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Abraham Maslow and His Contributions to Psychology: Humanistic Psychology
Holistic-Dynamic Personality Theory
Abraham Maslow is often thought of as the father of Humanistic Psychology and is credited with the inception of theory that departed from the traditional psychoanalytic approach and the behavioral models. With in this paper Maslow's life is addressed as a source of his inspiration for theory, humanistic psychology is defined and Maslow's holistic-dynamic personality theory is given paramount focus.
Abraham Maslow is often cited as the father of humanist psychology. Through the psychological movement that he and others began has developed what many call the "third force" in psychology. The theories surrounding humanistic psychology reject a great deal of those found within the first two forces, psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
During the first half of the twentieth century, American psychology was dominated by two schools of thought: behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Neither fully acknowledged the possibility of studying values,…
Association for Humanistic Psychology (2001). Humanistic Psychology Overview. Retrieved May 18, 2003, at http://ahpweb.org/aboutahp/whatis.html
Decarvalho, R.J., & Krippner, S. (1991). The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Ewen, R.B. (1998). An Introduction to Theories of Personality (5th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gorsuch, R.L., & Hao, J.Y. (1993). Forgiveness: An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Its Relationships to Religious Variables. Review of Religious Research, 34(4), 333-347.
S. system, where many believe that the education system should be an all inclusive personal investment that offers the child everything they need to learn. How this relates to Maslow is simple, the application of core concepts, such as those associated with basic needs, of performing math might be better offered at home, by common expectation than in the classroom, where instructional time should be spent applying knowledge to novel ideas and concepts.
Maslow's concepts of development are rather clear in a common sense sort of way, and yet applying them to mathematics education can seem difficult, as concepts of perceived uniqueness are often battle scared by years of being taught one right way to achieve results. For an individual to feel self-actualized they must be given the opportunity to learn in a different manner, a manner that befits their individual lives and personalities. edirecting instruction to models that give…
Dai, D.Y., Moon, S.M., & Feldhusen, J.F. (1998). Achievement Motivation and Gifted Students: a Social Cognitive Perspective. Educational Psychologist, 33(2/3), 45-63.
Ernest, P. (1991). The Philosophy of Mathematics Education. London: Falmer Press.
Gold, M.J. (1965). Education of the Intellectually Gifted. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Books.
Hashway, R.M. (1988). Foundations of Developmental Education. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs to Job Satisfaction
In pursuing a job career, people have many and various motivations and needs that they want answered before considering and taking a particular job. In fact, many research studies in the field of social sciences have been conducted in order to particularly identify the motivations and needs that people have and the explanations/reasons behind each decision an individual makes concerning the decision-making process of choosing a job. These studies led to the formulation of Need Theories of Motivation, wherein the psychologist Abraham Maslow had been one of its primary proponents.
Abraham Maslow's study on need theories was published in 1943, wherein he introduces to his readers the concept of Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation. In his Hierarchy of Needs, Maslow provides five (5) categories that best reflects an individual's needs that essentially becomes a motivation. At the lowest rank in Maslow's hierarchy…
Gundal, K. (2000). Leadership and Job Satisfaction. Retrieved, 3 June 2003, from University of Florida. Web site: http://www.coe.ufl.edu/Leadership/Distance/7990/group1/group1notes/LeadershipandJobSatisfact.html .
Kreitner, R. And A. Kinicki. (1995). Organizational Behavior. (3rd ed.). Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
Santrock, J. 2001. Psychology. (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Kreitner, R. And A. Kinicki. (1995). Organizational Behavior. (3rd ed.). Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
He left it as saying that humans have five types of needs. All his sayings come from his book called Motivation and Personality that was released in 1943. The lowest level of needs is the physiological needs and these come from the human body and these are like air, warmth, food, sleep, stimulations and activity. On top of these needs are the security or safety needs like being away from threats and these needs are the strongest among children as they feel the greatest need to be safe. Then are the social needs like the love of family and friends. The next level of needs is those for ego or self-esteem. These demand that we have self-respect and get respect from others. The highest level of needs is those for self-actualization or fulfillment. These needs are prominent among people who have achieved all other requirements and have a healthy personality.…
Abraham H. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" Retrieved at http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_02_maslow.html. Accessed 14 August, 2005
Abraham Maslow: 1908-1970" Retrieved at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhmasl.html . Accessed 14 August, 2005
Abraham Maslow" Retrieved at http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Maslow.htm. Accessed 14 August, 2005
Biography: Abraham Maslow" Retrieved at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch11/bio11e.mhtml . Accessed 14 August, 2005
Lincoln believed that African-Americans were vested with the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. This position cost him the election.
It must be noted that Lincoln was undoubtedly not the only person at that time to be opposed to slavery. However, in political circles, the debate was often over property rights and popular sovereignty, rather than any discussion of morality. Recall Maslow's belief that self-actualized people have enormous compassion, a desire to solve the world's problems rather than succumb to them, and a rigid ethical code. All those came into play in Lincoln's bid to accord slaves a measure of equality, and his determination through all the turmoil that ensued.
In 1860, Lincoln was nominated for the Presidency as a Republican. Lincoln defeated his old nemesis, Stephen Douglas, along with John reckinridge, who represented the Southern Democrats. Lincoln's passion for service could easily have been influenced by…
Boeree, G. (2006). Abraham maslow. Retrieved May 7, 2008, from Personality Theories
Web site: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Daeg de Mott, D. (2006). Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning. Retrieved May 7, 2008, from Bnet.com
Web site: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0003/ai_2602000337
Our organization, like most other organizations, is mainly concerned with motivation of salespersons who act as the backbone of our business. My firm runs a chain of bookstores around the country and it is important for us to hire salespersons who are highly motivated and can attract more customers. But to keep people motivates all the time is not an easy task and our H department is always coming up with ways to sustain the interest and motivation level of sales employees. In this connection Maslow's theory of needs has played an important role as it has been incorporated in our rewards and incentive plan.
