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Thus, they are under the same constraints.
Emma describes the problem with her life in a scene at mealtime. The meals, in fact, symbolize her complete distain, as all the "bitterness of existence" seems to be heaped on her plate. The smell of the boiled beef mixes with the odors of sickliness that arise from her soul. The image of the plate is her flat, boring, unchanging life.
To escape this mundane life, Emma opens the window of life to see what could await her. When she has one of her anxiety attacks, she closes herself up in her room, but then, "stifling," throws open the windows. Frustrated by a mixed feeling of guilt at what she did and contempt for her husband, "She went to open the window... And breathed in the fresh air to calm herself." This same symbol of the window is expressed when Rodolphe abandons her:…
This painting deals with a terrifying massacre and refers to an historical event when twenty thousand Greeks were killed by Turks on the Greek island of Chios. hile there are references to nature in the representation of the landscape and the sky, the central focus of the work is the terrible and emotionally moving historical event and its human effect.
The painting is intended to evoke a response in the viewer and it is this reaction or response that is so important in understanding the Romantic elements of the work.
As suggested, the Romantic artists were concerned with conveying intensity of life and in exploring and expressing passion and feelings that went beyond or transcended ordinary mundane events. This is the reason why Delacroix chose the subject matter that he did for this painting. The painting elicits a feeling of intense drama and a sense of heightened emotion at the…
Delacroix, "Massacre at Chios." October 26, 2008. www.humanitiesweb.org/human.php?s=g&p=c&a=p&ID=93
Delacroix considered himself to be a 'pure classicist'. What evidence is there in his work to support or refute this? Discuss. October 26, 2008. http://www.geocities.com/rr17bb/delacro.html
Massacre at Chios. October 26, 2008. http://www.cs.wayne.edu/~zhw/csc691/tour1pic4detail.html
Tintern Abbey. October 26, 2008. http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Poetry/WordsworthTinternAbbey.htm
A major point of the above is that the winners of wars typically write the history books and their reverence and view of history may not be all that positive. Examples like that litter the pages of history including the oman Empire, the Ottoman Empire and so on. Architecture is molded and shaped to this very day by countries generally take a dim view of religion and the associated architecture (the U.S.S../ussia, China, etc.) while there are other situations where architecture is protected and argued about by multiple sects or religious (the Middle East, etc.) and this has been true in the 19th Century and it remains true to this very day.
Another dimension of architecture for which examples from the 19th century are prevalent and easy to spot can be seen in the houses that architects build for themselves. One such house was the Bloemenwerf House on the outskirts…
Alexander, Z. (2010). Metrics of Experience: August Endell's Phenomenology of Architecture. Grey Room, (40), 51-83
BostonCollege. (2014, April 21). 19th Century American Architecture. 19th Century
American Architecture. Retrieved April 21, 2014, from http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/fa267/fa267_19.html
Evan, "Figures, Doors & Passages','The Developed Surface'. Translations from Drawing
Europe Women's Suffrage
Most countries in Western and Central Europe, including Great ritain granted women the vote right after World War I, and only in the Scandinavian nations of Norway and Finland did they receive it earlier than that. France stood out as exceptional, however, no matter that it was the homeland of democratic revolution and of the idea of equal rights for women. It also had a highly conservative side and did not allow women's suffrage until 1945. In Southern and Eastern Europe, granting the vote to women was usually delayed at least that long as well, especially due to the influence on the Catholic Church. In any event, the authoritarian or even fascist nature of the regimes in most of these countries made voting irrelevant, but for the most part no movements for women's suffrage and equality even existed in these regions in the 19th Century. Women's suffrage…
Bader-Zaar, Brigitta, "Women in Austrian Politics, 1890-1934" in David F. Good et al. (eds). Austrian Politics in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. Berghahn Books, 1996, pp. 59-90.
Flanz, Gisbert H. Comparative Women's Rights and Political Participation in Europe. Hotei Publishing, 1983.
Nordstrom, Byron J. Scandinavia since 1500. University of Minnesota Press, 2000.
Offen, Karen, "Citizenship and Suffrage with a French Twist, 1789-1993" in Caroline Daly and Melanie Nolan (eds). Suffrage and Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives. NY: University Press, 1994, pp. 151-70.
The most significant difference between the process of elections in the 19th and 20th centuries is that in the 19th century, politics were dominated and controlled by party to a much greater extent than they were in the 20th century. Another very significant difference was that in the 19th century, women could not vote and many Blacks were blocked from voting in the South. However, early in the 20th century women won the right to vote, and Blacks and other minorities encountered fewer and fewer obstacles to voting as the 20th century progressed.
In the 19th Century, party politics ruled politics and elections. Political campaigns were major events in small towns. This translated into a very high voter turnout at election time. Remarkably, campaigners were allowed to campaign quite aggressively at the polling places, sometimes even resulting in violence.
Party loyalty was passed on from one generation to the…
One of the most conflicted points of United States history is associated with the temperance movement, which culminated into a federal constitutional amendment prohibiting the production, transportation, and sale of all alcoholic beverages. The 18th Amendment to the constitution marked the end of a long and ardent campaign to eliminate all the ills of American society. The root of prohibition is seated in the reality of the alcohol, problem in the Americas stemming almost from the first settlements in the area, alcohol was even a form of currency in some areas of the country. The culmination of the high profit potential and the seemingly endless demand for it, alcohol could be seen as the source of many cultural problems, and it was viewed, by some as the not so hidden but largely tolerated source of countless human and community failings.
In 1920 a 200-year campaign culminated in the 18th…
Asbury, Herbert. The Great Illusion An Informal History of Prohibition. 1st ed. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1950.
Bryce, Jenny. "Prohibition in the United States." History Review (2000): 37. Questia. 1 May 2005 .
C., W. Durant, ed. Law Observance: Shall the People of the United States Uphold the Constitution?. New York: Durant Award Office, 1929.
Clark, Norman H. Deliver Us from Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition / . New York: Norton, 1976.
Clara Barton arrives in London as a dignitary after the civil war, and sits down to discuss her experiences with Florence Nightingale, about the training of nurses. Nightingale greets Barton, and they begin with a little bit of small talk. "Ms. Barton," Nightingale begins, "I have heard that you were a nurse once, in your civil war."
"Well," Barton replied, "there was nothing civil about it. It was absolutely horrific. But we did our best. The men fight, and they commit untold atrocities unto each other, and all we can do is to help. I was on the right side of that war."
"Is there a right side to war? As I'm sure you know, I was in the Crimea and it was especially awful there. There was no…there was no sanitation. I tried to care for the wounded, but there was so much disease and it just ripped through…
Biography. (2014). Florence Nightingale. Biography.com. Retrieved June 4, 2014 from http://www.biography.com/people/florence-nightingale-9423539
No author. (2014). Clara Barton. HistoryNet.com. Retrieved June 4, 2014 from http://www.historynet.com/clara-barton
Madame Bovary's entire experience is by way of approaching her own obscurity, and indeed her own demise, and her death as an individual. The essay by Elisabeth Fronfen is, for the most part, very perceptive and the analysis she offers is razor sharp; when she asserts (411) that Madame Bovary's reading "consumes the life of the reader, who reads instead of living," she hits the literary mark with thorough accuracy. Further, when Fronfen writes that "From the very beginning Emma's imagination connects unfulfilled romantic desires with death," she is cutting to the heart of the sadness and pathos that surrounds Emma.
