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Absolutism v. elativism
Absolutism and relativism represent the extreme ends of the ethical discussion of reality (Harman, 2000). They describe the approach that individuals adopt to make value decisions in their lives. Values are the sustenance of human life that provide passion and meaning and are often the motivation that keeps society cooperating toward a common goal. How these values are determined, however, is not done consistently throughout society (Bloomfield, 2003). On the one end of the spectrum are the absolutists who view every ethical situation in life as being a certainty while on the other end are the relativists who view things much more subjectively. For the relativist, nothing is certain.
For the moral absolutist there is a single or universal standard that is equally applicable to everyone. The absolutist believes that there is one moral law all must obey and that there are no gray areas. Everything is…
Bloomfield, P. (2003). Is There a Moral High Ground? The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 511-526.
Foote, P. (2002). Moral Relativism. In P. Foote, Moral Dilemmas and Other Topics in Moral Philosophy (pp. 20-36). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Harman, G. (2000). Is There a Single True Morality. In G. Harman, Explaining Value: and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy (pp. 77-101). New York: Oxford University Press.
Veatch, R.M. (2003). Is There a Common Morality? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 189-192.
During the seventeenth century, monarchs attained power and authority that was unprecedented, leading historians to use the term "absolutism" to describe these political systems, while other historians argue that the term is misleading because neither the ambitions of the monarchs nor the results constituted political absolutism (Durand pp). However, Louis XIV established such a powerful monarchy in France, that when he famously declared, "L'etat c'est moi" ("I am the state"), it began an "association of state power with the person wielding it that culminated in the cult of personality of a Hitler, Stalin, or Mao" in the twentieth century (Marshall pp).
Some historians believe that the general climate of absolutism offered the monarch no more than the opportunity to deliberate on matters of state without being affected by intrigue and pressure, and ensure the judicial process followed his wishes and directives (Durand pp). Therefore, as an actual political system, absolutism…
Durand, G. "Absolutism Myth and Reality." http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/UHS/WebSite/courses/WC/Historiography/aristocracy_and_absolutism.htm
Corley, Christopher R. "Paris in the Age of Absolutism: an Essay."
Canadian Journal of History. 12/1/2004.
Hooker, Richard. "The Age of Absolutism." http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/PRE.htm
Absolutism and Exclusionism in Religion in Truth in Religion: The Plurality of Religion and Unity of Truth by Mortimer Adler
Numerous discourses discussing issues about the plurality or absolutism of religion, relating these issues in the manner of living, particularly the moral aspect of subsisting to a particular form of religious philosophy. The development of a more complex, yet organized, human society at the turn of the 20th century gave incidence to the development of various philosophical disciplines. These philosophical disciplines include revolutionary viewpoints about philosophy, religion, and morality.
The relationship among philosophy, religion, and morality is studied in Mortimer Adler's discourse on religious philosophy and morality. In Truth in Religion: The Plurality of Religion and Unity of Truth, Adler centers on the argument that in human society, there is only one "truth," which can be illustrated through religion. Hence, it follows that if there is only one "truth," then…
Adler, M. (1990). Truth in Religion: The Plurality of Religion and Unity. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
Fishbane, M. (1987). Judaism: Revelation and Traditions. CA: Harper-Collins.
The Failure of Enlightened Absolutism in France: An Analysis of the Economic and Political Situation of the Country during the Enlightenment Period
The dawn of the 18th century saw the emergence of a period that eventually determined the future of modern society -- that is, the Age of Enlightenment. Under the Age of Enlightenment, the prevalent ideology is that it is possible for people to formulate and enforce reform and changes in the society. Social reform is especially applicable in the European experience, wherein the rigid and conservative influence of Christianity has led to the development of a society that is characteristically theocentric.
The Enlightenment is characterized by a shift of society's concern to the natural and social sciences through scientific observation, which necessitates objectivism and rational thinking. These changes in the character of European society are brought about by the rise of modernization, where agricultural-traditional society with…
Kagan, D. (1995). Western Heritage. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Moore, B. (1966). Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston: Beacon Press.
Preston, P.W. (1997). Development Theory: An Introduction. MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Two examples of this "Enlightened Despotism" were Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia. They based their monarchial powers, not on the Divine Right of Kings, but upon the need for a strong authoritative government to promote greater welfare within the state. These rulers created greater national standards and regulations that helped the state create a strong political infrastructure that veered away from traditional custom-based doctrine. As a result, Enlightened Absolutism became the norm within European government as monarchs began to systematically create a method to entrench national level reforms that would provoke greater political, economic and social stability.
Ultimately all four of these events are strongly interrelated because they were changes in the mindset of individuals. At the core level however, they were all reactions and extensions of the Reformation movement, which promoted greater individual liberty and free thinking. Absolutism and its evolution led to…
Second Treatise of Government," by John Locke is a revolutionary philosophical work that directly opposed the idea of absolutism.
Absolutism held that the best form of government was autocratic, and was based on both the belief in the Divine Right of Kings and the theory of natural law, as espoused by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan. In the context of the absolutism of Louis XIV, and the political events surrounding Oliver Cromwell, Locke's "Second Treatise of Government" was clearly a revolutionary work on the structure and purpose of political authority.
One of the greatest debates of the 16th and 17th centuries was over the nature of political authority. The belief in divine right of kings that had once held sway over the estern world was quickly dissolving. In its place was a rapidly emerging idea of individualism that took form with the Renaissance and the French Revolution, and took root in…
Hobbes, T. The Leviathan. Chapters XIII - XXI. Reproduced at: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776, William Uzgalis, Oregon State University. 15 October 2002. http://www.orst.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/hobbes/leviathan-contents.html
Locke, J. The Second Treatise of Civil Government. Chapters 2-8. Reproduced at: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776, William Uzgalis, Oregon State University. 15 October 2002. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke2/2nd-contents.html
oss thought that all people should be benevolent and so if lying affects one's benevolence, one needs to decide if lying is better for the sake of benevolence.
oss' non-absolutist take to ethics is preferred because is considers what is morally right in certain situations. In the instance of a Poker game, it is a game that relies upon lying or "bluffing" so it actually does pass Kant's universal law test. Kant would probably not take issue with the game of Poker because it is a game that needs the aspect of bluffing in order to work. But, if we want to use the example and examine it purely from a Kantian perspective on lying, then we must consider that people are acting from a means approach and not an end approach and all of the players have the same intention in mind -- to wind the game -- and…
Bennett, Jonathan. (2010). Groundwork for the metaphysic model. Immanuel Kant.
