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Such movements gained momentum and encouraged individuals to be even bolder. An example of this can be seen when a group students demanded service at a oolworth's in South Carolina. Upon refusal, they return in greater number and, without violent, made their voice known. These types of movements inspired confidence and led to greater things. The sit-in movements became so popular that the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee grew from the energy generated by them. According to Grant, the SNCC's statement of purpose begins with an affirmation regarding the "philosophical or religious ideal if nonviolence as the foundation" (Grant 273) of their purpose. Their statements also reads that through nonviolence, "courage replaces fear, love transforms hate" (273). This group also believed that "love is the central motif of nonviolence" (273). Another organization that emerged from these movements is the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, who taught resistance "without bitterness; to be cursed…
Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.
Davidson, James, et al. Nations of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Grant, Joanne, ed. Black Protest. New York: Ballentine Books. 1968.
Black & Decker
During the 1950s and 60s, Black & Decker held a dominant position in the domestic market. The company was able to achieve this dominance through technological innovation, in that B&D had the only handheld power tools on the market. This is a manifestation of the "broad differentiation" strategy. This strategy involves "maintaining a presence in every segment" which allows the company to "gain a competitive advantage by distinguishing our products with an excellent design, high awareness and easy accessibility" (CAPSIM, 2010).
Black & Decker maintained this strategic focus three ways. In terms of distinguishing the products via excellent design, Black & Decker's pioneering handheld power tools were the first of this type to the market. The first mover advantage allowed the company to gain a dominant market share, and to maintain industry leadership. High awareness reflects the brand value. Even from the earliest days, Black & Decker…
CAPSIM. 10.4 Broad differentiation. Capstone. Retrieved May 1, 2012 from http://www.capsim.com/guides/capstone2011/the-guide/10-six-basic-strategies0c72.html?start=4
Investopedia. (2012). Monopolistic competition. Investopedia. Retrieved May 1, 2012 from
Polio Epidemic of the 1950s
The concept of epidemic regarding infectious diseases is a rather simple concept to understand: over a period of time, an infectious disease spreads within a population -- local or otherwise -- causing, in excess, results that far surpass human expectation of said disease. In the case of poliomyelitis, nobody expected the outbreak to have caused such massive impact on society, let alone the fact that there is now a unionized global fight against further spreading of the virus. Polio was a highly feared disease at its beginning phases. The aftermath of such an epidemic outbreak even went so far as to have become a national problem, and prior to the release of a vaccine, many families cowered in the onslaught of the virus. Thankfully, however, this fear has significantly subsided by 1955.
History of Poliomyelitis
Poliomyelitis (known as polio) is named appropriately due to…
"History of Polio." Global Polio Eradication Initiative. 2010. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. .
"Poliomyelitis - PubMed Health." PubMed Health. Aug. 2009. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. .
"WHO | Poliomyelitis." World Health Organization. Nov. 2010. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. .
Blum, Nava, and Elizabeth Fee. "The Polio Epidemic in Israel in the 1950s." American Journal of Public Health 97.2 (2007): 218. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 3 Apr. 2011.
This apparent simplicity does not do justice to the complexity of emotion and mood capture and expressed by the music. The tempo of the music is usually between 180 to 210 beats per minute. This is a fast pace and alludes to the spicy excitement inherent in the music and corresponding dance. The lyrics of salsa music cover a wide range of themes from simple sentimental music to political and sexual themes. Salsa music also incorporates machoistic bravado into the lyrics as a way to express the virility and potency of the Latin male (Leymarie 268).
The comparison of salsa music and American popular music will consider two areas the lyrical content and the tempo of the various types of music. The focus will be on rhythm and blues (R & B) music. hile R&B began around the same time as salsa, the music was primarily directed toward urban African-Americans.…
Hernandez, Deborah Pacini. "Dancing with the Enemy: Cuban Popular Music, Race,
Authenticity, and the World-Music Landscape." Latin American Perspectives 25.3
History of Salsa. Salsa, 2010. Web. 21 Oct 2010.
Their California dream is filled with the daily reality of survival, while by the 1950s, recreation and the ocean helped urge many people to leave their inland homes and travel west. That meant they needed water to survive. eisner writes, "By the 1950s, California was already using its full 4.4 million acre-foot entitlement to the Colorado iver" (eisner 134). Water, the ocean, and the population of California are all linked in the California dream.
Finally, water in California means survival, but it also is big business. The Joads saw the power and greed of big business when they arrived in the state. Their dream was that everything would be perfect, that they could get a fresh start, but that was not the case. Steinbeck writes, "And in the south he saw the golden oranges hanging on the trees, the little golden oranges on the dark green trees; and guards with…
Reisner, Marc. Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
Causes of divorce may also include physical, mental or emotional abuse, substance abuse, lack of conflict resolution skills, unmet needs, failed expectations, and significant discrepancies in parenting. People whose parents are divorced are twice as likely to have their own marriage end in divorce. Individuals with divorced parents may be more apt to see divorce as a solution to problems or may have a lower threshold for marital conflict. Studies show that people who live together before they get married are more likely to get divorced. How to reduce the rates of divorce is a complicated question that many have addressed. Especially with younger individuals, better education and understanding of what to and not to expect would perhaps be helpful. Statistics are interesting when it comes to the answer. For example, the University of Denver Center for Marital and Family Studies found that cities with major league baseball teams had…
Bartlein, Barbara. Divorce rate drops: Should we thank the recession. 4 January, 2010. The Wallet Pop.com 29 April, 2010 http://www.walletpop.com/blog/2010/01/04/divorce-rate-drops-should-we-thank-the-recession/
Bramlett, M.D., and Mosher, W.D. Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat (2002) 23.22.
Center for Disease Control. Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths: Provisional Data for (2009) 58.1 National Vital Statistics Report. 29 April 2010 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-divorcerate.html encyclopedia.com
Encyclopedia.com Definition of crude divorce rate. 29 April 2010 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-crudedivorcerate.html
Kitchen sink realism
The concept of 'kitchen sink realism' became popular in England during the 1950s as a significant number of writers, playwrights, and screenwriters directed their attention toward writing words addressing young men who were angry with a series of things. Social realism was a dominant idea during the period and this is visible throughout works involving 'kitchen sink realism'. The genre focused on young Britons who spent most of their lives working low-paid jobs, staying in small apartments, and spending most of their resources on alcohol they drank in dirty pubs.