In short, in my essay, I will show that the depiction of Madame Emma Bovary's adulterous behavior - beyond the racy fascination readers dipped into as Emma's desire for "self-obliteration" was carried out - was totally unacceptable for the 19th Century, and along with her other foibles, indicates a…
Biggs, Mary (2004). "Sit u savais': The Gay/Transgendered Sensibility of Kate Chopin's The Awakening." Women's Studies, vol. 33, pp. 145-181.
Books and Writers (2003). "Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880)." Available:
Chopin, Kate. (1977). The Awakening. The Women's Press, London, UK.
nineteenth century middle class and Marx, Freud, and suffragettes
Members of a mostly male middle class dominated politics and society in the mid-nineteenth century in states such as Britain and France. How did the ideas and actions of Marx, Freud, and the suffragettes challenge their self-assured confidence in themselves and the societies they led as the turn of the century approached?
Towards the end of the 19th century, fears of growing worker radicalization led some employers to establish small pension and worker's compensation funds to provide greater security for their employees (786). Many also employed what today would be considered relatively paternalistic systems of overseeing worker conduct in exchange for providing access to lodging and other amenities to ensure that workers were 'protected' (without, of course, being unionized). Germany was more proactive in instituting such reforms, however, while the workhouse system still was used in Britain to keep track of…
Humor was used as a tactic by women and for instance in 1915 Alice Duer Miller wrote that the reason women did not want men to vote included the following:
Because man's place is in the army.
Because no really manly man wants to settle any question otherwise than by fighting about it.
Because if men should adopt peaceable methods women will no longer look up to them.
Because men will lose their charm if they step out of their natural sphere and interest themselves in other matters than feats of arms, uniforms, and drums.
Because men are too emotional to vote. Their conduct at baseball games and political conventions shows this, while their innate tendency to appeal to force renders them unfit for government. (Women's History, 2014, p. 1)
True balance was struck on the women's suffrage issue in the United States when during World War I women entered…
Engel, J. (2015) What's the Difference Between Socialism, Marxism and Communism? Quora. Retrieved from: http://www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-socialism-Marxism-and-communism
Gay P. (nd) The Cultivation of Hatred: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud. WW Norton & Company. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=2eQAAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA364&lpg=PA364&dq=women%27s+right+to+vote+and+Freud&source=bl&ots=IxjwXPBpEg&sig=yOT3oy7f00exxEGmUjQCyb_5njE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0OkCVdGPHoWXNoyMgLgI&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=women 's%20right%20to%20vote%20and%20Freud&f=falseWomen's Suffrage Victory: August 26, 1920. Women's History. Retrieved from: http://womenshistory.about.com/od/suffrage1900/a/august_26_wed.htm
Langworthy, D. (22007) Elizabeth Packard Biography. McCarter Theatre. Retrieved from: http://www.mccarter.org/education/mrs-packard/html/4.html
Hughes, C. (2007) Mental Illness in the 19th Century. McCarter Theatre. Retrieved from: http://www.mccarter.org/education/mrs-packard/html/6.html
This doesn't explain why the Irish had such a difficult time, but in America, religious differences are often the cause of intolerance as well. The truth is that without immigrants in the 19th, 20th, and 21st century -- and of course the two hundred years before this, this nation would not be where or what it is today and to remain true to our roots we must accept that immigrants will always be a vital part of the U.S.
Diner (2008) states that the National Origins Act of 1921 (and its final form in 1924) restricted the number of immigrants coming to the U.S. And also assigned slots according to quotas based on national origins (2008). "A complicated piece of legislation, it essential gave preference to immigrants from northern and Western Europe, severely limited the numbers from eastern and southern Europe, and declared potential immigrants from Asia to…
Diner, Hasia. (1983). Erin's daughters in America: Irish immigrant women in the nineteenth century. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Diner, Hasia. (2008). Immigration and U.S. history. America.gov. Accessed on October
28, 2010: http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/February/20080307112004ebyessedo0.1716272.html
Gjerde, J. (1998). Major problems in American and ethnic history: documents and essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Modernization of the 19th Century:
Modernization can be described as the period characterized by rapid industrialization and urban growth across several countries in the globe. In addition to expanding the scope of interaction and activity, industrialization changes the society into being predominantly urban from being agrarian. Actually, the industrialization period has been widely known as the Second Industrial Revolution or era by many historians since it was characterized by the expansion of industrial process from the production of textiles to new industries. One of the major factors that contributed to this era or revolution is technological advancements that resulted in the development of railways and use of electricity and petroleum more than coal. The political and economic modernization of the 19th Century was negatively impacted by World War I that seemingly destroyed the optimism surrounding this period.
World War I and Modernization:
Modernization basically refers to the model of evolutionary…
Mokyr, Joel & Strotz, Robert. "The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914." Northwestern
University, 1998. http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~jmokyr/castronovo.pdf (accessed April 24, 2012).
Nosotro, R. "Comparing the Effects of WWI on Africa, Latin America and the Pacific Islands."
Hyper History, n.d.. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw30wwiafricalatamerpacific.htm (accessed April 24, 2012).
Industrialization in the 19th Century
In the late 1800s and early 1900's, America entered an industrial revolution, meaning that people moved from living and working on farms to working in factories and living in cities. This movement had both positive and negative effects on people.
On the positive side, more, better, and inexpensive goods, transportation, and communication were possible. However, industrialization also brought pollution, child labor issues, and crowded cities.
Social Changes and Conflicts
As old industries expanded and new industries, such as petroleum refining, electrical power and steel manufacturing, were created, America changed in many ways. Railroads were expanded immensely, making even remote areas a part of the national market economy.
Industrialization changed American society in many ways, which created many social conflicts. A new class of wealthy industrialists and a prosperous middle class were created, as was an expanded blue-collar working class. The labor force created by industrial…
European nationalism in the nineteenth century seems to have picked up where religion had left off centuries before. This statement may sound provocative -- positing the state as a substitute for a God whose influence was waning -- but in reality it is possible to understand nineteenth-century nationalism in Europe as fundamentally a replay of earlier religious phenomena. In surveying the most salient manifestations of nationalism in the middle of the nineteenth century -- including German and Italian unifications, the formation of an independent Belgium, and the failure of Hungarian nationalism -- it is possible to see the statecraft as a reflection of an earlier European status quo in which dividing lines were largely religious rather than nationalistic. Combined with the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars and the ongoing Industrial Revolution, the old European status quo would be overturned by the end of the nineteenth century, essentially leaving nationalism as…
Anderson, Margaret Lavinia. Practicing Democracy: Elections and Political Culture in Imperial Germany. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. Print.
Arblaster, Paul. A History of the Low Countries. Second Edition. London: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2012. Print.
