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This is perhaps a significant difference between the two characters. While on one hand, Beowulf is undisputedly the leader of his kingdom, Achilles is an unofficial leader, unrecognized in function, but perceived so on the battlefield.
Achilles is also more human in reactions and the relations he ties with the other individuals than Beowulf. There is no mention of any close companion in Beowulf and the reader doesn't perceive that Beowulf has any friends. Part of Achilles' legend, on the other hand, is based on the legendary friendship with Patroclus. The relationship with his friend humanizes Achilles even more, along with the suffering he feels as Patroclus dies in battle.
The heroes' death is also significant in crayoning the two characters. Since we have already discuss the fact that Beowulf seems to transpose the human realm and become a mythological figure himself, it seems natural that his death cannot come…… [Read More]
To verify this diagnosis, a doctor may then order either an X-ray of the area, or more likely, an MRI, which is better at imaging tears in soft tissues. hen surgery is required, these symptoms persist for several weeks after surgery.
Surgery is a common treatment for a rupture to the Achilles tendon; and most often consists of making an incision to the back of the lower leg and stitching together the torn section of the tendon. ("Surgery for an Achilles Tendon Rupture") if the rupture is complete, then the repair may be reinforced by connecting the torn tendon to other nearby muscles. hile the surgery is often performed through an open surgery procedure, if a patient has heart, circulatory, or poor healing risk factors, a percutaneous surgery will be performed. This surgical procedure differs in that it requires a number of small incisions instead of a single large one.…… [Read More]
He is described as being of gigantic size and of tremendous emotion. Always Achilles is described with the most exaggerated terms, shining like the sun or falling in the most absolute wretchedness. In a moment of sublimity oddly precognizant of gothic writers like E.A. Poe, Achilles refuses to bury his beloved Patrocles' body because "since I'm journeying under the earth after you, I'll postpone your burial...Till that time, you'll lie like this with me..." (book 18, 330-338) Achilles is perfect and heroic in the extremity of his nature. A more archetypal approach would say that he was heroic because, more than any other character, he represented the purity of war. Archtypically, he represents a purity of action and emotion than can drive men to battle, the pure warrior who is at once filled with the strength of emotion and will and yet resigned to perfect destiny, faithful towards the gods,…… [Read More]
It is rather like a feud in this respect -- the one who commits the final act of revenge is declared the winner.
Hector is the Trojan warrior whose character differs greatly from that of Achilles and who has very different reasons for fighting. here Achilles fights for glory, Hector sacrifices himself or his family, his country, and his ideals. His dedication to family is apparent as he visits his wife and children while delivering a message away from the battlefield, a clear contrast with the way Achilles ignores family obligations. Hector places himself in harm's way knowingly in service to his city, a contrast with Achilles, who sulks in his tent because of his own pride and not because of any concern for his country. At the same time, both men tend to be reckless, as seen in hector when he is advised by Polydamus to retire from the…… [Read More]
When I went home, I made a sandwich for dinner and ate it with an apple and some chips. I did not feel that I even wanted to try to cook anything or do dishes afterward.
Taking a shower that night was challenging. I thought I would just stand in the shower with my left leg resting on the floor outside the tub, but then I realized I had a "cast" on my right arm that I could not get wet. I ended up wrapping both simulated casts with plastic trash bags so I wouldn't get them wet. I still ended up getting a considerable amount of water on the bathroom floor. Just before going to bed, I removed the elastic bandages. Being disabled for one day was enough.
What surprised me most about the experience was the difficulty of even the simplest tasks. I had not realized how often…… [Read More]
Achilles and the Search for Immortality
Achilles, as a heroic and mythical figure, is representative of the Western search for immortality and truth in a world of temporality and illusion. The figure of Achilles expresses the desire within all men for a transcendence of the world in the search for truth and permanence through the quest for immortality.
This paper attempts to address the question of myth and immortality through the study of Achilles in the Iliad. The central thesis is that Achilles has a choice between human life and immortality through death. He chooses death and immortality over a mundane comfortable life. This choice makes him a heroic figure as he represents the archetypal desire of humanity to escape the finite and temporal world.
Another aspect that is explored is the realization that total transcendence of the world and Godlike immortality is not humanly possible. This paper attempts to…… [Read More]
Thetis' procurement of new armor, in a more simplistic tale, might be read as a mother letting go of a son from her apron-springs. But in the wisdom of the "Iliad," an epic that does not glorify death and war, Thetis' emotional sacrifice is full of sadness for both son and mother because both of them know that Achilles' death will follow the death of Hector.
