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Fifties the Book the Fifties
Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 39178392
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S. air force. However, the first attack on the U.S. military by the Chinese was made on November 1 in North Korea. A large army of Chinese soldiers attacked the U.S. 8th Cavalry Regiment from the north, northwest, and west. This forced the retreat of UN forces.


General Matthew Ridgway took over after General Walker's death on December 22. The former was the commander of the 82nd Airborne Division in Wold War II. Ridgway received command of all the forces serving in Korea, along with relative freedom to act as he saw fit. Although his initial aim was to undertake an offensive in Korea, he soon realized that the army was not in sufficient shape to accomplish this. Instead, General Ridgway undertook to rebuild the army. After a successful Chinese attack on New Year's Day, the Allied forces had to withdraw to the "D line," extending from Pyongtaek to…

1950 I Robot Is Sometimes Referred to
Words: 1193 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 76590144
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1950, I, Robot is sometimes referred to as a novel, but it is a collection of short stories written over a ten-year period, all but one having appeared in Astounding magazine. There are several characters that do appear in most of the stories, and Asimov had also written connecting passages in order for them to have a more cohesive and episodic flow. The book tells the history of U.S. Robots and Mechanical Men.

In one of the stories, "Little Lost Robot," it is Susan Calvin who is called upon to find the solution. In her first venture away from Earth she travels to HyperBase, where robots and human engineers are endeavoring to create a "hyperatomic" propulsion system in an effort to launch the first interstellar voyages. Due to hazardous radiation conditions necessary for the project the robots' adherance to the Three Laws have been supressed, since before they had been…

Film Analysis of Sunset Boulevard 1950
Words: 1376 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Film Review Paper #: 2435744
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Sunset Boulevard is a classic film noir produced in 1950 and directed by Billy Wilder. The film begins with the murder of Joe Gillis, a floundering screenwriter who ends up dead in a swimming pool. "Poor dope," the voice over says. "He'd always wanted a pool. Well, in the end he got himself a pool, only the price turned out to be a little high." The voice over, delivered in classic film noir style, turns out to be none other than Gillis himself. Far from being an unreliable narrator, though, Gillis promises "the facts" and delivers. The entire film Sunset Boulevard is the retelling of "the facts" from Gillis's perspective. Wilder's choice of narration is dutifully ironic, as a failed filmmaker becomes famous. The theme of the movie is reminiscent of the Great Gatsby, with its peek at American decadence and lost dreams. Because it offers rich social commentary, Sunset…


Armstrong, R. (2000). Billy Wilder: American Film Realist. NC: McFarland & Co.

Gibson, A. (2001). And the Wind Wheezing Through That Organ Once in a While": Voice, Narrative, Film. Retrieved online: 

Smoodin, E. (1983). The image and the voice in the film with spoken narration. Quarterly Review of Film Studies 8(4): 19-32.

Wilder, B. (1950). Sunset Boulevard. Feature film.

History of Occupational Therapy 1950-1960
Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31110152
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History Of Occupational Therapy

Frame 1 - Introduction

Occupational therapy is an essential part of the recovery process. It allows the person to engage in meaningful activity that adds structure and purpose to their daily routine. Occupational therapy is now considered an essential part of the treatment process for those with long-term, or severe injuries. The role of the occupational therapist is to help the person we turn to a life where they can be independent and are in there and living, regardless of their condition. Occupational therapy helps a person to adjust to the changes in their lives as result of a severe illness or injury. This presentation will explore the history of occupational therapy with a focus on the changes in paradigm that took place during the 1950s and 1960s.

Frame 2 - Occupational therapy was first conceived in the early part of the 1900s. It was originally…


American Occupational Therapy Associaton. (2010). Occupational Therapist. Health Care

Careers Directory 2009-2010. Retrieved from 0 

Essentials of an acceptable school of occupational therapy. (1950). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 4, 126-128.