Palmer, Alan. Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997. Print.
Anarchy in the 19th Century
An Analysis of Merriman's Dynamite Club and Anarchy in the 19th Century
John Merriman makes the point early in the Dynamite Club that there exists "a gossamer thread connecting…Islamist fundamentalists and Emile Henry's circle."
Merriman goes on to define that connection as being one of "social inequalities." ut more to the heart of the matter, however, is the difference in ideologies -- ideologies that transcended the economic, political, and social realities of the 19th century. This paper will analyze the tug-of-war between old and new society in the 19th century, and show how anarchy became the ultimate expression of modern man's frustrated attempts to deal with the lost definition of his spiritual aspect, which, prior to the Enlightenment had at least supplied a kind of framework for social order.
A Conflict of Ideologies
No doubt the revolutionary ideology of the Romantic/Enlightenment era held some influence…
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Notes from Underground. Rockville, MD: Serenity Press, 2008.
Elliott, John. Spain, Europe and the Wider World. Yale University Press, 2009.
Frank, Joseph. Dostoevsky: The seeds of revolt, 1821-1849. Princeton University Press,
Marital Ties and Chains
19th century marriage as portrayed in Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper"
Both Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" explore the limited autonomy of women within the institution of marriage. The stories paint a bleak, chilling portrait of the ways in which the institution of marriage can stifle individual expression. Mrs. Mallard and the unnamed narrator of "The Yellow Wallpaper" feel constrained by marriage but society refuses to acknowledge their pain, frustration, and suffering. Only through sickness can women express their feelings, and even then society often misreads female psychological distress as a physical malady.
In "The Story of an Hour," the main character Mrs. Mallard believes that her husband has been killed in a freak train accident. Rather than the misery she might be expected to feel, Mrs. Mallard…
Realism in Art in Paris in the 19th Century Prostitutes and Third Class Carriages
The 19th century was a century of Realism, Romanticism and Victorianism; a conflict existed in society between wanting to explore boundaries (the romantic aspect), expose reality, and wanting to cover over indecencies (the prudish Victorian aspect). Puritanism and prurience defined the two juxtaposing poles. Realism was like the middle ground, the area of the field that artists sought to highlight. Yet, for artists like Courbet, Daumier and Manet, certain subjects—like a mother holding a sleeping baby in the nursing pose on a third-class train, or lesbian lovers, or a nude woman—were deemed to provocative, too revealing, too dirty, sensual and real and thus too sensational for a Victorian crowd. They were appealing to those with Realist leanings, but Romantics were not quite satisfied with them either because they did not put emphasis on the beautiful and…
In the early- to mid-1800s, Europe began undergoing a major transformation. The Industrial evolution, as it is known by historians, radically changed the manner in which the world produced its goods. It also altered society from primarily agricultural to industrial and manufacturing. This new revolution brought significant levels of poverty and despondency to the new working class. The artistic form of ealism emerged as a result of these socio-economic changes. It sought to correctly portray the conditions and hardships of the poor with the hope of improving their living situations. While omanticism glorified nature, ealism visualized the industrial world as a blight on society. Likewise, while the omantics visualized life in a sentimental fashion, the ealists portrayed the second half of the nineteenth century in stark reality. Through their artwork, painters such as Gustave Courbet transmitted the beliefs, customs and aspects of those who rebelled against the omantics. ebuffed…
Rubin, James H. Courbet. London: Phaidon, 1997.
Weisberg, Gabriel. European Realist Tradition. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1992.
Shaping the 20th Century
In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt proposed the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Though the Monroe Doctrine was aimed at stopping European influence in the United States, the Roosevelt Corollary marked the United States' first officially aggressive stance as policeman of the western hemisphere. The effects of this Corollary were far-reaching, revealing an official change in U.S. attitude about the world and our place in it, and marking not only the 20th Century but also the 21st Century.
A defining moment marking the start of 20th Century United States of America was the 1904 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.[footnoteRef:1] Reflecting President Theodore Roosevelt's aggressive approach to foreign policy, the Corollary states in part, "…in the western hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrong-doing or impotence, to the exercise…
Cooper, Jr., John Milton. Pivotal Decades: The United States, 1900-1920. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, 1990.
Millard, Candice. The River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt's Darkest Journey (Paperback). New York, NY: Broadway Books, 2005.
Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex (Paperback). New York, NY: Random House Publishing Group, 2002.
Even though the term anti-Semitism was first popularized in 1879 through the works of Wilhelm Marr a German journalist, its very existence is traceable much further in history. Wilhelm Marr describes anti-Semitism simply as “hostility or hatred towards Jews” (Young p. 36). Throughout the Middle Ages, and in the wider Europe, the majority of the Jewish people was forced to live in confined neighborhoods (ghettos) and was denied citizenship. This was consequent of the Jews upholding their beliefs in religion (Judaism) as opposed to what was their captors’ expectation. In an effort to get more Jews to drop their religion, more accusations were levied upon the Jews. They ranged from the “murder of children, child abduction, and the use of their victims’ blood for libation” (Young p. 86). With the rise of Christianity in much of Europe, anti-Semitism continued to spread with vilification of Judaism in an effort to…
Aschheim, and Steven E. Culture and Catastrophe: German and Jewish Confrontations with National Socialism and Other Crises. New York:: New York UP, 1996. Print.
Bauer, Yehuda., and Keren. Nili. A History of the Holocaust. New York:: Franklin Watts,, 2001. Print.
Bessel, and Richard. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: Comparisons and Contrasts. Cambridge England; . New York:: Cambridge, 1996. Print.
Cheyette, B. Between "Race" and Culture: Representations of "the Jew" in English and American Literature. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford UP, 1996. Print.
Katz, and Steven. T. The Holocaust in Historical Context. Jaffe Holocaust Collection. New York: : Oxford UP, 1994. Print.
Kritzman, L.D., and P.L.D. Kritzman. Auschwitz and After: Race, Culture, and "the Jewish Question" in France. New York: Routledge, 1995. Print.
Laqueur, Walter. The Terrible Secret: Suppression of the Truth About Hitler's "Final Solution." Boston: Little, Brown, 1980. Print.
Ozsva?th, Z. In the Footsteps of Orpheus: The Life and Times of Miklo?S Radno?Ti. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000. Print.
Women's oles Then And Now:
Societies have continued to change in every century because of influences of cultures in that time period. As these societies grow and develop, the role of various people in the family structure and unit also changes. The changes in the role of women in the society are mainly influenced by societal perception regarding women. As a result, there are significant differences in the role of women in the 19th Century and the roles of women in the 18th Century. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the modern society has is so fast-paced because of increased technological advancements unlike the 18th Century society. An understanding of the changing role of women in the 18th and 19th centuries can be seen from the conversation between two notable women i.e. Maria Elisabeth of Austria and Queen Victoria of Great Britain.
Biographic Information for Each…
Radek, M. (2008, April 21). Women in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from Illinois Valley
Community College website: http://www2.ivcc.edu/gen2002/women_in_the_nineteenth_century.htm
Sebellin, T., Woods, K. & Grove, A. (2006, February 20). Queen Victoria. Retrieved from King's College website: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/victoria.html
"The Role of the Woman: 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries." (1997, April 17). My English ISP.