Abraham Maslow was of the view that man has different set of needs and it was important for him to satisfy one set before he could move on to another. This theory has been given immense importance in psychology studies of motivation because man…
1) Abraham H. Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being, D. Van Nostrand Company, 1968
2) Louise J. Smith. Evaluating the applicability of Maslow's model: Retrieved online 28th May 2005: http://www.shu.ac.uk/schools/urs/fmgc/research/papers/evaluatingtheapplicabilityofmaslow.pdf
Maslow's Hiercarhy Needs
Describe Hierarcy Needs developed Abraham Maslow (350-400 words) -Critically Evaluate Maslow's Model terms Contribution development a balanced lifestyle individuals comparing Freud's Perspective 2) - This paragraph considers effective / ineffective Model helping individual develop a balanced lifestyle -Also perspectives thought ( 350-400) - Referencing text applicable, Havard Referencing end.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow devised the Hierarchy of Needs with the purpose of providing the general public with a more thorough understanding of concepts like motivation and development. The hierarchy basically claims that human beings are instinctively motivated to have access to basic needs before expressing interest in other needs. One of the most frequent representations of the Hierarchy of Needs is a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are the basic needs and the higher levels contain the more intricate needs. Through basic needs one can understand physical necessities, such as food, water, sleep,…
Ewen, Robert B. An Introduction to Theories of Personality, 5th ed. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998)
Gambrel, Patrick A. And Cianci, Rebecca "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Does It Apply in a Collectivist Culture," Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship 8.2 (2003)
Maslow, Abraham H. The Maslow Business Reader, ed. Deborah C. Stephens (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000)
Vitz, Paul C. "Psychology in Recovery," First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public LifeMar. 2005
The third level up the pyramid is the need for affection, belonging and love. This is the need state area were people are who want to alleviate feelings of loneliness, isolation or alienation (Hoffman, 1988). This level is also critically important for the development of trust in the workplace and within workplace teams and the sense of identity that comes from being part of a group (Harris, Kleiner, 1993). Fourth there is the need for esteem and while it often connotes the esteem from others as a layer of the model, it encompasses self-esteem as well. This is the level where the critical aspects of self-worth, self-confidence and self-discipline come into how a person approaches their life and their goals (Bazigos, Burke, 1997). The top layer of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model is self-actualization. This is the level of where people are who have found their innate strengths and…
Michael N. Bazigos, & W. Warner Burke. (1997). Theory orientations of organization development (OD) practitioners. Group & Organization Management, 22(3), 384-408.
Cangemi, J. (2009). Analysis of an Adversarial Labor/Management Situation in a Latin American Industrial Setting: A Case Study using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Organization Development Journal, 27(1), 37-47.
Harris, Chris, & Kleiner, Brian H. (1993). Motivational practices at America's best managed companies. Management Research News, 16(9,10), 1.
Hoffman, Edward. (1988, September). Abraham Maslow: Father of Enlightened Management. Training, 25(9), 79.
As a catering manager a transplant hospital, describe factors influence people work place behave-based explain apply recognized theory motivation (Abraham Maslow) team improve performance.
Maslow: The hierarchy of needs
The theorist Abraham Maslow created a hierarchy of needs to describe what individuals sought out of life. The first level of the Maslow hierarchy is made up of basic needs, like food, shelter and clothing. The second level consists of the need for security, including fear of bodily harm. After that need is satisfied there a third need for belonging and social acceptance, followed by a fourth need for esteem (approval from other people). Only after these needs are met is a person capable of satisfying the highest-level need of self-actualization, or achieving a higher purpose in life (Maslow's hierarchy of needs, 2010, Honolulu College).
This is important to remember when managing a workplace because a critical aspect of Maslow's…
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2010). Honolulu College. Teacher's Guidebook.
Retrieved March 15, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
A key element to Maslow's hierarchy of needs is that it is a hierarchy, namely that the baser needs must be satisfied before the higher needs can be met. A salesperson scrabbling to make a living might be willing, to satisfy his or her physiological needs, to sell anything to anyone, even encourage someone to go into dangerous debt with a mortgage he or she can ill-afford to buy an overpriced or unsuitable house. A person who lives in an unsafe community might enter into such an agreement, to earn enough money for his or her own immediate self-interest to move out of that community. The foolishness of buying a home on such a basis in the long-term is difficult to appreciate when short-term needs are not met on a physical level. Only when the salesperson's bestial instincts of food and shelter and safety are satisfied can he or she…
Gwynne, Robert. (1997) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM
Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
In determining the most appropriate and effective means of motivating people within an organization, especially when its members are mostly salespersons, it is essential to turn to Abraham Maslow's discussion of an individual's hierarchy of needs. His model and theory of needs illustrates that an individual has the "innate tendency towards growth; s/he is basically trustworthy, self-protecting, and self-governing" (Griffin, 1994:125). In his hierarchy, Maslow identifies physiological needs as the most basic need, categorized as 'deficiency needs.' On the topmost part of the hierarchy is self-actualization, considered by the theorist as 'being needs.' Maslow grants both kinds of needs as essential to the individual. However, he emphasizes that people's primary goal is to achieve being needs, which necessitates going through the bottom part of the hierarchy, which is satisfying one's physiological needs. In an organization of salespeople, satisfying the basic needs of the members such as…
Griffin, E. (1994). A first look at communication theory. NY: McGraw-Hill Inc.
This need can also be defined as a "need to know," and in fact showing individuals in elder care facilities the respect they deserve by explaining the structure, policies, schedules, and other aspects of care so that individuals know how their world is organized is a surprisingly rare occurrence in many elder care facilities (Huitt 2007; ECO 2010). Providing these simple explanations can fill cognitive needs, as can allowing freedom to pursue ongoing learning through reading and discussion and classes as mentioned above. Some freedom in decorative aspects of private rooms and engagement in art projects, music events, and even simply ensuring that every individual in the care facility has access to music and other entertainment sources that they particularly enjoy will help to fulfill the aesthetic needs of individuals, and this can also have tremendous impacts on some of the lower-level needs of individuals in elder care facilities (ECO…
ECO. (2010). Elder Care Options. Accessed 9 November 2010. http://www.eldercareoptions.org/
Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Accessed 9 November 2010. http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html
Maslow gave them that self-meaning and appreciation and became one of the pioneers of a movement that brought the focus of individual feeling, yearning and wholeness into psychology. He sort of read them out and spoke their thoughts, feelings and aspirations for them. He devoted much energy to humanistic psychology and the human potential and inaugurated the "fourth force" in psychology towards the end of his life. The first force consisted of Freud and other depth psychologists; the second force, the behaviorists; his own humanism and European existentialism, the third. This fourth force was made up of transpersonal psychologies that derived from European philosophies, which examined meditation, higher consciousness levels and para-psychological phenomena and which reacted against the then dominant psychoanalysis and behaviorism schools of the 20th century. Among the most prominent European philosophers were Kierkegaard, Husserl and Heidegger and the most prominent in the humanist/existential group were Carl Rogers,…
Beneckson, Robert E Personality Theory. Florida International University. http://vorlon1.com/PersonalityTheory2b.htm
Boeree, George C. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow. Understanding Human Motivation. Personality Theory, 1970
Dickinson, Dee. Revisiting Maslow. Transforming Education: New Horizons for Learning, 2002. http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/dickinsonmaslow.htm
In the pantheon of nursing theories, borrowed theories are those that derive from other disciplines and have been adapted to the nursing context. Many such borrowed theories come from the different social sciences, such as psychology or sociology, because they directly reflect critical issues in care such as human nature and the role of human interactions in well-being. One could apply religious theories to care for religious people, and it is possible even to consider things like motivational theories as well, if the nurse is trying to motivate the patient (for example, to change behavior as a means of changing health outcomes). Borrowed theories have perhaps received less study than either grand theories or mid-level theories, but they are nevertheless an important source of insight for the nursing educator, and it is important to understand the theory, where it comes from, and how it has been adapted to apply…
Villarruel, A., Bishop, T., Simpson, E., Jemmott, L. & Fawcett, J. (2001). Borrowed theories, shared theories and the advancement of nursing knowledge. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 14 (2) 158-163.