Ross, W.D. (1930). What makes right acts right? The right and the good. Oxford: Oxford
Four Stages in the Development of the Person ho Engages in Critical Thinking Are as Follows:
Stage One: The Unreflective Thinker. This is a stage in which the person is not aware of any problems within his thinking process. The individual might we of average intelligence and living a normal life but may now know that he is making "assumptions, forming concepts, drawing inferences," but he probably is not aware that his reasons and purposes are "clearly formulated" (Paul, et al., 2013). In this phase the individual makes decisions that are simplistic and does not "seriously question the thinking" that should go into every decision (Paul, 65).
Stage Two: The Challenged Thinker: This is the point at which the individual begins to realize there is a problem with his comprehension of issues in his life -- and he realizes he needs clarity. hat needs to happen in this stage is…
Paul, R., and Elder, L. (2013). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your
Professional and Personal life. New York: Pearson Education.
Stratton, J. (1999). Critical Thinking for College Students. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
President: 1. The President's opening
The president's opening remarks functioned as a means of collectivizing his listeners, some of whom may not have voted for him or did not support particular policies or measures he has enacted. The best way of getting people who were not his supporters to listen to his address and to even consider taking him seriously was for him to emphasize the fact that he is an American just like they are. Hence, he cited a number of phrases that reflected the values which the country was founded upon, such as those existing in the Declaration of Independence and within the U.S. Constitution. Additionally, it appeared as though the president was framing his address and his own agenda as a continuation of these important historical American concepts.
The philosophy being suggested in some of the president's rhetoric in his inaugural address is that there needs to…
Absolution vs. Relativism
Columnist illiam ineke points out that the real problem with relativism is that it gives no place to stop the slippery slide, no place to stand and say "no" (ineke pp). In other words, each step taken simply makes it easier to take the next step until, eventually, society finds no logical basis for saying "no" to anything (ineke pp). Yet, if the error of moral relativism is that it provides society with no real basis on which to say "no," then the error of objective morality is that it provides no real basis on which to say "yes" (ineke pp).
ineke uses the example of AIDS in Africa, citing Vatican ambassador to Zambia, Archbishop Orlando Antonini, who said "The use of condoms still constitutes a false solution to a real problem, although it is a burning issue in Africa" (ineke pp). However, ineke says, "millions of…
Cahill, Lisa Sowle. (2003 March 01). Moral Relativism, Moral Diversity, and Human
Relationships. Theological Studies. Retrieved August 06, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
The Changing Role of Moral Philosophy. Retrieved August 06, 2005 from:
Is Jesus the Only Savoir? Is onald H. Nash's opportunity to develop a passionate and well-developed argument answering yes: yes, Jesus is the only Savoir. However, Nash does not rest on the reader's understanding or experience of faith to make his case. The author takes a different approach, using logic and reason to explain that at least to a believer in Christ, there can be no other paradigm other than Christian absolutism. According to Nash, pluralism by its very definition violates the tenets inherent in the New Testament. It is therefore impossible for a theologian, especially a Christian one, to be a pluralist.
Nash's scapegoat, for better or worse, is John Hick. Hick is a theologian who has succumbed to the temptation of thinking pluralistically and who attempts to show that Jesus is in fact not the only savior. Nash picks apart Hick's argument by revealing the logical fallacies…
Bible: New International Version (NIV)
Johnsey, Allen. "A Critique of Is Jesus the Only Savior?" Nov 5, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.mainstreetmission.com/index.php?p=1_76_A-Critique-of-Is-Jesus-the-Only-Savior-
Johnson, Keith E. "John Hick's Pluralistic Hypothesis and the Problem of Conflicting Truth-Claims." Retrieved online: http://www.leaderu.com/wri/articles/hick.html
Nash, Ronald H. "Is Jesus the Only Savoir?" Christian Research Institute. Retrieved online: http://www.equip.org/articles/is-jesus-the-only-savior/
tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)
rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.
The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…
Furthermore Locke's writings are lauded for their cultural and historical importance rather than their literary style. Being very prominent in educational and artistic circles I find this hard to believe. Certainly a man who has been educated in the highest of quality schools should be able to produce something of purely literary merit.
Despite these issues which are admittedly a matter of opinion, it is very significant that Locke's influence extends to modern literary circles in this way. Locke's influence in the areas of education, culture and empowerment also remain to this day in terms of recognized Black culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism. The ALLS has been officially recognized by the American Philosophical Association in a letter from Secretary-Treasurer, William Mann, on November 26, 1997.
Locke's influence thus reaches far beyond his lifespan in order to not only empower and inspire, but also to enlighten and to entertain. Locke was the epitome of the New Negro.
In Cultural Ethical elativism, Universalism, Absolutism (2005), it was mentioned that Kant said that people engage a particular space in creation and morality can be figured out in one supreme directive of reason or imperative that all responsibilities and duties drawn from; Kant described an imperative as any intention which asserts a particular act or inaction to be compulsory; a hypothetical imperative requires action in a particular condition: "if I wish to quench my thirst, I must drink something;" -- a categorical imperative, in contrast, indicates an absolute, unconditional obligation that states its influence in all conditions, both necessary as well as justified as an end in itself; and it is most recognized in its first expression: "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law."
In Cultural Ethical elativism, Universalism, Absolutism (2005), it was stated that Kant…
Cultural Ethical Relativism, Universalism, Absolutism (2005). Retrieved on March 22, 2009 at http://www.tamucc.edu/~sencerz/relat.htm
Timmermann, J. (2007). Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Commentary, Cambridge University Press, 189.
Deontology and Consequentialism
An Analysis of "Rightness" from Deontological and Teleological Perspectives
Deontological ethics stems from the notion that one is obliged by duty to behave in a "moral" manner. There are a number of theories that range from moral absolutism to Divine Command theory that may be described as deontological, but each differs in its approach to "morality" even though each recognizes an "obligation" to attend to a set of rules. In contrast to deontological ethics are teleological ethics, which gauge the morality of one's actions by their consequences. A number of theories may be classified as teleological, such as utilitarianism, pragmatism and consequentialism. This paper will explore the ideas behind deontological and teleological ethics and show how an approach to "morality" must observe at least some objective standard, and that it is the objective standard that makes an action "right," and not the dutiful adherence to the standard…
Dreier, Jamie. "In defense of consequentializing."
Horgan, Terrry; Timmons, Mark. "Untying a Knot from the Inside Out: Reflections on the 'Paradox' of Supererogation."
