despite the significant economic and political benefits that the country has experienced during the period, the United States also recorded several bloody labor strikes leading to the loss of thousands of workers. For example Pullman strike led to the loss of life of many workers. However, the strikes had led to the fundamental changes in the American labor relations.
Labor-Capital Conflict of the 1920s
Labor-capital confrontations had been long brewing since the dawn of the industrial age and the start of urbanization. As the owners of the means of production amassed capital, wealth became concentrated into the hands of the few. Labor movements emerged both in Europe and in the United States, transforming the political, economic, and social landscapes of nations. The environment in which labor-capital confrontations developed must therefore be understood within a broader historical context. Market liberalization and globalization led to increased opportunities for labor exploitation, in stalwart industries such as steel and other heavy manufacturing. At the same time, exploitation of workers led to worker unrest, strikes, and protests.
As Glen Jeansonne notes, the post-World War period of the 1920s was characterized by overreach and excess: "usinessmen in the 1920s could boast of substantial accomplishments, but business grew overconfident, arrogant. In their zeal and greed the…
Jeansonne, Glen. Transformation and Reaction: America, 1921-1945. IL: Waveland
Owen, Laura. "Worker Turnover in the 1920s: What Labor-Supply Arguments Don't
Tell Us," The Journal of Economic History, vol. 55, no. 4 (1995): 822-841.
Their main arguments are based on historical assumptions and on facts which have represented turning points for the evolution of the African-American society throughout the decades, and especially during the evolutionary War and the Civil War. In this regard, the Old Negro, and the one considered to be the traditional presence in the Harlem, is the result of history, and not of recent or contemporary events.
From the point-of-view of historical preconceptions and stereotypes, it would unwise to consider Harlem as being indeed a cancer in the heart of a city, taking into account the fact that there is no objective comparison being made. Locke points out the fact that the Negro of today be seen through other than the dusty spectacles of past controversy. The day of "aunties," "uncles" and "mammies" is equally gone. Uncle Tom and Sambo have passed on, and even the "Colonel" and "George" play barnstorm…
Anderson, Karen Tucker. "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers during World War II" in the Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1. (Jun., 1982), pp. 82-97.
Barnes, Albert C. Negro Art and America. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/BarNegrF.html
Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Touchstone, 1999.
Charles S. Johnson. Black Workers and the City. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/JohWorkF.html
Child Labour: 1880-1920 -- Annotated Bibliography
Paterson, . (2006). Bread and roses, too. New York: Clarion Books.
This book, a secondary resource, is a children's historical novel that depicts the 1912 Lawrence Strike (also known as Bread and Roses) from the perspective of two children, Rosa Serutti and Jake Beale. Born to Italian parents, Rosa attends school, while her mother and sister work at a mill in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Even though they work in the mill, Rosa's family cannot afford the clothes they make. Rosa is portrayed as the protector of Beale, who also works in the mills and resides in the streets to avoid his abusive father. Written by an award-winning author, the novel chronicles one of the most infamous strikes in the history of the U.S. The strike was the first in the country to be organised by women, with immigrants from 25 different nationalities participating in it.…
Klein, C. (2012). The strike that shook America. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/news/the-strike-that-shook-america-100-years-ago
Smithsonian Source (2016). Primary sources. Retrieved from: http://www.smithsoniansource.org/about/
The History Place (2016). Child labour in America 1908-1912. Retrieved from: http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/childlabor/
Similarly, no one can deny that this Pope's message of peace and tolerance was more than Papal doctrine and became, instead, Vatican Foreign Policy, delivered in person by someone who "walked the walk and talked the talk." Precisely because of this, the book gives the contemporary reader insights into a tenuous time -- a time of Cold War tensions, a time when the economic stability of much of the world was unknown, and most especially a time in which many feared the coming millennium.
Ironically, one of the final public scenarios presented in the book deals with the then Cardinal atzinger, prefect for the Congregation of the Faith, authoring and espousing the primacy of the Catholic Church. Despite the seeming arrogance of such a statement, the Pope called the documents "close to my heart" and explained that, "our confession . . . . isn't arrogance that deprecates other religious but…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Flynn, R., R. Moore, J. Vrabel. (2002). John Paul II: A Personal Portrait of the Pope
And the Man. St. Martin's Press.
Gertz, S. (October 1, 2003). "Christian History Corner: John Paul II's Canonization Cannon."
Christianity Today. Cited in: http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2003/octoberweb-only/10-20-52.0.html
Globally, the United States has been known as "a nation of immigrants" almost from its inception. Beginning in the 1600s with English Puritans and continuing today, America is a melting pot of culture and ethnicity. In fact, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, immigration was the major source of U.S. population growth. Looking over our 200+ years we find that to clearly be true, with approximately 1 million immigrants coming to America during the 17th and 18th century. Almost 3 million arrived during the 1860s, and another 3 million in the 1870s. In the next four decades, the number of immigrants rose to over 25 million people, most from various European nations, most arriving in New York or one of the Eastern seaports (Damon, 1981). Despite the politicization, as of 2006, the United States actually was the number one country globally to accept legal immigrants into…
Anderson, S. (2010). Immigration. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Brooks, P. (2004). Immigration. Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library.
