19th Century Essays (Examples)

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Roles of Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28176167

Women's oles Then And Now:

Societies have continued to change in every century because of influences of cultures in that time period. As these societies grow and develop, the role of various people in the family structure and unit also changes. The changes in the role of women in the society are mainly influenced by societal perception regarding women. As a result, there are significant differences in the role of women in the 19th Century and the roles of women in the 18th Century. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the modern society has is so fast-paced because of increased technological advancements unlike the 18th Century society. An understanding of the changing role of women in the 18th and 19th centuries can be seen from the conversation between two notable women i.e. Maria Elisabeth of Austria and Queen Victoria of Great Britain.

Biographic Information for Each…… [Read More]

References:

Radek, M. (2008, April 21). Women in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from Illinois Valley

Community College website:  http://www2.ivcc.edu/gen2002/women_in_the_nineteenth_century.htm 

Sebellin, T., Woods, K. & Grove, A. (2006, February 20). Queen Victoria. Retrieved from King's College website:  http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/victoria.html 

"The Role of the Woman: 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries." (1997, April 17). My English ISP.
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19th C Legacy and World

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87308386



oreign Policy, as an extension of this dramatic arms buildup, in Great Britain and Germany, shows that it was clear in the minds of the governments, war was not only inevitable, it was probably necessary for several economic and political reasons. Both Britain and Germany were vying for the premier spot as the dominant European power in both European and colonial affairs. Britain had a head start and more colonies than Germany, something very irksome to the Kaiser. Germany saw Britain's allies in the East (Russia) as being weak and unable to modernize, and believed that rance would not risk her homeland on a localized Balkan or Southern European War ("The Deadly Alliances.")

Germany was still reeling from the policy of placing Germany "in the sun" from Otto Von Bismarck -- and, despite the relationships of the royal lineage's of the time, both countries knew that their economic independence and…… [Read More]

Foreign Policy, as an extension of this dramatic arms buildup, in Great Britain and Germany, shows that it was clear in the minds of the governments, war was not only inevitable, it was probably necessary for several economic and political reasons. Both Britain and Germany were vying for the premier spot as the dominant European power in both European and colonial affairs. Britain had a head start and more colonies than Germany, something very irksome to the Kaiser. Germany saw Britain's allies in the East (Russia) as being weak and unable to modernize, and believed that France would not risk her homeland on a localized Balkan or Southern European War ("The Deadly Alliances.")

Germany was still reeling from the policy of placing Germany "in the sun" from Otto Von Bismarck -- and, despite the relationships of the royal lineage's of the time, both countries knew that their economic independence and ability to continue the growth they had seen since the turn of the century depended on their abilities to master colonial exports, control the major trade routes to and from Europe, and establish their own hegemony (Wilhelm II, 2009). This is not to say that either Britain or Germany wanted the type of war that occurred, no one had any idea of the length, intensity, and destruction of this war, the argument is that so much spending on armaments left the powers at a vulnerable position and one that a war of words would eventually turn towards a war of guns.

Germany was developing into an aggressive, highly industrialized country that was running out of options
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19th Amendment and Women's Issues

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95010236

Some of them may have failed at first, such as Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis, who unsuccessfully lobbied the authors of the U.S. Constitution to include women's rights in the document. Over and above, abolitionist women drew parallels between the conditions of slavery and those of women. Anti-slavery activist Angelina Grimke wrote in 1836:

"The investigation of the rights of the slave has led me to a better understanding of my own."

That growing understanding of the conditions of women led to the holding of the first Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls in New York in 1848 (Guianoulis 2002). In their Declaration of Sentiments, the women progenitors demanded equality in law with men, education and the right to vote. ut their disadvantaged status did not progress very much. The middle class woman continued to confront a dilemma, which was captured by etty Friedan in her powerful book, "The Feminine…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Brewer, GW. (2001). What Women Want. Human Quest. The Human Quest. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3861/is_200109/ai_n8965480

2. Clift, E. (2003). Founding Sisters and the Nineteenth Amendment. Turning Point Series. Amazon UK Publishing

3. Clinton, B. (1995). Remarks on the 75th Year Anniversary of Women's Suffrage in Jackson Hole. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2889/is_n35_v31/ai_17428900