He believed asylums should be planned to encourage work, both physical and mental. To get away from the stress and turmoil of the city, an asylum should be erected out in the country where there was space for patients "to work, walk, and congregate. He called for plenty of large windows, one central building, separate buildings for the genders, and separate wings for wards" (Haller & Larsen, 2005, p. 262).
The Kirkbride asylum had a central administration building with a dome that was flanked by two wings of tiered wards. esidents were separated according to sex and the symptoms of their illnesses, with "excited patients" on the lower floors farther away from the administrative center. Well-behaved, more rational patients were placed on uppers floors closer to the administrative section. Fresh air, natural light, and scenic views of the park-like grounds were available to all wards.
Kirkbride asylums were designed to…
Curran, J. (2006). Psychiatric wards as permeable institutions. Mental Health Practice, 10 (2), 29-30.
Dowbiggin, I. (1997). The most solitary of afflictions: Madness and society in Britain, 1700-1900. Victorian Studies, 40 (2), 360-363.
Haller, B. And Larsen, R. (2005). Persuading sanity: Magic lantern images and the nineteenth-century moral treatment in America. Journal of American Culture, 28 (3), 259-272.
Hughes, W. (2002). "Cure, Comfort and Safe Custody:" Public lunatic asylums in early nineteenth-century England. Victorian Studies, 44 (2), 328-332.
Also he seems sincere in his presentation and his beliefs.
Article eaknesses: Mortenson's attempt to discredit the many years of authentic science is flawed; it is obvious he is attempting to build a case against evolution and insert his narrow Christian viewpoint, but it doesn't work very well. His assertion that evolution has "…come under considerable fire in the past four decades" and that there is "strong scientific evidence against evolution" is absurd. The only groups that attack the science from Darwin's discoveries -- and the plethora of empirical scientific fossil-based, geologic discoveries subsequent to Darwin's work -- are evangelical Christian groups, religious fundamentalists who want creationism published in high school textbooks next to evolution data, and others that accept creationism as fact.
Another assertion in this article that is patently ridiculous and bizarre is the notion that if Genesis is "rejected as literal accurate history" in a matter of…
Mortenson, Terry. (2003). The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from http://www.answersingenesis.org .
Regardless, slaves worked hard, often beginning with small tasks as children, and took on large responsibilities within their community. Women were charged with more tasks in addition to the fieldwork they had to do; they were also charged with cooking, cleaning, and child rearing. Slaves adapted to their lives through the development of their own culture. By the early 19th century, most African-Americans were Christians, with some converting to Christianity voluntarily and others being coerced. Though autonomous black churches were banned blacks throughout the South developed their own version of Christianity that was often considered more emotional than its white counterpart and influenced by African customs, traditions, and practices.
The development of the abolition movement arose from the revivalist movement in the North and the desire to create a perfect society in Christ's image and thereby perfect themselves. The abolitionists faced many obstacles including politics and unexpected racism in the…
Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert
Bovaryism came to mean a dream that is as self-serving to the reality it aims to replace and therefore the face of reality becomes diminished.
What does the term bovaryism mean when it is thought about? A few years after the publication of Gustave Flaubert's works known as Madame Bovary the term Bovaryism was adopted by the French language (Paper Guidelines). The 19th century novel's heroine defines herself through common cliches that the world looks at to this day. Bored housewife syndrome, romantic fantasy delusions, and adultery are just a few of those cliches (Paper Guidelines). Bovaryism came to mean a dream that is as self-serving to the reality it aims to replace and therefore the face of reality becomes diminished (Paper Guidelines).
The concept of ennui comes into play. Ennui in short simply means the idea of boredom which is seen constantly throughout the…
Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary. 8th ed. Vol. 2. New York: WW Nortan, 2006. Print.
Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.
During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…
Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.
Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN
Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez
Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
Russia, Reform and Revolution
The Great Reforms freed the serfs but they did not really ease the life of the peasant or make it much better. The social structure (i.e., class system) remained fundamentally the same, except now the landowning class was determined to give as little to the peasants as possible. hereas prior to the Reforms, the peasants viewed the landowners similarly to the way Europeans viewed their lords in feudal Europe, as their providers and protectors. Now the peasants were viewed as autonomous and dependent upon themselves and the law was rigged against them regarding in particular the land settlement act (Freeze). The actual beneficiary of the Reform was neither serf nor landowner, but the State, which expanded its bureaucracy from the Tsar on down to the village. Now the serfs, who had always operated under the expression "we are yours, but the land is ours" now had…
Freeze, "Reform and Counter-Reform," pp. 180-93
Cracraft, pp. 344-58: MacKenzie-Wallace on mir and zemstvo (1877)
Olga Vasileva, "The Significance of the Peasant Commune in Revolutionary Thought" (student paper, 2012)
"The Catechism of a Revolutionary" (1868) and "Demands of Narodnaia Volia [People's Will]" (1879) in Dmytryshyn, ed. Imperial Russia, pp. 350-59
South and the North of the 19th Century
As I write this, I can hear faint yells and cheers through my window. Somewhere, the city of Charleston still celebrates. You'll have heard why by the time my letter arrives. Secession. It was no secret that it would happen when Lincoln, that great ape, was elected. As many years as we've been on the receiving end of Yankee insults and "compromises," I wonder why we took so long.
You and I have talked about our peculiar institution, and I know you disapprove, but then, you have not been around Negroes. They are not our equals. They need us to care for them and direct them, and we need them to work the fields and keep our farms and plantations running. There is no immorality, no terrible sin. Merely an advantageous arrangement for both sides. But the Yankees don't see…
Catton, B. (1961). The coming fury, volume one. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co.
Naden, C.J. & Blue, R. (2000). Why fight? The causes of the American Civil War. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn Publishers.
racialized slavery change in the early-19th century south? How and/or why were non-Slave holders invested in slavery? On what grounds did antebellum southerners defend slavery?
Slavery was not always a racialized category in the Americas. Many Americans emigrated to the U.S. As indentured servants: these were whites who worked without pay in exchange for learning a trade or their passage overseas. However, gradually, the plantation economy of the south fostered a system in which African-Americans toiled in bondage. It was simply more economically sustainable to employ slaves to harvest cash crops like tobacco and cotton, particularly after the invention of the cotton gin. 'hiteness' became associated with privilege and power, and even poorer whites in the south were above African-American slaves in terms of their social status. Slavery was thus always an ideological as well as an economic and political issue.
Of course, the economics of slavery cannot be overlooked.…
Major Problems in American History: Volume 1: to 1877. (3d Ed.) . Cengage, 2011.