As a mortal, and also simply as a young man, Achilles does not know the full horror of death. His ability to fully apprehend the knowledge his mother already possesses as age-old immortal comes afterwards, as Book 11 of the "Odyssey," when Achilles' old compatriot from the war comes seeking knowledge in the land of the dead. Achilles, even though he lives in the Elysian Fields where all of the heroes are celebrated, mourns his current state. He is greeted by Odysseus as happy…… [Read More]
Achilles' speech Agamemnon's embassy Book 9 " Illiad" it Achilles reflects codes behavior heroes
The Right to Pride
The Trojan ar was fought for a variety of reasons, the most fundamental of which was because Helen was abducted from Sparta and delivered to Paris of Troy. Yet for many of the individual combatants, and particularly for those who were regarded as heroes, the war was fought for far more personal and lasting reasons. As many of the heroes within this epic indicate via their speech and actions, the Trojan ar was ultimately a chance for glory everlasting, and the opportunity to claim a renown and fame for deeds done and opponents conquered that would not present itself for quite some time, if ever again. Achilles, the hero of the epic and one of its most unequivocal champions, personified this desire for glory that drove most of the heroes in the…… [Read More]
Achilles a Sympathetic Character
Achilles, the grandson of Aeacus was regarded as the greatest and primal character in Homer's Iliad, the ancient epic of Greek mythology. Even though Achilles is the central character of the epic, he is considered to be an unsympathetic character. Achilles was the son of the king of Meymidouns in Phthia, Pelues, and sea nymph Thetis. As the legend goes, Achilles made invincible by his mother Thetis by dipping him in the river Styx, however, ignored to wet his heel she held him by and made him vulnerable to be killed by a blow to that heel. (Achilles [Categories: LGBT mythology, People who fought in the Trojan ar]) Homer's Iliad, develops around the Trojan ar that spans for ten years between Greeks and the Trojans. Illiad depicts the involvement of gods and goddesses in the lives of mortal beings. (Troy Movie Review: arner Bros. Troy vs.…… [Read More]
It was not enough to kill Hektor and then return him to his family for proper burial, dishonoring the body added additional insult to his actions. This act shows Achilles as an angry young man. However, when he comes to his senses and realizes that a family has been hurt, he demonstrates a greater maturity in his actions. The transition from a raging boy to a mourning man represents spiritual growth on the part of Achilles.
Disrespecting the body of Hektor also had another affect. Achilles may have felt that the death of Patroklos took away some of his power. y disrespecting the body of Hektor, he may have had an underlying motivation of attempting to regain his sense of power that was lost by diminishing the power of the opposition. Disrespecting the body of Hektor was also disrespectful to Hektor's family, who happened to be the king of Troy.…… [Read More]
War is a fact of life, a terrible fact of life, but when it is willed by the gods it cannot be ignored.
Achilles does have some positive moral characteristics: although he spends much of the Iliad retreating from the fighting, he is clearly not a coward, in contrast to the Trojan Paris. He wants to fight, but his honor is too bruised. Furthermore, Achilles harbors a deep and abiding affection for his friend Patroclus, and the Greeks idealized this type of male friendship often more than husband-wife relationships. When Hector kills Patroclus in battle, because he believes him to be Achilles, Achilles is thrown into a frenzy of grief. He puts aside the slight done to him by Agamemnon, and vows to kill Hector.
Still, unlike Hector, who is repeatedly shown rallying the Trojans to fight in more glorious ways through his wise leadership, Achilles' bravery is often emotional,…… [Read More]
speech of Achilles to Agamemnon to the Speech of Hector to Andromache
The two speeches, of Achilles to Agamemnon and the one of Hector to Andromache, represent two different types of ethics in regards to rhetoric; this can be seen within the context of the speeches as well as the events. The speech of Achilles to Agamemnon is seen as a type base rhetoric, and the speech of Hector to Andromache is seen as philosophical rhetoric.
The base rhetoric is something which follows a direction of evil; it ends in exploitation and is something condemning. This type of rhetoric hates all which oppose it, and would rather that it were greater than everything else -- it despises anything equal or greater than it. The base rhetoric is something which tries to keep anything from achieving or receiving any types of support which can be seen in the form of noble…… [Read More]
For this reason, I think Aeneas is different than the other heroes. His sad story has made him think more about fate and the future.
Out of all the stories of heroes, Marvel Comics and otherwise, I have to say that Spiderman is the ultimate American heroes. Spiderman incorporates the American dream. Peter Parker was a sad, artistic guy who didn't quite have the girl and was a little bit of a nerd, but then he became Spiderman, a beloved celebrity. This shows other Americans that they can do anything. Also, the Spiderman story shows that those who we think are our friends can be our enemies, that integrity is key, and that we must always fight for good, not for evil or for revenge. Spiderman faces real struggles like every American faces. In the end, though, he's always able to pull through. That's why I think he is our…… [Read More]
I believe both "great" mean got what they deserved in the afterlife.
Journal Part Two
In the Greek world, heroism, valor, and bravery were the greatest of all characteristics, so it is fitting that the Greeks' idea of hell is people walking around without unmotivated, unable to be brave. Americans' version of hell would be a different one, filled with all of the little frustrations of life. Some people would be caught in endless lines in department stores. Others, would be forever in a traffic jam. Still others would he stuck on the line with an infuriating member of customer service forever. Maybe some would get the mail each day, constantly finding letters about matters that they had resolved, and they would have to spend every day talking to the same companies and telling the same stories over and over again. These seem to be the little things that bother…… [Read More]
mythology and ancient beliefs. Specifically it will compare the myths of heroism in the myth of Achilles to the modern film "Troy." The film "Troy," from 2004, is a remake of the Homer classic "The Iliad," which recounts the legend of the Greek warrior Achilles. In the film, actor Brad Pitt plays Achilles, giving him a larger than life, heroic quality. Achilles is the child of a mortal and a nymph, and his parents attempt to give him immortality by dipping him in the iver Styx, but they miss a tiny spot on his heel, and this leads to his downfall.