Locke, John. "Essay Concerning Human Understanding." Bartleby. Web. 27 Nov
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
The Divine Command theory of morality is known as a nonconsequentialist theory because this particular theory of morality is one that is not in any way based on the consequences or outcomes of specific action, but rather holds that all actions have any intrinsic rightness or wrongness. In the case of Divine Command Theory, rightness or wrongness is decided based upon whether or not a specific action can be said to be in accordance with the dictates of God. Indeed, while there are advantages to this idea of morality, such as the more simple categorization of actions into a dichotomy of what is permitted, there are also many sever disadvantages, as well. These disadvantages can make the view difficult to entertain. For example, one of the main issues depends on the source of the divine command. If the divine moral commands come out of scripture, for example, how can…
Ethics of Bioethics
To the prudent thinker and scholar, there is little doubt that right or wrong is certainly relative. Categorical imperatives and absolutes help people to understand theories and ideas. However, they have little pragmatic value in life as it exists. Erudition in the areas of moral relativism, moral absolutism, and moral objectivism certainly confirm the preceding thesis. Additionally, there are numerous examples found in different areas of life that confirm the conviction propagated in this paper as well.
The tenet of moral relativism certainly helps to buttress this conviction that right or wrong is simply relative. Some of the best examples of this fact are readily supplied by nature. In fact, basic bioethical thought into the food chain supports this viewpoint as well. The reality of life on this planet and as found within nature is that most organisms need to consume other organisms to survive. This fact…
Beauchamp, Tom L., LeRoy Walters, Jeffrey P. Kahn, and Anna C. Mastroianni, eds. (2014). Contemporary Issues in Bioethics. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, pp. 1-12.
The Kennedy Institute of Ethics. (2014). Introduction to bioethics: bioethics at the bedside. www.youtube.com Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3I0SxI2grM
Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
eformation and Counter eformation
The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…
Hileman, Tony Living on the Creative Edge of Our Culture available at www.americanhumanist.org/about/messageED1.php
Wiener, Philip P. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas available at http://etext.virginia.edu/DicHist/dict.html
Kohl, Benjamin G., and Witt, Ronald G., eds., the Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society (1978)
The three centuries that comprise the Ming Dynasty are not easy to describe in the course of twenty pages of text. However, the author of this chapter does a stellar job of conveying the essence of the Ming Dynasty via an engaging yet scholarly writing style. The chapter is well-organized, its ideas presented in clear, logical, and chronological format. However, the presentation of the material is not dry but rather includes rich commentary and even opinion that is solidly based on source evidence. For example, the author reflects on the personality and character of some of the Ming emperors and eunuch dictators, using strong adjectives that reflect the views of their contemporaries. In addition to providing rich and colorful commentary, the author also outlines the succession of Ming Emperors with convenient, logical subheadings within the chapter. Thus, the author presents a wealth of material by weaving the personal…
Criminal Justice Leadership
Identify two types of ethics and explain their role in criminal justice organizations. Support your responses with resources.
Ethics are concerned with the issues of right and wrong and provide a framework for moral living. Ethics in the criminal justice system is an integral part of police work. Ethical considerations are paramount to decisions involving discretion and a strong moral foundation suits police work well. Banks (2010) notes that knowledge of ethics provides people an opportunity to analyze assumptions and weigh options. Two types of ethics that have particular importance in criminal justice are normative ethics and ethical absolutism.
Normative ethics is fundamental to proper and prudent decisions made by personnel in the criminal justice system. Banks (2010) writes that normative ethics involve taking into account the range of moral issues in an area and that a person should always act morally, having deduced the…
AELE Mo L.J. (2008). Civil Liability for Use of Deadly Force -- Part Three Supervisory Liability and Negligent/Accidental Acts, 101, 1.
AELE Mo L.J. (2007). Civil Liability Law Section: Civil Liability for Use of Deadly Force -- Part Two Qualified Immunity and Inadequate Training, 101,12.
Archives.gov (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/civil-rights-act/
Banks, N. (2010). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Furthermore, that the intent of all princes should be to use all means necessary to maintain their powerbase.
The works of Thomas Hobbes were revolutionary during his time period. He used his understanding of human nature and extrapolated the need for absolutism within government. The Leviathan was revolutionary in that it expounded Hobbesian concept of a material universe. His essential premise is that everything in the universe consists only of matter in motion. Hobbes believes that all things have a material existence even God, and this allows him to derive a natural philosophy that fits within a framework for modern political thought. Hobbes main contribution is that he postulates a framework for human understanding, that we are in effect beasts in nature, until we have a framework of government. This understanding differs substantially from early philosophers who had a generally positive light of inherent human nature. Hobbes instead, believes that…
God would have never created human beings if everyone was to be perfect.
There are certain problems with the view that there is evil in the world despite the presence of an almighty God who is omnipotent and omniscient. Critics believe that evil should not exist if God is omnipotent and omniscient. They believe that there is evil in this world because God doesn't exist. There is no to govern what is right and wrong. This view is contradicted by some religions which rightfully believe that God is there and he created the world as He knows what's best for his beings. This point-of-view leads critics to argue that God is not morally good and that if He has so much power then He would be able to get rid of evil from the world without any problems.
Epicurus was quoted to have said "Either God wants to abolish evil,…
The Philosophical Problem of Evil, Philosophy of Religion, David A. Conway (1988) 24: 35-66.
Evil and the God of Love, first edition. John Hick, 1966.
The Coherence of Theism, Richard Swinburne, 1997
2000 years of Disbelief, Epicurus
Conservatives and socialists splitted society and failed to create a functioning coalition. After years of authoritarian monarchic control, proportional system of election led society to political chaos, as nearly 20 parties with different political programs from communist to right radicals were represented in eichstag. None of country's politicians was successful either in diplomacy or in the art of achieving compromise. The experience of political pluralism led to political and economical disorientation in society, as in a period of 1919-1933 Germany witnessed several temporary coalitions in parliament and twelve governments, which were unable to stabilize country's economy.
Haffner describes that political crisis was a common attribute of Weimar republic's pluralism: "From 1914 to 1923 all governments had been weak" German parliamentarians of Weimar republic faced a common problem of all young political parties. Being one of the most popular parties in the country with wide support in society and even being…
Gay, Peter Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider W.W. Norton & Company 2001
Haffner, Sebastian Defying Hitler: A Memoir Picador 2003
Eyck, Erich History of the Weimar Republic Macmillan Pub Co 1970
The relationship between a service provider and their client is particularly sensitive because the circumstances that bring the two individuals into contact are usually necessitated by a state of mental unrest in the client. Accordingly, the issue of whether or not to engage in a dual relationship (when the doctor has a relationship with their patient distinct from the clinical context) with the client must be treated in a very sensitive manner; the therapist has a responsibility to not only operate in their own best interest but also that of the patient they are hired to assist. This paper examines the relationship between a therapist and an unhappily married Latin American female client, determining whether or not the therapist should advocate divorce and pursue a romantic relationship with his client. Although the therapist has decided that they will pursue the relationship and advocate divorce, this is not recommended.…
Dewane, C.J. (2010). Respecting boundaries -- the don'ts of dual relationships. Social Work Today, 10, 1, 18.