Individual Knowledge and Power
19th century poet Emily Dickinson is famous for her writing about the sometimes odd quality of being human, or rather the unnatural social norms that humanity has constructed. Dickinson claims that "[m]uch Sense -- the starkest Madness -- / 'Tis the Majority," meaning that most people guide their lives through typical principles of an objective common sense. Despite the best efforts of the philosophers and statesmen who have fostered Western principles of common sense throughout the centuries, people are not mathematical certainties; and while general rules are essential to the well-being of the population, individual lives cannot be dictated by a standardized social formula. True human growth and progress is a journey often taken alone, in which a person has to develop his or her own ideas of right and wrong. This short essay examines three different ways individual knowledge and power is originated, fostered, and…
In Spirit of the Dead Watching, Gaugin also depicts a Tahitian woman with open sexuality. The woman in Spirit of the Dead Watching lays prostrate on a bed, exposing her naked buttocks while gazing directly at the viewer. Her position is submissive, in spite of the alluring look in the woman's eyes. The spirit of the dead represents traditional Tahitian religious beliefs, which would have been in direct conflict with the Christianity imposed upon the island nation by the French.
Sexuality was also a favorite theme of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. The artist was well-known for his escapades in Montmartre, Paris's cabaret district. Toulouse-Lautrec's work depicts a seedy underbelly of Parisian life rather than idealizing the bourgeoisie. Like Gaugin's work, the paintings of Toulouse-Lautrec embody the social changes taking place in European society during the late nineteenth century.
In Stocking, Toulouse-Lautrec depicts two dancers, one of which is just getting dressed.…
Hill, a. (2001). Gauguin's erotic Tahiti idyll exposed as a sham. Guardian. October 7, 2001. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/oct/07/arts.highereducation
Pioch, N. (2002). Gauguin, (Eugene-Henri-) Paul. WebMuseum. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/gauguin/
Roskill, M. (1997). Paul Gaugin. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, Release 9.01. Cited online and retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.discoverfrance.net/France/Art/Gauguin/Gauguin.shtml
The so-called peculiar institution of slavery would come to define America in the 19th century, and set the stage for effects that until the current day. It was a critical, destructive error to leave the issue of slavery unresolved at the time of American independence.
Attempts to econcile the Slavery Issue
What was the 3/5 Compromise?
elevance of the 3/5 Compromise
Significance of the 3/5 Compromise for the issue of slavery
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Define (MO as slave state, ME as free state)
Significance of the 1820 compromise
3.Compromise of 1850
Define the compromise of 1850
Significance of this compromise iii. Fugitive Slave Act and DC
Shift in power dynamic on the issue
Define the Nebraska-Kansas Act
Describe the bleeding of Kansas iii. Show how the violence was a precursor to the Civil War
What was the Dred Scott case?…
Foner, E. (1974). The causes of the American Civil War: recent interpretations and new directions. Civil War History. Vol. 20 (3) 197-214.
Laws.com (2015). What was the three-fifths compromise? Laws.com. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://constitution.laws.com/three-fifths-compromise
Library of Congress (2015). Primary documents in American history. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Missouri.html
Library of Congress (2015, 2). Kansas-Nebraska Act. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/kansas.html
witchcraft scares in the Chesapeake colonies and no uprising like Bacon's Rebellion in New England. Consider the possible social, economic, and religious causes of both phenomena.
The colonies of New England were based on patriarchal religious social orders that were fundamentally misogynistic. The Protestant systems in New England fomented the fear of witchcraft, a parallel for a fear of feminist power. On the other hand, New England lacked the cash-crop ready system that had been emerging in the Chesapeake region. Bacon's rebellion was a labor issue related to economic power, whereas witch hunts were related to gender issues and social power.
What made Native American peoples vulnerable to conquest by European adventurers?
Native American peoples did not have the same disease resistances that Europeans had developed over several generations. They did not develop the types of sophisticated weapons using gunpowder that he Europeans had, and also, Native Americans were used…
Market Revolution: hy it as Good for Some, Not for Others
The Market Revolution of the 19th century could not have occurred without the Age of Industrialization that allowed it to displace the old mode of commerce and trade. Goods could now be produced en masse and shipped at far faster speeds than ever before. hat had once been the work of the domestic role players was not taken out of their hands and made the work of laborers in factors. In every sector, technology played a part -- the cotton gin, the furnaces, the steel mills, the meat packers, the freight trains -- the landscape of America was changing and life and its social, spiritual, economic and political characteristics were also being impacted as a result. For some the impact was positive -- but for others it was negative. To some, the market revolution was a quality of American…
Srebnick, A. (1997). The Mysterious Death of Mary Rogers. NY: Oxford University
Weld and Truth: Speaking Their Minds
Angelina Grimke Weld and Sojourner Truth were two 19th century women who spoke up for abolition. Weld was a white Southerner; Truth was a runaway slave who became an itinerant preacher. Both women supported women’s rights and an end to slavery. One was white and from a wealthy family, another was black and poor—but both shared the same spirit and ideas, and both had seen slavery up close and personally. While Truth experienced it, Weld witnessed it, and the experiences of each transformed them and informed their speeches—Weld’s speech in Philadelphia in 1838 and Sojourner’s speech in 1851 in Akron at the Women’s Rights Convention.
The fact that both of them were women was an obstacle enough in 19th century America. It was still a man’s world—but the women population was coming together to fight some of the evils of the day that they…
Native Americans also experienced significant changes to their way of life during this era. The railroads brought more settlers to their land, and cities began to arise in the West. The result was increasing conflict -- and many massacres orchestrated by government forces, as Western Native Americans, who had limited contact with settlers to this point, saw their lands inundated and their way of life threatened, so say nothing of the disease. The conflict, disease and loss of this way of life permanently gutted Native American societies -- they might have been the biggest losers of the industrialization age their way of life all but wiped out.
Working Americans were more likely to work in a factory under dangerous conditions. They lost the dignity in their work -- they were not longer artisans but merely cogs in somebody else's machine. They were more likely to live in tenements…
Schultz. (no date). Chapters 16-18.
Doll House -- Henrik Ibsen
The play by Henrik Ibsen brings to the mind of the reader and the audience that many men in the past and in the present too, see themselves as superior to women, and women in fact should be happy to carry out the wishes of men. Nora Helmer becomes a kind of plaything for her husband Torvald, and in fact he admits to having fantasies about Nora to give him sensual incentive to engage in intimacy with her. But in time Nora has had enough of Torvald's condescending behaviors and she rebels. This story can be seen as a reflection of the fact that women in the late 19th century were beginning to demand fairness and equality in relationships and in society. hile Ibsen later discounted that he wrote a play about women's rights, the play can be seen as a search for freedom and…
Ibsen, H. (1902). The Doll's House: A Play. Boston, MA: Harvard University (Digitized, 2007)
Revolt of 'Mother'" by Mary Wilkins is the story of a frustrated New England woman who used her independence, resourcefulness and determination to get what she deserved and wanted. Wilkins shows the attitude of New Englanders in the late 19th Century, with women being the dutiful mice who followed their husbands' leads and men disregarding women's opinions, wants and hopes based on promised. Mother gives her husband a big surprise when he returns home and he crumbles under her unexpected strength.