Both of these myths center around the idea of the hero in mythology, and in fact, they show the importance of heroes in the Greek society 3500 years ago. The translator of the Iliad writes, "Heroes are born into positions of prominence, which they also reaffirm by their public…… [Read More]
However, when Achilles touches Priam as token that he should have no fear; both gods and mortals are said to be asleep. There is a sense of will in Achilles' gentleness towards the man, and his willingness to touch Priam's sleeve that night. In other words, human and divine reconciliation and pity is not simply a law, humans must accept the will of the gods, but they are also capable of choosing to add or subtract the misery of the world by showing pity to their fellow humans. Odysseus' cleverness, although aided by the gods, is also partly drawn from his own resourcefulness and character, as well as merely because Athena helps him.
Achilles makes what is said to be the greatest gift to Priam, that of Hector's body. In Greek custom, gifts were customary to give to visitors. ith such a gift, Achilles gives up his determination to mourn…… [Read More]
However, because of Gilgamesh's thought that he may be invincible, he is actually putting his friend's life at risk by going on his adventure. In his attempt to prove that he is brave and that he would rather die for a cause, he actually indirectly causes the death of Enkidu, who shows that he was the stronger of the two.
5) Defining Honor
Honor is a characteristic that few individuals posses. It is a special type of distinguishing factor, that although many attempt to have, very few actually embrace it to its full meaning. Honor entails pride and personal excellence. It is fully believing in an action or an entity that represents something very important to the self and to those around. To me, honor is being able to stand up for your beliefs despite the opinion of others.
Honor in society can actually be viewed in two ways, depending…… [Read More]
Madam Eglantyne the Nun, is also an ironic charater. She eats in a very refined manner and attempts other fine characteristics such as speaking French, although she fares poorly at this. Ironically, not all her language is pure, as she swears cosntantly by "St. Loy," a saint renowned for not swearing. Unlike the general conception of the Nun, she is very concerned with outward appearances and did not much care for human beings. Indeed, she cared much more for her three dogs than the human beings around her. Another irony is that she has a coral trinket to fight worldly temptations, which is clearly failing badly.
A second character is the Friar, Hubert. While he is jolly, merry, and festive, his actions are nevertheless evil and cunning. He impregnates girls, for example, and marries them off. He deceived the faithful by hearing confessions for a fee, and even begged from…… [Read More]
Those with issues to overcome are always more heroic. Hector also becomes a hero when, after at first running from Achilles, he eventually stands up to him and dies a heroic death.
The Iliad is primarily a war epic. In your opinion, is the Iliad condemnation of the it could easily be argued that the Illiad glorifies war, as much of the poem is spent portraying the warriors as brave and courageous, even as they go on killing rampages. Warriors are describes as "masters of the battle cry" and "warlike" in glowing epithets. When Achilles originally refused to fight, he is roundly condemned for it by all of the other Greek characters. Even the weapons of war, such as Achilles impenetrable shield, are glorified. But homer is more complicated than simple -- war also brings death, which he describes in great detail. Hector's death is perhaps the most graphic of…… [Read More]
organized response topic options. 1. Discuss role religion literature Ancient, Middle, Renaissance periods, work period illustrate comments. How writer view God (gods)? How work view man's place universe.
Q2.Select two works from the readings for this course and demonstrate how each fits the definition of a tragedy. It is crucial that you understand and define in your response the elements that constitute tragedy and how each work fits those conventions.
The classical definition of a tragic hero is that of a great man brought low by a tragic, fatal flaw. Such is the case with Oedipus. Oedipus begins Sophocles' play as a great and respected king, widely beloved for freeing Thebes from control of the evil Sphinx. Oedipus is so confident in his ability as a leader that when a plague strikes Thebes, he vows to get to the bottom of the problem and exile the citizen who is responsible…… [Read More]
In Book 19, Athena also advises wisdom when she provides Achilles with divine food to strengthen him. Achilles refuses to eat while he mourns Patroklos. Athena recognizes the lack of wisdom in this and encourages Achilles to gain strength for the battle ahead.
In Book 5 and 6, Athena's relationship with the other divinities show her urge to drive change. The Trojan War will result in a new era, but only if she encourages Greek victory. Hence, she enters a strategic partnership with Hera, who works with her against the will of Zeus to overcome the Trojans. Hera also helps Athena in her assistance to Diomedes.
As for Diomedes, his partnership culminates in change when he stops fighting Glaukos after finding out that their families are bound in friendship. This realization is indicative of the inevitable dawn of the new era: when conversation will reveal the need for further action,…… [Read More]
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…… [Read More]
C.E. With this particular piece, the artist was less concerned with anatomical description than with the problems of foreshortening in the figures and of showing them from different viewpoints. The turning and twisting of the figures indicate that the artist was beginning to view them as three-dimensional volumes with free mobility in a space deeper than the flat, two-dimensional surface of a picture plane, a significant departure from the pre-Greek tradition.