Zalenski, R. & Raspa, R. (2006). Maslow's hierarchy of needs: A framework for achieving human potential in hospice. Journal of Palliative Medicine. Vol. 9 (5) 1120-1127.
Zhan, L. (2000). Cognitive adaptation and self-consistency in hearing-impaired older persons: Testing Roy's adaptation model. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 13 (2) 158-165.
Common sense suggests that pay is a good motivator. The logic is: "You get what you pay for."
Provide examples of three different career tracks where people clearly are not focused on earning high pay.
For each of your examples. Describe what the key motivators are.
Cesar Chavez once said that, (Farm workers) are responsible for the planting, cultivating as well as harvesting huge amounts of food for the whole society. They are responsible for the production of such large amounts of food that it can feed the whole country and can be exported as well. The tragic and ironic thing here is that at the end of the day these farmers don't have enough food left to keep for themselves. They don't even have sufficient amounts of money after all this hard work.
Sadly, this is the kind of paradox that has always been there…
(2013). Retrieved from managementstudyguide.com: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/maslows-hierarchy-needs-theory.htm
Baldwin, S. (2007). Motivating Staff. U.S.: Exchange. Retrieved from: http://www.center-school.org/ocdel/online/documents/movitatingstaff.pdf
Birch, L.L., D.W. Marlin, and J. Rotter. (1984). Eating as the 'Means' Activity in a Contingency: Effects on Young Children's Food Preference. Child Development 55(2, Apr): 431-439. EJ 303-231.
Deci, E.L., and R.M. Ryan.(1985). Intrinsic Motivation And Self-Determination In Human Behavior. New York: Plenum.
American Beauty and Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
Abraham Maslow established the theory of a hierarchy of needs, believing that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied (Maslow's pp).
Rather than studying the neurotic or mentally ill, Maslow studied exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglas to determine how they came to be successful (Maslow's pp). Unlike Skinner and Freud, he believed that people are "basically trustworthy, self-protecting, and self-governing...and that humans tend toward growth and love" (Maslow's pp).
Maslow felt that although there is a continuous cycle of negativity, such as wars, murder, and deceit, he believed that violence is not what human nature is meant to be like, and occurs only because of and when human needs are thwarted (Maslow's pp). In other words, people defend themselves by violent means, only…
American Beauty." Director: Sam Mendes. Dreamworks. 1999.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM
iPod (Apple's MP3 player) relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs.
Abraham Maslow created his theory of a hierarchy of human needs in the late 1960's and early 1970's. The psychologist wrote that human beings are primarily motivated by unsatisfied needs. Certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs are satisfied. (Maslow, 1970) Advertising new products often depends upon generating a sense of need, and promising that the new product can fulfill this need.
Take for example the Apple's new MP3 player, the iPod. True, on a Maslow-like physiological level, the first level of need, one cannot eat an iPod, and a less mechanical form of 'apple' is necessary for sustenance, iPods do satisfy the consumer's immediate physical needs for lighter equipment. iPods are portable and more amenable to working out, and for musical use on crowded subway, and the crush and strain of modern urban life. The iPod…
Mahr, Jackson. (2004) "HP & iPod." Branding.com. Retrieved 24 Mar 2005 at http://www.brandchannel.com/features_profile.asp?pr_id=205
Nixon, Paul. (2005) "Apple's Tipping Point: Macs for Masses." Retrieved 24 Mar 2005 at http://www.nixlog.com/archives/2005/01/12_apples_tipping_point_macs_for_the_masses_infographic.php
Consumer Behavior Models:
Decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, trait theory, learning process models
Do consumers mainly use logical or emotional thinking when making decisions? This is the essential problem with which all marketers must grapple. Some models of consumer behavior, such as the seven-step decision model, suggest that consumers make decisions very logically, carefully weighing the pros and cons. Others suggest that when consumers make decisions about purchases, they do so in an instinctual fashion, based upon emotions.
The seven-step decision model suggests that people make decisions by first identifying the exact nature of the decision (like buying a new pair of sneakers); assessing personal priorities (such as fashion vs. functionality); identifying their options (Nike vs. New Balance); gathering information and data (talking to someone at a running store or simply talking to their friends); evaluating their options; selecting the best option; and…
How to use the 7 step decision-making model. (2011). Decision making confidence. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/7-step-decision-making-model.html
Jean, E. (1999). Cognitive dissonance theory. Meta-Discourses. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Jean.htm
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2010). Honolulu College. Teacher's Guidebook.
Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
The Extent to Which Motivation Theory Underpins Performance Management Systems
Performance Management Systems attempt to answer questions about employee work objectives and their overall role within an organization. The performance manager system is designed to assist the manager in developing, assessing and monitoring a plan by which an employee’s contributions to the organizational strategy and strategic objective are identified, measured and reviewed. The questions that the Performance Management System will are: What is the role of the employee? What is the objective of the employee? How well is the employee meeting the objective? What could be done to help the employee meet the objective more effectively? In encouraging employees to reach their goals, motivation theory can be seen as underpinning performance management systems to a high extent.
Motivation theory is based on the concept developed by Abraham Maslow (1943) in “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Maslow (1943) constructed a Hierarchy…
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the _humanistic__ theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of _self-actualization____ needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that _lower____ needs must be satisfied before ____higher____ needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is formative tendency.
The _actualizing tendency, according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered _shattered self-concept__.
7. Rogers believed that ____empathy____, ____unconditional positive regard____, and ____congruence____ are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
8. ____Intentionality____ is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
9. May proposed that __self-awareness____ is the freedom of action, whereas _essential freedom____ is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of self-actualization needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that basic needs must be satisfied before secondary/higher level needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is evolution.
The ideal self according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered undifferentiated.
Rogers believed that counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
Intentionality is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
May proposed that existential freedom is the freedom of action, whereas essential freedom is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…
Needs that are lower in the hierarchy must be fulfilled before each higher level is (Korman, 1974). According to Maslow, the first level consists of the physiological needs, such as hunger and thirst. This must be fulfilled before any other level. The next level consists of security needs, which can become determinants of behavior. Examples of security needs include physical, financial, and even political or social stability. The third level consists of social needs, such as the need for love and social affiliation (DeCatanzaro, 1999). The forth level consists of self-esteem needs, which come from productive and useful work or success in many endeavors. Finally, the last level consists of the drive for self-actualization, which is our highest need, such as fulfilling personal potentials and talents. The meaning of the term self-actualization is very abstract and vague; however, it has been said that in the drive for self-actualization, we seek…
DeCatanzaro, D. (1999). Motivation and emotion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Korman, A. (1974). The psychology of motivation. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
The below triangle and framework has been in place since the 1940's. It was first put forth in 1943 and was later updated, also by Maslow, a little over a decade later in 1954. The triangle or pyramid is constructed in such a way that the more "basic" and major needs are lower down the chain and the lesser but yet still worthy of mention needs are higher up. Indeed, basic needs, like the first two levels mentioned, are going to go get the most attention from any given person. However, the needs that are higher up the pyramid will get attention as well. The idea is that, to one degree or another, all of the needs on the pyramid influence our motivation or actions to one degree or another.