Kitchen sink realism is an essential part of British culture and the fact that it effectively replicates attitudes that were common in England during the 1950s and 1960s contributes to painting a true image of life during the period. There was nothing avant-garde about this genre, as it was meant to put across a social message and…
King, Kimball, "Western Drama Through the Ages: A Student Reference Guide," (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007)
Public Perception of Women from 1950's to 21st Century
Man and women are what constitutes what one calls Mankind or Human Beings. Historically man has tried to be dominant over the woman. The further one travels in history it is seen that women were considered to be something inferior. They were not treated as human beings but were treated as objects. Men considered them to be their possession. They wanted to control their thoughts and actions. Man since time immemorial has tried to decide the role of woman in society. Some societies also saw them to be as a machine for the purpose of reproduction. Even today there are some societies that look upon women to be someone inferior although globally speaking these societies are very few in number and the majority of people have come to recognize and realize that women are as much of human beings as man…
(1) William T. Markham, Charles M. Bonjean. (1996) Employment Status and the Attitudes and Behavior of Higher Status Women Volunteers, 1975 and 1992: A Case Study. Sex Roles. Journal of Research. Volume: 34. Issue: 9-10. 695
(2) Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham (1992) "African-American Women's History and the Metalanguage of Race," Signs 17: 251-74.
(3) Manuela Thurner (1997) Theoretical Issues. Journal of Women's History. Volume: 9. Issue: 2. p. 122.
(4) Karen Anderson: (1997) Changing Woman: A History of Racial Ethnic Women in Modern America. Oxford University Press: New York.
Social Movement: The Civil ights Struggle of the 1950s and 1960s
The civil rights struggle in American history is one which is littered with numerous famous events and rulings and which marked the fierce battle of African-Americans to fight for equality. One of the most famous protagonists of the civil rights era was osa Parks, the tired seamstress who refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger. However, the civil rights struggle had long been in affect before osa Parks refused to give up her seat. However, Parks was selected by African-American civil rights leaders to act as a symbol of the movement and to inspire others to fight the good fight.
While the civil rights struggle is largely credited to have occurred during the 1950s and the 1960s, one can trace its origins to American slavery and the plantation system. However, for the purposes…
Crossman, A. (2014). Sociological Theories. Retrieved from about.com: http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociology101/tp/Major-Sociological-Frameworks.htm
Loc.gov. (2014). The Civil Rights Era. Retrieved from loc.gov: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html
Shmoop.com. (2014). SUMMARY & ANALYSIS. Retrieved from shmoop.com: http://www.shmoop.com/civil-rights-desegregation/summary.html
Christian Dior's 1951 Wedding Dress: An Analysis
Fashion is often seen as a reflection of how a culture views sexuality, in particular female sexuality. With the introduction of Christian Dior's New Look, "practicality went out the window" and "ultra-feminine curves" became the dominant silhouette. [footnoteRef:1] More than hemlines had changed, however. American culture was also undergoing a seismic revolution as servicemen began to return home and start families in record numbers. The aby oom had begun as well as an era of economic prosperity for the United States was in full swing. This was reflected in clothing design as well: the gender binaries which had existed before the war reasserted themselves; before women began to work in classically 'male' occupations due to the shortage of able-bodied male workers at home. The shift in social expectations as women were often forcibly removed from these better-paying positions was reflected in the styles…
Brickell, Chris. "Through the New Looking Glass," Journal of Consumer Culture, 2 (2): 241-
Croll, Jennifer. Fashion that Changed the World. Prestel, 2014.
Palmer, Alexandra. Dior: A New Look, a New Enterprise (1945-57). V&A Publishing: 2009.
Steele, Valerie. The Corset: A Cultural History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.
Fashion and makeup trends in the 1950s reflected shifts in popular culture and were heavily influenced by film stars and television. A thriving youth culture contributed to changes in fashion, which were generally less conservative than in past decades. The exception was men's fashions, which became more subdued in the 1950s and included dark gray, blue, brown, and black suits. However, the Beatnik generation also contributed to fashion trends, and leather, denim blue jeans, and sneakers were also popular in the 1950s, especially among teenagers. Rock and roll also influenced the "greaser" look that developed around that time. The cult of the housewife similarly impacted new looks developing throughout the decade. A rise in consumerism encouraged many people to amass large, colorful wardrobes.
One of the most well-known fashion trends from the 1950s was the poodle skirt. Poodle skirts were round-cut, calf-length, full skirts, cinched at the waist.…
"Perfect Day for a Picnic." About.com. Online at .
Thomas, Pauline Weston. "1950s Glamour: Fashion History 1950s." Fashion Era.com. Online at .
Yeager, J. "History of Fashion: 1950-1960." History of Fashion. Online at .
S. air force. However, the first attack on the U.S. military by the Chinese was made on November 1 in North Korea. A large army of Chinese soldiers attacked the U.S. 8th Cavalry Regiment from the north, northwest, and west. This forced the retreat of UN forces.
General Matthew Ridgway took over after General Walker's death on December 22. The former was the commander of the 82nd Airborne Division in Wold War II. Ridgway received command of all the forces serving in Korea, along with relative freedom to act as he saw fit. Although his initial aim was to undertake an offensive in Korea, he soon realized that the army was not in sufficient shape to accomplish this. Instead, General Ridgway undertook to rebuild the army. After a successful Chinese attack on New Year's Day, the Allied forces had to withdraw to the "D line," extending from Pyongtaek to…
It is also interesting that, somewhat differently from the first advertisement, we are no longer looking for efficiency, productivity increase and lower costs. Since consumerism is the key to this advertisement, the word of order now is spending. This is why this is the "costliest process on Earth."
The three advertisement are very interesting, because, despite still reflecting well the period of time in which they were created, they are somewhat different. On one hand, we have a society that stresses the importance of higher productivity rates and lower costs to be able to face the current challenges. On the other hand, we have individuals simply enjoying their existence, despite the existent challenges.
2. May Tyler, Elaine. Homeward ound: American Families in the Cold War Era. asic ooks, 1990. Page 91.
May Tyler, Elaine. Homeward ound: American Families in the Cold War…
2. May Tyler, Elaine. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. Basic Books, 1990. Page 91.
1950s was a decade of change for the U.S. - cinema was no exception, as it modeled itself to accommodate the social changes U.S. society was going through. Films not only provide entertainment to masses but are also believed to express the general outlook of society by the way it sets and adopts trends. 50s was marked by postwar prosperity, rising consumerism, loosening up of stereotype families, baby boom and growing middle-class. It was the time of reaction to the aging cinema, especially by the freedom loving youth who were keyed up with fast food (Mc Donald's franchised in '54), credit card (first in 1950) and drive-in theaters (Filmsite.org). Young people were fed-up with the conventional illustration of men and women. With growing interest in ock-n-oll and break-free attitude prevailing, a social revolution was very much in the offering, and that was to transfer the cinema as well…
Smith, Geoffrey Nowell. (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Rafter, Nicole. (2000). Shots in the Mirror: Crime Films and Society. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Byars, Jackie. (1991). All That Hollywood Allows: Re-Reading Gender in 1950s Melodrama. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Wilinsky, Barbara. (1997). First and Finest: British Films on U.S. Television in the Late 1940s. Velvet Light Trap. Issue: 40. Pg 18.
Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (obertson, 2000). However, authors such as osenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:
No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.
Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.
Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.
Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.
The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…
Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New
World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Meilaender, Gilbertm (1999). Remarks on human embryonic stem- cell research. Paper presented to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.
National Institutes of Health. NIH guidelines for stem cell
1950, I, Robot is sometimes referred to as a novel, but it is a collection of short stories written over a ten-year period, all but one having appeared in Astounding magazine. There are several characters that do appear in most of the stories, and Asimov had also written connecting passages in order for them to have a more cohesive and episodic flow. The book tells the history of U.S. Robots and Mechanical Men.
In one of the stories, "Little Lost Robot," it is Susan Calvin who is called upon to find the solution. In her first venture away from Earth she travels to HyperBase, where robots and human engineers are endeavoring to create a "hyperatomic" propulsion system in an effort to launch the first interstellar voyages. Due to hazardous radiation conditions necessary for the project the robots' adherance to the Three Laws have been supressed, since before they had been…
S. Supreme Court's decisions in Escobedo v. Illinois (Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964) and Miranda v. Arizona (Miranda v. Arizona, 1966). These two cases dramatically altered how police treated criminal defendants subsequent to their arrests and forced police agencies throughout the United States to develop new procedures. The reading of what have become to be popularly known as Miranda rights has become a routine part of every arrest. Like it has in many areas of criminal procedure, the U.S. Supreme Court has narrowed the application of Miranda and gradually chipped away at the rights originally granted by the Court that decided the case. Two of the more significant cases were decided in 1984 when the Court allowed an exception to Miranda in the case of New York v. Quarles (New York v. Quarles, 1984) so that police can use Miranda statements in situations involving public safety. Additionally, in a companion case…
Escobedo v. Illinois, 378 U.S. 478 (U.S. Supreme Court 1964).
Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S.643 (U.S. Supreme Court 1961).
Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S.436 (U.S. Supreme Court 1966).
New York v. Quarles, 467 U.S. 649 (U.S. Supreme Court 1984).
The 1950's and Sexuality
World War II can be seen as an ending and then a beginning for different eras. Prior to the war, the world was in a the most severe economic downturn that anyone had experienced in modern times, whereas the 1950's were one of the most prosperous times in American history. The prewar years were fraught with struggle for between the wealthy elite and the poor. There was a relatively small middle class that served the wealthy and helped to dominate the poor. After the war, people, as a whole, had more economic opportunity, and the middle class grew astronomically. The war also separated America's ideas of what a woman was from what she could become. During the war women had been required to work in factories doing jobs that were normally reserved for men. Women could be teachers, nurses, or mothers before 1945, but…
Lester, N.A. (2010). Disney's "The Princess and the Frog": The pride, the pressure and the politics of being a first. Journal of American Culture, 33(4), 294-310.
Sharp, G. (2009). 1950s beauty pageant judging guidelines. Retrieved from http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2009/07/22/1950s-beauty-pageant-judging - guidelines/
Williams, Z. (2005). The fifties ideal of sexuality was serious: Less flesh, more promise. New Statesman, 134(4741), 28-33.
Young people had always danced as a means of socializing with one another. However, prior to the 1950s, it was considered appropriate for a girl to dance with a variety of partners, even if she came to a dance with a particular young man. By the mid-1950s, views changed, and it was considered insulting to cut-in on someone else's date (Sombat). In addition, rock and roll, which featured more suggestive lyrics than prior forms of music, seemed to encourage casual sexual contact between men and women. Rock music has only grown more suggestive with time, as have rock stars, helping create a popular culture that thrives on marketing sexuality.
Part of these changing attitudes was reflected in the sexual behavior of teenagers in the 1950s. Modern people have an image of the 1950s as a chaste and innocent time. However, sexual relations changed dramatically in the 1950s, even before the…
Burzumato, Skip. "A Brief History of Courtship and Dating in America, Part 2." Boundless
Webzine. N.p. 8 Mar. 2007. Web. 26 Oct. 2010.
Hagedorn, Elizabeth. "Dating through the Decades." Miami Quarterly Online. N.p. 9 Feb.
2009. Web. 26 Oct. 2010.
The 1950s was a time when the last of the generation of slaves were beginning to disappear from communities but their first generation children were attempting to make sense of the lives they led and the cautionary tales they had applied to their lives as a result. The work shows that for the 1950s African-American family it was a time of remembrance and resolution as well as a time to reflect on change and hope for even greater change in the future, with the inclusion of the fact that defacto segregation and suppression was still occurring in a rampant manner all over their lives.
Jewell, K. Sue. 2003. Survival of the African-American Family: The Institutional Impact of U.S. Social Policy. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jewell develops a social history that demonstrates all the many disparities of the African-American vs. majority culture and how these disparities, legal, social and economic…
McLoyd's work brings to mind the manner in which the 1950s conservative slant echoed the discrimination of the past and present. The work demonstrates that during the 1950s academic work began to be even more direct with its assassination of the individual as the source of limited progress. In other words the period demonstrates an extreme prejudice, where African-American Families themselves were in short blamed directly for their inability to succeed in the American landscape, regardless of the fact that the social, legal and economic conditions were almost completely against them.
Itagaki, Lynn M. 2003. Transgressing Race and Community in Chester Himes's if He Hollers Let Him Go. African-American Review 37, no. 1: 65.
Itagaki's work is a literary and social criticism of the works of Chester Himes, an African-American man who moved his family to Los Angels in the late 1940s and through the 1950s and 60s experienced contradictions in the ideal and the actions of those living there. The white community rejected and repressed the African-American family with all the same and worse segregation and discrimination when they were attempting to grow and become stronger, many by leaving the south. The work describes the volume of Himes' works but looks most closely at his beloved novel if He Hollers Let Him Go. The message of the work is distinctly responsive to the 1950s as a period of social transition for the African-American families, as they are told one thing and treated in a manner altogether different.
Since the 1950s, television has become an increasingly vital part of life, providing both an escape from the pressures of everyday life as well as offering social commentary. Television shows that center on family life have historically been among some of the highest-rated shows. One of the reasons why these shows are among the most popular are that they reflect the realities of actual families and family problems yet do so in a unique and refreshing way. In order to understand the role of television in explaining family structures, it is necessary to compare television shows from the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s with contemporary television shows.
TELEVISION SHOWS COMPARED
There are numerous similarities and differences between television shows of the 1950s, 1970s, and 1980s that center on family life and television shows depicting contemporary families and family forms. In general, television shows have adapted to reflect changing…
The middle class as a social sector and movement in the society is a benefit because of its ability to mobilize and incite action among people, both socially and legally -- as Daniel explicated, "...explored a legal path to equal rights." The middle class was also a detriment for the civil rights cause because most of the middle class people are white Americans, an ironic situation considering that these very people fought for equal rights in their society. Because of their predominantly white American membership, the middle class impeded on the development of the civil rights movement; however, as far as social mobility is concerned, the middle class had significantly contributed to the development of a more egalitarian society in America -- at least, primarily among white Americans.