Essentially, the representations on the black figure panel amphora were obviously inspired by the Homeric epic of the Iliad, a poem which relates the famous tale of the attack by the Greek army on the city of Troy. The character of Achilles is by far the most important, for he was considered the best of the Greeks and without equal, the mighty warrior and pre-eminent holder of the Greek principle of excellence in all things. As he engages in…… [Read More]
Deciphering the Enigma
Attempting a machine that would make codes impossible to break, the German military, as seen above, made a number of modifications to their Enigma machines. The plug board for example enabled the machine to increase its number of possible cipher starting points to something between two and three billion. The Enigma's rotors were also interchangeable while being wired differently, adding even more protection and encryption. In order to decipher codes created in this way, the code breaker would need to know not only the positions of each rotor, but also each starting position. Incredibly, according to Cooper, 100 machines working 24 hours per day would take 5.8 years to exhaust all the possibilities created in this way. It was therefore impossible to decipher the codes without the actual machine, the cipher key, and the correct rotor placements.
Nevertheless, there were those who attempted the impossible, and eventually…… [Read More]
Achilles, in effort to match his personal loss on a national level, strives to kill Hector, again fueling the economy of revenge, but this time in a far more 'high stakes' manner. Now, the loss of a man will result in the loss of Troy's greatest warrior. But even though Achilles emerges victorious from this struggle, his is an empty victory. He knows that his own death will follow shortly after the death of Hector. He does not care; revenge means everything to him in the heat of the moment, just like sacrificing the Greek advantage was worth upholding his honor at the beginning of the poem.
Although Achilles' sudden loyalty to his friend may seem honorable to some degree, perhaps more honorable than Menelaus' obsession with Helen, it also shows how the dynamic of loss leading to more and greater losses has spiraled out of control. The one real…… [Read More]
For Paris was essentially a shepherd, and had only recently returned to Troy, thus, he had no military skills (Judgement pp).
Another way the movie made Paris a hero of sorts, is that he is portrayed as the one who tells his father King Priam to be cautious about the horse. hen actually, according to legend, it was his sister Cassandra, a priestess of psychic powers, knew the horse was deceptive and tried to warn her father, but he would not listen (Judgement pp). Then the priest, Laocoon, also tried to warn the Priam to beware of Greeks bearing gifts, yet he too was ignored (Judgement pp).
Another part of the legend that the movie left out was Agamemnon's sacrifice of his daughter, Iphigenia, to the goddess Artemis, in order to obtain favorable winds for the voyage to Troy (Judgement pp). And according to legend, the gods were basically the…… [Read More]
Journey motif is pervasive in global literature, attributed to the existence of collective symbols common to all human societies as archetypes (Zhang, 2008). Both Homer's Iliad and Shakespeare's Henry V incorporate the journey motif as a literary technique. This serves to elevate the status of the protagonist to the heroic level, as the character struggles to meet challenges and overcome obstacles without the familiar trappings of home, family, and social status. War is one of the reasons that heroes undertake journeys, and war indeed figures prominently in both the Iliad and Henry V, driving the plot and transforming their respective protagonists. Journeying occurs on actual and symbolic levels in both these texts. In Homer's Iliad, Achilles undergoes several changes of heart during the war. His journey is introspective, taking him from a point of habitual action through a stage of vengefulness, and finally, onward to spiritual, social, psychological, and political…… [Read More]
In his last moments, Hektor realizes he can never persuade Achilles because "in his breast is a heart of iron" (XXII.357). Achilles reveals his cold nature when he says, "Die: and I will take my own death at whatever time" (XXII.364) moments after Hektor dies. Again, we see the stark contrast between these two heroes.
Achilles is another face Homer attaches to the notion of war and kleos. Achilles is noble and popular for his "swift feet" (I.148). he is swift on his feet and he is swift to anger and this anger will surface to be the one thing that plagues him through The Iliad. It drives him through most of the plot and it is the bane of his existence. However, this flaw does not prevent Achilles from seeking glory or reaching fame. He experiences a different kind of kleos than Hektor does primarily because he becomes an…… [Read More]
Trojan Wars and Culture
The three epic stories namely, The Iliad, the Trojan Women, Pericle's Funeral Oration are powerfully written master pieces of work, that illustrate the element of horridness of war beautifully.
The story of Homer's Iliad focuses on the "rage of Achilles." eading this epic poem makes one believe that it is based entirely on the totality and gruesomeness of war. However, it tells us about the details of war with full description and information. Though war is an important aspect of the tale, but the real story is based on the remarkable fighter and hero-that man is none other than Achilles.
Achilles possesses the greatest military expertise of any of the Achaean ranks and also the greatest fighting ability out of all of the warriors, Trojan or Achaean. At the beginning of the epic, Achilles becomes liberated from his fellow warriors and retreats back to…… [Read More]
He seeks to heal his broken relations with Achilles only when the Greeks are desperate, a transparent ruse Achilles easily sees through. Agamemnon does not go as one of the emissaries to Achilles, but sends Odysseus, laden with gifts. The general refuses to come humbly bearing a personal apology for his foolishness, as a good leader might try to heal the rift in the Greek camp. Achilles only agrees to return to war in Book 19 after his friend Patroclus dies, not because of the gifts Agamemnon gives to in reparation for his earlier insult. Agamemnon should have seen that Achilles was less motivated by material rewards than he was by love for people he cared about, like Brisesis and Patroclus. Agamemnon is too egotistical to understand the psychological motivations of other people. This is part of his self-obsession -- because he is motivated by spoils, he assumes all other…… [Read More]
The Guilt and Shame In Heroes
Sometimes, there is a misconception that heroes do not feel shame and guilt. For instance, in a movie, when heroes eliminate their adversaries, the viewers are happy because they just think of the good result that such action can bring to everyone. The viewers do not care of how the hero may have felt about his action of getting rid of the enemies and the viewers may think that the hero will feel happy and proud for what he did. However, in the Iliad of Homer, it is apparent that even heroes do feel shame and guilt. The best example of which are revealed in the characters of Achilles and Hector.