An interesting fact about Mary E. Wilkins
Perhaps the most interesting fact about Mary E. Wilkins was that she believed her own story, "The Revolt of 'Mother,'" could not be true. As a native New Englander, Wilkins is famous for her stories about frustrated New Englanders (Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.), and made "Mother" a frustrated New Englander who got her way by clever determination but ultimately believed the story did…
Raeff, M. The Constitutionalism of Emperor Alexander I.
Raeff traces shifts in social and political culture in Russia at the start of the 19th century. Russian nationalism and federalism were beginning to become salient issues, leading to different expectations from Russian leaders. The people of the nation had a difficult relationship with the elite and the monarchy, exemplified in the "unabashed joy and happiness" that resulted from the death of Paul I (p. 1). New emperor Alexander faced a changing Russia that was becoming more aware of its role on the international arena and also more aware of its internal strife and diversity. Prior emperors like Paul had ruled with an iron fist and inspired mainly fear in the people. Alexander aimed to change public perception to garner support for federalist policies. Those policies included mending relationships with neighbors like Finland and Poland but it also included a more radical…
3. Von Haxthausen on the peasant commune (1844)
One of von Haxthausen's most poignant observations and descriptions on his journey through Russia was on the peasant commune and its ubiquitous presence in the countryside. His travels were through disparate regions and he witnessed many different cultures and societies, all of which shared in common the lifestyle the author describes in this chapter of his memoir. Describing the peasant communes in an admiring light, von Haxthausen notes that this might have been what Europe had looked like just a few generations ago. Von Haxthausan romanticizes the peasant commune, which gives rise to the idealistic notion that peasant-led movements can and should characterize future revolutions in Russian political culture. Although he admires the organization evident in the society and its hierarchical stratification, von Haxthausen also critiques the aristocracy for being completely out of touch with the people they govern.
The peasant commune presents an alternative social model to the exploitation of serfs, which had been the mainstay of European societies throughout history. Economic and political reforms that would take place a few generations after von Haxthausen penned his work are based on similar principles that workers should take pride in their daily work and not become too distanced from the means of production, honoring traditional labor models like farming. Moreover, von Haxthausen echoed prevailing sentiments related to the social and political empowerment of peasant people by offering rich descriptions of what he saw through his travels and by tying in analogies to what he knows of European history. Von Haxthausen also waxes poetic about the patriarchal family structure and gendered role differentiation throughout the communal societies.
Laura Auricchio is an art historian teaching at the Parsons School for Design as part of The New School in New York City. In the piece to be critiqued, Auricchio focuses upon techniques, styles, and subject matter of eighteenth century paintings. Auricchio's focus in her article is upon the female painter, Adelaide Labille-Guiard. Though Auricchio examines several of Labille-Guiard's major works, her primary examination is of the painting Self-Portrait with Two Students (1785). Auricchio argues that Labille-Guiard makes deliberate politically motivated choices in content and composition in the painting that express and reflect upon European female artistry and experience of the eighteenth century. This paper will briefly describe and critique Auricchio's main ideas and themes in her interpretation of the work and of the artist.
Auricchio, as an art historian and as a woman, is interested in female artists. She is interested in female artists primarily because their…
Auricchio, Laura. "Self-Promotion in Adelaide Labille-Guiard's 1785 Self-Portrait with Two Students." Art Bulletin, Volume 89, Number 1, March 2007.
medieval romance has inspired literature for generations. The magic of the Arthurian romance can be traced to Celtic origins, which adds to it appeal when we look at it through the prism of post-medieval literature. The revival of the medieval romance can be viewed as an opposition against modern and intellectual movement that became vogue in modern Europe. These romances often emphasized the human emotions rather than the human intellect and a return to more classical traditions. Poets and writers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries did not want to feel the oppression from the constraints of their time. Instead, they looked beyond the intellectual to a more mystical and emotional realm. They wanted to achieve another level in their writing -- one that allowed them to stretch their imaginations and their knowledge. The medieval aspects that we find in literature from this era accentuates a different type of thinking…
Carlyle, Thomas. "Past and Present." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. II
New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 157-70.
Carl Woodring, "The Eve of St. Agnes: Overview." Reference Guide to English Literature.
2nd ed. 1991. Gale Resource Database. Site Accessed April 20, 2005.
hitman, Harper, Alcott
American literature in the nineteenth century is necessarily concerned with democracy: by the time of the U.S. Civil ar the American democratic experiment was not even a century old, and as a result writers remained extremely sensitive until the end of the century toward questions of whether America was capable of living up to the high ideals that it had set for itself in its founding documents. An examination of some representative nineteenth century American works -- hitman's "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," Harper's "A Double Standard" and "The Deliverance," and Louisa May Alcott's story "ork" -- will demonstrate that the failings of American democracy were a subject all these writers had in common.
hitman is commonly thought of as the poet who champions American democracy, but "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" is a poem that contains grave doubts. e note this most obviously as hitman's long flowing stanzas suddenly dry…
Alcott, Louisa May. "Work: A Story of Experience." 1873. Project Gutenberg, 2003. 29 March 2014. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/4770
Walt Whitman. "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry." Leaves of Grass. 1867. Electronic Text Center. University of Virginia Library, 2000. 29 March 2014. .
All without distinction were branded as fanatics and phantasts; not only those, whose wild and exorbitant imaginations had actually engendered only extravagant and grotesque phantasms, and whose productions were, for the most part, poor copies and gross caricatures of genuine inspiration; but the truly inspired likewise, the originals themselves. And this for no other reason, but because they were the unlearned, men of humble and obscure occupations. (Coleridge iographia IX)
To a certain extent, Coleridge's polemical point here is consistent with his early radical politics, and his emergence from the lively intellectual community of London's "dissenting academies" at a time when religious non-conformists (like the Unitarian Coleridge) were not permitted to attend Oxford or Cambridge: he is correct that science and philosophy were more active among "humble and obscure" persons, like Joseph Priestley or Anna Letitia arbauld, who had emerged from the dissenting academies because barred (by religion or gender)…
By mid-century, however, these forces in the use of grotesque in prose were fully integrated as a matter of style. We can contrast two convenient examples from mid-century England, in Dickens's 1850 novel David Copperfield, compared with Carlyle's notorious essay originally published in 1849 under the title "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question." Dickens is, of course, the great master of the grotesque in the Victorian novel. Most of Dickens' villains -- the villainous dwarf Quilp in The Old Curiosity Shop, the hunchback Flintwinch in Little Dorrit, the junkshop-proprietor Krook who perishes of spontaneous combustion in Bleak House -- have names and physical characteristics that signpost them as near-perfect examples of the grotesque. The notion that this grotesquerie is, in some way, related to the streak of social criticism in Dickens' fiction is somewhat attractive, because even the social problems in these novels are configured in ways that recall the grotesque, like the Circumlocution Office in Little Dorrit, Boffin's mammoth dust-heap in Our Mutual Friend, or the philanthropist and negligent mother Mrs. Jellaby in Bleak House who proves Dickens' polemical point about charity beginning at home by being rather grotesquely eaten by the cannibals of Borrioboola-Gha. We can see Dickens' grotesque in a less outlandish form, but still recognizable as grotesque, in the introduction of the villainous Uriah Heep in Chapter 15 of David Copperfield:
When the pony-chaise stopped at the door, and my eyes were intent upon the house, I saw a cadaverous face appear at a small window on the ground floor (in a little round tower that formed one side of the house), and quickly disappear. The low arched door then opened, and the face came out. It was quite as cadaverous as it had looked in the window, though in the grain of it there was that tinge of red which is sometimes to be observed in the skins of red-haired people. It belonged to a red-haired person -- a youth of fifteen, as I take it now, but looking much older -- whose hair was cropped as close as the closest stubble; who had hardly any eyebrows, and no eyelashes, and eyes of a red-brown, so unsheltered and unshaded, that I remember wondering how he went to sleep. He was high-shouldered and bony; dressed in decent black, with a white wisp of a neckcloth; buttoned up to the throat; and had a long, lank, skeleton hand, which particularly attracted my attention, as he stood at the pony's head, rubbing his chin with it, and looking up at us in the chaise. (Dickens, Chapter 15)
We may note the classic elements of
Balzac and Kafka: From Realism to Magical Realism
French author Honore de Balzac defined the genre of realism in the early 19th century with his novel Old Man Goriot, which served as a cornerstone for his more ambitious project, The Human Comedy. Old Man Goriot also served as a prototype for realistic novels, with its setting of narrative parameters which included plot, structure, characterization, and point-of-view. The 20th century, however, digressed considerably from the genre of realism. Franz Kafka, for example, has been considered as one of the forerunners of the genre known as Magical Realism. endy B. Faris defines the genre of Magical Realism as the combination of "realism and the fantastic so that the marvelous seems to grow organically within the ordinary, blurring the distinction between them… [including] different cultural traditions" (1). Faris finds magical realism to exist at the crossroads of modernism and post-modernism, as a kind…
Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. New York, NY: Vintage, 2010. Print.