4. Coulter, A. (2000). Reconsidering the 19th Amendment. Human Events: Human Events Publishing, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3827/is_200002/ai_n8883700
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19th and 20th Century Literature

Words: 1660 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68776169

Balzac and Kafka: From Realism to Magical Realism

French author Honore de Balzac defined the genre of realism in the early 19th century with his novel Old Man Goriot, which served as a cornerstone for his more ambitious project, The Human Comedy. Old Man Goriot also served as a prototype for realistic novels, with its setting of narrative parameters which included plot, structure, characterization, and point-of-view. The 20th century, however, digressed considerably from the genre of realism. Franz Kafka, for example, has been considered as one of the forerunners of the genre known as Magical Realism. endy B. Faris defines the genre of Magical Realism as the combination of "realism and the fantastic so that the marvelous seems to grow organically within the ordinary, blurring the distinction between them… [including] different cultural traditions" (1). Faris finds magical realism to exist at the crossroads of modernism and post-modernism, as a kind…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. New York, NY: Vintage, 2010. Print.

Faris, Wendy B. Ordinary Enchantments: Magical Realism and the Remystification of Narrative. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2004. Print.

Nabokov, Vladimir. "The Metamorphosis." Victorian. Web. 8 May 2012. <

http://victorian.fortunecity.com/vermeer/287/nabokov_s_metamorphosis.htm>
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19th and 20th Centuries Americans

Words: 3665 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49376107

In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).

The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…… [Read More]

References

Coffey, a. (2001). Education and social change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Frye, J.H. (1999). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940: Professional goals and popular aspirations. New York: Greenwood Press.

Kaminsky, J.S. (1999). A new history of educational philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood

Press.
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Struggle for the 19th Amendment

Words: 328 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31551566

9th Amendment

Suffrage was another important issue that women struggled with in the 9th and early 20th century. The inability to cast their vote was evidence of the fact that they had been victims of patriarchic society. Their second-grade citizens status was however completely unacceptable to some dynamic souls even in the 9th century when most women were not even allowed active participation in the workforce. The early suffragists however understood the significance of political participation. One such woman was Abigail Scott Duniway (834-95) who promoted the cause of suffrage through her newspapers, other writings and addresses. She maintained that once the political rights were fully granted to all women, other issues could gradually resolve on their own. One main issue was domestic service that many women were forced to seek in the absence of proper employment opportunities. Duniway felt that right to vote would lead to other rights and…… [Read More]

19th Amendment

Suffrage was another important issue that women struggled with in the 19th and early 20th century. The inability to cast their vote was evidence of the fact that they had been victims of patriarchic society. Their second-grade citizens status was however completely unacceptable to some dynamic souls even in the 19th century when most women were not even allowed active participation in the workforce. The early suffragists however understood the significance of political participation. One such woman was Abigail Scott Duniway (1834-1915) who promoted the cause of suffrage through her newspapers, other writings and addresses. She maintained that once the political rights were fully granted to all women, other issues could gradually resolve on their own. One main issue was domestic service that many women were forced to seek in the absence of proper employment opportunities. Duniway felt that right to vote would lead to other rights and eventually domestic service would end, as more women would be needed in other areas of employment. While she was an influential leader, most early suffragists followed specific tactics that failed to leave an impact. For this reason, in late nineteenth century, women opted for more aggressive tactics to win their cause. Florence Luscomb (1887-1985) can be considered one of the pioneers of the new strategy as she conducted open-air meetings and sold suffrage supplements with newspapers to accentuate the significance of the issue. Her aggressive moves combined with the brilliant leadership of NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt finally won suffrage rights for women in 1920 with the 19th Amendment. The colossal achievement was definitely the result of a long suffrage movement. By the time the right was finally granted, women had already advanced ahead in several other areas including employment and education, so access to political field was part of the natural progression. The 'New' woman felt humiliated that she was hitherto deprived of full citizenship and winning the right finally put her on the path of complete equality.
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Religion Entered the 18th Century and With

Words: 8434 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77108254

religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.

Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, aptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.