Achilles was a great Greek fighter. His passion was to fight and become well-known for his fighting skills. He was known to be the greatest fighter in Greece, thus despite Menelaus and Achilles…… [Read More]
In Homer, he can boast: "Do you not see what a man I am, how huge, how splendid / and born of a great father, and the mother who bore me immortal?" (Homer Book 21, lines 108-109, p. 421).
In Cassandra however, he can still boast but doesn't always get away with it. In a rather accusatory and insulting tone, olf referred to Achilles in this way: "A fiend in battle so that everyone would see he was not a coward, he did not know what to do with himself once the fighting was done...And this is the man to whom Calchas the seer later had to turn over his daughter." (83) Cassandra believed that Achilles' brave soldier act was but only a facade. hile Homer mentions facts to capture the essence of Achilles' personality, olf uses observation and perception to get her results. The bottom line was the same…… [Read More]
The roles, ideals, views of men in the ancient civilization have been explored extensively in literature from the famous Kings of Israel to the mathematicians and philosophers of Greece. In contrast, the history entails limited literature of women in the ancient civilization. However, several masterpieces such as the Homeric poem, the Odyssey and the Iliad provides a glimpse of ideals, position, and role of women in the ancient civilization. Women play a fundamental role in life by taking multiple responsibilities as portrayed in the epic poem Odyssey. The epic poem presents the role of women in the facet of power, sexuality, and interaction with men.
An analysis of the women in the poem demonstrates a challenge of the space of women as traditionally defined by the patriarchal Greek society. The Homeric poem has a distinct feminist message of the struggle women endure as they try to extricate themselves from…… [Read More]
The Myrmidon king took advantage of the opportunity and began to chase the Trojan, which had lastly realized his physical disadvantage and the fact that he had little chances of winning the combat. Hector had not been moved by his people's cries "and he stood his ground awaiting huge Achilles as he drew nearer towards him." The gods had also intervened in Achilles favor through Minerva, who tricked Agamemnon into thinking that she had been his loved brother, Deiphobus. Agamemnon responded to his brother's calls, stopping to fight Achilles, but shortly understood that he had been deceived, deducing that his "death is now indeed exceedingly near at hand." The clash had clearly been unfair, with Achilles putting an end to Hector's life both because of his physical advantage and because of the assistance received from the gods.
Observing that his son had been killed and that his body had been…… [Read More]
A bit less far this time, certainly, but a bit none the less. He is always getting closer, but never makes up the lost ground completely.
Intuitively at least, it is clear that the human runner can quickly outdistance the tortoise (Papa-Grimaldi, 1996), but Zeno's paradox seems to defy this capability. In this regard, Cohen asks, "Achilles will certainly, with his celebrated speed, soon get very close behind the tortoise -- but why can't he, logically speaking at least, ever overtake the reptilian competitor?" (2002, p. 38). A similar paradox is presented by Zeno in "The Arrow," discussed further below.
Paradox of the Arrow. According to Dowden, this paradox concerns "a moving arrow [that] must occupy a space equal to itself at any moment. That is, at any moment it is at the place where it is. But places do not move. So, if at each moment, the arrow is…… [Read More]
Homer was a legendary Greek poet who is traditionally credited as the author of the major Greek epics the "Iliad and the Odyssey," as well as the comic mini-epic "Batracholmyomachia" (The Frog-Mouse ar), the corpus of Homeric Hymns, and various other lost or fragmentary workd such as "Margites" (Homer pp). Some ancient authors credited him with the entire Epic Cycle, which included other poems about the Trojan ar as well as the Theban poems concerning Oedipus and his sons (Homer pp). According to legend, Homer was blind, and aside from several Ionian cities claiming to be his birthplace, there is nothing else known about him (Homer pp). Aristotle and Pindar believed that Homer was born in Smyrna, on the coast of modern-day Turkey, and enjoyed years of fame on the Aegean island of Chios (Tolson pp). Although the great scholar-librarians of Alexandria scrutinized the epics for historical and geographic errors,…… [Read More]
Nature in Troilus and Cressida
Both Troilus and Cressida and The inter's Tale deal with nature as an allegory for human nature. Many kinds of metaphors are used, from the classically romantic, to the dirty joke, to positive and negative portrayals of personalities. Many of the most powerful metaphors are in the initial portion of the play.
In Act I, Scene I, of Troilus and Cressida, Troilus compares being observed by his father and Hector to "as when the sun doth light a storm" (line 31). Presumably his inner turmoil over his love for Cressida is the storm, and his false good humor is the light in the storm. This implies that nature can be false, as well. Later in the same discussion, Troilus says his hopes are drowned, again using the depths of the ocean as an expression of his emotions (line 37). Later he compares Cressida to a…… [Read More]
classic mythology, Nestor was the wise king of Pylos, and son of Neleus (or Peleus) and father of Antilochus. He was one of the Argonauts and fought the centaur with the Lapiths. In the "Iliad," he was on the side of the Greeks at the Trojan War. He survived three generations, but he throughout that time, he remained strong and brave and continued to be an honored counselor to the warriors. In the "Odyssey," we see that the same wisdom and piety in him led the gods to allow him to return to Pylos after the Trojan War, without incurring any harm.