There are five different needs when it comes to the Maslow hierarchy. They are depicted in picture…
BBC. (2017). Abraham Maslow and the pyramid that beguiled business - BBC News. BBC News. Retrieved 2 April 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-23902918
CM. (2017). Maslow's Hierarchy. Changingminds.org. Retrieved 2 April 2017, from http://changingminds.org/explanations/needs/maslow.htm
EPI. (2017). Educational Psychology Interactive: Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Edpsycinteractive.org. Retrieved 2 April 2017, from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/maslow.html
LT. (2017). MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS. Learning-theories.com. Retrieved 2 April 2017, from https://www.learning-theories.com/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs.html
MASLOW'S THOEY VS. HULL'S THEOY
Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology
Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory
Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is due to the many studies, which provide different definitions for the term. While some define it as a set of beliefs, values, interests, others define it as a cognitive decision making process. For this paper, motivation is central to a set of processes, which induce, direct, and maintain actions towards an objective. It is not similar to job performance, but it is a contributor to job performance (Linder, 1980). Motivation is a crucial component in the workplace, which explains why organizations are borrowing concepts from the motivation theories. There are many motivational theories, but they either fall under the content or process categories. Content theories assume that individuals have similar needs, and process theories emphasize the importance of…
Brewer, E.W., & McMahan-Landers, J. (2003). Job satisfaction among industrial and technical teacher educators. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(2), 65.
Benson, S.G., & Dundis, S.P. (2003). Understanding and motivating health care employees:
integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology. Journal of nursing management, 11(5), 315-320.
Jensen, R. (2006). Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: Needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks. Behavior analysis fall, 29(2), 187-209.
govern the extent to which we thrive as human beings. Our survival has been contingent on the fulfillment of needs since the moment we were born. Abraham Maslow saw great importance and significance in the fulfillment of human needs and created an entire theoretical perspective based in these needs. Everyone, including myself, is a product of the fulfillment, or lack of fulfillment, of certain needs. Essentially, our physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health and well-being depend upon certain needs being met.
Maslow's theory rests in the concept that certain needs must be tended to and fulfilled prior to other needs. Furthermore, physiological needs must be established before safety needs, safety needs before belongingness needs, and belongingness needs before esteem needs, and finally all of these needs prior to self-actualization (Poston, 2009). These needs were arranged by Maslow in a pyramid, with physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization at the…
Poston, B. (2009). An exercise in personal exploration: Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The Surgical Technologist, August, 347-53.
Maslow also argues that after a person meets their basic survival needs, they will begin to self-actualize (Maslow, 1999). This means that they will now become concerned with an increase of tension related to their own achievements, goals, and behavior. If Clinton had felt that his physical and psychological needs had not been met, then his main concern would have been tension reduction. Tension reduction would have likely resulted in a lack of sexual desire for other women that could result in tension in his marriage. But since Clinton's basic survival needs were satisfied, he was able to seek out relationships and behaviors that would implicitly likely create more tension, and serve to try and satisfy the need for achievement and self-actualization.
By definition, Maslow's need for self-actualization, sometimes referred to as growth-motivation, cannot be satisfied (Maslow, 1999). People try to enhance their lives instead of their survival, and often…
Maslow, Abraham H. (1998) Maslow on Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Maslow, Abraham H. (1999) Toward a Psychology of Being, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
"William J. Clinton." (2009) the Official White House Homepage. Retrieved: December 10, 2009, http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamjClinton .
Marketing Channels and Methods -- the New Svelte Shape of McDonald's
Objectives & Mission Statement
Although McDonald's latest advertising slogan, as proclaimed on its 2005 website, is "I'm lovin' it," (McDonald's Official ebsite, 2005), shareholders in the fast food company have not be equally enamored of its current stock performance and plummeting sales. (The Rogue Investor, 2005) Thus, the objectives of the new McDonald's marketing campaign must be to undo some of the economic and public relations damage done to the company by the negative press generated by the success of Morgan Spurlock's film 'Supersize Me.' Over the course of the year, McDonald's wishes to gain a greater percentage of the revenue of the current fast food market than its most prominent burger-oriented competitors endy's and Burger King. McDonald's also wishes to gain some of the type of positive media as generated by the sandwich chain Subway. The Subway Diet…
Bauman, Valerie. (11 Aug 2005) "People try to lose weight at McDonalds." AP Wire. Accessed on AOL on 22 Aug 2005 at http://aolsvc.news.aol.com/news/article.adp?id=20050811163009990002
Burger King. (2005) Official Website. Retrieved 11 Sept 2005 at http://www.haveityourway.com/
Collins, Luke. (2002) "Chips are down for Burger Giants" MCD: McDonald's Corporation News and Articles. Retrieved 27 Aug 2005 at http://www.licenseenews.com/news/news134.html
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.
Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?
Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/careers/career_opportunities.html
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/index.html
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational behavior. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from students.flatworldknowledge.com Web site: http://students.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/study/4?e=
IWon. (n.d.). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www1.iwon.com Web site: http://www1.iwon.com/home/careers/company_profile/0,15623,1310,00.html
(2001, October 1) Self-esteem at work, Psychology Today, etrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200310/self-esteem-work
6. Describe the needs present in Maslow's hierarchy. How can organizations attempt to meet these needs so that employees are motivated to produce more work? Discuss the answer in detail.
According to Abraham Maslow (1970), there is a hierarchy of needs that define human development. These are: Basic Needs (food, shelter, clothing), Safety, Love and Belonging, Skill Accomplishment and Self-Actualization. In Maslow's view, as each need becomes adequately satisfied, the next highest need becomes dominant. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one's potential (Maslow, 1970). In Maslow's view, as long as we are motivated to satisfy our deficiency needs, then we are moving in a positive direction towards personal…
Maslow, a., (1970) Motivation and personality, 2nd ed., Harper & Row (orig. 1954)
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…
Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.
2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.
3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.
4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.
The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…
Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.
Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.
Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.
Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.
Outsourced employees should be limited to filling non-critical areas of need. They should be used to alleviate the load on regular employees, rather than to replace them. They will fill in non-essential positions, leaving full-time employees to fill the more sensitive security roles.
Strategic planning will be an ongoing process, rather than a single event that is a part of the initial phases of the process. Security issues are constantly emerging and evolving. In order to remain an effective deterrent to harm, one must stay informed and keep one's staff informed of the changes that occur. An informed staff will be the most effective in spotting and reporting threats before they become problematic. The strategic security plan will be one of continuous monitoring and improvement. Security audits will be a part of this strategic planning cycle. Training and regular staff briefing will round out the security planning sessions.