In 1787…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albanese, Catherine, and Stephen Stein, eds. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Bell, D.. "Allowed Irregularities: Women Preachers in the Early 19th-Century Maritimes" Acadiensis [Online], Volume 30 Number 2 (3 March 2001)

Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Ditmire, Susan. "Cape May County." usgennet.org. http://www.usgennet.org/usa/nj/county/capemay/Jarena.htm  (accessed May 2, 2013). (primary source)
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Emigrant Women of the 19th

Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68905021

That is not to say that these women did not continue to be challenged. The weather, the loneliness, the hostilities, and the isolation all took their toll on Plains women, but they were resolute and determined, and held out hope for the future, and so, for the most part, they managed to survive and even come to love their life on the Plains. One of the most famous Plains women is Laura Ingalls Wilder, who wrote about her family's experiences in the "Little House" series. iley quotes her as saying these problems were "a natural part of life'" (iley 104), and another woman saying, "those years on the Plains were hard years but I grew to like the West and now I would not like to live any other place'" (iley 104). As women became accustomed to their new home, they came to love it, and if they did not,…… [Read More]

References

Riley, Glenda. "Women, Adaptation, and Change."100-111.

Stansell, Christine. "Women on the Great Plains 1865-1890." 92-99.
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Exotism in 19th and Early 20th Century Opera

Words: 2976 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98016479

Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

The Exoticism of Madame Butterfly, Carmen, & Aida

This paper will use three examples of 19th and 20th century opera to examine and interpret the term "exoticism." The paper will take time to clarify the relativity of the term exoticism and how it manifests in these three works. What is exoticism and how does it work? What is the function of exoticism in culture, in art, and in general? What does it reflect about a culture and what desires does exoticism express? The paper will attempt to ask and answer more questions utilizing Madame Butterfly, Carmen, and Aida as examples of the exotic at work in art.

We must first consider that exoticism is a relative term. When referring to three operas from the west, readers must take into account that what is exotic in the west is not what is universally exotic.…… [Read More]

References:

Crebas, Aya & Dick Pels. "The Character of Carmen and the Social Construction of a New Feminine Myth." Center for European Studies, Working Paper Series #5, December 12, 1987.

Harwood, Buie, Bridget May, Phd, & Curt Sherman. "Exoticism: 1830s -- 1920s." Architecture and Interior Design from the 19th Century: An Integrated History, Volume 2,-Page 212 -- 235. Prentice Hall, 2009.

Locke, Ralph P. "A Broader View of Musical Exoticism." The Journal of Musicology, Volume 24, No. 4, Pages 477 -- 521. University of California Press, 2007.

Locke, Ralph P. "Beyond the exotic: How 'Eastern' is Aida?" Cambridge Opera Journal, Volume 17, No. 2, Pages 105 -- 139. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
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Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78019635

Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera

Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.

Exoticism in History and Culture

Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, A. (n.d.). Exoticism. Retrieved from The Imperial Archive Web site: http://www.qub.ac.uk/imperial/key-concepts/Exoticism.htm

New York City Opera Project. (n.d.). New York City Opera Project: Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Columbia University Web site: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO

The Metropolitan Opera. (2011). Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Metropolitan Opera Family Web site: http://www.metoperafamily.org
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Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America

Words: 2650 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92213425

Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America

riting and woman suffrage were inextricably intertwined in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Suffrage gave them a voice, and they used that voice to challenge the early American patriarchal status quo. By examining those works, new light can be brought to bear on suffrage activists, who at the time were thought to be an unimportant fringe group. Through a study of their work, we can learn more about their day-to-day lives.

According to Sandra Harding in McClish and Bacon (p. 28), one's own knowledge depends on one's position in society. hen one is a subordinate in the social hierarchy, one understands life differently than someone at the top of the social hierarchy. However, as the most powerful write history, it tends to be rather one-sided. Since that is the case, Harding argues that these different viewpoints are equally valid. By looking at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bullough, Vern, ed. Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2001.

Laffrado, Laura. Uncommon women: gender and representation in nineteenth-century U.S. women's writing. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, 2009.

McClish, Glen and Jacqueline Bacon. "Telling the Story Her Own Way": the Role of Feminist Standpoint Theory in Rhetorical Studies." Rhetoric Society Quarterly (2002): 27-55.

Porche, Amy S. "The Fashioning of Fanny Fern: A Study of Sara Willis Parton's Early Career, 1851-1854." 2010. Georgia State University Digital Archive, English Dissertations. 6 December 2011 .
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Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century

Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72367743

Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century

19th Century:

Its funny how paper is never really given importance because of the fact that it is so inexpensive and everywhere, that most of us take it for granted. In this paper, we will look at the making of the paper and how it became one of the most disposable products in the world.