In ook 1 of the "Iliad," the elderly Nestor tries to pacify the quarrel between King Agamemnon and Achilles, a foremost Greek soldier. It was the last year of that War and that time, the god Apollo punished the Greeks for the crime of their king, Agamemnon. He…… [Read More]
Homer -- Was the Blind Bard a Poetic Activist for War or Peace?
Homer is a poet of war, namely the war between the Greeks and Trojans, and later in his "Odyssey," of the war between Odysseus and the gods whom would bar him from his trajectory homeward. He is a poet of war in the sense that war provides the narrative structure of how he outlines how a moral human being lives in a violent, conflict-based society. However, Homer also chronicles in his works with what might seem to the modern reader, a distinctly anti-war literary sentiment and tone. This is perhaps best embodied in the example of Odysseus himself as a character. Homer's most famous anti-hero initially attempted to simulate madness to avoid being a participant in the Trojan wartime events, because they were far away from his beloved home of Ithaca and wife Penelope.
However, Homer's anti-war…… [Read More]
Yet, Odysseus is also rewarded for his loyalty and survives the Trojan War. His wit and intelligence provide a much different vision of an excellent hero than presented by Achilles. However, it is he who figures out how to end the lengthy war with the trick of the wooden horse. In the case of both heroes, it is not divine or monstrous adversaries that they face. Instead they fight a similar battle that Osiris did -- they must fight the greed and lust of mortal men. Although Agamemnon is their king, he is an adversary in that he forces them from their homes and places them and their men in danger for selfish greed and lust. However Agamemnon is later punished when he his murdered by his deceitful wife upon his return. Another human adversary faced by the heroes of the Iliad is Paris and his uncontrollable lust for Helen.…… [Read More]
Agamemnon claims that he loves Chryseis more than his own wife, but agrees to give her up as long as he gets another prize. hen he demands Briseis from Achilles, it is clear that one sexual being can simply be traded for another in Agamemnon's eyes. Indeed, when Achilles refuses to fight because of Agamemnon's demand, it is not because Achilles deeply loves Briseis, but because he is insulted with Agamemnon's demand. The only redeeming treatment of women in the epic is the Chryses' love for his daughter, determination in getting her back again, and excitement when his request is fulfilled.
hen compared to the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad often seems muted in references to women's sexuality, but it can be argued that the contents of this epic poem show women in a far worse place in society than women in Gilgamesh's epic. hile Gilgamesh's epic presents women as…… [Read More]
441-3). Here we can see that he is at least compassionate enough to explain to his wife what he is feeling and why. Achilles is also a hero but he is very different fro Hektor in that he does not have a strong sense of family ties. He has "swift feet" (I.148) and a swift temper as well. Achilles is bloodthirsty and prideful, two characteristics that can lead to trouble if one is not careful. Achilles also gives into acts of revenge, allowing his heart to be clouded and he never lets his anger go long enough to be content.
The experiences of both of these men are significant because they reveal to us that man rarely changes over the centuries. Circumstances and names may change but the nature of man rarely does.
Homer. "The Iliad." Mack, Maynard, ed. The Norton Anthology of orld Masterpieces. Vol. I. 5th…… [Read More]
Pride in Literature
As a universally human characteristic, pride plays an important part in world literary themes. However, pride can be defined and perceived differently, and the term also has many different definitions. For example, pride can refer to a dignified type of satisfaction, as comes from taking pride in one's work. More often in literature, though, pride is depicted in a negative light and is usually featured as a tragic flaw that, if not overcome, brings about the hero's downfall. Moreover, the implications and meaning of pride in literature has changed over the course of time. Pride was portrayed as a necessary but dangerous trait of powerful leaders in the ancient epics of Greece and Mesopotamia like Gilgamesh, the Iliad, and the Odyssey. The trait of pride reached a sort of thematic culmination in the Old English work Beowulf, in which the title character's pride contributes positively to his…… [Read More]
Heroic Ideal Greece, ome
An Analysis of the Heroic Ideal from Ancient Greece to oman Empire
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece begins with Homer's Iliad, which balances the heroic figures of Achilles and Hector, two opposing warriors and men of honor, amidst a war on which not even the gods are in agreement. Hector and Achilles mirror one another in nobility and strength and both represent an ideal heroic archetype of citizenry -- men who do battle to honor both their countries and their names. To illustrate, however, the way the ideal of heroic citizenship changes from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism, it is necessary to leap ahead several centuries and survey the several different bodies of work.
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece somewhat continually dwells on the same themes with regard to heroic citizenship, whether in Homer or in the Golden Age…… [Read More]
Thematic Comparison: Divine Intervention in Homer & Virgil
Both works decently portray the horrors of warfare, and (albeit it in a reverent fashion) place the blame for this horror soundly at the feet of the gods. However while in Homer this intervention is largely capricious and relatively unmotivated, in Virgil's work it takes on a more motivated and historical turn in which the gods may actually be seen as working to some form of higher end.