Freud, S., & Kreug, S. (2002a). Beyond the code of ethics, part II: Dual relationships revisited. Families in Society, 83(5), 483-492.
Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.
Society and Culture
In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).
Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…
AllRefer. Interior decoration, Interior Design and Home Furnishings. AllRefer.com. 11 May 2004. http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/I/interior.html
Brainard, Rick. Daily Life: 18th Century Society: An Overview. 18th Century History. 11 May 2004. http://www.history1700s.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=105
Colonial Williamsburg. 18th Century Clothing. 11 May 2004. http://www.history.org/history/clothing/intro/index.cfm
Malaspina Great Books. Alexander Pope. 11 May 2004. http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_951.asp
All of these theories represent an idea that deviance is a socially constructed phenomenon, not an objectively defined part of reality.
The fourth chapter of Thio's work talks about specific forms of violence. These forms, killing, assault, and terrorism, are all examined under the microscope of different theories to help explain their existence and popularity among certain groups of people and individuals. This chapter is quite intriguing because it gives the reader certain insights into the deviants' minds when it comes to these acts. Each of these acts, for the most part, has been labeled as deviant by all cultures and society, and as such, are interesting and worthwhile examples to examine.
The Fifth chapter of Thio's book deals with rape and molestations. It talks about some of the more widely accepted reasons why these behaviors occur, and what people can do to try to re-tune their own perspective so…
Yet Ana and her family also sought the intervention of traditional doctors or curanderos. The curandero provides services that a Western doctor cannot: the cleansing ceremony referred to in the case study is a perfect example of differences in attitudes toward health care. A healing ceremony performed by a curandero is not likely to harm the infant and in fact may prove beneficial at least to the parents' and family's peace of mind.
There can be no absolute ethical guidelines in health care except for the fact that health care workers are obliged always to treat patients with respect. espect entails sensitivity to cultural difference and to the norms that define attitudes towards health care. Health care workers may find that some patients require privacy and do not express emotions; whereas other patients are emotionally expressive to the point where they shock or disturb those around them. These issues should…
"Ethical Relativism." (2011). Retrieved online: http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/ethical-relativism-faq.htm
"Ethical Relativism," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/relativism.html
Macklin, R. (1998). Ethical relativism in a multicultural society. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8, Number 1.
"Neonatal encephalopathy," (2011). Newborn Services Clinical Guideline. Retrieved online: http://www.adhb.govt.nz/newborn/guidelines/neurology/NE.htm
For his trouble, Murphy receives a frontal lobotomy as a "treatment" for his unwillingness to cooperate and abide by the rules and norms, a touch that gives him a Christ-like quality that gives his ultimate fate as that of a martyr to the cause of the promotion of humanity. Indeed, humanity is ultimately indebted to those brave few in the human race who defiantly dare to confront and challenge the conventional thinking patterns and then willingly (or unwillingly) suffer the ultimate price for their ideals (McEver, 1998).
To recap, the author in this paper, has will applied sociological concepts such as groupthink, doublespeak and doublethink, and sociological experiments that speak to us as social groups about socialization and religion in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey. Although this book was originally made for entertainment purposes, this author finds that it is a key factor in the learning…
Anderson, M. (2003). 'one flew over the psychiatric unit': mental illness and the media.
Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 10, 297 -- 306.
Kesey, K. (1962). One flew over the cuckoo's nest. New York, NY: Signet.
Lena, H., & London, B. (1979). An introduction to sociology through fiction using
In the poem and essay "Compensation," Ralph aldo Emerson makes a much more cogent and coherent assessment of how perspective seems to determine good and evil. His examples, however, are purely situational and do not adequately support his central thesis. For example, he compares a farmer jealous of power to the President examining what he has had to sacrifice to earn the hite House (par. 11). hile it is true that what one might see as a "good" here might be seen as an "evil" by the other, this has nothing to do with real morality. It is not what the President sacrificed of himself that determines the evil of this situation, but whether he sacrificed others for his own personal gain.
Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is one of the most well-known pieces of literature in the estern world. Robert Louis Stevenson shows the novels protagonist,…
Blake, William. "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell." Accessed 11 November 2010. http://www.levity.com/alchemy/blake_ma.html
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. "Compensation." Accessed 11 November 2010. http://www.rwe.org/works/Essays-1st_Series_03_Compensation.htm
Merwin, W.S. "The Stranger." Accessed 11 November 2010. http://www.breakoutofthebox.com/stranger.htm
Stevenson, Robert Louis. Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Accessed 11 November 2010. http://www.online-literature.com/stevenson/jekyllhyde/
The reference to Montesquieu (as well as to Smith) in that part of the 'Dissertation' which deals with the 'Progress of Philosophy during the Seventeenth Century' was made just as a digression, and the further development of Jurisprudence by writers on Political Economy as well as 'the mighty influence which his [Montesquieu's] writings have had on the subsequent history of Scottish literature' (Stewart, 1854) were to be explained in the third Part of the 'Dissertation', which was never to be published.
A major task of the state is thus to ensure that the conditions of economic freedom are in fact satisfied, so far as possible, by sweeping away all legal and institutional impediments to it. Generally speaking, these obstructions can be condensed to four main groups. First, there is the problem that, in all societies subject to a course of evolution, 'Laws frequently continue in force long after the…
Arrow, Kenneth. 1951. Social choice and individual values. New York: Wiley.
Arrow, Kenneth. 1983. Social choice and justice: Vol. 1 of Collected Papers of Kenneth J. Arrow. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press.
Becker, Gary. 1976. The economic approach to human behavior. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hopfl, H.M. 1978. From savage to Scotsman: Conjectural history in the Scottish enlightenment. Journal of British Studies 17:19 -- 40.
But this should not be the main criteria for selecting and recruiting staff. The H recruitment and selection at Continental Airlines must seek to respond to quality standards imposed by the company.
The recruitment and selection process must follow a series of steps (Ivancevich & Glueck, 1986). Employees should be hired based on their skills, knowledge, and abilities (Kubr, 1992). Their aptitudes must match the requirements of each job, regardless of the minority they represent.