Till the mid-1800's paper was considered an expensive commodity and was available only in individual hand-made sheets. Paper was the size of a papermaking frame that had to be handled by one or two people.

This created two problems, one was to be able to manufacture the paper in that size and the second was to manufacture in high volumes.

ags, grass and straw were used to manufacture high quality paper. Then came the lower quality paper called cardboards and wall coverings. During the industrial growth of the…… [Read More]

References

Basic Training, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.home.eznet.net/~kcupery/PBArtic/paperbasics.html

Greatest Achievements - 3. Airplane, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.greatachievements.org/greatachievements/ga_3_2.html

Harrods.com - Frequently Asked Questions, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.harrods.com/faqs/default.html

IHT: A Special Report 3/15/97, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.iht.com/IHT/SR/031597/sr031597c.html
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Private Property and the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75365249

Private Property & the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Private Property in 16th Century Spain

Historically, 16th-century Castile was considered to be fundamentally an urban society that depended on cities and towns for the articulation of its local and centralized administration (Elliott, 1991). Privilege was considered to be a matter of a priori rights founded on traditions associated with nobility and wealth. The lower social stratum was maintained in order to provide fiscal and military support for the crown. The qualities of separateness -- both cultural and logistical -- between the urban central and diffuse local jurisdictions engendered very different perspectives regarding authority. ather than arbitrating reasonable agreements, local authority worked to undermine what was considered to be overreaching by the crown. I contend that the autonomy of local jurisdictions worked against the crown's insistence on absolutism and a monarchy of estates that were grounded in medieval social concepts, however,…… [Read More]

References

Abercrombie, T.A. (). Colonial relandscaping of Andean social memory.. In Pathways of memory and power: Ethnography and history among an Andean people (pp. ). University of Wisconsin Press.

Abercrombie, T.A. (1996). Q'aqchas and la plebe in "rebellion" -- carnival vs. lent in 18th-century potosi. Journal of Latin American, 2(1), 62-111.

Alban, J.P.V. (1999). Introduction: The decline of propriety. In Propriety and permissiveness in Bourbon Mexico (pp. ). Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc.

Elliott, J.H. (1991, Autumn). Renaissance Quarterly, 44(3) A Review: Nader, H. (1990). Liberty in Absolutist Spain: The Habsburg Sale of Towns, 1516-1700. Baltimore and London, The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Spying in the 18th Century

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3120345



It wasn't always a matter of stealing the designs or the parts for a specific technology, Harris explains: "…the arts never pass by writing from one country to another," he quotes from a French official writing in 1752. "The eye and practice alone train men in these activities" (Harris, 43).

In 18th Century Italy Pope Innocent XII had set up a hospice in Laterano for the poor, and the Pope instituted reforms that were designed to "…convince the wealthy to give up direct almsgiving and contribute only to the official collectors" (Grell, et al., 2004, p. 255). In other words, there was an attitude against panhandlers profiting from begging in the streets. Indeed, those with financial means (if they followed the rules) would not be giving directly to beggars, but instead a network would be set up so the wealthy could contribute to a "hospice" where the poor were locked…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harris, John. (1986). Spies who sparked the Industrial Revolution. New Scientist, 110(1509).

42-43. ISSN 0262-4079.

Grell, Ole Peter, Cunningham, Andres, and Roeck, Bernd. (2005). Health Care and Poor Relief

In the 18th and 19th Century Southern Europe. Surry, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
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Leadership Three Theories Three Centuries

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14621831

e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…… [Read More]

References

House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf

Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from  http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf 

Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-

78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from  http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
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Eighteenth Century

Words: 1554 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65360395

Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.

Society and Culture

In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).

Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllRefer. Interior decoration, Interior Design and Home Furnishings. AllRefer.com. 11 May 2004. http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/I/interior.html

Brainard, Rick. Daily Life: 18th Century Society: An Overview. 18th Century History. 11 May 2004. http://www.history1700s.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=105

Colonial Williamsburg. 18th Century Clothing. 11 May 2004.  http://www.history.org/history/clothing/intro/index.cfm 

Malaspina Great Books. Alexander Pope. 11 May 2004. http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_951.asp
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Moll Flanders the Eighteenth Century Is Often

Words: 3113 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47252681

Moll Flanders

The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Backscheider, Paula R. Moll Flanders: The Making of a Criminal Mind. (Twayne's

Masterwork Studies). Twayne Publishers, 1990.

Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Oxford University Press, 2009.

Dupre, Louis K. The Enlightenment and the Intellectual of Modern Culture. Yale University Press, 2005.
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Evolution of Hospitals From 18th Century to Present Era

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3516974

History Of Hospitals

The combined arts and sciences responsible for how society cares for its sick and ill has transformed much throughout recorded history. The greatest and most dramatic changes occurred alongside other historic eras that complimented the changes seen in medicine and health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine the metamorphosis of hospitals from the 18th century until today. In this examination I will focus on the extent of these changes being forced by the ideas of professionalism, medical therapy or technology and the overall character of the changes and how they related to greater historic transformations.

Modern medicine was ushered in with modern times, and revolutionary society changes complemented those which occurred within medicine and health management. The 18th century in historic Europe was ripe with ideas of liberty and freedom, contrasting the previous century's of closed and restricted ideas. The Power Point Slide Presentation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brunton, D (2004). "The Emergence of a Modern Profession?" In Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 119-150.

Marland, H. (2004).The Changing Role of the Hospital, 1800-1900, in Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 31-60.

"Modern Medicine." Power Point Presentation.

" The New Hospital." Power Point Presentation.
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Timeline on Gendered Movements Dating From 1700's to Current Century

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74618351

Women's Timeline

Women's Movement Timeline

The following paragraphs describe eight incredible women who lived from the 1700's through the present. This paper also includes a timeline to better place into perspective these women's incredible effort and their success at initiating change and giving women first, a voice, then, rights equal to those of men.

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

In 1792, Wollstonecraft published the most important piece relating to women's rights, a pamphlet entitled Vindication on the Rights of Women. This work advocated equality of the sexes, and elaborated upon what was later to become the central idea of the Women's Movement across Europe and America. According to scholars, Wollstonecraft "ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming adornments in the household" and instead suggested the women should be educated and not be slavish dependents of their husbands. In fact, Wollstonecraft was one of the first women to advocate women's education above…… [Read More]

Schlafly was an instrumental activist during the 1970's whose efforts, according to scholars, "were largely responsible for preventing ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment." Though Schlafly's opinions are very distinctive when compared to those of the women described above, it is important to mention her as one of the last to oppose equal rights for women publicly. However, her efforts did success, in part because she argued the following:

"ERA would force women into the military, jeopardize benefits under Social Security, and weaken existing legal protections under divorce and marriage laws…"

Source: "Phyllis Schlafly in Women's Movement." Women's Movement. Web. 29 May 2012. .
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18th Century History and the

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53183028

This oil painting is 8 feet tall by 10 feet wide (Fiero 51).

Each of these artists glorified in enormous paintings a hero, theatrically presented, that the common man might identify with. The "Corsican Upstart" that was Napoleon, is shown in propagandistic, larger-than-life style by Gros and David, who first met in 1796 in Italy. These two painters influenced each other and became huge successes through their depictions of the great men of their day in emotional, imaginative ways. Goya, too, used the cult of the individual, the genius and the hero that was prevalent, to demonstrate the sacrifices that the ordinary Spaniard made in defending Spain against the occupying French. In the drawing of Yo Lo Vi" he also attacks the clerics, as they make off with the money, while a mother struggles to save her child nearby. The message that Goya sends is that the common man is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanistic Tradition, Book 5. Boston: McGraw Hill. 2002.

From Enlightenment to Romanticism c. 1780-1830." The Open University. 2007. http://www3.open.ac.uk/courses/bin/p12.dll-C01A207.
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Lives of Women in the Late 19th

Words: 1594 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35978265

lives of women in the late 19th and early 20th century, including Susan B. Anthony and Ida B. Wells. Specifically, it will analyze the private lives of American women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries - as daughters, wives, and mothers. Did their lives mesh or clash with their participation in the wider public world of education, work, and politics? How so? Women in Victorian times and beyond were expected to conform to society's mores, which did not include rights for women. If a woman stepped outside the norm, she did not "fit" in polite society, and she was often ostracized and abandoned by those around her.