Kearney, P. (2004). The Influence of Competing Paradigms on Occupational Therapy Education:

Influential Illustrators From 1950-1960 James
Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 96644792
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Tracy A. Sugarman (1921- )

Tracy A. Sugarman is a famous American illustrator who has had a long and provocative career in the arts. He boasts a career spanning over fifty years, producing great works within children's literature, album cover art, and socially progressive artistic statements. His work is featured in numerous children's books. Sugarman also highlighted life during World War II based on his own experiences there. He had served in the army in World War II and then turned his experiences to art. He also worked on major record covers, usually for Waldorf Music Hall ecords; Sugarman created more than 100 covers. Many later albums and CDs still carried on the original designs in the decade of the 1950s alone. His work is also featured in major magazines such as Fortune and Esquire (Ask Art 2009)

During a period of great racial tension and segregation, Sugarman highlighted prominent…


Ask Art. "Tracy Sugarman -- Artist." The Artists' Bluebook. 2009. Retrieved 18 Nov 2009 at 

Smith, Thomas B. "James Bama." Buffalo Bill Historical Center. 2009. Retrieved 18 Nov 2009 at

Technical Advances That Occurred Since 1950 That
Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81255561
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technical advances that occurred since 1950 that radically changed any 4 of the following 6 areas.

Transportation - Modern automobiles with all sorts of conveniences such as anti-lock brakes, sophisticated sensors, and computer-controlled mechanisms for injecting fuel and air. Also rockets that conveyed man to the moon.

Communications - Digital computer and software technology that dramatically changed communication in a wide sphere of services including factories, offices, hospitals, and, indeed, throughout society. In fact, each of these four areas are influenced by these two technical advances.

Manufacturing - inventions here include oil refineries and electric power plants.

e. Entertainment - The DVD and ability to download virtual music over the Internet and, via online technology, to compose and disseminate one's own musical compositions.

Chapter 1, Figure 1 (also slides 14-15 of Need for Systems Engineering) illustrates the law of diminishing returns in seeking the optimum system (or component) performance and,…

Johnson v Eisentrager 339 U S
Words: 2000 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 62357380
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Therefore, the claim asserted by espondents and sustained by the court below would, in practical effect, amount to a right not to be tried at all for an offense against the U.S. armed forces. 339 U.S. 763, 782 (1950).

The Court examined the issue of whether the military authorities had jurisdiction to try the offenders. It reasoned that military authorities have had a historical right, during and after hostilities, to punish those who have violated the laws of war, and this history predates the existence of the United States, and therefore, the existence of the Constitution. espondents' convictions were the result of a military commission exercising this historic right, and it was the military commission's sole ability to determine whether the laws of war applied to espondents and whether espondents had violated those laws. There is nothing in the Constitution giving the Court appellate jurisdiction over these types of military…


Johnson v. Eisentrager, 339 U.S. 763 (1950). Retrieved October 5, 2011 from Findlaw website:

Men's Sportswear in the 50s and 90s
Words: 1728 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55788636
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Men's Sportswear In The 1950s And 1990s

As a form of cultural expression, fashion always reflects the deepest concerns of society. But unlike literature, music or art, fashion communicates indirectly - employing a language and logic of its own. Fashion's power, to capture the present and even to predict the future, is only revealed with the passage of time (Font 2003).

In the 1950s, ready-to-wear clothing was the big deal, and styles began changing very quickly. It was not socially acceptable for women to work; a woman's "place was in the home" (Bosak 2003). omen wore pants around the house, but still wore skirts when they went out. Tight-fitting dresses and shorter hemlines were popular, but so too were the circle skirt, Bobby Sox, and a sweater set.

For men, previous to 1950 they wore both single-breasted and double-breasted suits. Fashions changed very little for them. In the 1950s, many…

Works Cited

Bosak, S. "A Quick Tour Through the Last Century of Fashion" (2003). Mother's Day Activity

Kit. 04 December 2003. 'sdaykit.html

Font, L. "The Fashion Front" (2003). CNN 03 December 2003.