Damon, A. (1981, December). Immigration: A Look at the Record. AmericanHeritage.com.
Retrieved from: http://www.americanheritage.com/immigration/articles / magazine/ah/1981/1/1981_1_50.shtml
3. Early adulthood (17-45): characterized by greatest energy and abundance and likewise by greatest contradiction and stress. This is the era of drive, ambition, obligations, and attempts to succeed in all areas of life. Whilst potentially fulfilling, it can also provide enormous bouts of stress.
4. Midlife Transition (40-45): Levinson (in sync with Jung, Erickson, and Ortega) sees this era as constituting a sharp break between early adulthood and middle adulthood manifested by greater focus on others as opposed to self and by a more humane and reflective temperament and perspective.
5. Middle adulthood (40-65): Our biological capacities are somewhat weakened. Our focus transfers from ourselves to others, and we feel a responsibility for the future generation.
6. Late Adult transition (60 +) is a synthesis and linkage of both middle and late adulthood
Levinson defines "life structure" as consisting of the individual's relationship to significant others and/or to significant…
Finally, Levinson suggests that it is imperative to make key choices, form a structure around these choices, and to pursue values and goals. One's key choices are imperative to forming one's destiny.
Levinson, D. (1986). A conception of adult development, American Psychologist, 41, 1, 3-13
The National Guard, as anticipated by the Constitution's framers, was now a military reserve ready to serve the national interest. The National Guard, while getting large amounts of federal funds and growing in size, continued to struggle to find its true role in military operations and readiness. The natural disasters and civil disorder incidents in which Guardsmen were called to help supported their cause. These included such events as the San Francisco earthquake in 1906; over 21 times" (Smith 1990 P. 11-12).
In Florida, National Guard served the role of preventing the lynching of black, and they maintained order during worker strike in several states. Despite the Dick Act, the National Guard became less favorable before many Americans. Typically, when citizens went into labor strikes across the country and action taken by the undisciplined National Guard against the strikers was very questionable. Typically, National Guard underwent massive massacre of citizens…
Bowman, S. Kapp, L. & Belasco, a. Hurricane Katrina: DOD Disaster Response. CRS Report for Congress.2005.
Doubler, M.D. Listman, J.W., & Goldstein, D.M. "An Illustrated History of America's Citizen-Soldiers the National Guard".. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. 2007.
Doubler. M.D. The Guard Century Series: 1900-1920 Century of Change, Century of Contribution: A Militia Nation Comes of Age. National Guard Association of the United States. 2011.
Coasts, J.A. Base Closure and Realignment: Federal Control over the National Guard. University of Cincinnati Law Review. Vol 75. P 343-370. 2006.
Ford's inventions did not only improve the economy of the United States because of the contributions that the Ford automobiles provided. Moreover, his inventions had presented new job opportunities to people, specifically in being involved in automobile industry. Ford's inventions also gave hope and new dreams to others who wish to become like Henry Ford someday.
Along with the machineries and technologies where Ford demonstrated his intellect, he also showed his skills in management. It was Ford who changed the traditional 48 hours of work a week into just 40 hours. Also, he was the one who started the "five-dollar" day where the wage of the laborers was twice the regular wage at that time. Despite of the success that the Ford automobile had achieved, the monotonous process of the assembly line came to alienate workers (Towards a Modern Day America) that even Ford agreed that no worker would feel…
Towards a Modern Day America (faxed).
The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women
The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.
Evolution of the Flapper
Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…
Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:
Harper and Row.
Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.
Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.
Fass does a remarkable job of pointing out how during the 1920s acute transformation was occurring within the United States. Fass uses Flappers to demonstrate the problem of youth, and shows how flappers were associated with sex, frivolity, licentiousness and the general lack of regard for order characterized by most young people at the time (Fass, 260).
Fass does not however suggest that total disorder reined supreme, pointing out that many students for example took heed of traditional social norms including the prohibition of drinking, where students recognized "a clear code of limitation on drinking" and respected them by and large (Fass, 316). However this held for only the early part of the 1920s, and social order did again begin to shift away from propriety as "youth's behavior and attitudes reflected a common unofficial standard among adults" (Fass, 316).
Most striking in this work is Fass's knowledgeable account of youth…
Fass, Paula S. 1977 The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920's. New York: Oxford University Press.