Faris, Wendy B. Ordinary Enchantments: Magical Realism and the Remystification of Narrative. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2004. Print.
Nabokov, Vladimir. "The Metamorphosis." Victorian. Web. 8 May 2012. <
In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).
The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…
Coffey, a. (2001). Education and social change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Frye, J.H. (1999). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940: Professional goals and popular aspirations. New York: Greenwood Press.
Kaminsky, J.S. (1999). A new history of educational philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw change of a manner and magnitude never before experienced in world history. Technological, governmental, and ideological transformations made the nineteenth century span the gap between the modern world and the ancient world. "At the start of the century, life was not so very different from Roman times -- although a Roman would have been very shocked by the state of the roads and the filthy towns. But by the end of the century life was not so very different from the world we know today." (Chamberlin 6). By this interpretation of events, the middle ages in Europe had taken well over a millennium to finally match the living conditions and way of life enjoyed by the Romans; however, the next hundred years would be a period of unprecedented change and social upheaval. Largely, these changes were associated, in some way, with the industrial revolution, which…
1. Ashby, Ruth. Around the World in 1800. New York: Benchmark, 2003.
2. Chamberlin, E.R. The Nineteenth Century. Morristown: Silver Burdett, 1983.
3. Gay, Peter. Schnitzler's Century: the Making of Middle-Class Culture. New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.
omen in Higher Education -- 1785-1890
Higher educational opportunities for women in the U.S. were scarce in the late 18th century through the nineteenth century, and even into the 20th century as well. omen were expected to stay in the home, raise the children, cook and clean for the husband, not go out and get an advanced education. This paper reflects the few opportunities that were available to women and how those opportunities were seized upon by women eager to better themselves and pursue careers -- notwithstanding firm resistance by society and by colleges and universities run by men.
omen and Higher Education by 1860
In his book A History of American Higher Education, author John Thelin points out that by 1860, just before the Civil ar, there were "…at lease forty-five institutions" that were offering college and university degrees to women (Thelin, 2012). Those higher education institutions were referred…
Norgren, J. (2010). Ladies of Legend: The First Generation of American Women Attorneys
Journal of Supreme Court History, 35(1), 71-90.
Spillman, S. (2012). Institutional Limits: Christine Ladd-Franklin, Fellowships, and American Women's Academic Careers, 1880-1920. History of Education Quarterly,
Contextualizing Old World Mexico
There are numerous ways that one can explicate the fanatical attachment of the tomochitecos to Teresa Urrea. Nonetheless, characterizing that attachment as fanatical is not quite accurate. When one considers all of the logical reasons why these people revered this woman, that affinity they expressed towards and about her becomes much less fanatical, and simply another manifestation of popular religiosity in Mexico. Granted, there is a fine line between these sentiments. Still, the tomochitecos' regard for Urrea encompassed the latter, and not the former, because she had a strong political influence that was rooted in religion and healing.
Ultimately, it was the practicality of the attachment the tomochitecos had to Urrea that underscores the fact that it was not fanatical in nature. Were this people's valuation of Urrea merely based on her religious influence, the devotion that they had for her might righteously have been fanatic.…
Joseph, Gilbert M., and Henderson, Timothy J. The Mexico Reader. North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2002.
Vanderwood, Paul. The Power of God Against the Guns of Government: Religious Upheaval in Mexico at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.
Voice of the Fugitive- an Alternate Nation for Afro-Americans
The African-American community in USA has faced many obstacles but through all its challenges, has withstood the test of time. It has faced severe discrimination in terms of treatment. The poem, 'Genuine Prize Song for Jenny Lind' is a piece that focuses on the depth of these discriminatory practices and establishes an absence of national belonging, where the African-Americans felt it was better to start living someplace else. This analysis on the poem argues that the poem was based on the 'absence of the sentiment of national belonging towards USA, and encourages the lack community to explore other places to settle in, predominantly Canada.'
Many African-Americans following the call for a united front, published papers and periodicals that were aimed at consolidating efforts for freedom from slavery. As Frederick Douglass famously said that if the path taken by the Whites to…
DeLombard, Jeanine Mary. "African-American Cultures of Print." Hall, David D. Cultures of Print. Boston: University of Massuchusetts, 1996. 360.
Gundaker, Grey. "Africans Americans, Print, and Practice." Gross, Robert A. And Mary Kelley. An Extensive Republic: Print, Culture, and Society in the New Nation, 1790-1840. North Carolina: UNC Press Books, 2010. 483-495.
The Voice of the Fugitive. 29 January 1851. 9 March 2012 .
That is not to say that these women did not continue to be challenged. The weather, the loneliness, the hostilities, and the isolation all took their toll on Plains women, but they were resolute and determined, and held out hope for the future, and so, for the most part, they managed to survive and even come to love their life on the Plains. One of the most famous Plains women is Laura Ingalls Wilder, who wrote about her family's experiences in the "Little House" series. iley quotes her as saying these problems were "a natural part of life'" (iley 104), and another woman saying, "those years on the Plains were hard years but I grew to like the West and now I would not like to live any other place'" (iley 104). As women became accustomed to their new home, they came to love it, and if they did not,…
Riley, Glenda. "Women, Adaptation, and Change."100-111.
