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Activism and Social Theory: Saul Alinsky's Rules For Radicals And Affirmative Action
At first, it might seem that the policies and attitude of the grass roots radical activist of the 1960's Saul Alinsky would suggest that Alinsky as a person and Alinsky's "Rules for Radicals" would support the institutional practice of modern affirmative action. Affirmative action is a program of racial integration and social advancement of marginalized groups in American society. It attempts to integrate minorities into traditionally all-white or all-male institutions such as the military, academia, business, and the professions of law and medicine to make up for past historical and institutional wrongs and biases.
But ultimately, Alinsky would suggest that such integrative efforts are counter-productive for a truly radical program to change society. Rather than encouraging minorities and other disenfranchised groups to become angry at a society that has ostracized them and made them feel like aliens simply…
reactive activism as compared to proactive activism with reference to Chicano labor movements. It has sources.
Modern day society can no longer deny the fact that as groups, people today strongly oppose/support beliefs that are nearest to their ideology; every individual contribute to the social goals therefore they feel they are entitled to civil rights more than ever before. In the United States the social picture is a mosaic of cultural integration. This scenario has evolved over the past centuries as each community realized their ideologies through activism and transformed their beliefs to substantive meaning. The Chicano community has been among these groups of idealists that has followed their beliefs and realized their ideologies through extensive efforts, prominent of which had been the decade of 1960s. The attempt had been to transform the cultural anarchy to acceptance.
Activism can be reactive as well as proactive. Whereas sociologists usually…
Mariscal, Jorge. Left turns in the Chicano movement, 1965-1975. Monthly Review, July-August, 2002.
Meier, Matt S., and Rivera, Feliciano. The Chicanos: A History of Mexican-Americans. New York: Hill and Wang, 1972.
The Rise of the UFW. Accessed on 17-4-2003. http://www.ufw.org/ufw.htm
Levinson, Sandra and Brightman, Carol eds., Veneremos Brigade: Young Americans Sharing the Life and Work of Revolutionary Cuba, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971, 235.
Shareholder Activism in the Churches and Human Rights Protection
The purpose of this work is to critically examine the involvement of churches in shareholder activism and its contribution to the protection of human rights. The historical path of the churches their involvement of shareholder activism and human rights campaign efforts as well as the motivational factor that compels their involvement will be examined. And as well the teachings and beliefs of the church Examined as well will be concept of shareholder activism, what it specifically is and the goal that shareholder activities is focused towards. Finally the concept of human rights and the links that exist between shareholder activism and human rights will be examined.
Shareholder resolutions in corporation board meeting have been influenced by the Church throughout history although this is only spoken of in hushed voices among those involved. The movement is termed 'shareholder activism…
Justice for National, Ethnic and Religious Minorities (1999) Communique and Report Central and Eastern Europe Human Rights Training Workshop Sibiu/Hermannstadt, Romania 15-20 May 1999. Online available at [www.lutheran world.org/What _We_Do/OIAHR/Do ... ]
Martin, Diarmuld Rev (2004) The Christina in the Public Square R.T.E. Radio Centre, 2nd December 2004. Online available at http://www.rte.ie/radio1/story/1030771.tml
Wuthnow, Robert & Evans, John H. (2005) Quietly Influential: The Public Role of Mainline Protestantism. Online available at: http://www.princeton.edu/~wuthnow / Volume.html.
Human Rights and the Churches (1998) The New Challenges. Vol.48 No.2 Reformed World 2 June 1998 Online available at http://www.warc.ch/dcw/rw982/03.html.
A proper assessment of the activity of the institute cannot be fully given without being subjective. However, from the perspective of the information in the interview, it can be said that the organization has a growing impact; yet, taking into account the gravity of the issues they face, this impact is not sufficient for solving the problems in a specific limit of time. Furthermore, due to the fact that the financial resources are not unlimited, there needs to be more visible results in order to justify the efforts, both human and financial ones.