" (Turkstra, 2008)
VII. CHURCH & LAOR ALLIANCE ENDS
The alliance between labour and the church began to notably weaken and in 1921 the printers' strike in Toronto "was the final blow that ended the alliance between the churches and labour." (Turkstra, 2008) Turkstra states that this conflict centered around the Methodist ook Room and the refusal of the superintendent S.W. Fallis to agree to the demand of workers for a 44-hour workweek. This strike is stated to have caused "irreparable damage to the alliance between labour and the churches..." (Turkstra, 2008) the labour leaders had been willing to engage with the churches prior to the war because."..a complete rejection of the churches might have alienated potential supports. Also they would have recognized that church bodies and ministers were important models in the community and an alliance, therefore, would help put pressure on the government to pass legislation that was…
Leir, Mark (2003) the Strike as Political Protest. Online available at http://www.sfu.ca/labour/HEU,%20The%20Strike%20as%20Political%20Protest5.pdf
Turkstra, Melissa, Constructing a Labour Gospel: Labour and Religion in Early 20th-Century Ontario. Labour/Le Travail.57 (2006): 53 pars. 12 Aug. 2008 http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/llt/57/turkstra.html
Palmer, Bryan D. (2003) What's Law Got to do With it? Historical Considerations on Class Struggle, Boundaries of Constraint, and Capitalist Authority? Canadian Research Chair 2003. Online available at http://www.ohlj.ca/archive/articles/41_23_palmer.pdf
From the 1920s to the 1980s, women's roles and social status were both dramatically expanded and simultaneously retarded. Promising progress was often met by simultaneous setbacks. Such fluctuations and dichotomies persist until this day, as women are being portrayed in conflicting ways in the media and in politics. The double standard for women has been the overarching theme of the twentieth century female experience. The 1920s was a time for radical role revolutions for women. Flappers were wild, independent women who broke free of gender role restrictions by wearing different clothes and dancing. Their breaking free of tradition reflected overarching social and political changes taking place throughout the world. The roles of women at this time were becoming increasingly liberated, and in the 1920s, women were finally granted the ability to vote. Their greater social and political status expanded female roles, but not universally and not comprehensively. For example,…
Turning Points in American History
Two Turning Points and Current Impact on Cultural, Social, Economic and Political Life
Two historical turning points are the Social Security Act and the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Social Security Act, passed in 1935, was intended to provide a "safety net" for people who could not support themselves (Schultz, 2010, p. 399). This "social welfare" was a significant departure from the federal government's prior tendency to let citizens fend for themselves financially. The strength of the Social Security Act's impact on our history is at least partially proven by the fact that it expanded significantly and endures to this day. The Social Security Act currently influences several facets of American life: society and culture, in that the responsibility of the federal government for the welfare of its citizens is now a commonly accepted idea; economy, in that Social Security is now a…
A&E Television Networks. LLC. (2013). Wyoming grants women the vote. Retrieved from www.history.com Web site: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/wyoming-grants-women-the-vote
Federal Reserve. (2011, August 24). FRB: The Federal Reserve System Purposes and Functions. Retrieved from www.federalreserve.gov Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pf/pf.htm
Federal Reserve. (n.d.). History of the Federal Reserve - Federal Reserve Education. Retrieved from www.federalreserveeducation.org Web site: http://www.federalreserveeducation.org/about-the-fed/history/
League of Women Voters. (2011). Our Work | League of Women Voters. Retrieved from www.lwv.org Web site: http://www.lwv.org/our-work
Industrialization after U.S. Civil War
AMERICAN INDUSTRIALIZATION AFTER THE U.S. CIVIL WAR (1865-1920)
It is a truism that large-scale warfare tends to increase industrial production and innovation, and that societies benefit from this industrialization after the war is over. In America, the Civil War was followed by the economic prosperity of the Gilded Age -- I would like to argue that the chief effect of this prosperity was to cause new conflicts in American society, which had to be settled by reform rather than Civil War. This is in some ways a counterintuitive argument, when in 2014 many have been conditioned to believe that a prosperous economy benefits everyone, when (in the words of the old cliche) a rising tide lifts all boats. But did the booming economy of America between the end of the Civil War and the onset of the First World War actually benefit child laborers or…
She never learns to speak English well. She routinely embarrasses her patron (Jogi) by talking loudly and somewhat ignorantly in public. She never fully becomes the ideal vision of esternization that he initially attracts him to her (she is said to have a "physical similarity" that strongly resembles a popular American silent film actress of the time) (Schneider). Her failure to esternize, then, symbolizes that the notion of the Modern Girl will fail in that same endeavor. Regardless of how hard Jogi tries to modernize himself and his erotic love interest, he and her still remain Japanese and of that that nationality's culture.
The conception of the modern girl is largely viewed as a threat to the modern Japanese woman because of the desire for her to fully immerse (or rather lose) herself in estern culture. Such a full immersion would inevitably not leave enough room for true Japanese culture.…
Huang, Yiju. "A Man Awakened from Dreams: Rereading the Modern Girl Image in A Fool's Love by Tanizaki Jun'ichir?." Graduate Journal of Asia Pacific Studies. 2007. Print. 5(2): 77-87
No author. "Naomi By Junichiro Tanizaki." Kirkus Reviews. 1985. Web. https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/junichiro-tanizaki-3/naomi-2/
Schneider, Jessica. "Book reviews: Naomi, by Junichiro Tanizaki." Helium.com. 2010. Web. http://www.helium.com/items/1878179-book-reviews-naomi-by-junichiro-tanizaki
musical style epitomized the 1920s? Jazz
What did John Steinbeck describe in he Grapes of Wrath? he dust bowl and its impact on agricultural families during the great depression.