Gottschalk, M. "Can't Men's Suits Survive the Dress-Down Trend?" (2003). Kansas City Star.

Manic Depressive Insanity or the Term Melancholia
Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40132750
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Manic-Depressive Insanity or the Term Melancholia

Manic-depressive Insanity

The main topic that will be considered in the paper is manic depression. Two papers from different historical periods will be chosen for the paper for a detailed analysis and for any change of concepts of manic depression over time. The first chosen article is from the year 1910, "Diagnosis in States of Depression," written by Bedford Pierce. Second article chosen for the paper is from 1950s, "Clinical and Biochemical Investigations in a Manic Depressive with Short Cycles," written by . Klein. The search and selection of these two articles is based on the fact that the importance of the manic depression was realized. Based on these facts, two articles were chosen. The comparison of the concepts given in the two articles will be compared with respect to the timelines.

Summary of the articles

The first article published in 1910 refers to…


Klein, R. (1950). Clinical and Biochemical Investigations in A Manic Depressive with Short Cycles. British journal of Psychiatry 96:293-297.

Pierce, P. (1910). Diagnosis in States of Depression. The British Medical Journal, p. 1333-1338.

Women From Two Eras the
Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32433306
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The Status of Women in Contemporary American Society


Today, women enjoy the same educational opportunities as men. There is no longer any social expectation that only men will pursue higher education after high school and in many colleges and universities there is approximately an equal ratio of female to male students. In some respects, old stereotypes about the respective gender-based specific aptitudes may still persist, but they no longer dictate social expectations or educational opportunities.


Today, the vocational environment is completely integrated at all levels. Women graduating from colleges and universities generally pursue identical career tracks to men in similar fields and legislative protection exists at both the state and federal level to prohibit employment discrimination in the workplace. Likewise, whereas women in earlier eras of American society faced considerable sexual harassment at work, contemporary social mores and formal legislation strictly prohibit any such conduct in the workplace.…

Music How Old Are You
Words: 700 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60500716
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All the places we hung out at had jukeboxes.

I don't remember ever going to concerts when I was a kid, but on television they would have like big western hayrides that were really popular. The concerts they had back then did not include such things as mosh pits. Like I said before, the biggest sin you could commit back then was smoking, and drinking was unheard of.

The values have changed so much that sometimes I just get sick thinking about it. I guess I shouldn't generalize, but it sure seems that way to me. Along with the technological progression, has come such things as pornography and those kinds of things, everything nowadays is so accessible.

When did the music start to change? I really did not notice any changes until the late 60's, Woodstock era was a dramatic change, especially with the hippies and all that backwards nonsense.…

Raisin in the Sun Significance
Words: 2564 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96161162
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At the same time Bernice doesn't tell her daughter the history of the heirloom, in fear of waking the spirit. This means that even Bernice is not using her legacy positively, but is afraid of it. Both characters are able to embrace their history with pride by the end of the play, as Boy illie comes to understand the Piano's significance and Bernice begins to play it again (

3. The Little Foxes

a. Significance of the Title

Lillian Hellman was born in New Orleans and educated at New York and Columbia University. Her first success was the play 'The Children's Hour'; she was an active part of political activities and spoke openly about her ideals. 'The Little Foxes' brought her greater fame and reflects her opinion of and her remembrances of the South (

The play is a satire or a criticism of the machinations of capitalists who live…

Works Cited:

Bradford, W. The Piano Lesson: Study Guide. 2012. 11 June, 2012. 

Cannon, J. "Local Women's History Celebrated." "The Dernopolis Times." 2011. Web. 11 June, 2012. A Raisin in the Sun. 2012. Web. 11 June, 2012. The Little Foxes: Introduction. 2012. 11 June, 2012.