H outsourcing is an option that Continental Airlines should take into consideration. The main reason for outsourcing is represented by cost savings. Given the fact that customers demand higher quality for the services they purchase and more benefits, companies are forced to cut costs in areas like human resources. Aside from this, practice has shown that many companies apply off-shoring as a method of personnel recruitment and selection. The advantages of off-shoring include: lower wage…
1. Dowling, P.J., Festing, M. & Engle, A. (2008). International Human Resources Management. Thomson Learning, Fifth Edition. Retrieved February 6, 2010 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=LVG2BUQs_ygC&pg=PA293&lpg=PA293&dq=ihrm&source=bl&ots=Bll6xQyEh1&sig=pBn0U1Q4eFi6ZCND9Lnby5BurWo&hl=ro&ei=HFptS6WWMZrimgPjoJSYBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAg# .
2. Halloran, J. (1986). Personnel and Human Resource Management. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
3. Milkovich, G.T. & Boudreau, J.W. (1991). Human Resource Management. Irwin, Boston, Sixth Edition. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
4. Lloyd, G.R. et al. (1987). Economics of Labor. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
This is reflected in the document where Jefferson expressly outlines the idea that all men have certain rights and are responsible for their own paths in life (Pilon, 2000). It is a product of its own era, and liberalism was the philosophy that drove much of the political actions in the early United States.
The same can be said of The Federalist. These were a collection of essays regarding the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. They are also set upon the basic premise that all people are created equal, and that humans have certain unalienable rights that a nation or state needs to respect and honor (Hamilton, et al., 2003). The men who wrote the essays were certainly trying to create a good regime through their own beliefs and values. Their ideas, which later led to the founding of a nation, are key in understanding what they believed a good…
Aristotle; ed. By Irwin, Terence. Nicomachean Ethics. Indianapolis, IN: Hacket Publishing, 1999.
Plato; ed.Jowett, Benjamin. Meno. Stilwell, KS: Digireads Publishing, 2005.
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Scotts Valley, CA: Createspace Books, 2009.
Hobbes, Thomas; ed. Curley, Edwin. Leviathan. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing, 1994.
5. Kant's "Copernican Revolution" in philosophy is in his genius use of the positive aspects of Rationalism (Descartes and so on) and Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley and Hume). How can you argue this out with the help of the "Critique of Pure Reason"?
The human experience of negotiating the universe as it seems to be presented to us is one governed by a great many assumptions. Our education of this process, and in particular our capacity to become adept or even talented in various faculties thereto, is created by experience. In experience, we gain the evolving abilities to relate to objects which we can perceive in our world. However, in order to accomplish this, there are any number of beliefs which must be possessed in us that will create a framework wherein such relating can occur. These beliefs -- and the practical, ideological and physiological experiences which are dependent upon them…
Berkeley, G. (1994). Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. Arete Press, Claremont, CA.
Hume, D. (1738). A Treatise on the Human Nature. Escuela de Filosofia Universidad ARCIS.
Kidd, S.D. (1988). The Intersubjective Heart. Sorbonne.
Kline, A. (2009). Kierkegaard, Abraham, and the Nature of Faith. Soren Kierkegaard Biography. Online at http://atheism.about.com/od/existentialistphilosophers/a/kierkegaard_2.htm
But if it wishes to stand by the stated principles of its founding and the message it attaches to its history, than profiling cannot be allowed to exist.
4) Deontological ethical systems "guide and assess our choices of what we ought to do," as opposed to suggesting what types of people we should be (Stanford, 2007). Another important distinction of deontological viewpoints is their emphasis on the motives and intentions behind an act in regards to that act's ethicality, as opposed to the consequences of that act. One narrow form of deontological ethics is moral absolutism, propagated by such thinkers as Immanuel Kant (Stanford, 2007). According to his view, acts are either moral or immoral in all situations, without any regard to the consequences (Stanford, 2007). Not all deontological viewpoints are this extreme, however it provides the clearest example of the deontological view. According to deontological ethics, acting in a…
Fauchon, C. (2004). "Counterpoint: the case against profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.
Friedman, Barry. (2004). "Policy point-counterpoint: profiling at airports." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.
Reddick, S. (2004). "Point: the case for profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.
Stanford. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 22 February 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu
Considered part of the Northern Renaissance, German Renaissance developed in the 15th and 16th centuries among German thinkers who had traveled to Italy, the cradle of the movement, and had been inspired to import it to Germany. Humanism exerted a strong influence over the arts and sciences in several German principalities, and coincided with a period of political development.
Painting was one of the most prominent ways of artistic expression within the German Renaissance. Also, publishing and printmaking were two areas which developed significantly throughout this period. German art was deeply influenced by its Gothic past, but many painters became increasingly more interested in fusing these Gothic elements with newer developments. Two of the most important figures of German visual arts were Konrad itz, a conservative German painter who was less keen on adopting Italian trends, and Albrecht Durer who was both a painter and a graphic master. In fact,…
Guisepi, R.A.. "Beginning and Progress of the Renaissance." University of California. Available at http://history-world.org/renaissance.htm. Accessed 3 November, 2008.
Hulme, Edward Maslin "The Revival of Art." In the Renaissance, the Protestant Revolution, and the Catholic Reformation in Continental Europe, 108-124. Revised ed. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1915.
What I appreciated most about Master and Commander was in fact the nontraditional approach to the war movie. Instead of focusing on battle scenes and commanders' egos, Weir and his fellow filmmakers focus on those commanders' motives and to the prevailing social norms and political values. Those norms and values gave impetus to explore the world and learn about the diversity of culture and species the planet houses.
As outmoded models of government were falling by the wayside, generals like Napoleon were able to fill leadership vacuums easily. Trust in governance and leadership had yet to evolve. Aubrey's death embodies the social and political struggles taking place during the early nineteenth century. The sea bird that dies is a powerful symbol for Aubrey, a literary device that makes the movie more than a simple sensationalist Hollywood production. Master and Commander forces students to think harder about their academic readings. The…
Because so many mortgage companies and lending institutions pass of the debts represented by their loans to third parties, there is little incentive to ensure that borrowers actually qualify for loans based on their income and credit history the way might where the original lending institution must absorb the cost of eventual default. Throughout the mortgage industry, practices evolved where realtors and mortgage brokers actively encouraged borrowers to misrepresent their financial circumstances to qualify for much more expensive properties than they could actually afford. Brokers who objected to this practice were subject to reprimand and even to dismissal from their positions, precisely because the moral rules within that vocational environment conflicted with objective values, not to mention federal law. Faced with similar circumstances, I would have no choice but to voice my objection, even at the expense of my position.