National Industrial Recovery Act? An act created by President Roosevelt to stimulate the economy by allowing the government to regulate particular industries.
What did the Civilian Conservation Corps do? Created jobs on state and national lands to stimulate the economy.
What did Eleanor Roosevelt see as her primary role as First Lady? o be an advocate for civil rights
Which of the following was not true concerning the election of 1936? Incomplete Question
Which of the following pieces of legislation was an attempt at campaign reform in the late 1930s? Incomplete Question
he National Resources Planning Board facilitated? he National Resources Planning Board facilitated creating and implementing employment for young men during the great depression.
What feature of the Agricultural Adjustment…
The Manhattan Project was? The secret project for inventing the atom bomb
Who were the Scottsboro boys? Nine black teenagers accused of rape in a 1931 Alabama case. It revealed the deeply seated racism in Alabama due to its denial of a fair trail.
A. Philip Randolph's call for a massive march on Washington led to? Desegregation of the armed forces.
digital age include worlds that are highly imaginative (eg. Harry Potter films). Films are sometimes conceived in a literary form and then turned into a script and a film. Films since the 1920s and into the 21st century have used physical models and stage properties of some kind (eg. Metropolis, Blade Runner, 2001: A Space Odyssey and Harry Potter). In the digital age, visual effects are created by composite images and ongoing production techniques, practices and narratives. Discuss.
What this question primarily conveys is the feasibility associated with the growing trend of using digital techniques in filmmaking. The importance of digitalization, computer generated imagery and visual effects, has grown tremendously and that can be proven with the help of various relevant examples. In the essay, the technological value added by digitalization along with the advantages and disadvantages of digitalization have been discussed. Finally the future of digital filmmaking…
Henrietta Lacks born August 1, 1920, was an African-American female tobacco farmer who resided in Dundalk, Maryland. She was wife to her first cousin and mother of five children. At the age of 31, Lacks died from cervical cancer. Before she died, a doctor took a sample of her cervical cells. These cells, named HeLa cells, became the immortal cell line that provided a Polio vaccine, aided in cloning, among other scientific breakthroughs. "Henrietta's cells were the first immortal human cells ever grown in culture. They were essential to developing the polio vaccine" (Zielinski, 2010).
HeLa cells have become a benchmark in the study of cellular processes. However, here in lies the controversy. HeLa cells have benefitted many except for the family of the person the sample was derived from. Henrietta Lacks' children, for decades, lived in poverty, with one son homeless. Was it right for a doctor to, without…
Siminoff, L.A., & Traino, H.M. (2013). Consenting to donation: an examination of current practices in informed consent for tissue donation in the U.S Cell and Tissue Banking, 14(1), 85-95.
Skloot, R. (2010). The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown Publishers.
Truog, R.D., Kesselheim, A.S., & Joffe, S. (2012). Paying Patients for Their Tissue: The Legacy of Henrietta Lacks. Science, 337(6090), 37-38.
Zielinski, S. (2010, January 22). History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian. History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/henrietta-lacks-immortal-cells-6421299/
Even during the golden years of the beauty contest between the wars there were unresolved problems with the nature and purpose of such competitions:
There remained elements of discomfort and tension, only superficially palliated by the scientific discourse, patriotic rhetoric and philanthropic gestures of the contest's organisers. These tensions would be released again in the 1970s when a new generation of feminists added discrimination on the grounds of race and disability, together with a more unequivocal rejection of standardised and homogenised ideals of the body and beauty, to the critique of their forebears.
Yet this phenomenon can be seen as consistent with the change in the status of the beauty contest, from a celebration of values that were of universal appeal (even reflecting ideals of national identity) to a tawdry matter of selling sex. y the 1980s and 1990s such contests were experiencing a decline in entrants, with young women…
Sarah Banet-Weiser, the Most Beautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1999
Colleen Ballerino Cohen, Richard Wilk and Beverly Stoeltje (eds), Beauty Queens on the Global Stage: Gender, Contests and Power, New York and London, Routledge, 1997. Useful collection of essays with a global perspective.
Lois W. Banner, American Beauty (New York: Knopf, 1983). A detailed study of the history of the Miss America contest.
Liz Conor, 'Beauty contestant in the photographic scene', Journal of Australian Studies, no 71, (2001). Interesting points on the importance of modern communication/reproduction technologies in 1920s beauty contests.
Ethnic, racial and class minorities in the city of New York, as well as middle class and organized crime people enjoyed their fight against Prohibition in an amazing number of locals and nightclubs that summed up to more than thirty thousand. While many restaurant closed down in New York, speakeasies spread across the city. More and more of the middle class and the upper class "embraced the cosmopolitan culture and nightlife that flourished under the restrictions of Prohibition" (Lerner, 2007, p. 3) making this the first bottom-up social reaction in the recent history of the United States.