Linking the development of the middle class sector in America inevitably brings the issue of civil rights movement into focus. It can…
During the Eisenhower Administration, America underwent a number of radical changes in its political and social arenas, the most important being the rapid rise in consumerism which before Eisenhower was limited to the wealthy and those in the upper classes. When World War II ended, American factories began to manufacture a huge range of goods which were then purchased by average Americans for use in their homes and businesses. This immense increase quickly led to the creation of millions of jobs which allowed consumerism to climb to new heights, thus creating an economic boom for all Americans.
In the late 1950's, the Civil ights Movement became a powerful American entity, mostly due to the influence of the Brown v. The Board of Education decision by the Supreme Court which made school segregation illegal. After the passage of a bill by Congress which enforced the 14th and 15th amendments of the…
Lubell, Samuel. (1956). Revolt of the Moderates. New York: Random House.
Politics of Consensus." (2006). FAQFarm. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.faqfarm.com/Q/What_is_meant_by_the_term_political_consensus .
Schultz, Stanley K. (1999). "Dynamic Conservatism." American History 102. Internet. Retrieved at http://us.history.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture25.html.
Sunset Boulevard is a classic film noir produced in 1950 and directed by Billy Wilder. The film begins with the murder of Joe Gillis, a floundering screenwriter who ends up dead in a swimming pool. "Poor dope," the voice over says. "He'd always wanted a pool. Well, in the end he got himself a pool, only the price turned out to be a little high." The voice over, delivered in classic film noir style, turns out to be none other than Gillis himself. Far from being an unreliable narrator, though, Gillis promises "the facts" and delivers. The entire film Sunset Boulevard is the retelling of "the facts" from Gillis's perspective. Wilder's choice of narration is dutifully ironic, as a failed filmmaker becomes famous. The theme of the movie is reminiscent of the Great Gatsby, with its peek at American decadence and lost dreams. Because it offers rich social commentary, Sunset…
Armstrong, R. (2000). Billy Wilder: American Film Realist. NC: McFarland & Co.
Gibson, A. (2001). And the Wind Wheezing Through That Organ Once in a While": Voice, Narrative, Film. Retrieved online: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/nlh/summary/v032/32.3gibson01.html
Smoodin, E. (1983). The image and the voice in the film with spoken narration. Quarterly Review of Film Studies 8(4): 19-32.
Wilder, B. (1950). Sunset Boulevard. Feature film.
Because they lived in constant fear that they would fall victim to white aggression, African-Americans in the South were virtually powerless and had little to no chances to get involved in restructuring the Southern community. In spite of the fact that Republicans were initially devoted to helping black people in the South as they struggled to take advantage of the rights they were granted, matters slowly but surely changed and Northerners became less interested in fighting for the African-American cause, since they believed that black people could not assist the Republican Party in any way.
During the Second Reconstruction period, numerous politicians seized the opportunity of getting voters from the South and thus realized that it was essential for them to support African-American enfranchisement. The Kennedy Administration in particular decided that black people played a very important role in assisting the country's local and international dealings. The international context regarding…
Valelly, Richard M. (2004). "The two reconstructions: the struggle for Black enfranchisement." University of Chicago Press.
Thus, a couple -- Tom and Betsy ath -- are stuck in the middle trying to find real meaning in it. Living in suburban Connecticut, their three children are addicted to TV and show no real interest in the life around them. Tom is the epitome of the discontented businessman, who is forced to work to pay for the new middle class suburban life. Despite his hard work, he finds it hard to pay for his life, a staunch contrast to the free living seen in the Seven-Year Itch. Betty's acceptance of Tom's affairs, which shows the passive and supportive role of the wife in the 1950s no matter what the husband is to do -- he is her life support, for she is a stay at home wife. In the end -- the money isn't worth the tension it causes at home. Thus, the film is a testament to…
Moffatt, Mike. (2009). The post-war economy:1945-1960. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 12, 2009 from http://economics.about.com/od/useconomichistory/a/post_war.htm
Simbajon, Carlo. (2009). Economic status of the United States in 1950. Economics. Retrieved December 12, 2009 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Economic-Status-of-the-United-States-in-1950&id=1565016
History Of Occupational Therapy
Frame 1 - Introduction
Occupational therapy is an essential part of the recovery process. It allows the person to engage in meaningful activity that adds structure and purpose to their daily routine. Occupational therapy is now considered an essential part of the treatment process for those with long-term, or severe injuries. The role of the occupational therapist is to help the person we turn to a life where they can be independent and are in there and living, regardless of their condition. Occupational therapy helps a person to adjust to the changes in their lives as result of a severe illness or injury. This presentation will explore the history of occupational therapy with a focus on the changes in paradigm that took place during the 1950s and 1960s.
Frame 2 - Occupational therapy was first conceived in the early part of the 1900s. It was originally…
American Occupational Therapy Associaton. (2010). Occupational Therapist. Health Care
Careers Directory 2009-2010. Retrieved from 0 http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/40/tr01-occup-ther.pdf
Essentials of an acceptable school of occupational therapy. (1950). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 4, 126-128.
Kearney, P. (2004). The Influence of Competing Paradigms on Occupational Therapy Education:
Tracy A. Sugarman (1921- )
Tracy A. Sugarman is a famous American illustrator who has had a long and provocative career in the arts. He boasts a career spanning over fifty years, producing great works within children's literature, album cover art, and socially progressive artistic statements. His work is featured in numerous children's books. Sugarman also highlighted life during World War II based on his own experiences there. He had served in the army in World War II and then turned his experiences to art. He also worked on major record covers, usually for Waldorf Music Hall ecords; Sugarman created more than 100 covers. Many later albums and CDs still carried on the original designs in the decade of the 1950s alone. His work is also featured in major magazines such as Fortune and Esquire (Ask Art 2009)
During a period of great racial tension and segregation, Sugarman highlighted prominent…
Ask Art. "Tracy Sugarman -- Artist." The Artists' Bluebook. 2009. Retrieved 18 Nov 2009 at http://www.askart.com/askart/s/tracy_sugarman/tracy_sugarman.aspx
Smith, Thomas B. "James Bama." Buffalo Bill Historical Center. 2009. Retrieved 18 Nov 2009 at http://www.bbhc.org/wgwa/bama.cfm
technical advances that occurred since 1950 that radically changed any 4 of the following 6 areas.
Transportation - Modern automobiles with all sorts of conveniences such as anti-lock brakes, sophisticated sensors, and computer-controlled mechanisms for injecting fuel and air. Also rockets that conveyed man to the moon.
Communications - Digital computer and software technology that dramatically changed communication in a wide sphere of services including factories, offices, hospitals, and, indeed, throughout society. In fact, each of these four areas are influenced by these two technical advances.