Fundamental Rights
Words: 1296 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20078759
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1950s, attempts to integrate fundamental human rights into EU treaties met with little success. Many commentators observe that the reason for the failure of these attempts is the fact that the EU was viewed primarily as an economic union, and as a result, the ECJ's role would be primarily in adjudicating economic and related trade disputes. Also, the ECJ would be charged with making determinations of EU/MS sovereignty where questions regarding the Eurozone's fundamental law and subsequent treaties are concerned. It follows then, that the development of a body of law for the securing and protection of fundamental rights across the EU's member states would have to wait until there was a deeper political and "psychological" union among Europe's citizens; and until this type of "union" took place among the EU's various polities, the ECJ was unable to legitimately and properly address questions of fundamental rights protections. Over time, the…

Project on Immigration
Words: 1709 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99190101
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1950's through to the 1970's, immigration was a way out for many of Ireland's people due to a shift in the economy after the war for independence. Immigration was not confined to the educated classes. People from the richest and poorest places in Ireland immigrated in large numbers during this time. Socially, Ireland was a drab and morose place to be because of its strict conservatism. Many of the nation's young longed to get out. During this time, there was a lack of suitable employment, which also ensured the constant stream of immigration.

This immigration project was conducted using information obtained through two interviews. The respondents are an Irish couple named Mary and John Taylor, who have been married for nearly 30 years. oth Mary and John moved from Ireland to New York, although at separate times and from separate counties.

Mary was born in Cavan, a small rural county…


Miller, Kirby. Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. Oxford University, 1988.

Coogan, Tim. Wherever Green Is Worn. Palgrave, 2001.

Kenny, Kevin. The American Irish. Longman, 2000.

Political Science History
Words: 6252 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80408978
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conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement

Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.

Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…


George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis

Volume Library #2, p. 2146

Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism

McGinnis, National Review Online

Atomic Testing Though Modern People
Words: 11346 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 33269463
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The First Nuclear Test

Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.

This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…


Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope.  (Accessed August 19, 2008).

American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer."  (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times.  (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall

Winnicott Critical Evaluation of Donald
Words: 4113 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33959755
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6-25). Winnicott's clinical experiences in this capacity eventually gave him the raw materials "from which he subsequently built his psychoanalytic theories" (Donald Woods Winnicott 1876-1971-2000).

Winnicott's Influences and Challenges

Winnicott's theories and method were far from unchallenged by his professional peers, however, including several renowned European child psychoanalysts who had first immigrated to London during the war years. Among his chief challengers, and major professional competitors of that period were the likes of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud:

child analyst Melanie Klein, moved to London in 1926 and soon had many followers: Winnicott had further analysis with one of them, Joan iviere. The Kleinians' belief in the paramount importance, for psychic health, of the first year of a child's life, was shared by Winnicott. But this view diverged somewhat from that of Freud and his daughter Anna (herself a child analyst!) who both came to London in 1938, refugees from…


Casement, P. (1994). On Learning from the Patient. Tavistock/Rutledge London & New York. pp. ix-xiv.

Goldman, D. (2002). D.W. Winnicott's Mirror-role of mother and family in child

Development. Commentary on Winnicott Article. Retrieved Dec. 19, 2004 at

Rodman, F. (1987). The Spontaneous Gesture: Selected Letters of D.W. Winnicott.

Young White and Miserable by
Words: 2153 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84525815
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They did not have the same degree of patience, however, as the more subdued feminists, and they wanted change now. They wanted to choose whether they had children, whether they got married, and whether they could or could not perform a certain task instead of allowing a man or group of men (the government, for example) to choose for them. They stuck by the posters of 'Rosie the Riveter' that were around during the war and depicted a woman doing a man's job - and doing it well.