Similarly, my moral perspective does not permit rigid adherence to…
Notes de Madariaga, "It is hard to argue that Catherine's regime was intellectually oppressive, as many of her detractors have done, in the face of such a clear example of her confidence in the response of society to her rule." (97). A lax censorship and publishing permission epitomized Catherine's personal outlook of encouragement of enterprise in as many fields as possible rather than state control.
Catherine, herself, was a prolific writer. Thousands of sheets of paper covered in her journals have survived. The most noteworthy of all was her 1767 Great Instruction, published to present before the elected representatives of nobles, townspeople, Cossacks, tribesmen and state peasants, not serfs, the general principles through which the assembly should codify laws. The 650 articles of the Instruction defined the functions of social estates and described the means of establishing rule of law and citizen welfare. Catherine was influenced by German and French…
This difference grew with advancing age. At ages 65 to 69, it was only 6 to 5. However, at age 85 and over, it reached 5 to 2. As more men live to older ages over the next 50 years, these differences may narrow somewhat.
3) Determinant -- Need for Assistance: As people age, there is a greater chance they will need assistance with walking. This is because of illness or recuperation from an operation or a fall, arthritis, frailty with age, or instability. A study by Gooberman-Hill and Ebrahim (2007) concerning the elderly making decisions about the use of walking aids showed that walking difficulty is common old age. However, older people's views on walking aids are likely to affect their uptake. The authors therefore explored older people's views on using these aids. Participants were 69-90 years old at the first interview, 15 were followed up a year later,…
Gooberman-Hill, R, and Ebrahim, S. (2007). Making decisions about simple interventions: older people's use of walking aids. Age and Ageing. 36(5): 569- 573.
MMR. (2001) Stylish help for aging eyes. [electronic form]
U.S. Census Bureau (May 1995). Sixty-Five Plus in the United States. Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved February 2, 2008. http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/statbriefs/agebrief.html
Wolfe, D.B. (2003) Ageless Marketing - Strategies for Reaching the Hearts and Minds of the New Customer Majority. Wayne County: MI.
On the other hand, he is also referring to the rigorous formation of a cantata. He saw through the rigorous formation of the cantata an instrument to bring a certain order into individual existence as well, with the Lutheran religion as the middle element (Schrade, 1946).
In reference to the previous subchapter on Lully, we should point out towards the fact that, while for Lully, royal patronage was essential for the characteristics of his creation and, in fact, the direct source of inspiration and ultimate goal, ach used the civic appointment to rise above the actual demands and only use the pretext of needing to compose cantatas for a perspective to go beyond and ensure that his musical vision was reached. In Lully's case, patronage determined musical vision, for we cannot see Lully's music otherwise than in the role of a grandiose propaganda instrument for the French absolute monarchy. In…
1. Schrade, Leo. 1946. Bach: The Conflict between the Sacred and the Secular. Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press
2. Isherwood, Robert. 1973. Music in the Service of the King. Ithaca and London: Cornell U.P.
3. Isherwood, Robert. 1969. The Centralization of Music in the Reign of Louis XIV. French Historical Studies. Society for French Historical Studies
4. Bach's Cantatas: a Brief Orientation. On the Internet at http://www.baroque-music-club.com/cantatas.html .Last retrieved on September 30, 2007
As a matter of fact, she seems very open to new ideas and theories, as she was able to discuss my beliefs with me in a very open manner.
Although Carol claims she does not strongly adhere to her original fundamentalist beliefs, she still belongs to the Baptist Church. She raised two children with the husband she found at Bob Jones and her family attended and still attends church together. She disagrees with some of the newly-imposed strictures that the Southern Baptist Convention has handed down, but she has faith in the future of the denomination. She believes that the basic organization of the Baptist Church as a whole is the way that churches should be organized. hen she was a young person, meetings were held in a democratic fashion, using Robert's Rules of Order. Even in the youngest classes of Sunday School. She believes that her parents' strongly protecting…
Armstrong, Karen. The Battle for God. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 2000.
Jones, Steven. "Fundamentalism." New Religious Movements. July 17, 2001. Website available at http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/fund.html .
Pojman, Louis P. "Gilbert Harman's Internalist Moral Relativism," the Modern Schoolman, Vol. 68 (November, 1990), pp. 19-39.
Robinson, B.A. "Eschatology, End Times and Millennialism." Religious Tolerance. 2006. http://www.religioustolerance.org/millenni.htm .
Yet, I suggest that while Anne Clifford succeeded in life -- she was at last able to join the fellowship at Penshurst and through long life and tenacity to reclaim her lands -- Aemilia Lanyer succeeds in an imaginative vision: out of marginality, out 'of absence, darkness..., things which are not,' indeed out of weakness, Lanyer creates in Salve Deus a remarkable community of strength, present more powerfully and enduringly in her fiction than in life itself. (Pebworth and Summers 46)
This fictionalization of such a "remarkable community" is one aspect of the rigors of life during this period in history that might escape a casual reader today, but the fact that Lanyer was able to craft such a work during such an otherwise bleak era suggests that she did in fact have some compelling reasons beyond money and fame that drove her work.
John Milton's masque "Comus." Because Europe…
Briggs, Julia. This Stage-Play World: Texts and Contexts, 1580-1625. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Hall, Kim F. Things of Darkness: Economies of Race and Gender in Early Modern England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Haselkorn, Anne M. And Betty S. Travitsky. The Renaissance Englishwoman in Print: Counterbalancing the Canon. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990.
Hunter, William B., Jr. Milton's Comus: Family Piece. Troy, NY: Whitston Publishing Company, 1983.
Secondly, this different approach also led the American society to experience a distinct social evolution. The fact that the ritish colonists were less reluctant to encourage social mobility offered the new settlers the change to become an important member of the society despite his eventual modest origin. Consequently, the highest level of the social scale was that of the colonial aristocrats, represented by wealthy planters and merchants, the middle class was represented by the land owning farmers, while the hired help made up the lower class. Indeed, there were racial frictions as well, which forced African-Americans to be considered the least important in the society. Nonetheless, despite this hierarchy, the geographical conditions enabled every man to go in search of wealth and thus improve his social conditions.
The Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires, although they offered a different social structure for their colonies, they left little mobility between classes. The…
Lewis, Laura. "Spanish ideology and the practice of inequality in the New World." Racism and anti-racism in world perspective. Ed. Benjamin Bowser. London: Sage Publications, 2002.
Loury, Glenn C., Tariq Modood, and Steven Michael Teles. Ethnicity, social mobility, and public policy:comparing the U.S. And UK. London: Cambridge UP, 2005, 22-25.
