19th Century Essays (Examples)

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Roles of Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28176167

Women's oles Then And Now:

Societies have continued to change in every century because of influences of cultures in that time period. As these societies grow and develop, the role of various people in the family structure and unit also changes. The changes in the role of women in the society are mainly influenced by societal perception regarding women. As a result, there are significant differences in the role of women in the 19th Century and the roles of women in the 18th Century. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the modern society has is so fast-paced because of increased technological advancements unlike the 18th Century society. An understanding of the changing role of women in the 18th and 19th centuries can be seen from the conversation between two notable women i.e. Maria Elisabeth of Austria and Queen Victoria of Great Britain.

Biographic Information for Each…… [Read More]

References:

Radek, M. (2008, April 21). Women in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from Illinois Valley

Community College website:  http://www2.ivcc.edu/gen2002/women_in_the_nineteenth_century.htm 

Sebellin, T., Woods, K. & Grove, A. (2006, February 20). Queen Victoria. Retrieved from King's College website:  http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/victoria.html 

"The Role of the Woman: 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries." (1997, April 17). My English ISP.
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19th and 20th Century Literature

Words: 1660 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68776169

Balzac and Kafka: From Realism to Magical Realism

French author Honore de Balzac defined the genre of realism in the early 19th century with his novel Old Man Goriot, which served as a cornerstone for his more ambitious project, The Human Comedy. Old Man Goriot also served as a prototype for realistic novels, with its setting of narrative parameters which included plot, structure, characterization, and point-of-view. The 20th century, however, digressed considerably from the genre of realism. Franz Kafka, for example, has been considered as one of the forerunners of the genre known as Magical Realism. endy B. Faris defines the genre of Magical Realism as the combination of "realism and the fantastic so that the marvelous seems to grow organically within the ordinary, blurring the distinction between them… [including] different cultural traditions" (1). Faris finds magical realism to exist at the crossroads of modernism and post-modernism, as a kind…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. New York, NY: Vintage, 2010. Print.

Faris, Wendy B. Ordinary Enchantments: Magical Realism and the Remystification of Narrative. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2004. Print.

Nabokov, Vladimir. "The Metamorphosis." Victorian. Web. 8 May 2012. <

http://victorian.fortunecity.com/vermeer/287/nabokov_s_metamorphosis.htm>
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19th and 20th Centuries Americans

Words: 3665 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49376107

In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).

The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…… [Read More]

References

Coffey, a. (2001). Education and social change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Frye, J.H. (1999). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940: Professional goals and popular aspirations. New York: Greenwood Press.

Kaminsky, J.S. (1999). A new history of educational philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood

Press.
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Religion Entered the 18th Century and With

Words: 8434 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77108254

religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.

Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, aptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.

In 1787…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albanese, Catherine, and Stephen Stein, eds. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Bell, D.. "Allowed Irregularities: Women Preachers in the Early 19th-Century Maritimes" Acadiensis [Online], Volume 30 Number 2 (3 March 2001)

Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Ditmire, Susan. "Cape May County." usgennet.org. http://www.usgennet.org/usa/nj/county/capemay/Jarena.htm  (accessed May 2, 2013). (primary source)
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Emigrant Women of the 19th

Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68905021

That is not to say that these women did not continue to be challenged. The weather, the loneliness, the hostilities, and the isolation all took their toll on Plains women, but they were resolute and determined, and held out hope for the future, and so, for the most part, they managed to survive and even come to love their life on the Plains. One of the most famous Plains women is Laura Ingalls Wilder, who wrote about her family's experiences in the "Little House" series. iley quotes her as saying these problems were "a natural part of life'" (iley 104), and another woman saying, "those years on the Plains were hard years but I grew to like the West and now I would not like to live any other place'" (iley 104). As women became accustomed to their new home, they came to love it, and if they did not,…… [Read More]

References

Riley, Glenda. "Women, Adaptation, and Change."100-111.

Stansell, Christine. "Women on the Great Plains 1865-1890." 92-99.
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Exotism in 19th and Early 20th Century Opera

Words: 2976 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98016479

Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

The Exoticism of Madame Butterfly, Carmen, & Aida

This paper will use three examples of 19th and 20th century opera to examine and interpret the term "exoticism." The paper will take time to clarify the relativity of the term exoticism and how it manifests in these three works. What is exoticism and how does it work? What is the function of exoticism in culture, in art, and in general? What does it reflect about a culture and what desires does exoticism express? The paper will attempt to ask and answer more questions utilizing Madame Butterfly, Carmen, and Aida as examples of the exotic at work in art.

We must first consider that exoticism is a relative term. When referring to three operas from the west, readers must take into account that what is exotic in the west is not what is universally exotic.…… [Read More]

References:

Crebas, Aya & Dick Pels. "The Character of Carmen and the Social Construction of a New Feminine Myth." Center for European Studies, Working Paper Series #5, December 12, 1987.