These women saw themselves as strong and capable and tough, and they were also much more in tune with their sexuality than past generations had been. They were not afraid of being women. The sexuality issue was confusing and uncomfortable for a lot of men. Men saw women as sexual objects, but they were not comfortable with the idea that they women…

Family How the Family Really
Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34910049
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Women had joined the workforce long before the 1950s, with dual incomes being as necessary for many families during the Depression and even through the 1940s as they are today (Coontz 2000). In fact, the emphasis that was brought to the cohesion and in many ways the isolation of the nuclear family during the first half of the twentieth century was detrimental to many aspects of the family, including its economic viability, according to Stephanie Coontz's The Way We Never Were (2000). This historian also argues that personal satisfaction and happiness suffered when they became wholly attached to the success of the family rather than being derived form individual pursuits, as was the case earlier in the nineteenth century and before (Coontz 2000). The period since the 1950s has been one of increasing individualism and self-definition outside the context of the family, which has again made familial roles both more…


Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were. New York: Basic.

Skolnick, A. & Skolnick, J. (2004). Family in transition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Decline in the American Family
Words: 1140 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23855099
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Another important area of change relates to sexual norms and values in the family. Studies show that there has a definite growth in more permissive attitudes towards sex and particularly premarital sex. The number of people who see sex between an unmarried man and woman as "wrong" dropped from 36% in 1972 to 24% in 1996. (the Emerging 21st Century American Family)

These statistics indicate a change for the earlier view of sex as only being acceptable between married couples; which questioned the established norm and role of sexuality in the traditional family.

Another central area of change since the 1950's is the value associated with child rearing and the family. The more traditional concept of the family has at its core the ideal and value of providing secure and moral child - rearing practices. This aspect has changed and there has been a move away for this central value.…

Works Cited

Klein H.S. The Changing American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at 

Popenoe D. (1993) American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55 (3), pp. 527-542

The Emerging 21st Century American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at

The American Family Association (AFA). Retrieved January 29, 2007 at

Gender Studies -- the World Split Open
Words: 2036 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43732110
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Gender Studies -- the orld Split Open

hy were American women unhappy? In building her case regarding the unhappiness that women in America experienced in the 1950s, the author of The orld Split Open: How the Modern omen's Movement Changed America -- Ruth Rosen -- goes into great detail. On page 13 Rosen points out that after II in the American culture, women getting pregnant and having babies, was extremely common and normal. In fact, a woman who was not married was "an embarrassment," and the author quotes actress Debbie Reynolds (from the film The Tender Trap) as saying that marriage is "the most important thing in the world" and that a woman is not "really a woman" until she has a wedding and babies (Rosen, 13).

But after taking care of babies all day, doing housework, running errands and cooking dinner for the family -- all the while using…

Works Cited

Rosen, Ruth. The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America.

New York: Viking, 2000.

James Dean Both His Real Life and
Words: 1997 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84099266
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James Dean, both his real life, and how it related to his role in the movie "Rebel without a Cause." It will relate the themes of youth violence, and parent/youth relationships between James Dean and his personal life and the movie and real life in the 1950's.

JAMES DEAN AND THE MOVIES got it and I know if I better myself that there will be no match. A fellow must have confidence. - James Dean

James Dean was one of the most popular stars of the 1950s. Ironically, he only made three films before he died, but they were all popular at the box office, and increased his popularity with his fans. The film he is most remembered for is "Rebel without a Cause," released in 1955, after he was killed in a car accident. Dean has always embodied the "bad boy," and "Rebel without a Cause" did nothing to…

Works Cited

Bindas, Kenneth J., ed. America's Musical Pulse: Popular Music in Twentieth-Century Society. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.

Byars, Jackie. All That Hollywood Allows: Re-Reading Gender in 1950s Melodrama. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Cohan, Steven. Masked Men: Masculinity and the Movies in the Fifties. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.

Editors. "History of James Dean." James Dean Foundation. 28 Aug. 2001.