Boeree, G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved September 18, 2007 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html .
A www.informaworld.com http://www.articlestree.com/management/personnel-management-to-hrm-maslow-s-theory-tx307537.html.
Overseas Security Advisory Council (2007) Guidelines for American Enterprises abroad, OSAC Publication, World wide 1 Jun 2005, Chapter 1 through chapter 7..
Te, H. (n.d.). Attitude toward the self. Retrieved September 18, 2007 at http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Den/5908/values/attitude.html.
The researches in this direction have confirmed that engagement in goal-setting and acceptance of the goals are crucial for the assurance of the goal and job. Moreover, monitoring the stages of attainment of goal is also crucial for imparting motivation. While an employee is not attaining timely and accurate feedback on performance it is quite difficult in assessing the behaviors for continuance in the direction of achieving the goals in subsequently. It is again pertinent to note that goals themselves are not reinforcing. The motivation is perceived to have resulted from the discontentment of what is accomplished and what was set earlier for accomplishment. Such shortfalls imbibe people to work harder for achieving better pursuits subsequently. (Goal Setting Theory)
The importance of the goal setting theory stems from its focus on motivation in work fronts and on the core characteristics of a successful and effective goal or aim. The performance…
Big Dog's Leadership Page - Human Behavior. May 17, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadhb.html . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
ERG Theory. Retrieved at http://www.envisionsoftware.com/articles/ERG_Theory.html. Accessed on 10 February, 2005
ERG Theory. Retrieved at http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/erg/ . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Goal Setting Theory. Retrieved at http://www.siop.org/Instruct/Motivate/sld007.htm. Accessed on 10 February, 2005
andura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, andura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. andura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).
From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.
The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person.…
Buber, M. And C. Rogers. (1997). The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary. Albany: University of New York Press.
Freedheim, D. And I. Weiner. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill.
However, his sense of self-respect is rendered incomplete because of his father. The struggle he experienced demonstrated this and though it did not define his whole being as he is now, it was the primary component in his life that made it a challenge to meet his need for esteem.
2. As the current president of the United States, Obama can be said as a successful person. However, it cannot be said that he is fulfilled and has achieved self-actualization. The absence of a father figure in Obama's life remains a struggle in his life that could determine his successful realization for self-actualization.
3. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs demonstrates how individual needs are categorized by levels and are comprised of different factors that may or may not apply to the individual. Using the Hierarchy of Needs alone, the theory cannot explain fully Obama's psyche, personality and behavior. Maslow's theory…
Barak Obama. (2012). Biography. Retrieved: http://www.biography.com/people/barack-obama-12782369
MacFarquhar, Larissa. (2007). The conciliator. The New Yorker. Retrieved: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/05/07/070507fa_fact_macfarquhar#ixzz1pbLlZHPI
High-performance teams are self-directed and empowered to achieve powerful results in a very short period of time. Team members will learn and grow as they work together.
Negative team members or malcontents are individuals who will come into the process already with a bad attitude and not agree with anything that is suggested. This can bring the entire team down. It is up to the team leader to reinforce the strengths of this individual and the purpose for his/her role on the team. The person should have the opportunity to address his/her concerns with an objective and non-judgmental environment. The leader should ask the person to give three reasons that are of most concern. Then narrow it to two, and finally to one. Then the leader can transfer to a more positive approach and ask the person to give ways to address the concerns. Positive group members keep an open…
Crabb's book, Effective Biblical Counseling and the theories presented there. This paper will examine how Crabb treats some of the more popular theories in the book and how he is able to summarize them for the reader -- largely accomplishing this in a very accessible manner.
For instance, Crabb's treatment of Abraham Maslow's theory of classical needs hierarchy is extremely astute and user-friendly. Crabb explains how the need on the lowest rung of the hierarchy needs to be met and completed in order for the individual to be able to have sufficient motivation to get the subsequent need met and so on (Crabb, 1986). According to these ideologies, the lowest needs are the physical ones: food, water and comparable needs -- these are the needs that the organism must fulfill in order to survive (Crabb, 1986). The following need is the need of security, which encompasses a general sense and…
Crabb, L. (1986). Effective Biblical Counseling. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing.
Marketing / Business
Grade11 Marketing / Business Activity
Activity 1: Braun Pocket Radio
Entertainment has always been the most integral and essential part of lives of people regardless of the demographics, socio economical backgrounds, or age groups. The form of entertainment has evolved over a period of time with the evolution in technology. One of the most common and popular form of entertainment is music. Music lovers exist around the world and in every age group. hile the music listening equipment dates back to the huge gramophone and radio, with the evolution in technology and industrial revolution, smaller and more portable equipments were invented. There came a time when the bigger equipments were replaced by the small portable radios.
Talking about the 1960s, it was known as one of the first most hip fashion eras. The fashion scene was influenced by major fashion hubs around the world. Besides clothing and…
Abraham Maslow -- Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. Ict-learning now. 11 November 2010. Web. 10 January 2011.
1960's Braun Products Holds Secret to Apple's Products. Gizmodo. 14 January 2008. Web. 10 January 2011.
Rewind the Fifties. Loti.com. Web.10 January 2011.
Apple Classics and their 1960s ancestors. Guardian. 16 January 2008. Web. 10 January 2011
Appraisals are precision indicators that enable managers to rat their organizational and managerial performance. The appraisal of the U.S. army is not only regarded in America, but also globally. The respect shown to them is due to the worth of sacrifice and zeal in achieving their objective of protecting America. These appraisals enhance the assessment of its performance and enhance the career development of the soldiers. The HR Model encompasses such human practices of appraisal in the army through three ways, the Critical Incident Method, Paired Comparisons and from Peer Reviews. These appraisal techniques form the fundamental part of personal management.
Appraisal from the Critical Incident methods involves the identification and description of events where a soldier has exemplifies exceptional work or needs to improve. Supervisors records incidents of interest to improving the work experience. hether on the training ground or operational assignments, commanders recognize and correct soldiers…
Bernard, Rostker. Human Resource Models: An Overview. Center for Naval Analyses, Vol 370, pp 1-20, 1982.
Cook, D. & Mechner, F. Fundamentals of Programmed Instruction. In (S. Margulies & L. Eigen Eds.), Applied Programmed Instruction. London: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962.
Gary, Kress, Batia, Sharon and David, Bassan. Work Motivation: Theory and Practice. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, pp 2-92, 1981.
Jafari, Mostafa, Atieh Bourouni and Roozbeh Hesam Amiri. A New Framework for Selection of the Best Performance Appraisal Method. European Journal of Social Sciences Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 92-100, 2009.
If this were the case then the provisions of the Equal Pay Act might be of some assistance, although women's lower rates of payment might be explained by reference to factors such as age/work experience/seniority within the workplace or concentration in lower grades which might (but might not) be discrimination-free. Alternatively, women might be doing the same jobs as men, but doing them in female workplaces, with the effect that no comparison would be possible under the Equal Pay Act" (p. 215).