WOMEN'S PIVATE LIVES

Women in the Victorian age, which lasted from1880 to 1900, were placed on pedestals, as long as they managed to conform to society's dictates about how women should act and dress, took care of their family and their…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs, complier. Man Cannot Speak for Her. Vol. 2. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1989.

Dorr, Rheta Childe. Susan B. Anthony: The Woman Who Changed the Mind of a Nation. New York: AMS Press, 1928.

Sochen, June. Herstory: A Woman's View of American History. New York: Alfred Pub. Co, 1974.

Vicinus, Martha, ed. Suffer and be Still: Women in the Victorian Age. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. 1972.
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Pro- and Anti-Slavery Movement in the 19th

Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63683091

Pro- and Anti-Slavery Movement in the 19th Century American Society

The history of black slavery movement in the American society during the 19th century has become a common theme of debate and discussion between Americans for and against black slavery movement. There have been numerous literary works, essays, and other written works that discuss this primary issue of black American slavery in America during the 1800s. An example of these literary works is an essay by Thomas Jefferson entitled, "Notes on the State of Virginia," and an autobiography by Frederick Douglass entitled, "Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave." These two written works discuss the issue of black American slavery in America, with Jefferson defending and justifying the black slavery movement, while Douglass calls for a radical change and opposition against the said movement. These two written works will be critically analyzed in this paper, and by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave." In Berkeley Digital Library Sun site [online]. Available from World Wide Web: http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/.

Jefferson, Thomas. E- text of "Notes on the State of Virginia." In Electronic Text Center [online]. University of Virginia Library [cited 11 November 2002]. Available from World Wide Web: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=JefVirg.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=14&division=div1.
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Analyzing Realism Impressionism and Nineteenth Century Photography

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13248257

ealism, Impressionism, and Nineteenth-Century Photography

The Village Maidens

Artist

Gustave Courbet

Date the Piece was Created

Art Movement and/or Style Media

ealism / Oil Paint

Description and Analysis

This 1852 painting, which sparked the creation of a collection of pictures dedicated to women's lives, depicts the artist's three sisters -- Juliette, Zoe and Zelie -- taking a stroll along the Communal-- a little valley close to Ornans (their native village) (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016). Despite nothing of significance being depicted in this painting, it tells a story. Courbet uses a dark and dull color tone and the overall painting is neither overly dark nor overly bright. The weather may be taken to be pleasant and warm, considering the clear sky Courbet portrays in the painting's background. His brush strokes and paint choice impart a realistic texture and tone to the picture. As no activity is shown in the…… [Read More]

References

Galbreat, D. (2014, July 26). Style Guide. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from Prezi: https://prezi.com/oumm1aqj4lmq/style-guide/

Pioch, N. (2002, September 19). Monet, Claude: Image Bathing at La Grenouillere. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from https://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/monet/early/bathing/

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2016). Young Ladies of the Village. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/40.175/

The National Gallery. (2016). Bathers at La Grenouillere. Retrieved March 2016, 2016, from The National Gallery: http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/claude-monet-bathers-at-la-grenouillere
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Education in America the Seventeenth Century Has

Words: 3372 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23845923

Education in America

The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.

The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America

University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971

2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard

University Press, 1921, 4 vols.
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Women's Rights During the Nineteenth Century Many

Words: 2436 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17176597

omen's Rights

During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.

During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.

Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.

The Start of the Revolution…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berg, Barbara. The Remembered Gate: Origins of American Feminism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Degler, Carl N. At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1969, 1978.

Ryan, Mary P. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1979.
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Examine Explanations of the Witch Craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Words: 2959 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94152843

Witchcraft in the 16th & 17 Centuries: Response to Literature

At first glance, a logical 21st Century explanation for the "witch craze" (also known as a witch-hunt) during the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe was based largely upon human ignorance. That is to say, the belief that a sub-culture of the general population performed witchcraft (and other magic-related phenomena), and ate the flesh of children, helped the unenlightened explain the unexplainable, and helped the ignorant deal with the darkness. Witchcraft seemingly established a reason that a person had that bad luck and it explained illnesses, and probably it helped explain natural calamities such as tornadoes, seismic catastrophes and sudden killer bolts of lightning or sheets of rain turned into disastrous flooding. Or it could even explain a stillborn child and a puppy with a broken leg. Somebody put a spell on that poor dog. Mysterious events that had no…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Behringer, Wolfgang (1997) Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria: Popular magic, religious zealotry and reason of state in early modern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Breslaw, G., Elaine (2000) Witches of the Atlantic World: A Historical Reader & Primary Sourcebook. New York, New York University Press.