Prohibition marked the 1920s and 1930s in ways that were not seen by the makers of this law. It had profound effects of issues like work relations and wage policies, xenophobia and living conditions of immigrants, organized crime as well as popular culture. While regulations were set and enforced, a significant number of…
Behr, Edward. Prohibition: thirteen years that changed America. Arcade Publishing, 1996
Burns, Eric. The Spirits of America: a social history of alcohol. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004
Lerner, Michael. Dry Manhattan. Prohibition in New York City. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007
Miron, Jeffrey and Jeffrey Zwiebel. Alcohol Consumption During Prohibition. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1991
The Dallas Museum of Art has several temporary exhibitions on display now. One is called "Youth and Beauty: Art of the American Twenties." Another related but separate exhibition is called "Texas in the Twenties: Prints, Drawings, and Photographs from Lone Star Collections." Because both special exhibitions focus on a specific point in time in American and Texan history, it was helpful to view both together on the same day. I went on opening day of both exhibitions, which was on Sunday March 4, 2012. There was a small line to get in, but the space inside the museum was arranged so that it did not feel crowded. The museum published a brochure that explained each exhibition, why it was on display at that time at the museum, and what the exhibition meant in the context of modern American art.
The "Youth and Beauty: Art of the American Twenties"…
Dallas Museum of Art (2012). "Current Exhibitions." Retrieved onlie: http://dallasmuseumofart.org/View/CurrentExhibitions/index.htm
Fine Dining Analysis: Cafe Pinot, Downtown Los Angeles
Analyze the restaurant from Three Perspectives
estaurant is quiet, dimly lit.
Soft classical music plays in the background.
estaurant goers are over-40 mostly and conservatively and elegantly dressed.
Wait-staff wear full uniforms, which are vintage style.
Fine china, silver, and fine silver tea services are used throughout.
f. Interior has vintage molding, vintage fixtures and large plate glass windows.
When I first encountered the sights and sounds that filled the interior of the restaurant, I felt largely overcome by a sense of elegance, elegance that was delivered in a very soothing feel. I felt this way because the restaurant is able to deliver such a remarkable and distinct experience immediately: one feels as though one has entered a different era, and that one is being pleasantly swallowed up by a strong sense of grandeur and loveliness.
I felt as though…
Pun, K. (2001). Identification of service quality attributes for restaurant operations. Managing Service Quality, 233-240.
UofSF. (2014). The Concept Analysis Assignment. Retrieved from [HIDDEN]
Vettel, P. (2008, May 15). Restaurant service vs. food quality. Retrieved from chicagotribune.com: http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2008-05-15/entertainment/0805130180_1_restaurant-universe-food-related-service
Between 1865 and 1920, industrialization had diverse effects on the life of Americans. While it improved the life of Americans, it also created problems for the society. Following the civil war, the amount of city jobs and factory jobs increased. As urbanization increased, rural populations decreased. Steel production rates and education increased during this period. Transportation was made more available and easier with the growth of railroads. The American society was revolutionized (Oleson & Brown, 1976).
Major aspects of industrialization during 1865 and 1920 that influenced U.S. society, economy, and politics
Following the civil war, the U.S. embraced steps to become a more industrialized country. Between 1865 and 1920, the effects of industrialization were visible in diverse aspects of the U.S. society. One aspect of American life that improved following this period was steel production. The drastic increase in steel production is linked to new technologies in the…
Dubofsky, M. (1996). Industrialism and the American worker, 1865-1920. Wheeling, Ill: H. Davidson.
Johnson, C.D. (1993). Redeeming America: Evangelicals and the road to Civil War. Chicago: I.R. Dee.
Oleson, A. & Brown, S.C. (1976). The pursuit of knowledge in the early American Republic: American scientific and learned societies from colonial times to the Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Banks, N. (2006). Uplifting the race through domesticity: Capitalism, African-American migration, and the household economy in the Great Migration era of 1916-1930. Feminist Economics, 12, 4, 599-624.
political and social climate of the U.. during the 1920s and what brought about the 'roaring '20s."
The apocalyptic environment of World War I with its finale brought about a relief throughout Western Europe and the U..A. And the feeling that the world was about to start anew. This led to excesses of spending, behavior, hedonistic indulgences, and revolutions in sexual conduct, morals, and cultural trends such as music. The economic boom also attributed to the description of this decade as the Roaring 20s.
A series of insignificant and troubled presidents ran the state during this time ranging from Harding to Hoover. Whilst their presidency was unremarkable, the times themselves were not. This was the period of the flappers and jazz with break from traditions and a surge of modern technology. Ford came out with his automobile for he masses. The moving picture (and Charlie Chaplin) made its appearance. Radio…
Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday:An Informal History of the Nineteen-Twenties. Retrieved on12/21/2011
Joseph A. Schumpeter, "The Decade of the Twenties," American Economic Review vol. 36, No. 2, (May, 1946)
Kallen, Stuart A. The Roaring Twenties (2001) Greenhaven Press, USA
But many other nationalities also saw a great many prejudices directed at them like the Polish, Russian, and other Baltic state immigrants. Events like the Red Scare sweeping across America as well as mass racism against our own citizens as black soldiers returned home from Europe.