Money and Success
Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89909445
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Horatio Alger

According to author Harlon L. Dalton, the Horatio Alger myth is not simply a myth because it is about a fictional character, but because people have dangerously believed it to be true as a sociological fact for far too many years. The myth suggests that demonstrating one's merit is enough to allow a person to attain success, and implies that people 'deserve' their position in life. African-Americans, of course, have long been painfully conscious that this is not the case, and institutionalized racism can thwart the ability of the individual to 'create his own opportunities' in the Alger model. Prejudices undoubtedly affect how people are perceived. Moreover, the very notion of 'merit' implies an objective standard of excellence, even though these standards were often created by the ruling classes. An excellent example of this is the SAT. Although the SAT was once viewed as a meritocratic device --…

American History During the 1940s America Had
Words: 1426 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68012031
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American History

During the 1940s, America had just experienced the onslaught of World War II. After massive fighting against the Axis power nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan), America, along with its allies in the war, was able to conclude the conflict by deciding to drop the atomic bomb in Japan. The war ended with the Axis power conceding defeat, and America went on to rehabilitate its nation after the war. The rehabilitation of America as a nation weary of possible atrocities among nations in the world is twofold. After the war, America experienced a resurgence in economic growth, primarily brought about by the development of new technologies that spurred the country's commercial market. Furthermore, the growth of new technologies and manufacturing industry in America encouraged social mobility, enabling the middle class society to increase in number, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, the technological revolution and…

Mccarthy and the Cold War One Aspect
Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28567492
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McCarthy and the Cold War

One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…


Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.

Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.

Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.

Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.

Hobsbawm's Age of Extremes Eric
Words: 3076 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52350498
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He writes, "The rise of the radical Right after the First World War was undoubtedly a response to the danger, indeed to the reality, of social revolution and working-class power in general, to the October revolution and Leninism in particular" (Hobsbawm 124). The right-wing backlash against labor unions was crucial in setting up the rise of those fascist leaders who would be responsible for initiating the Second World War. As such it was partially responsible for creating the conditions for violence, but also, later, for unification between anti-fascist forces to defeat them. Socialist resistance to fascism was always strong, starting out peacefully until "resistance to fascism which did not envisage the use of arms could not succeed" (Hobsbawm 152). They were not that successful and went against the Stalin's Soviet view of a symbiotic alliance between capitalism and communism against fascism. Yet paradoxically, it was the strength of communism coming…


Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914-1991. New York: Vintage Books, 1996.

Art in America There Was
Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14078781
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Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).

In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…

Works Cited

Andy Warhol." PBS: American Masters. 20 Sept 2006. 25 Mar 2008. 

Teaching Art Since 1950." National Gallery of Art. 199. 25 Mar 2008. 

Un Chien Andalou." Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1929.

Varendoe, Kirk. Online NewsHour: Jackson Pollock. 11 Jan 1999. 25 Mar 2008.

Pop Is Tomorrow's Classical- Paul Mccartney Discuss
Words: 3141 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43780038
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Pop is tomorrow's Classical"- Paul McCartney. Discuss this contention within the context of rock/classical music collaborations since the early 1950s.

Classical Rock and Popular Prophecy

To the average music-listener, musical genres are easily divided into homogenous groupings without any danger of overlapping one another. Certainly, there are rare occurrences of "cross-over" hits on the radio that find airplay on both Adult Contemporary and Country stations, or those releases which find an audience among both Easy Listening and Rock fans. Another seemingly strange occurrence that may be observed by the slightly more alert music consumer is that time shifts musical pieces from one genre to another, and yesterday's Alternative Rock is today's Easy Listening, yet even this phenomenon is considered an anomaly of the music industry. A simplicity is desired among musical elitists that preserves some musical forms as valid, labeling others as mere fads. However, the deep impact of musical…


"Classical Music." Heart & Soul. World Book. 2004.

Duxbury, Janell R. "The Nexus of Classical and Rock." Progression, no. 39, p70-74. Summer, 2001.

Duxbury, Janell R. Rockin' the Classics and Classicizin' the Rock: A Selectively Annotated Discography. Greenwood Press, 1991.

Fissinger, Laura. "Jim Steinman: To 'Hell' & Back." BMI MusicWorld. Spring 1994.

Love Lucy Analysis I Love Lucy Was
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74389063
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ove ucy" Analysis

I ove ucy was an outstanding 1950's sitcom that ultimately supported 1950's non-threatening gender roles. Though the show differed from other 1950's sitcoms in that ucy was a 40+-year-old physical comedian married to a Cuban, ucy still supported the mainstream idea that a wife should be happy at home, doing housework and subservient to her husband. ucy's attempts to leave the mainstream by seeking a career in "show business" against her husband's wishes or seeking a job "outside the home" generally ended in comical disaster and sent the clear message that ucy and her audience were better off in their traditional gender roles.

ucy's character is quite a bit like other TV housewives of the 1950s in some respects, yet quite different in other respects. June Cleaver (Gelman, 2012), Kathy Thomas (Plath, Make room for daddy, 2008), Margaret Anderson (Plath, Father knows best (TV series) - DVD…

Lucy's character is quite a bit like other TV housewives of the 1950s in some respects, yet quite different in other respects. June Cleaver (Gelman, 2012), Kathy Thomas (Plath, Make room for daddy, 2008), Margaret Anderson (Plath, Father knows best (TV series) - DVD review, 2008) and Lucy were all attractive, housebound, knew how to dress attractively, did housework and were subservient to their husbands. Those were supposedly the ideal traits of the 1950's housewife and Lucy often showed that she was a mainstream housewife in those respects. At the same time, Lucy was quite different. For example, Lucille Ball was the only physical comedian: much of the comedy in I Love Lucy was based on her physical comedic skills and willingness to look messy and ridiculous. Lucy also differed in that she had a constant sidekick played by Vivian Vance, who was also a skilled physical comedian and accomplished actress. Lucy was also more ambitious than the other housewives in that she actively sought a career outside her home and sang, danced and performed comedy skits within the show. Finally, Lucy was married to a Cuban rather than a standard white guy, which opened the comedy to additional bits and themes based on Ricky Ricardo's ethnicity.

"I Love Lucy" was very successful during such a conservative time in terms of proper gender representations because the show ultimately upheld those representations: Lucy was within the mainstream in that she was attractive, knew how to dress well, was housebound, did housework and was ultimately subservient to her husband; whenever Lucy and Ethel ventured outside of the mainstream by looking for a job, the results were disastrous and comical; whenever Lucy ventured outside of the mainstream by trying to break into "show business" against Ricky's wishes, the results were disastrous and comical; whenever Ricky and Fred tried to venture outside of the mainstream by doing "women's work" such as housework, the results were disastrous and comical. For example, when Lucy and Ethel go to work in the "Job Switching" episode, they are fired from every job at the candy factory and ultimately end up in a very comical scene at the conveyor belt because they cannot keep up with the fast tempo of regular work (YouTube, 2010). At the same time, Ricky and Fred are completely incompetent and ignorant at all the types of housework shown in that episode, ultimately attempting to boil 4 lbs. Of rice at once in a single pot (YouTube, 2010). I Love Lucy gave a clear message: venture outside of traditional gender roles and the results will be disastrous and comical.

Lucy's character was non-threatening to 1950's society because she supported the "TV housewife" stereotype. She was mainstream by being attractive, knowing how to dress, primarily engaging in housework and ultimately being subservient to her husband. In addition, her

WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present
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Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…


Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time: 

"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,

May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder:

Children's Literature Sass's the Cat
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In addition, the human pronoun "her" is used to refer to the mother penguin, while "it" would have been a more appropriate choice if the author wanted to reinforce the penguins' animal aspects (BBC 3, 8). hile the author does use the term "chick" throughout the book, mixing it with the human-like terms further allow the child reader to grasp the non-fiction elements of the book while still remaining interested and emotionally involved in the story. Evoking sadness in the reader, a photograph shows the mother walking away from her baby. Through the use of these words and illustrations, the fact that the penguins are animals living in a natural home is emphasized, while children are still engaged through the mild human-like qualities that are ascribed to the animals (BBC 3-4).