Cohn, Norman (1975) Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-Hunt. New York, Basic Books.

Coudert, Allison P. (1989) The Myth of the Improved Status of Protestant Women: The Case of the Witchcraze. In: Brink, Jean, R., & Coudert, Allison P. ed. The Politics of gender in Early Modern Europe. Kirksville, MO, Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers.
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Sami Entry Into the 21st Century the

Words: 1840 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5817042

Sami Entry Into the 21st Century

The lives that the Sami lead are so different from the ones that most of the industrialized est lead that we might be inclined to view them as something out of history - a sort of living fossil. But, in fact, their culture is as vital as any of that on earth today and their way of life is both valid and adaptive. This does not mean that they are not currently struggling to adjust to changing circumstances - but this is always true of all cultures as the world changes around us. This paper looks at the challenges faced at this particular historical moment by the Sami people.

e should perhaps begin with a definition of who these people are. For many years called Laplanders, they are now called by the name that they use to refer to themselves. This passage explains the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1086547.stm   http://www.greekhelsinki.gr/bhr/english/special_issues/CEDIME-unwgm2001/G0112125.doc

http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/~rob/Anth200Menu/DOCS/5/anth20-2.htm

http://www.itv.se/boreale/samieng.htm

http://www.sametinget.se/english/sapmi/erennar.html (http://www.sapmi.se/domen/sami_eng.html)
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Chimu Indians the Fifteenth-Century Spanish Travelers Who

Words: 2836 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59889176

Chimu Indians

The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).

This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kubler, George. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Leicht, Hermann. Pre-Inca Art and Culture. New York: Orion Press, 1960.

Mason, J. Alden. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.

McIlvee, Rose. "A catacomb of palace/tombs defined ancient Peruvian leaders." (December 4, 1998). Indiana University Homepage. Retrieved November 25, 2002 at http://www.iuinfo.indiana.edu/HomePages/120498/text/conrad.htm
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How Classicism Manifested Itself in the 18th Century

Words: 483 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42906840

Classicism manifested itself in the 18th century. There are five references used for this paper.

There have been a number of cultural styles over the last centuries from Baroque to Classicism to Romanticism. It is interesting to look at Classicism and determine how it manifested itself in the 18th century.

Classicism

In order to determine the 18th century's manifestation of Classicism, it is important to understand what the term means. Classicism, or Neo-Classicism is used to "characterize the culture of 18th-century Europe, and contrasted with 19th-century Romanticism (unknown, Classicism)." In "art, music, and literature, it is a style that emphasizes the qualities traditionally considered characteristic of ancient Greek and Roman art, that is, reason, balance, objectivity, restraint, and strict adherence to form (unknown, Classicism)."

Music

Ludwig van Beethoven demonstrated Classicism during the end of his life with his string quartets. Beethoven first earned the respect of the Viennese people as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McLellan, Joseph. Beethoven, on Balance; Ecstatic Beauty Flows Through Borromeo

String Quartet. The Washington Post. (2000): 25 May. Pp. J03.

Unknown. Antiques & Collecting: Dedicated followers of all things. Birmingham Post.

2001): 11 August. Pp. 50.
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Most Important Discovery Development of the Last Century

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4602447

Discovery / Development of the Last Century

There have been a number of important scientific and technological developments in the last century that have profoundly affected the lives of people all over the world. The 20th century saw the invention of the airplane and mass production of automobiles that signaled a revolution in transportation; delivery of mass-produced electricity into our homes that transformed the way people live; and the invention of transistor and personal computer that triggered the information revolution. While all these developments have contributed significantly in raising the living standards of billions, there was one other discovery of the last century that did much more: it literally saved the lives of billions of people. That discovery was the development of the miracle drug called penicillin. In this essay I shall discuss when and how penicillin was discovered and why I consider it to be the greatest discovery of…… [Read More]