There was more to this era than simply immigration into the United States from Europe. There was a strong migration period at the same time. For example, black Americans were beginning to migrate out of the southern states into the north for an opportunity to increase their wealth in northern cities like Chicago and Detroit. The Great Migration as it was known saw hundreds of thousands of Southern Blacks migrate to northern cities. ith that, new Black communities began to flourish in places like Harlem. But the negative side of the migration saw various race riots in cities like St. Louis and Houston.…
Ellis Island. (2005.) Migration. Retrieved on March 2, 2005, from Ed. Monroe K12 at http://www.monroe.k12.fl.us/kls/Immigration/EllisIsland/Ellisisland.htm .
SlaveryInAmerica. (2005) 369th Infantry Division of the United States Army. Retrieved on March 2, 2005, from http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/scripts/sia/glossary.cgi.
Make specific use of at least 3 separate texts in the paper, from the Unit's readings in the Making Connections: Reading American Cultures with accompanying CD-ROM, AIExplorer: Immigration and Migration (You may use the 2000 or 2001 edition of the text; you will need Version 1.2 or Version 1.3 of the CD-Rom)
Who were the Progressives and what were they trying to reform? How and why did the Progressive era end?
Several different Progressives include: Upton Sinclair, Teddy oosevelt, David Thelen, ichard McCormick and Samuel Hayes just to name a few. Their basic goals were to rectify many the social ills that were occurring from the rapid industrialization of the nation. This was creating a tremendous shift in the population, with more people leaving the country and moving to the cities. As a result, there were a number of different problems that emerged in the wake of these transformations. Most notably: unsafe working conditions, the use of child labor, wages and the number of working hours. The combination of these objectives was to give the people a voice in issues of government and society. This would limit the influence of the special interests during this process. (Sage) (Gilmore F-42 -- F-68)…
Divine, Robert. The American Story. New York: Pearson, 2007. Print.
Gilmore, Glenda. Who were the Progressives? Boston: Bedford Publishing, 2002. Print.
Harris, Richard. A History of the U.S. Political System. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Murphy, Robert. The Great Depression and the New Deal. Washington: Regenry Publishing, 2009. Print.
Curious Case of Filming Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: 1920 versus 2008
obert Louis Stevenson's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde has evolved into one of the most acclaimed pieces of modern literature. One aspect of this phenomenon is a continual spark of interest with the novel is motion pictures. Various directors through the years have interpreted the book through their own eyes and the following is a depiction of that. One might question Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde's overwhelming success. Theme restaurants, Broadway shows and movies all have indicated a public interest in the classic. This essay will examine how various cinematic microelements contributed to vastly different artistic productions of approximately the same plot a century apart.
The first movie that I decided to use for this examination is the 1920 restored version of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, directed by John S. obertson. I thought that obertson's attempt to…
Auback, T. 2002. Jekyll & Hyde in Pop Culture. Grin Verlag: Munich, Germany.
Germana, M. 2011. Becoming Hyde: Excess, Pleasure and Cloning. Gothic Studies. 13(2): 98-115(18).
Rose, B.A. 1996. Jekyll and Hyde Adapted: Dramatizations of Cultural Anxiety (Contributions in Drama and Theatre Studies). Praeger: New York, NY.
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
Industrialization After the Civil War
Introduce your paper with your previously crafted thesis statement.
After the Civil War, the United States became a much-industrialized society. The country was characterized by several industrial developments. More investments were put on establishing industries that could facilitate the production capacity of the country. Key policies were laid to drive the growth of industries in many of the sectors leading to the growth of industrialization in the country. These developments took place amidst an agrarian society that characterized America before the civil war. Before the civil war, many investments were made in agriculture with farming being a major economic activity for the American people. However, this affected the growth of the economy as the American population shot up (ees, 2008).
The nation resorted to industrialization after the civil war. This saw a change in lifestyle among many Americans as more people got jobs in the…
Aronowitz, S. (1999). Industrialization: the Shaping of American Working Class Consciousness. New York: SAGE.
Dubofsky, M. (1996). Industrialism and the American worker, 1865-1920. New York: Davidson.
Rees, J. (2008). Industrialization and the Transformation of American Life: A Brief Introduction. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Vapnek, L. (2009). Breadwinners & Industrialization 1865-1920. New York: University of Illinois Press.
omen in Higher Education
Describe ways in which female college students in the era from 1920 to 1945 influence the present generation of female college students.
It would not be unreasonable to refer to women in the 1920 -- 1930 window of time in American history as pathfinders. Professor Mary McComb explains that in 1930 women workers and students "were perceived as larger threats" than in previous era; indeed, the "new women" in the 1930s received "a fair share of scorn" by pursuing higher education and entering the workforce in substantial numbers (McComb, 2006). But women did not back down. By competing with men for jobs, the female college student of the 1930s was "more suspect…" then her predecessors, and yet she marched forward with dreams and goals that were part of the "American Dream" (McComb, 2006).