Manufacturing - inventions here include oil refineries and electric power plants.
e. Entertainment - The DVD and ability to download virtual music over the Internet and, via online technology, to compose and disseminate one's own musical compositions.
Chapter 1, Figure 1 (also slides 14-15 of Need for Systems Engineering) illustrates the law of diminishing returns in seeking the optimum system (or component) performance and,…
As developed in the 1950's by the U.S. Navy as a method to manage complex projects; the Program Evaluation and eview Technique (PET) "is a network diagram that visually displays the activities and milestones which are required for project completion" (NETMBA.com. N.D. PP. 1). The assembling of a PET chart requires the compilation of all tasks related to implementing and completing a project, developing activity times and their proper order, and identifying the critical path; the absolute necessity for effective project management.
In terms of creating a timeline, what is meant by the critical path of a PET chart?
The critical path is "the sequence of schedule activities that determines the duration of the project" (Makar, A. September 10, 2009. PP. 1). Whether a project is outlined in days, weeks, or even years the critical path "identifies the total calendar time required for a project" (NETMBA.com. N.D. PP.…
Makar, A. (September 10, 2009). Why Critical Path is Critical to Project
Management. Tech Republic.com. PP. 1. Retrieved July 2, 2012 from http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/tech-manager/why-critical-path-is-critical-to-project-management/2039
Mochal, T. (September 27, 2005). Understand the Critical Path to Proactively
Manage your Project Work Plan. Tech Republic.com. PP. 1.
Equivalence, availability, and participation are taken for granted by people without special needs. People with special needs understand that working methods and utility help create vibrant participation in community life. Visual impairments and blindness create the need to interact with the world in completely different ways from sighted people. Likewise, a person with a developmental disorder like Asperger's also requires nuanced methods of interacting. These two conditions are prime examples of how environments and people can be adapted to suit all residents of a community, in order to foster social justice and equality.
Blindness can be congenital, meaning the individual has been blind since birth. Others lose their sight over time or suddenly as the result of an injury, illness, accident, or disease. Either way, visual impairment impacts the ability of the person to accommodate daily reality. A person who has been blind since birth has learned how…
"Blindness," (2013). Kidshealth. Retrieved online: http://kidshealth.org/kid/health_problems/sight/visual_impaired.html
Mayo Clinic Staff (2013). Asperger's Syndrome. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/aspergers-syndrome/DS00551
MedLine Plus (2013). Blindness and vision loss. Retrieved online: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003040.htm
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2013). Asperger's Syndrome Fact Sheet. Retrieved online: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/asperger/detail_asperger.htm
Csh 21, La: Challenges and Innovations in Its Construction
Case Study House 21, LA. Challenges and Innovations in Its Construction
The Case Study House 21 (ailey House) epitomizes an icon in the Case Study program. It was implemented as a visionary project aimed at re-establishing the modern living that was implemented by John Entenza for arts and architecture magazine. After its completion in 1959, Arts and Architecture appreciated it as one of the immaculate imaginations in the development of the small contemporary house. It is pertinent to mention the development remains a vital global influence for architects. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges and innovations experienced in building by the time Case Study House 21 was developed. In this case, the paper analyzes the condition of the building industry regarding the materials and technologies available for construction.
As mentioned, the establishment of the above program was…
Dhir, R. K. et al. (2002). Innovations and Developments in Concrete Materials and Construction: Proceedings of the International Conference Held at the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK on 9-11 September 2002. Thomas Telford
Koenig, G. (2000). Iconic LA: Stories of LA's Most Memorable Buildings. New York: Balcony Press
Llinares-Millan, C., Fernandez-Plazaola, I. & Hidalgo-Delgado, F. (2014). Construction and Building Research. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
Rothstein, Mignon E. A Study of the Growth of Negro Population in Los Angeles and Available Housing Facilities between 1940 and 1946. University of Southern California.
Therefore, the claim asserted by espondents and sustained by the court below would, in practical effect, amount to a right not to be tried at all for an offense against the U.S. armed forces. 339 U.S. 763, 782 (1950).
The Court examined the issue of whether the military authorities had jurisdiction to try the offenders. It reasoned that military authorities have had a historical right, during and after hostilities, to punish those who have violated the laws of war, and this history predates the existence of the United States, and therefore, the existence of the Constitution. espondents' convictions were the result of a military commission exercising this historic right, and it was the military commission's sole ability to determine whether the laws of war applied to espondents and whether espondents had violated those laws. There is nothing in the Constitution giving the Court appellate jurisdiction over these types of military…
Johnson v. Eisentrager, 339 U.S. 763 (1950). Retrieved October 5, 2011 from Findlaw website:
Men's Sportswear In The 1950s And 1990s
As a form of cultural expression, fashion always reflects the deepest concerns of society. But unlike literature, music or art, fashion communicates indirectly - employing a language and logic of its own. Fashion's power, to capture the present and even to predict the future, is only revealed with the passage of time (Font 2003).
In the 1950s, ready-to-wear clothing was the big deal, and styles began changing very quickly. It was not socially acceptable for women to work; a woman's "place was in the home" (Bosak 2003). omen wore pants around the house, but still wore skirts when they went out. Tight-fitting dresses and shorter hemlines were popular, but so too were the circle skirt, Bobby Sox, and a sweater set.
For men, previous to 1950 they wore both single-breasted and double-breasted suits. Fashions changed very little for them. In the 1950s, many…
Bosak, S. "A Quick Tour Through the Last Century of Fashion" (2003). Mother's Day Activity
Kit. 04 December 2003. http://www.tcpnow.com/mother 'sdaykit.html
Font, L. "The Fashion Front" (2003). CNN Interactive.com. 03 December 2003. http://www.cnn2.com/SPECIALS/fashion.essay/
Gottschalk, M. "Can't Men's Suits Survive the Dress-Down Trend?" (2003). Kansas City Star.
Manic-Depressive Insanity or the Term Melancholia
The main topic that will be considered in the paper is manic depression. Two papers from different historical periods will be chosen for the paper for a detailed analysis and for any change of concepts of manic depression over time. The first chosen article is from the year 1910, "Diagnosis in States of Depression," written by Bedford Pierce. Second article chosen for the paper is from 1950s, "Clinical and Biochemical Investigations in a Manic Depressive with Short Cycles," written by . Klein. The search and selection of these two articles is based on the fact that the importance of the manic depression was realized. Based on these facts, two articles were chosen. The comparison of the concepts given in the two articles will be compared with respect to the timelines.
Summary of the articles
The first article published in 1910 refers to…
Klein, R. (1950). Clinical and Biochemical Investigations in A Manic Depressive with Short Cycles. British journal of Psychiatry 96:293-297.
Pierce, P. (1910). Diagnosis in States of Depression. The British Medical Journal, p. 1333-1338.