Thus, a comparison of the personification used in The Cat and the Hat and in Baby Penguins yields great…

Works Cited

BBC. Baby Penguins. New York, Scholastic, 2009.

Dr. Seuss. The Cat in the Hat. New York: Random House, 1957.

Singular Events Can Have Profound
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Because of the widespread stigma against homosexuality in the United States and worldwide, medical research was thwarted and the disease became virtually synonymous with homosexuality.

It would take the death of one of America's most beloved, and seemingly straight, movie stars to prove that AIDS could affect anyone (Hiller 1985). When ock Hudson died of the disease in 1985, Americans could see not only that homosexuality was normal and pervasive in society but also that AIDS was spreading more rapidly than was previously thought. The subsequent spread of the disease to straight communities also showed that AIDS was a disease transmitted primarily through sexual contact and blood transfusions; homosexuality had nothing to do with the illness whatsoever. Final hypothesis: The death of ock Hudson forced Americans to rethink homosexuality and to face the AIDS epidemic squarely.

The 1990s: The First Gulf War

The decade opened with a literal bang when…



About the Case." Brown v. Board of Education. Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at

Cozzens, L. (1995). Brown v. Board of Education. Early Civil Rights Struggles. Retrieved online Jun 14, 2008 at 


Art in America Abstract Expressionism
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In essence, this painting "mixes a toothpaste smile with the grimace of a death's head" and symbolizes the true work of an American "action" painter (de la Croix & Tansey, 774).

Another great example of an American abstract expressionist master is Mark Rothko (1903 to 1973), who emigrated to the United States in 1914 from Latvia with his family to escape Czarist Russia and its strict policies towards Jews. Although Rothko was a friend and contemporary of Pollack, Kline and de Kooning, his paintings exhibit none of the aggressive attack or slashing brushwork one finds in the works of these artists. Rothko's Four Darks on Red does not exhibit the usual traits of "action" painting, for it shows a calm and contemplative mood with soft color variations, yet it also shows "a mysterious effect of forms and images occupying an ambiguously-defined space," much like Kline and Pollack (de la Croix…


Paul, Stella. "Abstract Expressionism." Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. Retrieved at .

De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey, eds. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. 10th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 2003.

Same-Sex Marriage Specifically it Will
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771). His arguments center on the public responsibilities of marriage. He writes, "This is true because legal marriage is a public institution, created by law to promote public policy and to further social interests" (Wardle, 2001, p. 771). He goes on to state that traditional marriages foster "childrearing, economic stability, and channel sexual behavior" (Wardle, 2001, p. 771). Unfortunately, these arguments seem outmoded and irrational. If this is the purpose of traditional marriage, then clearly, hundreds of thousands of couples are not engaged in socially responsible marriages. They channel their sexual behavior outside the marriage, they are economically unsound, and they do not raise children. Thus, traditional marriage is not supporting society as Wardle sees it, and perhaps the entire institution should be overhauled. Wardle's arguments are illogical at best, and do not effectively argue against same-sex unions at all.

eligious groups are very vocal opponents of same-sex marriage for…


Alderson, K.G. (2004). A phenomenological investigation of same-sex marriage. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 13(2), 107+.

Coontz, S. (1997). The way we really are: Coming to terms with America's changing families. New York: Basic Books.

Davidoff, J. (2006, August). No wedding bells: Why banning same-sex marriage spells disaster. The Progressive, 70, 22+.

Hohengarten, W.M. (1994). Same-sex marriage and the right of privacy. Yale Law Journal, 103(6), 1495-1531.