In the 1930s women made up about 50% of the American workforce, McComb…
Bank, B.J. (2003). Contradictions in Women's Education: Traditionalism, Careerism, and Community at a Single-sex College. New York: Teachers College Press.
Carreon, S., Cassedy, A., Borman, K., and Dubeck, P.J. (2013). Women and Work: A
Handbook. Florence, KY: Routledge Publishing.
McComb, M.C. (2006). Great Depression and the Middle Class: Experts, Collegiate Youth
The advent of World War II saw and end of the period of economic turmoil and massive unemployment known as the Great Depression, and thus was a time of increased opportunity for many of the nation's citizens and immigrants, but the experiences of some groups during and following the war were far less positive than others. Some of this was due to the different histories that different immigrant groups had in the country, as well as the different roles that various nations played in the war itself, but often the source for the treatment of different ethnic groups was all too similar and all too simple -- racism and ethnocentrism that made the white Americans "true" citizens while others were labeled as outsiders, and those that didn't belong.
The Japanese suffered the worst during World War II; even families that had been in the country for generations and many decades…
Library of Congress. (2008). "African-American odyssey." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html
Morgan, T. (1995). "Native Americans in world war II." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/NAWWII.html
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (Rev. ed.) Boston: Little Brown Company.
Vogel, R. (2004). "Stolen birthright: The U.S. conquest and exploitation of the Mexican people." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.houstonculture.org/hispanic/ conquest5.html
They went into a spending frenzy that would carry them though the next decade. They bought houses, started families and settled down to a life of normalcy after a decade of chaos. Illustrations began to return to resemble that of fine are of earlier times.
The Invitation. Ben Stahl. Date unknown magazine photo. Al Parker. Date unknown
ise of the Atomic Age (1950-1960)
The prosperity that came with the end of the war continued into the new decade. Americans attempted to settle into a life or normalcy. There was a significant return to traditional gender roles, as many women were forced back into the household and the men went off to work as usual. Women, now used to providing for themselves represented a new target market. To fill their days they read the "seven sisters" (McCall's, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmopolitan, edbook, Good Housekeeping, Seventeen, and Women's Day). These magazines began…
Crow, T. 2006. The Practice of Art History in America. Daedalus. 135, no. 2. Questia Database.
"Jesse Wilcox Smith" 2000. http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/jwsmith.htm
Reed, Walter and Reed, Roger. 2008. The History of Illustration. Society of Illustrators. Online. http://societyillustrators.org/about/history/283.cms
Murphy, J. 2007. Making Virtual Art Present. Afterimage. 35, no. 2. Questia Database.
Some writers had been overwhelmed by the sudden changes brought by the Harlem Renaissance and they preferred writing about certain things which didn't involve it. Sometimes they chose to write about a place in the U.S. which had a special effect on them at some point of their lives.
3. Black people had not been the only ones struggling to receive credit for their writings during the 1920s, as it had been also hard for women to become appreciated in a majority of men writers. Despite having to fight the severe gender discrimination which existed during the period, many American women writers managed to become successful.
Bess Streeter Aldrich is one of the women who succeeded in getting a positive feed-back from a public that had not been accustomed with women writers. Aldrich's writing "A Lantern in Her Hand" had won her international recognition for having created a great literary…
Laurie Champion, Emmanuel S. Nelson, "American Women Writers, 1900-1945: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook," Greenwood Press, 2000.
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
America and the Great War" and "The New Era"
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. Vol. 2: A Concise History of the American People .4th Edition. McGraw-Hill 2004.
What were the causes of WWI in Europe in 1914? Why was President Wilson so reluctant for the U.S. To get involved until 1917 and what finally put the U.S. "over the edge" and decide to enter the conflict directly?
Nationalism, imperialism, and secret treaties all played a role in the instigation of WWI in Europe, but President Wilson was initially reluctant to become involved, because of a long history of American isolationism in regards to entangling European affairs, particularly the secret alliances that stimulated the conflict. His refusal to involve the U.S. In WWI became a crucial part of his re-election campaign. But President Wilson began to protest German violations of American neutrality more vehemently in his public rhetoric than British violations,…
Industrialization After the Civil War
Industrialization was, in all aspects, a game changer in the U.S. because it brought about a complete transformation in people's ways of life. It changed how businesses were run, transformed how people earned money, made transportation easier, and caused a social and economic revolution.
Within four decades (1865-1920), the U.S. had "transformed from a predominantly rural agrarian society to an industrial economy centered in large metropolitan cities" (Hirschman & Mogford, 2009). In addition to the unity that had been created by the uniting states, three other factors played a crucial role in the rapid diffusion of technology during this period. These are;
Legislative representation - the pieces of legislation that furthered the efforts of reconstruction and promoted civil rights for the marginalized. For instance, the 13th, 14th and 15th econstruction Amendments which illegalized slavery, awarded citizenship to all people naturalized or born in the U.S.,…
Berkin, C., Miller, C., Cherny, R. & Gormly, J. (2007). Making America: A History of the United States, Vol. II from 1865 (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hirschman, C. & Mogford, E. (2009). Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution from 1880-1920. Social Science Research, 38(4), 897-920.