The Status of Women in Contemporary American Society
Today, women enjoy the same educational opportunities as men. There is no longer any social expectation that only men will pursue higher education after high school and in many colleges and universities there is approximately an equal ratio of female to male students. In some respects, old stereotypes about the respective gender-based specific aptitudes may still persist, but they no longer dictate social expectations or educational opportunities.
Today, the vocational environment is completely integrated at all levels. Women graduating from colleges and universities generally pursue identical career tracks to men in similar fields and legislative protection exists at both the state and federal level to prohibit employment discrimination in the workplace. Likewise, whereas women in earlier eras of American society faced considerable sexual harassment at work, contemporary social mores and formal legislation strictly prohibit any such conduct in the workplace.…
All the places we hung out at had jukeboxes.
I don't remember ever going to concerts when I was a kid, but on television they would have like big western hayrides that were really popular. The concerts they had back then did not include such things as mosh pits. Like I said before, the biggest sin you could commit back then was smoking, and drinking was unheard of.
The values have changed so much that sometimes I just get sick thinking about it. I guess I shouldn't generalize, but it sure seems that way to me. Along with the technological progression, has come such things as pornography and those kinds of things, everything nowadays is so accessible.
When did the music start to change? I really did not notice any changes until the late 60's, Woodstock era was a dramatic change, especially with the hippies and all that backwards nonsense.…
At the same time Bernice doesn't tell her daughter the history of the heirloom, in fear of waking the spirit. This means that even Bernice is not using her legacy positively, but is afraid of it. Both characters are able to embrace their history with pride by the end of the play, as Boy illie comes to understand the Piano's significance and Bernice begins to play it again (Sparknotes.com)
3. The Little Foxes
a. Significance of the Title
Lillian Hellman was born in New Orleans and educated at New York and Columbia University. Her first success was the play 'The Children's Hour'; she was an active part of political activities and spoke openly about her ideals. 'The Little Foxes' brought her greater fame and reflects her opinion of and her remembrances of the South (kirjasto.sci.fi).
The play is a satire or a criticism of the machinations of capitalists who live…
Bradford, W. The Piano Lesson: Study Guide. 2012. 11 June, 2012. http://plays.about.com/od/plays/a/pianolesson.htm
Cannon, J. "Local Women's History Celebrated." "The Dernopolis Times." 2011. Web. 11 June, 2012.
Cliffnotes.com. A Raisin in the Sun. 2012. Web. 11 June, 2012.
Enotes.com. The Little Foxes: Introduction. 2012. 11 June, 2012. http://www.enotes.com/little-foxes
1950s, attempts to integrate fundamental human rights into EU treaties met with little success. Many commentators observe that the reason for the failure of these attempts is the fact that the EU was viewed primarily as an economic union, and as a result, the ECJ's role would be primarily in adjudicating economic and related trade disputes. Also, the ECJ would be charged with making determinations of EU/MS sovereignty where questions regarding the Eurozone's fundamental law and subsequent treaties are concerned. It follows then, that the development of a body of law for the securing and protection of fundamental rights across the EU's member states would have to wait until there was a deeper political and "psychological" union among Europe's citizens; and until this type of "union" took place among the EU's various polities, the ECJ was unable to legitimately and properly address questions of fundamental rights protections. Over time, the…
1950's through to the 1970's, immigration was a way out for many of Ireland's people due to a shift in the economy after the war for independence. Immigration was not confined to the educated classes. People from the richest and poorest places in Ireland immigrated in large numbers during this time. Socially, Ireland was a drab and morose place to be because of its strict conservatism. Many of the nation's young longed to get out. During this time, there was a lack of suitable employment, which also ensured the constant stream of immigration.
This immigration project was conducted using information obtained through two interviews. The respondents are an Irish couple named Mary and John Taylor, who have been married for nearly 30 years. oth Mary and John moved from Ireland to New York, although at separate times and from separate counties.
Mary was born in Cavan, a small rural county…
Miller, Kirby. Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. Oxford University, 1988.
Coogan, Tim. Wherever Green Is Worn. Palgrave, 2001.
Kenny, Kevin. The American Irish. Longman, 2000.
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
6-25). Winnicott's clinical experiences in this capacity eventually gave him the raw materials "from which he subsequently built his psychoanalytic theories" (Donald Woods Winnicott 1876-1971-2000).
Winnicott's Influences and Challenges
Winnicott's theories and method were far from unchallenged by his professional peers, however, including several renowned European child psychoanalysts who had first immigrated to London during the war years. Among his chief challengers, and major professional competitors of that period were the likes of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud:
child analyst Melanie Klein, moved to London in 1926 and soon had many followers: Winnicott had further analysis with one of them, Joan iviere. The Kleinians' belief in the paramount importance, for psychic health, of the first year of a child's life, was shared by Winnicott. But this view diverged somewhat from that of Freud and his daughter Anna (herself a child analyst!) who both came to London in 1938, refugees from…
Casement, P. (1994). On Learning from the Patient. Tavistock/Rutledge London & New York. pp. ix-xiv.
Goldman, D. (2002). D.W. Winnicott's Mirror-role of mother and family in child
Development. Commentary on Winnicott Article. Retrieved Dec. 19, 2004 at http://www.sectionfive.org/wincomment.htm.
Rodman, F. (1987). The Spontaneous Gesture: Selected Letters of D.W. Winnicott.
They did not have the same degree of patience, however, as the more subdued feminists, and they wanted change now. They wanted to choose whether they had children, whether they got married, and whether they could or could not perform a certain task instead of allowing a man or group of men (the government, for example) to choose for them. They stuck by the posters of 'Rosie the Riveter' that were around during the war and depicted a woman doing a man's job - and doing it well.
These women saw themselves as strong and capable and tough, and they were also much more in tune with their sexuality than past generations had been. They were not afraid of being women. The sexuality issue was confusing and uncomfortable for a lot of men. Men saw women as sexual objects, but they were not comfortable with the idea that they women…
Women had joined the workforce long before the 1950s, with dual incomes being as necessary for many families during the Depression and even through the 1940s as they are today (Coontz 2000). In fact, the emphasis that was brought to the cohesion and in many ways the isolation of the nuclear family during the first half of the twentieth century was detrimental to many aspects of the family, including its economic viability, according to Stephanie Coontz's The Way We Never Were (2000). This historian also argues that personal satisfaction and happiness suffered when they became wholly attached to the success of the family rather than being derived form individual pursuits, as was the case earlier in the nineteenth century and before (Coontz 2000). The period since the 1950s has been one of increasing individualism and self-definition outside the context of the family, which has again made familial roles both more…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were. New York: Basic.
Skolnick, A. & Skolnick, J. (2004). Family in transition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Another important area of change relates to sexual norms and values in the family. Studies show that there has a definite growth in more permissive attitudes towards sex and particularly premarital sex. The number of people who see sex between an unmarried man and woman as "wrong" dropped from 36% in 1972 to 24% in 1996. (the Emerging 21st Century American Family)
These statistics indicate a change for the earlier view of sex as only being acceptable between married couples; which questioned the established norm and role of sexuality in the traditional family.
Another central area of change since the 1950's is the value associated with child rearing and the family. The more traditional concept of the family has at its core the ideal and value of providing secure and moral child - rearing practices. This aspect has changed and there has been a move away for this central value.…
Klein H.S. The Changing American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3020821.html
Popenoe D. (1993) American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55 (3), pp. 527-542
The Emerging 21st Century American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:aCtD_N20o7QJ:www.norc.org/online/emerge.pdf+Decline+in+the+American+Family+Values&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=6
The American Family Association (AFA). Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.afa.net/about.asp
Gender Studies -- the orld Split Open
hy were American women unhappy? In building her case regarding the unhappiness that women in America experienced in the 1950s, the author of The orld Split Open: How the Modern omen's Movement Changed America -- Ruth Rosen -- goes into great detail. On page 13 Rosen points out that after II in the American culture, women getting pregnant and having babies, was extremely common and normal. In fact, a woman who was not married was "an embarrassment," and the author quotes actress Debbie Reynolds (from the film The Tender Trap) as saying that marriage is "the most important thing in the world" and that a woman is not "really a woman" until she has a wedding and babies (Rosen, 13).
But after taking care of babies all day, doing housework, running errands and cooking dinner for the family -- all the while using…
Rosen, Ruth. The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America.
New York: Viking, 2000.
James Dean, both his real life, and how it related to his role in the movie "Rebel without a Cause." It will relate the themes of youth violence, and parent/youth relationships between James Dean and his personal life and the movie and real life in the 1950's.
JAMES DEAN AND THE MOVIES got it and I know if I better myself that there will be no match. A fellow must have confidence. - James Dean
James Dean was one of the most popular stars of the 1950s. Ironically, he only made three films before he died, but they were all popular at the box office, and increased his popularity with his fans. The film he is most remembered for is "Rebel without a Cause," released in 1955, after he was killed in a car accident. Dean has always embodied the "bad boy," and "Rebel without a Cause" did nothing to…
Bindas, Kenneth J., ed. America's Musical Pulse: Popular Music in Twentieth-Century Society. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.
Byars, Jackie. All That Hollywood Allows: Re-Reading Gender in 1950s Melodrama. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
Cohan, Steven. Masked Men: Masculinity and the Movies in the Fifties. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.
Editors. "History of James Dean." James Dean Foundation. 28 Aug. 2001. http://www.jamesdeanartifacts.com/
According to author Harlon L. Dalton, the Horatio Alger myth is not simply a myth because it is about a fictional character, but because people have dangerously believed it to be true as a sociological fact for far too many years. The myth suggests that demonstrating one's merit is enough to allow a person to attain success, and implies that people 'deserve' their position in life. African-Americans, of course, have long been painfully conscious that this is not the case, and institutionalized racism can thwart the ability of the individual to 'create his own opportunities' in the Alger model. Prejudices undoubtedly affect how people are perceived. Moreover, the very notion of 'merit' implies an objective standard of excellence, even though these standards were often created by the ruling classes. An excellent example of this is the SAT. Although the SAT was once viewed as a meritocratic device --…
During the 1940s, America had just experienced the onslaught of World War II. After massive fighting against the Axis power nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan), America, along with its allies in the war, was able to conclude the conflict by deciding to drop the atomic bomb in Japan. The war ended with the Axis power conceding defeat, and America went on to rehabilitate its nation after the war. The rehabilitation of America as a nation weary of possible atrocities among nations in the world is twofold. After the war, America experienced a resurgence in economic growth, primarily brought about by the development of new technologies that spurred the country's commercial market. Furthermore, the growth of new technologies and manufacturing industry in America encouraged social mobility, enabling the middle class society to increase in number, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, the technological revolution and…
McCarthy and the Cold War
One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…
Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.
Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.
Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.
Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.
He writes, "The rise of the radical Right after the First World War was undoubtedly a response to the danger, indeed to the reality, of social revolution and working-class power in general, to the October revolution and Leninism in particular" (Hobsbawm 124). The right-wing backlash against labor unions was crucial in setting up the rise of those fascist leaders who would be responsible for initiating the Second World War. As such it was partially responsible for creating the conditions for violence, but also, later, for unification between anti-fascist forces to defeat them. Socialist resistance to fascism was always strong, starting out peacefully until "resistance to fascism which did not envisage the use of arms could not succeed" (Hobsbawm 152). They were not that successful and went against the Stalin's Soviet view of a symbiotic alliance between capitalism and communism against fascism. Yet paradoxically, it was the strength of communism coming…
Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914-1991. New York: Vintage Books, 1996.
Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).
In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…
Andy Warhol." PBS: American Masters. 20 Sept 2006. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/warhol_a.html
Teaching Art Since 1950." National Gallery of Art. 199. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.nga.gov/education/classroom/pdf/artsince1950.pdf
Un Chien Andalou." Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1929.
Varendoe, Kirk. Online NewsHour: Jackson Pollock. 11 Jan 1999. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/jan-june99/pollock_1-11.html
Pop is tomorrow's Classical"- Paul McCartney. Discuss this contention within the context of rock/classical music collaborations since the early 1950s.
Classical Rock and Popular Prophecy
To the average music-listener, musical genres are easily divided into homogenous groupings without any danger of overlapping one another. Certainly, there are rare occurrences of "cross-over" hits on the radio that find airplay on both Adult Contemporary and Country stations, or those releases which find an audience among both Easy Listening and Rock fans. Another seemingly strange occurrence that may be observed by the slightly more alert music consumer is that time shifts musical pieces from one genre to another, and yesterday's Alternative Rock is today's Easy Listening, yet even this phenomenon is considered an anomaly of the music industry. A simplicity is desired among musical elitists that preserves some musical forms as valid, labeling others as mere fads. However, the deep impact of musical…
"Classical Music." Heart & Soul. World Book. 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/classical.htm
Duxbury, Janell R. "The Nexus of Classical and Rock." Progression, no. 39, p70-74. Summer, 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/8660/article.html
Duxbury, Janell R. Rockin' the Classics and Classicizin' the Rock: A Selectively Annotated Discography. Greenwood Press, 1991.
Fissinger, Laura. "Jim Steinman: To 'Hell' & Back." BMI MusicWorld. Spring 1994. http://jimsteinman.com/bmi.htm
ove ucy" Analysis
I ove ucy was an outstanding 1950's sitcom that ultimately supported 1950's non-threatening gender roles. Though the show differed from other 1950's sitcoms in that ucy was a 40+-year-old physical comedian married to a Cuban, ucy still supported the mainstream idea that a wife should be happy at home, doing housework and subservient to her husband. ucy's attempts to leave the mainstream by seeking a career in "show business" against her husband's wishes or seeking a job "outside the home" generally ended in comical disaster and sent the clear message that ucy and her audience were better off in their traditional gender roles.
ucy's character is quite a bit like other TV housewives of the 1950s in some respects, yet quite different in other respects. June Cleaver (Gelman, 2012), Kathy Thomas (Plath, Make room for daddy, 2008), Margaret Anderson (Plath, Father knows best (TV series) - DVD…
Lucy's character is quite a bit like other TV housewives of the 1950s in some respects, yet quite different in other respects. June Cleaver (Gelman, 2012), Kathy Thomas (Plath, Make room for daddy, 2008), Margaret Anderson (Plath, Father knows best (TV series) - DVD review, 2008) and Lucy were all attractive, housebound, knew how to dress attractively, did housework and were subservient to their husbands. Those were supposedly the ideal traits of the 1950's housewife and Lucy often showed that she was a mainstream housewife in those respects. At the same time, Lucy was quite different. For example, Lucille Ball was the only physical comedian: much of the comedy in I Love Lucy was based on her physical comedic skills and willingness to look messy and ridiculous. Lucy also differed in that she had a constant sidekick played by Vivian Vance, who was also a skilled physical comedian and accomplished actress. Lucy was also more ambitious than the other housewives in that she actively sought a career outside her home and sang, danced and performed comedy skits within the show. Finally, Lucy was married to a Cuban rather than a standard white guy, which opened the comedy to additional bits and themes based on Ricky Ricardo's ethnicity.
"I Love Lucy" was very successful during such a conservative time in terms of proper gender representations because the show ultimately upheld those representations: Lucy was within the mainstream in that she was attractive, knew how to dress well, was housebound, did housework and was ultimately subservient to her husband; whenever Lucy and Ethel ventured outside of the mainstream by looking for a job, the results were disastrous and comical; whenever Lucy ventured outside of the mainstream by trying to break into "show business" against Ricky's wishes, the results were disastrous and comical; whenever Ricky and Fred tried to venture outside of the mainstream by doing "women's work" such as housework, the results were disastrous and comical. For example, when Lucy and Ethel go to work in the "Job Switching" episode, they are fired from every job at the candy factory and ultimately end up in a very comical scene at the conveyor belt because they cannot keep up with the fast tempo of regular work (YouTube, 2010). At the same time, Ricky and Fred are completely incompetent and ignorant at all the types of housework shown in that episode, ultimately attempting to boil 4 lbs. Of rice at once in a single pot (YouTube, 2010). I Love Lucy gave a clear message: venture outside of traditional gender roles and the results will be disastrous and comical.
Lucy's character was non-threatening to 1950's society because she supported the "TV housewife" stereotype. She was mainstream by being attractive, knowing how to dress, primarily engaging in housework and ultimately being subservient to her husband. In addition, her
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…
Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:
"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,
May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm
In addition, the human pronoun "her" is used to refer to the mother penguin, while "it" would have been a more appropriate choice if the author wanted to reinforce the penguins' animal aspects (BBC 3, 8). hile the author does use the term "chick" throughout the book, mixing it with the human-like terms further allow the child reader to grasp the non-fiction elements of the book while still remaining interested and emotionally involved in the story. Evoking sadness in the reader, a photograph shows the mother walking away from her baby. Through the use of these words and illustrations, the fact that the penguins are animals living in a natural home is emphasized, while children are still engaged through the mild human-like qualities that are ascribed to the animals (BBC 3-4).
Thus, a comparison of the personification used in The Cat and the Hat and in Baby Penguins yields great…
BBC. Baby Penguins. New York, Scholastic, 2009.
Dr. Seuss. The Cat in the Hat. New York: Random House, 1957.
Because of the widespread stigma against homosexuality in the United States and worldwide, medical research was thwarted and the disease became virtually synonymous with homosexuality.
It would take the death of one of America's most beloved, and seemingly straight, movie stars to prove that AIDS could affect anyone (Hiller 1985). When ock Hudson died of the disease in 1985, Americans could see not only that homosexuality was normal and pervasive in society but also that AIDS was spreading more rapidly than was previously thought. The subsequent spread of the disease to straight communities also showed that AIDS was a disease transmitted primarily through sexual contact and blood transfusions; homosexuality had nothing to do with the illness whatsoever. Final hypothesis: The death of ock Hudson forced Americans to rethink homosexuality and to face the AIDS epidemic squarely.
The 1990s: The First Gulf War
The decade opened with a literal bang when…
About the Case." Brown v. Board of Education. Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://brownvboard.org/summary/
Cozzens, L. (1995). Brown v. Board of Education. Early Civil Rights Struggles. Retrieved online Jun 14, 2008 at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html
In essence, this painting "mixes a toothpaste smile with the grimace of a death's head" and symbolizes the true work of an American "action" painter (de la Croix & Tansey, 774).
Another great example of an American abstract expressionist master is Mark Rothko (1903 to 1973), who emigrated to the United States in 1914 from Latvia with his family to escape Czarist Russia and its strict policies towards Jews. Although Rothko was a friend and contemporary of Pollack, Kline and de Kooning, his paintings exhibit none of the aggressive attack or slashing brushwork one finds in the works of these artists. Rothko's Four Darks on Red does not exhibit the usual traits of "action" painting, for it shows a calm and contemplative mood with soft color variations, yet it also shows "a mysterious effect of forms and images occupying an ambiguously-defined space," much like Kline and Pollack (de la Croix…
Paul, Stella. "Abstract Expressionism." Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/TOAH/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm .
De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey, eds. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. 10th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 2003.
771). His arguments center on the public responsibilities of marriage. He writes, "This is true because legal marriage is a public institution, created by law to promote public policy and to further social interests" (Wardle, 2001, p. 771). He goes on to state that traditional marriages foster "childrearing, economic stability, and channel sexual behavior" (Wardle, 2001, p. 771). Unfortunately, these arguments seem outmoded and irrational. If this is the purpose of traditional marriage, then clearly, hundreds of thousands of couples are not engaged in socially responsible marriages. They channel their sexual behavior outside the marriage, they are economically unsound, and they do not raise children. Thus, traditional marriage is not supporting society as Wardle sees it, and perhaps the entire institution should be overhauled. Wardle's arguments are illogical at best, and do not effectively argue against same-sex unions at all.
eligious groups are very vocal opponents of same-sex marriage for…
Alderson, K.G. (2004). A phenomenological investigation of same-sex marriage. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 13(2), 107+.
Coontz, S. (1997). The way we really are: Coming to terms with America's changing families. New York: Basic Books.
Davidoff, J. (2006, August). No wedding bells: Why banning same-sex marriage spells disaster. The Progressive, 70, 22+.
Hohengarten, W.M. (1994). Same-sex marriage and the right of privacy. Yale Law Journal, 103(6), 1495-1531.