Part of the difference between these two takes on divine interference relates to the purpose of the two works. Homer's epic, so far as can be told, was designed to educate and amuse and perhaps to make a statement about the meaning of warfare and deity. However, it was not designed so much to create a national myth of identity. The Greeks and the Trojans they faced were more or less of the same…… [Read More]
That argument - to die young as a hero or to live a long, uneventful life - is at the core of the Iliad. By Book XI, Homer has firmly established Odysseus as a hero for all time, but one whose failings made him distinctly human. Heroes such as Achilles, who had previously been accorded godlike status, are also brought to this level. In particular, the point in the interaction between Odysseus and Achilles where the latter declares "I'd rather live working as a wage-laborer for hire by some other man...than lord it over all the wasted dead." (480-500) reveals much about this concept of human nature. Achilles, having previously chosen to die a hero, now as a shade regrets that choice.
Book XXII illustrates the slaughter of the suitors. This chapter reveals not only the superiority of Odysseus in the ease with which he and his men conduct the…… [Read More]
There are enough similarities of story and characterization, however, that while one must take care not to see Troy as fact, or even as an essentially faithful movie version of the Homer's the Iliad, one may still learn something about the plot, characters, and setting of Homer's great poem by seeing it. Educationally speaking, perhaps one of the greatest benefits of a major motion picture like Troy is that seeing it might interest more people in reading the Iliad, for comparison, and/or in learning more about Greek legends, myths, and mythological characters in general.
The basic plot and setting of the film is this: the Mycenae Greeks (Greece and Sparta) and the Trojans, having been at war, have finally reached peace after many years. Two handsome young Trojan princes, Hector and Paris (sons of King Priam) are celebrating this fact with Menelaus, King of Sparta (Menelaus's brother Agamemnon is King…… [Read More]
In fact, among the strongest arguments in favor of Odysseus being high on the list of heroes in Greece is that when he encountered Hercules in the Underworld, Hercules told him that the two of them are "very similar" (www1.union.edu). If one of the most revered and respected Greek heroes says to Odysseus that they have similarities, that speaks volumes as to Odysseus' position as a hero.
hy would Odysseus's attributes and actions be considered so admirable?
One action that surely gave the Greeks good reason to admire Odysseus is that he invented the construction of the ooden Horse, which was "…the stratagem that made it possible to take Troy" (www.maicar.com). Odysseus was also known to be clever, and to use cunning intelligence in his exploits and adventures. hen Odysseus had been forced by Palamedes to admit that his "madness was pretended" -- and hence, Odysseus joined the army as…… [Read More]
role of deities in "The Iliad," by Homer, the poetry of Sappho, and "Pericles Funeral Oration," by Thucydides. Specifically it will discuss how significant the deities are in the three pieces, and why deities played such an important part in ancient literature.
IMPORTANCE of the DEITIES
The Gods (deities) play an extremely important part throughout these three pieces, and through much of ancient literature. The gods were extremely important to the Greeks, who believed they lived atop Mount Olympus, ruled by Zeus, the father and leader of the Gods. In "The Iliad," Achilles often turns to the Gods to aid him in battle and in his personal life. People believed the Gods could influence everything in their lives, and so often asked them for help and advice, as Achilles does. "I came to see if I could check this temper of yours, / Sent from heaven by the white-armed goddess…… [Read More]
Will the Real Greek Homer Please Stand Up?
Homer is the name by which the legendary Greek poet of great fame is known. He is credited with the Greek epics The Iliad and They Odyssey, as well as with the authorship of the mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the corpus of the Homeric Hymns, and also the Margites. (Docu) Nothing about Homer's actual biographical information is known, (though he is commonly assumed to have been blind) and there are many theories that speculate Homer himself may have been completely mythological, or that he may have been more than one person. It is assumed, however, that Homer's works originated from the Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor in the 9th century BC (Helenism), and several Ionian cities claim to be the birthplace of Homer. (Docu) Although Homer's works great works The Iliad and The Odyssey have shaped a great deal…… [Read More]
Biblical narrative of Genesis, the characters are less clearly defined as personalities than the heroes of Homeric epics. Instead, their sense of moral worth as human beings is defined by their actions. Adam and Eve are the first human beings, not unique human beings in terms of their heroism. They defied the orders of God, ate the apple of the tree of knowledge, and brought sin into the world. Homeric characters are more sharply defined by their innate character traits: Odysseus is clever, Penelope is faithful, and Achilles is short-tempered but highly adept in battle.