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
Christian Moral Philosophy, H. ichard Niebuhr takes a probing look at the characteristics of a moral life. So many times, people judge others as good or bad without examining the underlying characteristics of those judgments. However, Niebuhr rejects that idea. Instead, he goes beyond vague notions of good and bad and suggests that ethical behavior is inextricably intertwined with the concept of responsibility. esponsibility towards others is what guides people to engage in ethical ways. Moreover, to Niebuhr, this responsibility towards others does not imply any type of bondage. Instead, every individual has the freedom to act as he or she wants to act and the flexibility to respond in their own ways. Unethical people may act in ways that ignore their responsibilities towards others, while ethical people will respond in a way that demonstrates that concern for others guides their actions. In this way, Niebuhr seems to suggest that…
Niebuhr, H. Richard. 1999. The responsible self: An essay in Christian moral philosophy.
Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
hen men, therefore, break up the original compact or agreement which gives its corporate form and capacity to a state, they are no longer a people; they have no longer a corporate existence; they have no longer a legal coactive force to bind within, nor a claim to be recognized abroad. They are a number of vague, loose, individuals, and nothing more. ith them all is to begin again (Sallust, 1963).
Soon authors started to insist on the antiquity of Dutch liberty. In 1587, for example, illem Verheyden urged the Dutch to uphold the 'exceptional freedom which we have inherited from our ancestors', as it had been retained 'since the time of Julius Caesar'. 5 The antiquity of Dutch liberty became one of the foundational ideas of the Dutch Republic. According to the Batavian myth, as it is called nowadays, (Brewer, 1975) the liberty of the United Provinces, and of…
Brewer J., Rockingham, Burke, and Whig Political Argument, Historical Journal, 18 (1975), 188-201.
Burke Edmund, The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, 6 vols. (London, 18869).
Burke Edmund, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790).
Blackstone William, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1765-9).
While all ethical theories appeal to me in some way, the one I relate to the most is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism suggests that the ethical decision should enhance as much happiness as possible. I appreciate this idea, which is why I believe I make more decisions using a utilitarian ethic than any other. With Kantian duty ethics, I struggle with the absolutism. I do not believe it is possible to have one principle govern every ethical decision that I make. For example, I do believe that sometimes it is acceptable to tell lies. I have told lies to make my parents or girlfriend feel good, and I do not think it hurt them. In fact, I believe that if they knew now which lies I told and when, they would not even be upset. I would never tell a lie that I could later not admit to, however, I relate…
Luther / Bossuet/Hobbes
Martin Luther's adical eligion Vision
When Martin Luther nailed his infamous 95 Theses to the door of the cathedral in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517, he could hardly have foreseen that the consequences of his declarations would shake the Western world for centuries. While Luther was certainly not working in a vacuum and absorbed many of his attitudes towards the Catholic Church from the growing mistrust of the papacy in Germany at the time, his elegant theological arguments against the power of the pope and the rituals of Catholicism provided a strong religious alternative to the oman Catholic faith.
The instigation for the 95 Theses and one of the issues at the heart of Luther's argument against the Church was the practice of the selling of indulgences. Indulgences were essentially letters of forgiveness from the Church that could be bought in lieu of the traditional good works that…
Carsten, Francis. The New Cambridge Modern History: The Ascendency of France: 1648-88. London: Cambridge University Press, 1961. Print.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Forgotten Books.org, 2008. Web.
constructing responses titles I listing. In response make show reference entry. (01) Discuss
One of the most powerful movements that transformed European society during the early modern era was the dissemination of information and the propagation of reading material due to Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press around 1450 A.D. The movement that would prove to have the most impact upon society as a whole, however, was the imperialist movement that many credit to have originated with Columbus' journeys to the Americas, the first of which was in 1492. The imperialist movement would allow the appetite for power and conquering to expand beyond Europe and eventually encapsulate the entire globe. This movement is directly responsible for today's globalization, and the previous (and perhaps current) colonization and tyranny of many non-European nations. Another major movement during this time period was the beginning of the Protestant eformation, which began around 1517…
Benjamin J. Kaplan (2007), Divided by Faith. Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.
Bentley, J., Ziegler, H., Streets, H. (2006). Traditions & Encounters: A Brief Global History. New York: McGraw Hill
Equiano, O. Life On Board. International Slavery Museum. Retrieved from http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/ism/slavery/middle_passage/olaudah_equiano.aspx
The Applied History Research Group, 1998. The Ottoman Empire. Retrieved from http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/empires/ottoman/
Locke v. Berkeley
The philosophers John Locke and George Berkeley offer stark contrasts on the issue of various matters. Locke's whose viewpoint can best be classified as based in relativism. He believed that all knowledge come from the senses. As every man's senses are unique, no two individuals will sense the same experience the same and, therefore, all knowledge is different in each individual. By extension, there is no such thing as better beliefs or true beliefs. Everyone's beliefs are their own and based on their individual experience. George Berkeley's viewpoints offer a sharp contrast to those of Locke. In fact, their individual careers ran concurrently and they spent most of that time being contrasted and possessing viewpoints that were diametrically opposed. Berkeley's was an empiricist but one who also possessed a certain idealist twist. Berkeley viewed experience as the source of most knowledge. According to Berkeley's form of empiricism,…
More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).
In the arrangement of science there…
A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm
Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html
Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:
The Scarecrow Press.
For the most part none of these three examples ever had the experience of living under an autocratic form of government and so the transition from one form of government to another was much smoother. A tradition of democracy supersedes the influence of ethnic diversity in that such tradition cultivates an understanding and respect for negotiated solutions for contentious issues in society which in the long run increases the chances that a democracy will sustain itself.
The final variable in determining the sustainability of democratization is a nation's economic status. Nations that enjoy a prosperous economy are far more likely to accept democratization than one where economy is struggling and it matters very little whether such democratization is imposed or pacted.
The track record on imposed democratization is not a good one. In most imposed democratization situations the tradition of democracy and the balance of power necessary to sustain the…
Diamond, Larry. A Fourth Wave or False Start? Report. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2011.
Fukuyama, Francis. "Stateness" First." Journal of Democracy (2005): 84-88.
Huntington, Samuel P. "Will More Countries Become Democratic?" Political Science Quarterly (1984): 193-218.
Steinmo, Sven. Structuring Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Louis XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte are the most important personalities of French history; their political achievements impressed people of all generations who admitted the fact that unified strong and highly developed modern France is the main result of their activities. Both Louis XIV and Napoleon were politicians of a new type and had very progressive political views which helped them strengthen their country and defeat political opponents. Period of French history since 1643 till 1812 is full of great changes in social, economical, political and cultural aspects of French life and the outcome of this process was unified French nation, strong state ruled by able bureaucracy and French cultural predominance for many centuries.