Stansell, Christine. "Women on the Great Plains 1865-1890." 92-99.
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
The Exoticism of Madame Butterfly, Carmen, & Aida
This paper will use three examples of 19th and 20th century opera to examine and interpret the term "exoticism." The paper will take time to clarify the relativity of the term exoticism and how it manifests in these three works. What is exoticism and how does it work? What is the function of exoticism in culture, in art, and in general? What does it reflect about a culture and what desires does exoticism express? The paper will attempt to ask and answer more questions utilizing Madame Butterfly, Carmen, and Aida as examples of the exotic at work in art.
We must first consider that exoticism is a relative term. When referring to three operas from the west, readers must take into account that what is exotic in the west is not what is universally exotic.…
Crebas, Aya & Dick Pels. "The Character of Carmen and the Social Construction of a New Feminine Myth." Center for European Studies, Working Paper Series #5, December 12, 1987.
Harwood, Buie, Bridget May, Phd, & Curt Sherman. "Exoticism: 1830s -- 1920s." Architecture and Interior Design from the 19th Century: An Integrated History, Volume 2,-Page 212 -- 235. Prentice Hall, 2009.
Locke, Ralph P. "A Broader View of Musical Exoticism." The Journal of Musicology, Volume 24, No. 4, Pages 477 -- 521. University of California Press, 2007.
Locke, Ralph P. "Beyond the exotic: How 'Eastern' is Aida?" Cambridge Opera Journal, Volume 17, No. 2, Pages 105 -- 139. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera
Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.
Exoticism in History and Culture
Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…
Boyd, A. (n.d.). Exoticism. Retrieved from The Imperial Archive Web site: http://www.qub.ac.uk/imperial/key-concepts/Exoticism.htm
New York City Opera Project. (n.d.). New York City Opera Project: Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Columbia University Web site: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO
The Metropolitan Opera. (2011). Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Metropolitan Opera Family Web site: http://www.metoperafamily.org
Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America
riting and woman suffrage were inextricably intertwined in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Suffrage gave them a voice, and they used that voice to challenge the early American patriarchal status quo. By examining those works, new light can be brought to bear on suffrage activists, who at the time were thought to be an unimportant fringe group. Through a study of their work, we can learn more about their day-to-day lives.
According to Sandra Harding in McClish and Bacon (p. 28), one's own knowledge depends on one's position in society. hen one is a subordinate in the social hierarchy, one understands life differently than someone at the top of the social hierarchy. However, as the most powerful write history, it tends to be rather one-sided. Since that is the case, Harding argues that these different viewpoints are equally valid. By looking at…
Bullough, Vern, ed. Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2001.
Laffrado, Laura. Uncommon women: gender and representation in nineteenth-century U.S. women's writing. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, 2009.
McClish, Glen and Jacqueline Bacon. "Telling the Story Her Own Way": the Role of Feminist Standpoint Theory in Rhetorical Studies." Rhetoric Society Quarterly (2002): 27-55.
Porche, Amy S. "The Fashioning of Fanny Fern: A Study of Sara Willis Parton's Early Career, 1851-1854." 2010. Georgia State University Digital Archive, English Dissertations. 6 December 2011 .
Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century
Its funny how paper is never really given importance because of the fact that it is so inexpensive and everywhere, that most of us take it for granted. In this paper, we will look at the making of the paper and how it became one of the most disposable products in the world.
Till the mid-1800's paper was considered an expensive commodity and was available only in individual hand-made sheets. Paper was the size of a papermaking frame that had to be handled by one or two people.
This created two problems, one was to be able to manufacture the paper in that size and the second was to manufacture in high volumes.
ags, grass and straw were used to manufacture high quality paper. Then came the lower quality paper called cardboards and wall coverings. During the industrial growth of the…
Basic Training, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.home.eznet.net/~kcupery/PBArtic/paperbasics.html
Greatest Achievements - 3. Airplane, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.greatachievements.org/greatachievements/ga_3_2.html
Harrods.com - Frequently Asked Questions, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.harrods.com/faqs/default.html
IHT: A Special Report 3/15/97, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.iht.com/IHT/SR/031597/sr031597c.html
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf
Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf
Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-
78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…
Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.
Society and Culture
In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).
Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…
AllRefer. Interior decoration, Interior Design and Home Furnishings. AllRefer.com. 11 May 2004. http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/I/interior.html
Brainard, Rick. Daily Life: 18th Century Society: An Overview. 18th Century History. 11 May 2004. http://www.history1700s.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=105
Colonial Williamsburg. 18th Century Clothing. 11 May 2004. http://www.history.org/history/clothing/intro/index.cfm
Malaspina Great Books. Alexander Pope. 11 May 2004. http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_951.asp
The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…
Backscheider, Paula R. Moll Flanders: The Making of a Criminal Mind. (Twayne's
Masterwork Studies). Twayne Publishers, 1990.
Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Dupre, Louis K. The Enlightenment and the Intellectual of Modern Culture. Yale University Press, 2005.
History Of Hospitals
The combined arts and sciences responsible for how society cares for its sick and ill has transformed much throughout recorded history. The greatest and most dramatic changes occurred alongside other historic eras that complimented the changes seen in medicine and health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine the metamorphosis of hospitals from the 18th century until today. In this examination I will focus on the extent of these changes being forced by the ideas of professionalism, medical therapy or technology and the overall character of the changes and how they related to greater historic transformations.
Modern medicine was ushered in with modern times, and revolutionary society changes complemented those which occurred within medicine and health management. The 18th century in historic Europe was ripe with ideas of liberty and freedom, contrasting the previous century's of closed and restricted ideas. The Power Point Slide Presentation…
Brunton, D (2004). "The Emergence of a Modern Profession?" In Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 119-150.
Marland, H. (2004).The Changing Role of the Hospital, 1800-1900, in Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 31-60.
"Modern Medicine." Power Point Presentation.
" The New Hospital." Power Point Presentation.
Women's Movement Timeline
The following paragraphs describe eight incredible women who lived from the 1700's through the present. This paper also includes a timeline to better place into perspective these women's incredible effort and their success at initiating change and giving women first, a voice, then, rights equal to those of men.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
In 1792, Wollstonecraft published the most important piece relating to women's rights, a pamphlet entitled Vindication on the Rights of Women. This work advocated equality of the sexes, and elaborated upon what was later to become the central idea of the Women's Movement across Europe and America. According to scholars, Wollstonecraft "ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming adornments in the household" and instead suggested the women should be educated and not be slavish dependents of their husbands. In fact, Wollstonecraft was one of the first women to advocate women's education above…
Schlafly was an instrumental activist during the 1970's whose efforts, according to scholars, "were largely responsible for preventing ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment." Though Schlafly's opinions are very distinctive when compared to those of the women described above, it is important to mention her as one of the last to oppose equal rights for women publicly. However, her efforts did success, in part because she argued the following:
"ERA would force women into the military, jeopardize benefits under Social Security, and weaken existing legal protections under divorce and marriage laws…"
Source: "Phyllis Schlafly in Women's Movement." Women's Movement. Web. 29 May 2012. .