Harwood, Buie, Bridget May, Phd, & Curt Sherman. "Exoticism: 1830s -- 1920s." Architecture and Interior Design from the 19th Century: An Integrated History, Volume 2,-Page 212 -- 235. Prentice Hall, 2009.

Locke, Ralph P. "A Broader View of Musical Exoticism." The Journal of Musicology, Volume 24, No. 4, Pages 477 -- 521. University of California Press, 2007.

Locke, Ralph P. "Beyond the exotic: How 'Eastern' is Aida?" Cambridge Opera Journal, Volume 17, No. 2, Pages 105 -- 139. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
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Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78019635

Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera

Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.

Exoticism in History and Culture

Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, A. (n.d.). Exoticism. Retrieved from The Imperial Archive Web site: http://www.qub.ac.uk/imperial/key-concepts/Exoticism.htm

New York City Opera Project. (n.d.). New York City Opera Project: Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Columbia University Web site: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO

The Metropolitan Opera. (2011). Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Metropolitan Opera Family Web site: http://www.metoperafamily.org
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Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America

Words: 2650 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92213425

Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America

riting and woman suffrage were inextricably intertwined in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Suffrage gave them a voice, and they used that voice to challenge the early American patriarchal status quo. By examining those works, new light can be brought to bear on suffrage activists, who at the time were thought to be an unimportant fringe group. Through a study of their work, we can learn more about their day-to-day lives.

According to Sandra Harding in McClish and Bacon (p. 28), one's own knowledge depends on one's position in society. hen one is a subordinate in the social hierarchy, one understands life differently than someone at the top of the social hierarchy. However, as the most powerful write history, it tends to be rather one-sided. Since that is the case, Harding argues that these different viewpoints are equally valid. By looking at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bullough, Vern, ed. Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2001.

Laffrado, Laura. Uncommon women: gender and representation in nineteenth-century U.S. women's writing. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, 2009.

McClish, Glen and Jacqueline Bacon. "Telling the Story Her Own Way": the Role of Feminist Standpoint Theory in Rhetorical Studies." Rhetoric Society Quarterly (2002): 27-55.

Porche, Amy S. "The Fashioning of Fanny Fern: A Study of Sara Willis Parton's Early Career, 1851-1854." 2010. Georgia State University Digital Archive, English Dissertations. 6 December 2011 .
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Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century

Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72367743

Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century

19th Century:

Its funny how paper is never really given importance because of the fact that it is so inexpensive and everywhere, that most of us take it for granted. In this paper, we will look at the making of the paper and how it became one of the most disposable products in the world.

Till the mid-1800's paper was considered an expensive commodity and was available only in individual hand-made sheets. Paper was the size of a papermaking frame that had to be handled by one or two people.

This created two problems, one was to be able to manufacture the paper in that size and the second was to manufacture in high volumes.

ags, grass and straw were used to manufacture high quality paper. Then came the lower quality paper called cardboards and wall coverings. During the industrial growth of the…… [Read More]

References

Basic Training, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.home.eznet.net/~kcupery/PBArtic/paperbasics.html

Greatest Achievements - 3. Airplane, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.greatachievements.org/greatachievements/ga_3_2.html

Harrods.com - Frequently Asked Questions, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.harrods.com/faqs/default.html

IHT: A Special Report 3/15/97, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.iht.com/IHT/SR/031597/sr031597c.html
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Private Property and the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75365249

Private Property & the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Private Property in 16th Century Spain

Historically, 16th-century Castile was considered to be fundamentally an urban society that depended on cities and towns for the articulation of its local and centralized administration (Elliott, 1991). Privilege was considered to be a matter of a priori rights founded on traditions associated with nobility and wealth. The lower social stratum was maintained in order to provide fiscal and military support for the crown. The qualities of separateness -- both cultural and logistical -- between the urban central and diffuse local jurisdictions engendered very different perspectives regarding authority. ather than arbitrating reasonable agreements, local authority worked to undermine what was considered to be overreaching by the crown. I contend that the autonomy of local jurisdictions worked against the crown's insistence on absolutism and a monarchy of estates that were grounded in medieval social concepts, however,…… [Read More]

References

Abercrombie, T.A. (). Colonial relandscaping of Andean social memory.. In Pathways of memory and power: Ethnography and history among an Andean people (pp. ). University of Wisconsin Press.

Abercrombie, T.A. (1996). Q'aqchas and la plebe in "rebellion" -- carnival vs. lent in 18th-century potosi. Journal of Latin American, 2(1), 62-111.

Alban, J.P.V. (1999). Introduction: The decline of propriety. In Propriety and permissiveness in Bourbon Mexico (pp. ). Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc.