Essentially, what McColgan (1997) is implying is that there could be logical reasons for women earning fewer cents on the dollar than men, most of which have to do with women having spent less time in the workforce than men. While this logic might have applied in much of the last half of the twentieth century, our current generation has long passed the era when women were primarily…
Figart, D.M., Mutari, E. & Power, M. (2002) Living wages, Equal wages: Gender and labor market policies in the United States. New York: Routledge
Green, C. & Ferber, M. (2005, March) Do detailed work histories help to explain gender and race/ethnic wage differentials?, Review of Social Economy 63, 55-85.
Harvey C. & Allard, J.M. (2005). Understanding and managing diversity: readings, cases and exercises, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey
Lengnick-Hall, M.L., Lengnick-Hall, C.A., Andrade, L.S. & Drake, B. (2009), Strategic human resource management: the evolution of the field, Human Resource Management Review,19(2),64-85.
6. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow constructed a pyramid of five levels, each level presenting the types of needs that motivate people. At the bottom level sit the physiological needs, followed by needs of safety, needs of loving, being loved and belonging to a community. At the fourth level sit the needs of esteem, followed by the needs of self-actualization. In order to maintain an organizational staff member motivated and satisfied on the job, it is necessary for the leadership team to strive and manage to satisfy as many of these needs as possible. Below are some pointers as to how the desiderate could be achieved:
Physiological needs -- the first thing is that of remunerating the employee in a means that allows him to exchange the salary for the purchase of primary commodities and services. The second thing is that of ensuring that the employee is able to…
3) Information Technology
4.3 Data collection method
I will distribute the following surveys to the employees and employers in my sample population. I will give them two weeks to complete the surveys, after which I will collect them and analyze them.
4.4 Sample size and sampling method
The sample size will be between 40-50 people. The sampling method include surveys as well as direct conversations. The employee surveys will gauge satisfaction with salary, job security, work environment, feedback, training, and other factors relating to job satisfaction. The employer surveys will ask employers to rate Saudi employees in areas such as work ethic, ability, attitude, and skills, especially as compared to workers of other nationalities.
4.5 Method of Data Analysis
The surveys should yield a set of simple, definite answers which be compared on the same criteria. The open-ended interviews should yield a deeper, more diverse set…
Maslow, Abraham. 1962. Towards a Psychology of Being, Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand
Maslow, Abraham. 1970. Motivation and Personality, 3rd ed. (1954) Chapter 6: Unmotivated Behavior. New York: Longman.
Cziksentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1990. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper.
Motivation in the Workplace
The objective of this study is to examine motivation in the workplace with a focus on survival needs, security needs, belonging needs, respect needs, and fulfillment needs.
Motivation in the workplace is a subject of ongoing interest because employers desire to understand how to best motivate their workers to increase workplace productivity. A useful model in examining motivation in the workplace is that known as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Maslow's Hierarch of Needs
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is one that emphasizes "meeting each level of development before going on towards self-actualization. The level of needs proposed by Maslow include those as follows:
(1) material needs;
(3) sense of belonging;
(4) love and friendship
(5) self-esteem; and (6) self-actualization. (Cruver-Plaza, 2009, p.1)
The following illustration shows the conception of the hierarchy of needs proposed by Maslow.
Maslow's Hierarchy of…
Applying Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Motivation To Training (2012) Self-Growth. Retrieved from: http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Applying_Abraham_Maslow_s_Hierarchy_of_Needs_Theory_of_Motivation_to_Training.html
Building a Better Workplace Through Motivation (2012) Kellogg's Case Study, Maslow. The Times 100 Business Case Studies. Retrieved from: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/kelloggs/building-a-better-workplace-through-motivation/maslow.html
Cruver-Plaza, J. (2009) Employee Motivation, and Job Performance: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory Applied to Corporate Downsizing (2012) Employment Suite 101. Retrieved from: http://suite101.com/article/employee-motivation-and-job-performance
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (2012) NetMBA. Retrieved from: http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
Huge esearch Project
The conflict of the individual vs. society is a timeless conflict that plagues each and every one of us. It is an integral part of our genetic make-up so that despite everything we as individuals need to be part of society as our need for interdependence is so great. And that is the reason why the conflict of individual and society persists with no panacea for it, and will continue to be a war waged with either one triumphing over the other as the situation warrants.
Freud's psychoanalytic theory might have stirred up a controversy, but it was able to aptly indicate the everyday conflict that man faces being part of the society. His theory with id as the primal instincts that humans follow, the ego as the regulator and the superego as the philanthropist has enabled us to pinpoint the probable causes of this ubiquitous conflict…
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivational model. 2010. 6 December 2011 .
Ebert, Roger. "Forrest Gump." Chicago Sun-Times 6 July 1994.
Elliott, Anthony. Psychoanalytic Theory: An Introduction . North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2002 .
Maslin, Janet. "Forrest Gump Film Reiew; Tom Hanks as an Interloper in History ." New York Times 6 July 1994 .
Most personal activities are dependent upon the input of smaller groups like the immediate family or friends or cousins or colleagues which could include academic choices, outings, etc. Most social activities are founded around and are bound to the formation of a large group and the success of that group in working together whether it is in offices, industries, sports, NGOs, media, etc.
The deficiency of a firm foundation and structure of social needs does negatively affect an individual's social behavior and interaction with others. Some of the affects of the absence of social needs is that the individual can go through elements of frustration, loneliness and depression (Wahba & Bridgewell, 1976).
In Turner's case, the absence of the fulfillment of the social needs was the biggest factor that caused him to react the way that he did and behave the way that he did. As aforementioned, he came to…
A.H. Maslow, 1973, "A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review," 50, 370-96.
Cwisfa; Khruschev, Vesh, 2002, "Maslow's Pyramid - a necessity?," 12, 15-17.
Herzberg, F., 1966, "Work and the Nature of Man," Cleveland: World Publishing.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B.B., 1959, "The Motivation to Work," John Wiley, New York.
This paper investigates the issue of motivation as it applies to an organizational setting.
The research regarding motivation in the workplace has been a major area of investigation that is of interest to corporate leaders, managers, organizational psychologists, and educators. The issue that this paper will discuss has to do with the particular factors that managers and leaders can address to increase the motivation of their workers to perform as well as to increase the job satisfaction levels of their employees. However, motivation is only one issue regarding increased productivity or increased job satisfaction; we would certainly think that at a basic level an employee would need a certain level of motivation to perform as well as the ability to actually do the job (as it turns out the research is consistent with this type of common-sense thinking). However, the actual types of interventions/activities that can be used…
Argyris, C. 1993, Knowledge for action: a guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Chien, J.C. 2013,'Examining Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in a large Chinese chemical fiber company' World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, no. 248, pp.1433-1438.
Gneezy, U. And Rustichini, A. 2000, 'Pay enough or don't pay at all', Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 791-810.
Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. 1980, Work redesign. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Leadership in an Organization / Leadership: A Neessity for Suess
Supervision and Motivation
In the urrent global ompetitive environment, leadership plays a key role for the survival of businesses. As Peter Druker popularly delared, the differene between leadership and management is that the former refers to doing things right, while the latter refers to doing the right things. Great leaders possess a passion for hange, higher soial intelligene and most importantly, a vision that allows them to onentrate on the things that truly deserve to be prioritized. For one to be an effetive leader, he or she must possess a number of skills. Skills, suh as the ability to interat with others in suh a way to develop mutual respet, and to injet passion and motivate others, are usually highly sought after by exeutives. These skills enable one to effetively lead others. Different workplaes have many different leadership…
cited in Psychology today). "Leadership." Sussex Publishers, LLC. 2015. https://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/leadership&ei=xncdqG2k&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=101&ts=1446731100&sig=APONPFkVWxdf1ZdbddQ-xJybMr4Dh-xwbw
Skills you need. "Leadership Skills." 2015. http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.skillsyouneed.com/leadership-skills.html&ei=qW68k582&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=101&ts=1446741824&sig=APONPFkrhu0PaxvMiqLH2EZiAPNJtxfg0Q
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2009). Retrieved September 28, 2009,
from Colorado State Web site:
Anxiety Attacks and Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from Helpguide.org Web site:
Paul Minneapolis states that the conference asked three individuals to join the conference and to share "their experiences in guiding non-profit organizations to achieve greater results for the common good, whether it is in a new organization, organizations that have reached stability and are looking to move to a higher level, or organizations that are experiencing tough and challenging times." The speakers at this conference each offer what they believe defines the 'transformational' leader. One of the interviewees referred to as Mr. Graham states that transformational leaders are leaders who "do the right thing." (ennett, Dorsey, and Graham, 2006) the transformational leader is said to be the leader who has a 'vision' and who is able to communicate that vision with a passion. This conference greatly provides insight to the myriad of issues of leadership that are inclusive in the non-profit organizational repertoire of necessary skills for the organization's leader.…
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (2007) Human Relations Contributors. Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity. ACCEL Team. Online available at http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_02_maslow.html
Bennett, Stephen; Dorsey, Cheryl; and Graham, John H. (2006) Transformational Leadership. Independent Sector Annual Conference, St. Paul Minneapolis. October 24, 2006.
Chang, Heng-Yu (2005) Qualitative Research on Leader Speech Communication Content, Leader Behaviors and Subordinate's Trust. eThesys 26 Jan 2005.
Chris Argyris (2007) Human Relations Contributors. Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity. ACCEL Team. Online available:
However, when an employee sees that his or her employer is stepping up and trying to do something that the employee wants or needs, instead of just what is good for the company and not the employees, motivation can result. People need to feel that they matter to their employer. Few people are content with only receiving monetary compensation for the work that they do for their boss. They are all individuals and they have a desire to be recognized. They have goals that do not match up with the goals of the organization for which they work, but they may also have goals which are similar in nature to those of the company by which they are employed. Has anyone asked them what they really want to do with their lives and how the company can help facilitate those dreams? Companies that are concerned about the health and…
Austin, J. & Carr, J.E. (2000). Handbook of applied behavior analysis, New York: Context Press. 2000. Understanding the behavior of individuals in the workplace and in other areas of daily life can be very difficult. However, it is vital that an employer or anyone who is in charge of people focus on learning about the behavior of the individuals of which he or she is in charge. It is not possible to properly motivate people for employment or any other reason without being clearly aware of what motivates those people and what they are focused on in their careers and in the rest of their lives. Gaining information on how to analyze the behavior of those individuals is a way in which leaders can see more success.
Bedeian, A.G. (1993). Business owners (3rd ed.). New York: Dryden Press. Owning a business may sound enjoyable because there is no "boss" to which to answer. However, having a business of one's own is more complicated than most people think. This is especially true in the hiring of employees because there are so many different areas to consider. Reading up on how a business operates and the kind of information which is needed to successfully run a business is something that all leaders should do, even if they are not the head of the business in which they are working. Those who are high up in management are particularly susceptible to not realizing the needs of other people, and that can start them down a slippery slope of not doing what is right by their employees -- and those employees will leave, causing the business to struggle if it cannot quickly find good help.
Bowen, B.E., & Radhakrishna, R.B. (1991). Job satisfaction of agricultural education faculty: A constant phenomena. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 (2). 16-22. No matter what kind of business a person operates or what kind of career that person has, job satisfaction is a big issue. Some people assume that they are capable of handing any job as long as they are well-paid, but this is often not really the case. People who are paid well but not treated respectfully quickly tire of their jobs. By focusing on one type of job it is possible to see just how diverse a group of workers might be and just how significant it is that these workers all get what they need in order to feel satisfied at their job. There is much more than money involved where the satisfaction with one's career is concerned. Strong businesses are aware of this, and work to make sure their employees are satisfied with what they are doing for the company.
Brethower, D. & Smalley, K. (1998). Performance-based instruction: Linking training to business results. Pfeiffer; Har/Dis edition. 1998. How a person is trained when he or she begins a job can have a large influence on whether that person continues to perform well. Getting a job is not always difficult, but enjoying that job and performing well in it are other areas where employees may not succeed. If an employee is properly trained, he or she will statistically perform better at the job to which he or she has been assigned. One of the best ways to train an employee properly is to make sure that employee learns on the job.
PERSONALITY VS SITUATION
Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).
Existentialism vs. Humanism
Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…
AllPsych (2002). Personality synopsis. Chapter X Humanist Theory. Heffner Media
Group, Inc. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from http://allpsyc.com/personalitysynopsis/humanistic.html
Boeree, C.G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 31,
2001 from http://webspac.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
The results are often in stark contrast to what many human resource professionals would care to believe.
Many times human resource professionals are under the impression that money is the biggest motivator for candidate attraction and employee retention. Anyone who has knowledge of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, it becomes easier to understand that salary truly only fulfills the most primary level of physiological needs. Items such as training and advancement opportunities fulfill higher levels of needs, such as the fourth layer, the need for esteem, and the fifth and highest level, self-actualization ("Abraham Maslow," 2005).
This realization can be readily applied to the military environment. Attracting and retaining talented candidates for the military is always a top concern, at this point in history even more so. Certainly some are motivated by sign on bonuses, but as Connolly's article demonstrates, this isn't the most powerful motivator. Therefore, focusing on other aspects…
Abraham Maslow. (13 Jan. 2005). Retrieved February 7, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow .
Connolly, J. (23 Nov., 2004). Positive approach to hiring will be repaid. Personnel Today. Retrieved February 7, 2005, from InfoTrac database.
Review: Positive Approach in Hiring Will be Repaid
Some organizations use more innovative approaches to effectively recruit candidates. Due to the increasing low unemployment rate in their area, Sanders Brother, Inc. created their "Hispanic Initiative" where the company actively seeks out and train Hispanic workers who want to become welders. They use word of mouth and other advertisement in Spanish newspapers to promote their program (Amaram, 2005). This type of program focuses on the future compensation rewards, due to training, rather than the initial monetary rewards.