Weinberg, M. (2002). Chapter 7: Capitalism Dominant, 1865-1920. A Short History of American Capitalism. Retrieved from http://www.newhistory.org/CH07.htm
"Their activities emphasized the sensual, pleasure-seeking dimensions of the new century's culture and brought sexuality out from behind the euphemisms of the nineteenth century (1997). This was seen in the dances of the era (e.g., the slow rag, the bunny hug, etc.) as well as the dress styles of American women. Women's appearance changed. They no longer were buried under petticoats and big skirts, restricted by their corsets. The silhouette was now slender and smaller, allowing a greater freedom of movement as well as more exposure of arms and legs. Women who worked were now considered "bachelor girls" as opposed to "homeless women" or "spinsters" (1997). By 1920, the image of the flapper girl was everywhere; this can be viewed as an example of just how far women had come.
Unit III: 1921 -- 1945:
Zelda Fitzgerald, wife of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, said in 1924: "I like the jazz…
Collins, G. (2009). When everything changed: the amazing journey of American women
from 1960 to the present. Little, Brown & Company; 1st edition.
Evans, S. (1997). Born for liberty: a history of women in America. Free Press.
On the other hand, Nick is genuinely concerned for the human side of his friendships and romantic liaisons. Unlike Gatsby or Tom, Nick seems to truly understand the meaning of universal suffrage and other key gender revolutions taking place during the 1920s. He is deeply disturbed by what he finds in West Egg, in particular what passes for manners. Extramarital affairs, rather than political and economic empowerment for women, are the result of the Roaring Twenties in the Great Gatsby. Nick finds that his love interest Jordan "looked like a good illustration" more than a human being by the time he leaves West Egg.
The tragedies that take place are not simply a result of Gatsby's infamous parties. Rather, the broken relationships and Myrtle's death are symbols of the breakdown of the American Dream. Through the characters of Tom and Gatsby, Fitzgerald critiques the relentless pursuit of wealth and prestige.…
She also presents a lengthy notes and iliography section in the ook, including appendixes, which help indicate the depth of her research and study into her topic. This helps make the ook even more credile and elievale, and indicates she understands her topic well, and presents valid and interesting arguments, acked up with factual research. She uses primary and secondary sources, such as newspapers, pulications, journals, and private papers in an attempt to gain as much information as possile to ack up her thesis and key ideas.
This ook elongs on the ookshelf of anyone interested in women's history, sociology, and even criminal justice. It indicates the way morals and society were changing at the turn of the century, and how throughout reform and proper sexual conduct, whites still maintained a clear control over minorities, even in the courts and in sexual conduct. The ook is a fascinating look into…
bibliography section in the book, including appendixes, which help indicate the depth of her research and study into her topic. This helps make the book even more credible and believable, and indicates she understands her topic well, and presents valid and interesting arguments, backed up with factual research. She uses primary and secondary sources, such as newspapers, publications, journals, and private papers in an attempt to gain as much information as possible to back up her thesis and key ideas.
This book belongs on the bookshelf of anyone interested in women's history, sociology, and even criminal justice. It indicates the way morals and society were changing at the turn of the century, and how throughout reform and proper sexual conduct, whites still maintained a clear control over minorities, even in the courts and in sexual conduct. The book is a fascinating look into a society on the brink of changing values, morals, and ideals, and it indicates the true power men held over women during this time, and why reformers were so anxious to change the balance of power. It is also a compelling look at the history of young women and their sexual maturation. In many ways, these young women are not so different from the young women of any generation. They are searching for themselves, attempting to make a difference, and longing to break the bonds with the past and create their own, unique future. Each generation attempts to break with their parents' ideals and morals, at least to some extent, and these young women, torn between the Victorian and Progressive eras, are no different. The author portrays the cases and their participants with detail and with just enough of her own ideas to make the reader understand the nature of sexual reform in America, along with how increasingly; women became the victims of the courts because of their behavior, besides often being the victims of familial sexual abuse. It is a look back in time to a period when not much has been written about women and the court system, and it is fascinating, troubling, and eye opening.
In conclusion, this is a fascinating look into the sexual mores of Victorian America, and how society policed those mores throughout society. The author shows how young women of the time where changing, creating new responsibilities for themselves, and becoming more modern and open, at a time when their parents simply wanted to control them and their activities. Young women were moving out of the domestic sphere, making new lives for themselves, and even consorting with men, and it frightened conservative society. They responded by creating strict laws regarding sexuality, and enforcing those laws in a strict and moral setting. This book really illustrates the dawning of a new age in America, where Victorian values would slowly disappear, and young women would begin to experience more freedom and opportunity in their lives.
Odem, Mary E. Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885-1920. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
omen in American History
The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.
omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth
One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…
Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.
Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html .
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House .
Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .