19th Century Social Thought Chapter

Length: 2 pages Subject: Sports - Women Type: Chapter Paper: #46770967 Related Topics: Scientific Management, Social Security, Social Worker, Child Custody
Excerpt from Chapter :

¶ … nineteenth century middle class and Marx, Freud, and suffragettes

Members of a mostly male middle class dominated politics and society in the mid-nineteenth century in states such as Britain and France. How did the ideas and actions of Marx, Freud, and the suffragettes challenge their self-assured confidence in themselves and the societies they led as the turn of the century approached?

Towards the end of the 19th century, fears of growing worker radicalization led some employers to establish small pension and worker's compensation funds to provide greater security for their employees (786). Many also employed what today would be considered relatively paternalistic systems of overseeing worker conduct in exchange for providing access to lodging and other amenities to ensure that workers were 'protected' (without, of course, being unionized). Germany was more proactive in instituting such reforms, however, while the workhouse system still was used in Britain to keep track of the 'undeserving' poor. To underline the extent to which workers were overworked by today's standards, the first Factory Act reduced workers' hours to a maximum of 56 hours per week (785). The trade union movement across Europe began to gain traction as workers grew increasingly restless at what they saw as societal inequities (787). The new emphasis on scientific management only increased worker radicalization as it emphasized reducing worker movements to regimented actions and further disenfranchised skilled workers.

But while both blue and white-collar unionization exploded as a result of dissatisfaction, unionization of women workers lagged behind. Women were relegated to low-skilled employment and the ideology of the era denied the right of women to work at all, conveniently forgetting the fact that despite the middle class ideology of the angel in the


The so-called 'suffragettes' who lobbied to extend the vote to all women were a reflection of the growing disparities between men and women, particularly in the more socially mobile capitalistic workplace. Although some women did make inroads into the professions, they were often greeted with calls of derision and Queen Victoria herself opposed women's rights (796). Gradually, women won the right to own property as married women; to have custody over their own children; and to sue for divorce (797). The relationship of the feminist movement to colonialization, however, was complex, given that 19th century feminists often allied themselves with the colonial impetus, viewing Europeans as a liberating force to women who were kept in chains by 'backward' cultures (797). Some suffragettes were noted for their radicalism, including Emilia Pankhurst who bombed the house of the Liberal leader Lloyd George and Emily Davidson who committed suicide by throwing herself in front of the king's horse at Epson Downs (798).

The slow response of the major European governments to undertake radical reform resulted in an explosion of the International Socialist movement, inspired by Marx's ideas. However, not all socialists believed that full-scale revolution was the only path to reform and many strove to work within the…

Cite this Document:

"19th Century Social Thought" (2015, March 07) Retrieved January 20, 2022, from

"19th Century Social Thought" 07 March 2015. Web.20 January. 2022. <

"19th Century Social Thought", 07 March 2015, Accessed.20 January. 2022,

Related Documents
19th Century Literature Humans Are
Words: 1105 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Family and Marriage Paper #: 79595848

Thus, they are under the same constraints. Emma describes the problem with her life in a scene at mealtime. The meals, in fact, symbolize her complete distain, as all the "bitterness of existence" seems to be heaped on her plate. The smell of the boiled beef mixes with the odors of sickliness that arise from her soul. The image of the plate is her flat, boring, unchanging life. To escape this

19th Century Art: Jacques-Louis David
Words: 2011 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Art  (general) Paper #: 54763904

De La Croix, 865-66. Artists in the nineteenth century were confronted by three innovations that fatefully affected their craft: the camera, the mass produced print, and the printed reproduction. The collective techniques of an industrial age forced nineteenth century artists to analyze their function and to study closely the physical nature of their medium. Hyde, Minor, Art History's History. 32-35. Baroque Art emerged in Europe around 1600, as a reaction against

19th Century History
Words: 5781 Length: 20 Pages Topic: Sports - Drugs Paper #: 63907692

Prohibition One of the most conflicted points of United States history is associated with the temperance movement, which culminated into a federal constitutional amendment prohibiting the production, transportation, and sale of all alcoholic beverages. The 18th Amendment to the constitution marked the end of a long and ardent campaign to eliminate all the ills of American society. The root of prohibition is seated in the reality of the alcohol, problem in

19th Century Literature
Words: 4594 Length: 14 Pages Topic: Literature Paper #: 26111129

Madame Bovary's entire experience is by way of approaching her own obscurity, and indeed her own demise, and her death as an individual. The essay by Elisabeth Fronfen is, for the most part, very perceptive and the analysis she offers is razor sharp; when she asserts (411) that Madame Bovary's reading "consumes the life of the reader, who reads instead of living," she hits the literary mark with thorough

Immigration in America: 19th Century
Words: 2190 Length: 6 Pages Topic: American History Paper #: 79205927

This doesn't explain why the Irish had such a difficult time, but in America, religious differences are often the cause of intolerance as well. The truth is that without immigrants in the 19th, 20th, and 21st century -- and of course the two hundred years before this, this nation would not be where or what it is today and to remain true to our roots we must accept that

American Social Thought on Women's Rights
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Sports - Women Paper #: 26207473

American Social Thought on Women's Rights This paper compares and contrasts the arguments in favor of women's rights made by three pioneering American feminists: Judith Sargent Murray, Sarah Grimke, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. This analysis reveals the centrality of religious argumentation to the feminism of all three. Murray and Grimke were both converts to varieties of evangelical Protestantism who drew considerable intellectual and emotional nourishment from strands of Christianity, which encouraged,