Amaram's article is very useful in today's economy. As he mentions, the competition for talented employees is fierce. This is true whether the organization is in the private, public or military sector. Human capital is an organization's most valuable asset. Without good people, an organization is destined to fail. and, although compensation is a motivator, other factors can motivate candidates to join an organization as well.
The suggestions for innovative recruitment can…
Abraham Maslow. (13 Jan. 2005). Retrieved February 7, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow .
Amaram, D.I. (Mar. 2005). Issues in recruitment and retention for the it workforce. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 6(2). Retrieved February 12, 2005, from ProQuest database.
Article Review: Issues in Recruitment and Retention for the it Workforce
Management Structures Case of Walmart
The City and State where it is located
Firms today are facing fierce and strong competition and this has brought with it many challenges. To ensure their survival, companies must continually improve in both efficiency and effectiveness (Buble, Juras and Matic, 2014). Because of this, every organization must seek to exploit its workforce's potential, and the place of leadership in this can't be understated. Everyone knows that leadership is central in helping an organization achieve its goals and in aiding information sharing in the organization (Buble, Juras and Matic, 2014). Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is U.S.'s largest retail company and has been placed first by Fortune Magazine on Fortune 500 Index (Hayden et al., n.d.). The corporate strategy at Wal-Mart is constituted of dominating retail market, expanding in the United States as well as international markets, creating a positive brand and Company ecognition as well as…
ACCA, (2013). Reward Schemes. Relevant To ACCA Qualification Paper P5, pp.3-12.
Buble, M., Juras, A. And Mati?, I. (2014). The Relationship between Managers' Leadership Styles And Motivation. Management, 19(1), pp.161-193.
College of the Redwoods, (2010).Maslow's Hierarchy.pp.1-4.
Fauziah, W., Shen, T. And Talha, M. (2013).Herzberg's Two Factors Theory on Work Motivation: Does Its Work for Today's Environment?.Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective, 2(5), pp.18-22.
arranged in two parts. The first part discusses the Hierarchy theory, and two-factor theory. Since both theories concentrate on the human motivation, the paper compares and contrasts the two theories to reveal their similarities and differences. The second part of this paper concentrates on the heath and safety issues and the paper demonstrates the safety plan to be implemented at the construction site to reduce work accidents.
Hierarchy Theory is a theory of human motivation introduced by Abraham Maslow. The hierarchy theory reveals motivation and personality, and suggests that people are motivated in order to fulfil their basic needs. Maslow Hierarchy theory is often displayed as pyramid where the most basic needs are displayed at the lowest level of the pyramid. On the other hand, the complex needs are displayed at the top level of the pyramid. According to the hierarchy theory, the most basic needs are the…
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B.B. (1959), The Motivation to Work. John Wiley. New York.
Maslow.A.H. (1943).Maslow, A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review 50(4):370-96.
Weiten, W. (2007). Psychology: themes and variations. Cengage Learning, USA.
(Cherrington, 1973) These types of rewards are referred to as contingent rewards. The theory is that employees are willing to put forth extra effort if they know they will be rewarded accordingly.
Cherrington and his colleagues surmised that no inherent link between satisfaction and performance exists. Instead, satisfaction and performance are dependent upon performance-contingent awards. (Cherrington, 1971) Three types of rewards can be found in an organization. They are random, positively contingent, and negatively contingent. andom awards are given regardless of performance. High and low performers are rewarded equally under this system. Next, positively contingent awards are given only to high performers. Low performers are given nothing. Finally, negatively contingent awards are given to low performers while the higher performers receive nothing. (Cherrington, 1971) Cherrington's findings place power on the reward itself. In another study on performance-contingent rewards, Jacobs and Solomon confirmed the finding of Cherrington. The connection between job…
Cameron, Judy, & Pierce, David W., (April 30, 2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin & Garvey.
Cherrington, David J. & Cherrington, J. Owen. (1973). Contingent reinforcement in budgeting and performance appraisals. Retrieved from http://www23.us.archive.org/stream/contingentreinfo107cher/contingentreinfo107cher_djvu.txt
Cherrington, David J., Reitz, H. Joseph, & Scott, William E. (1971). Effects of Contingent and Non-Contingent Reward on the Relationship Between Satisfaction and Task Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55, 531-536.
Gagne, Maryle'ne, & Deci, Edward L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-362. DOI: 10.1002/j.322
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what their peers receive (amlall, 2004). Adams (1963, 1965) posits that individuals are motivated by the perception of inequality, as measured by "input" and "outcome" ratios in comparison to others. Equity theory draws from multiple empirical theories and is utilized to make predictions about how individuals manage their relationships with others (Huseman, et al., 1987). If equity exists, the individual is at peace with the exchange and therefore not moved to action. If the individual perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent individual, then inequity exists, and motivation to restore equity arises (Chhokar et al., 2001).
Perception of inequity
Behavioral response (define)
Individuals may respond by choosing a behavioral response by reducing their inputs…
Byrne D.E., Lindgren H.C. 1971. Psychology: an Introduction to a Behavioral Science.
Wiley: New York.
Drillings M., O'Neil H.F. Jr.
Motivation: Theory and Research. Contributors: - editor,. - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication Year: 1994. Page Number: 14.
Basic biological needs generally take precedence over psychological needs. If two needs are incompatible, the more basic one is usually satisfied first. filling needs, and under the most common circumstances, both a need and a drive can be identified in motivated behavior, particularly when physiological needs are involved. However, there are also drives such as curiosity, which don't depend on deprivation and for physiological, safety and security needs, must be satisfied before higher-order needs for love and belongingness, esteem, and finally for http://www.arches.uga.edu/~danni/maslow1.gif
While Maslow's hierarchy makes sense intuitively, little evidence exists to support its strict hierarchy. ctually, most research refutes the order of needs the model spcifies. For example, some cultures seem to place social needs before others. Maslow's hierarchy also has difficulty when, for example, a person neglects physical needs in pursuit of aesthetic or spiritual ones. Finally, studies show that people are usually motivated to satisfy more…
There are a number of issues, or conflicts, that have divided both motivational scholars and psychologists for many years. These issues are: Is motivation internal or dispositional to the individual or is it the result of external or situational forces? Are some people more highly motivated across all situations while others lack motivation in all situational contexts? What is the relative effectiveness of extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation? Are people innately motivated or are they more encouraged by the expectation of external rewards? Is motivation a learned behavior? What is the comparative impact of cognitive vs. affective nature of motivation? Is motivation explained best as a process by which individuals make well thought out intellectual choices among alternatives, or is it based on emotion and whim?
Prochaska, Norcross and DiClemente (1994) have proposed a six-stage model that is applicable in the motivation process. In the process of personal change, it is typical for a person to go around a series of stages in a cyclical fashion before achieving stable change.
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
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