Elliott, J.H. (1991, Autumn). Renaissance Quarterly, 44(3) A Review: Nader, H. (1990). Liberty in Absolutist Spain: The Habsburg Sale of Towns, 1516-1700. Baltimore and London, The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Spying in the 18th Century

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3120345



It wasn't always a matter of stealing the designs or the parts for a specific technology, Harris explains: "…the arts never pass by writing from one country to another," he quotes from a French official writing in 1752. "The eye and practice alone train men in these activities" (Harris, 43).

In 18th Century Italy Pope Innocent XII had set up a hospice in Laterano for the poor, and the Pope instituted reforms that were designed to "…convince the wealthy to give up direct almsgiving and contribute only to the official collectors" (Grell, et al., 2004, p. 255). In other words, there was an attitude against panhandlers profiting from begging in the streets. Indeed, those with financial means (if they followed the rules) would not be giving directly to beggars, but instead a network would be set up so the wealthy could contribute to a "hospice" where the poor were locked…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harris, John. (1986). Spies who sparked the Industrial Revolution. New Scientist, 110(1509).

42-43. ISSN 0262-4079.

Grell, Ole Peter, Cunningham, Andres, and Roeck, Bernd. (2005). Health Care and Poor Relief

In the 18th and 19th Century Southern Europe. Surry, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
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Leadership Three Theories Three Centuries

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14621831

e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…… [Read More]

References

House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf

Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from  http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf 

Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-

78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from  http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
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Gothic Literature in 18th Century England

Words: 2747 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83808044

Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction

The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…… [Read More]

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Eighteenth Century

Words: 1554 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65360395

Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.

Society and Culture

In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).

Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllRefer. Interior decoration, Interior Design and Home Furnishings. AllRefer.com. 11 May 2004. http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/I/interior.html

Brainard, Rick. Daily Life: 18th Century Society: An Overview. 18th Century History. 11 May 2004. http://www.history1700s.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=105

Colonial Williamsburg. 18th Century Clothing. 11 May 2004.  http://www.history.org/history/clothing/intro/index.cfm 

Malaspina Great Books. Alexander Pope. 11 May 2004. http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_951.asp
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Moll Flanders the Eighteenth Century Is Often

Words: 3113 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47252681

Moll Flanders

The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Backscheider, Paula R. Moll Flanders: The Making of a Criminal Mind. (Twayne's

Masterwork Studies). Twayne Publishers, 1990.

Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Oxford University Press, 2009.

Dupre, Louis K. The Enlightenment and the Intellectual of Modern Culture. Yale University Press, 2005.
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Evolution of Hospitals From 18th Century to Present Era

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3516974

History Of Hospitals

The combined arts and sciences responsible for how society cares for its sick and ill has transformed much throughout recorded history. The greatest and most dramatic changes occurred alongside other historic eras that complimented the changes seen in medicine and health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine the metamorphosis of hospitals from the 18th century until today. In this examination I will focus on the extent of these changes being forced by the ideas of professionalism, medical therapy or technology and the overall character of the changes and how they related to greater historic transformations.

Modern medicine was ushered in with modern times, and revolutionary society changes complemented those which occurred within medicine and health management. The 18th century in historic Europe was ripe with ideas of liberty and freedom, contrasting the previous century's of closed and restricted ideas. The Power Point Slide Presentation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brunton, D (2004). "The Emergence of a Modern Profession?" In Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 119-150.

Marland, H. (2004).The Changing Role of the Hospital, 1800-1900, in Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 31-60.

"Modern Medicine." Power Point Presentation.

" The New Hospital." Power Point Presentation.
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Timeline on Gendered Movements Dating From 1700's to Current Century

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74618351

Women's Timeline

Women's Movement Timeline

The following paragraphs describe eight incredible women who lived from the 1700's through the present. This paper also includes a timeline to better place into perspective these women's incredible effort and their success at initiating change and giving women first, a voice, then, rights equal to those of men.

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

In 1792, Wollstonecraft published the most important piece relating to women's rights, a pamphlet entitled Vindication on the Rights of Women. This work advocated equality of the sexes, and elaborated upon what was later to become the central idea of the Women's Movement across Europe and America. According to scholars, Wollstonecraft "ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming adornments in the household" and instead suggested the women should be educated and not be slavish dependents of their husbands. In fact, Wollstonecraft was one of the first women to advocate women's education above…… [Read More]

Schlafly was an instrumental activist during the 1970's whose efforts, according to scholars, "were largely responsible for preventing ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment." Though Schlafly's opinions are very distinctive when compared to those of the women described above, it is important to mention her as one of the last to oppose equal rights for women publicly. However, her efforts did success, in part because she argued the following:

"ERA would force women into the military, jeopardize benefits under Social Security, and weaken existing legal protections under divorce and marriage laws…"

Source: "Phyllis Schlafly in Women's Movement." Women's Movement. Web. 29 May 2012. .