To begin with we have to remember, that French nation didn't have strong and unified state before Louis XIV: French kings tried fighting for dominant position in the political system but failed as they were directed in…
A few months ago a friend approached me with a moral dilemma. She had witnessed a coworker stealing cash from her office. Although her first instinct was to rush and tell the supervisor what had occurred, she hesitated and consulted me beforehand. "This guy has four children. His wife died two years ago. He gets paid not much more than minimum wage and can barely make ends meet. I know that stealing is wrong, but at the same time I know that he is poor, and ... " I stopped her right there. What she was suggesting was to possibly ignore the stealing because the man's moral imperative was not toward his company but toward his family. Clearly my friend had a tendency to support what I have since learned to be called ethical relativism and like me, she might tend to believe in situational ethics.
I have always…
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great was "one of those catalyzing forces in history who, through hard experience, unbounded intelligence, and overwhelming practicality, changed the face of a country against overwhelming odds. She was a German princess who was married to Peter, a nephew of Elizabeth, who served as Empress of Russia from 1741 to 1762. Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, was a shrewd and Machiavellian ruler; she did not like Catherine, who was, from the time of her marriage to Peter in 1745 to the death of Elizabeth in 1762, constantly under the threat of danger (www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ABSOLUTE.HTM)."
Upon Elizabeth's death, Peter became Emperor Peter III and during his reign of just a few months, established peace between Russia and Prussia, averting Russia's conquest of Prussia. He was assassinated soon afterward, resulting in Catherine becoming ruler of Russia.
Prior to the deaths of Elizabeth and…
Absolute Monarchy and Enlightened Absolutism. (accessed 01 June, 2005). www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ABSOLUTE.HTM).
Eighteenth Century: Introduction. (accessed 01 June, 2005). www.rollins.edu/Foreign_Lang/Russian/18intro.html).
Peter the Great, Catherine the Great and the Rise of Russia. (accessed 01 June, 2005).
The advocator of the Iran Democracy Act incorporates the Iranian Monarchist groups, The American Israeli Public Affairs Committee -- AIPAC, and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs -- JINSA.
It also includes the well established organizations that may get sanctions under the Bill such as Coalition for Democracy in Iran -- CDI- which was formed by Morris Amitay of JINSA, ob Sobhani, President of Caspian Energy Consulting and Michael Ledeen of the American Enterprise Institute who were recognized as the staunch supporters of the change in the rule of Iran. Moreover, the advocators also put forth that the previous U.S. funding of opposition groups in other countries was important to promotion of democracy in such countries and Iran cannot be an exception to this. This necessitates the U.S. To include human rights and democracy on its agenda in respect of Iran. (Senator Brown Back Announces Iran Democracy Act with…
Afrasiabi, Kaveh L. Regional Obstacles to Democracy in Iran. 24 January, 2001.
Retrieved from http://www.payvand.com/news/01/jan/1144.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Chomsky, Noam. Promoting democracy in Middle East. Khaleej Times. 4 March, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle.asp?xfile=data/opinion/2005/March/opinion_March6.xml& ; section=opinion& col= Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Kazemzadeh, Masoud. Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran. The Iranian. 30
Divine Command Theory is the ethical theory that says that what God wills or command determines the moral status of various actions, or in other words, "an act is right if and only if God wills or commands it...an act is wrong if and only if God forbids it" (Religion pp). Yet, this simply states what people are supposed to do, and does not take into account free will and individual accountability (Religion pp). This is also a version of absolutism, for it claims that certain acts are right or wrong universally, whether or not one believes in God (Religion pp).
Divine Command Theory presents two problems:
There are many different interpretations of God's commands (and one would think that if God were God he would make the truth explicit so that it could be known).
DCT presupposes God's existence.
hen faced with a situation, I generally seek…
The Divine Command Theory." http://www.philosophyofreligion.info/divinecommandtheory.html
Religion and Morality." http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/philosophy/courses/Bengson/PR%204-2123.htm
This led him to start the second major religion in Germany -Protestantism. This makes it clear that there were views of religion being also something other than pure belief in a path to reach God even in those days.
The strength of the Protestants increased in North Baden and northeast Bavaria, and was not at a very high level till Germany was unified under Prussian leadership in 1871. The leaders of Germany at that time were under Otto von Bismarck and he was seeking a method to weaken the leadership of oman Catholics and their influence. This led to the start of Kulturkampf in the early 1870s. Other direct steps were also taken like prohibiting the Jesuit order in Germany and expelling the members of Jesuits from Germany. The entire procedure was outlined in Prussia under the "Falk laws" which were named after Adalbert Falk who was the minister of…
Barrett, Lois. (25 October, 1996) "Thinking Theologically about Church and State" Annual
Restorative Justice Conference. Retrieved at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=2794Accessed on 6 August, 2005
Carter, Stephen. L. (October 11, 2000) "Beyond Neutrality" The Christian Century. pp. 996-
1001. Retrieved at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1964Accessed on 6 August, 2005
Questions about place and role of reason puzzle generations of philosophers as they are among the fundamental questions of philosophy. In case it appears that everything is planned and all events are mutually connected it may witness for the divine origin of the universe and man. Laplace proposed the theory of absolute determinism which stated that every process which took place in the universe had a reason so that the next or previous stage of this process could be predicted and described in the absolute form.
Determinism of Laplace had a lot of strong points at the time when he developed this theory. First of all Laplas was a mathematician and physicist and the principle of sufficient reason corresponded to all dynamic processes he studied: motion, oscillations, etc. This principle laid in the fundamentals of classic mechanics and was applied for any dynamical system on the hand with…
Laplace, Pierre Simon A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities Dover Publications 1996
Belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist is rooted explicitly in Scripture, while the devotion known as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament was not practiced until the early 14th century (McBrien). hile the belief in Christ presence will forever remain a part of the deposit of faith as a Tradition, the tradition of Benediction may disappear without consequence (McBrien).
The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation teaches that Scripture and Tradition form one sacred deposit of revelation and that Tradition encompasses the "whole life, witness, teaching and worship of the church," thus Tradition is a living, dynamic reality that "develops in the church with the help of the Holy Spirit" (McBrien).
According to Catholic theologians, Tradition is never independent of Scripture, therefore is something is not found in Scripture, then it is not in Tradition, even if it is a legitimate tradition of the Church (McBrien).
Catechism of the Catholic Church. Preparation for Internet by Charles Borromeo Parish,
Mississippi. Retrieved June 10, 2006 at http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p1s1c2a3.htm
Divine Tradition and Sacred Scriptures. The Augustine Club at Columbia University.
1999. Retrieved June 10, 2006 at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/augustine/a/sola_scriptura.html