Homeric characters are also less clearly judged by their morality in the sense of their obedience to the gods. Odysseus harms the son of Poseidon and is judged harshly, even though he only blinded the Cyclops in self-defense to protect himself and his men. But Athena values Odysseus and protects him because of his cleverness,…… [Read More]
John Berryman's "Dream Song 14"
This poem, friends, is boring. The entire work seeks to illustrate the idea that "life, friends, is boring." It does so by being itself tremendously boring. Though the author occasionally uses exciting or interesting words and phrases, such as "flash and yearn," he does so only in the pursuit of higher boredom by showing that even these words can be sucked into a context which ultimately yields a wish for death. There is nothing but boredom. In the poem, the narrator subsumes the conventions of interesting poetry and puts on, as it were, the form of a half-decent modern poem. However, he purposefully avoids allowing any of the sublime to slip into his work, thus leaving this form of high poetry dead and boring. By structuring his poem in a modern conventional fashion, maintaining a detached and uninterested tone throughout, and by setting…… [Read More]
Penelope: The Crafty Ideal of Greek omanhood
One might think of Achilles, the hero of the Iliad, as the Greek masculine ideal. He triumphs over his enemies in an open agonistic contest because he is a greater warrior than they. He shows the virtue of compassion when he finally yields Hector's body to Priam. Even Achilles's arrogance and his obsession with honor, his inability to deal with slights to his reputation, though they might seem repugnant to our sensibilities, are clearly meant to elicit the sympathy from Homer's audience. They might wish to act in the same way if they stood in his shoes. Yet Odysseus, the hero of the Odyssey, presents an entirely different masculine ideal. He shuns glory because it brings responsibilities that are not really in his best interest. Though a brave and able fighter, he is "the man of many wiles" who triumphs because of his…… [Read More]
Aristotle is considered to be the philosopher of philosophers, he virtually wrote about everything, he pioneered most of the disciplines like psychology, biology, meteorology and political science. For almost a thousand years Aristotle's theories were unchallenged such was the impact of his philosophy and thought. The medieval philosophy of Scholastics and early enaissance thinkers borrowed heavily from Aristotle. At the root of Aristotle's philosophy was his doctrine of virtue and natural law. Aristotle believed that everything in life serves a purpose "telos" as he called it and distinguished "efficient" causes from "final" causes. 'Efficient causes are those things or processes that lead to the final cause, they are the means to ends, for example a painter uses paints and brush to create a work of art, the brush and paints are tools, process to make a painting. While the final cause is the end product, the painting. Similarly…… [Read More]
Tourism takes a substantial place in the economy of Cyprus. Tourism has such an impact on Cyprus culture and daily life that the industry contributed 10.7% or US $5,445.0 mn of the GDP in 2006, allowing for job creation approximated at 113,000 jobs. (Micula and Micula) Thanks to consistent tourism, Cyprus has become the 40th most popular place to visit, inspiring almost 3 million tourists to come each year. Since 1975, Cyprus has been orld Tourism Organization full member and offers scenic views, high quality food, and ancient archaeological sites for any would-be traveler. (Micula and Micula) However, one thing makes Cyprus different from other destinations. That is the divide between Northern Cyprus and Southern Cyprus. This essay will detail how the difference in the north and south side contribute to tourism on the island and how it influences the busy tourism season and which activities promote more tourist engagement.…… [Read More]
Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).
Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…… [Read More]
If the quota were to be granted to a domestic resident, then the rent that would be generated would be kept within the domestic economy, and therefore it would be referred to as a 'domestic rent capture barrier'. (Non-tariff Barriers: The eward of Curtailed Freedom)
However, the fact is that though the rent remains at home, what happens is that an inevitable 'income redistribution effect' takes place. This means that while rent is captured by a very few license holders, the imposition of a tariff would have the benefit of spreading the rent more liberally and equally. The tariff, however, accrues, at the outset, to only one party, the 'fiscus'. The advantage herein is that afterwards, it can be utilized in the various expenditures on public improvement projects that are undertaken by the government, so this means that this rent would benefit a large number of people, and not just…… [Read More]
Many have seen her as Aeneas's counterpart, as she herself has led her people from Tyre to Carthage in an attempt to escape environmental vicissitudes. Like Aeneas, she is a true leader, a strong willed character and independent woman. Juno and Venus (the Roman counterparts of Hera and Aphrodite) manipulate them and Dido is soon seen infatuated with Aeneas, neglecting all ruling duties. She cannot change destiny and realizes this in ook IV, as she points out that "What am I saying? Where am I? What madness / Takes me out of myself? Dido poor soul, / Your evil doing has come home to you." According to ancient traditions, for a strong character such as Dido, the only possible ending is by suicide.
A comparison between Dido and Helen, both in terms of the influence they have on men and on their power to change courses in history and determine…… [Read More]
Mythology - Adaptations
When watching the Coen Brothers' film Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?, it becomes immediately apparent that the film is meant to be a creative adaptation of The Odyssey by Homer. Rather than a straightforward mimicking of The Odyssey, however, the film makes use of Homer's plot to tell a very different story about escaped convicts in the southern United States in the late 1930s.
The most obvious parallel between the original and the Coen brothers' adaptation is the main character, played by George Clooney. While he is called by his middle name, Everett, throughout most of the film, the full name of Clooney's character is Ulysses Everett McGill. "Ulysses" is, of course, the Latin translation of the name "Odysseus." By giving him an Irish last name, it could even be suggested that the Coen brothers are also making reference to another famous adaptation of The Odyssey,…… [Read More]
Homer and Caliban
The development of the theories of art education by various theories has been influenced by the various artistic works, especially poetry. In the past few centuries, poetry has become an important element in the development of English literature and various theories on the art of education. Notably, these poetry and theories are developed by various philosophers who have contributed in the growth of the field of education and the teaching practice. Apart from contributing to the development of education and teaching practice, these works of poetry helps in understanding medieval societies and the modern society in light of the changes that have taken place. This is achieved through portrayal of cultural stereotypes, heroic traits, treatment of women, and portrayal of inhabitants of the New orld among others.
Homer's Heroic Traits and Chaucer Fashion Heroic Traits
Homer valorizes the single hero who becomes a cultural stereotype as expressed…… [Read More]