The most visible effects of the activities of the Institute are the studies conducted as well as the different articles which discuss issues of utmost interest especially for the one actively involved in the projects. Nonetheless, despite these efforts, conferences and articles are not enough.
The seminars, the research projects, as well as the different discussions on…
Cater, Nick. "African NGOs Urge More Aid Through Local Agencies." Global Policy Forum. 2004. 7 July 2008, http://www.globalpolicy.org/ngos/fund/2004/1221africangos.htm
FAO. "2005 Report on Hunger." FAO Stats. 2005. 7 July, 2008. http://www.fao.org/faostat/foodsecurity/MDG/MDG-Goal1_en.pdf
Food First. Become a Food First Intern or Volunteer. 2008. 7 July 2008. http://www.foodfirst.org/en/intern#intro
Food First. Programs. 2008. 7 July 2008, http://www.foodfirst.org/en/about/programs
Political Activism in Nursing
There exists a dire need and urgency for a change in political and legislative advocacy in health care system. It has been observed that most of the female health care workers including nurses are facing problems with the existing system. This calls for development of political skills to bring forward changes in the system. Policy makers should understand the importance of nurses and pursue the cause of bringing positive changes. It needs no emphasis that information of health care policies, there must be active involvement of healthcare workers as their participation plays crucial role in future development of health care system. Policy makers should be varying of the fact that healthcare workers are main stakeholders and their concerns should be taken care at the time of formulation of respective policies.
It is an established fact that workplace environment and heath care system policies have great impact…
Duclos-Miller, P.A. (2002, sep 1). Shaping the future of nursing practice through political activity. p. 2.
Inouye, S. (n.d.). ANA Applauds Federal Legislation to Mandate Safe Nurse-To-Patient Ratios. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from http://www.aacn.org:88/wd/practice/content/nurse-staffing-ratio.pcms?menu=practice
Welton, J. (2007, nov 3). Mandatory Hospital Nurse to Patient Staffing Ratios: Time to Take a Different Approach. Retrieved june 18, 2011, from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume122007/No3Sept07/MandatoryNursetoPatientRatios.aspx
Registered Nurse Safe Staffing Act of 2010. (n.d.). Retrieved june 18, 2011, from http://nursingimpact.wordpress.com/2010/07/15/registered-nurse-safe-staffing-act-of-2010/
The world today is unfortunately such that many people struggle not only as a result of the economy, but also as a result of abusive, careless, or absentee partners. More often than not these partners are also instrumental in the suffering of children, which makes many cases encountered at shelters even more heart breaking. Some relief is offered by the country's welfare system, which allows young mothers and other destitute persons to find some way of retrieving their bearings and getting back onto their feet. This attempt is, however, often made even more complicated by unsympathetic and discriminatory landlords, such as the one in Molly and her family's case. Mr. Paladin and others like him from the same environment will have to modify how he handles situations like Molly's or face repercussions due to the non-discriminatory laws of the country. In my intervention for Molly, my aim is…
Ohio State Bar Association (2014). Ohio's Civil Legal Aid System Offers Hope to Low-Income Individuals. Retrieved from: https://www.ohiobar.org/forpublic/resources/lawyoucanuse/pages/lawyoucanuse-279.aspx
Project Sentinel (2014). What is Fair Housing? Retrieved from: http://housing.org/fair-housing/
Reif, S. (2003, Dec). Fair Housing Law In Georgia Prohibits Discrimination in Housing. Georgia Legal Services Program. Retrieved from: http://www.georgialegalaid.org/resource/fair-housing-law-in-georgia-prohibits-discrim?ref=D1pOR
S. The African-American had been accustomed to organizing protests against injustices done to people from his race. In spite of the constant pressure that he was subjected to through arrests and violent acts, Luther had kept his concepts throughout his life.
ith the gathering in 1957 of most influential blacks in the U.S., Martin Luther made it clear that a second emancipation act was bound to take place on the site of the Lincoln Memorial. During the year of 1957 the Congress has established a Civil Rights Commission that would provide assistance to civil rights supporters.
The ashington march for jobs and equality took place during the summer of 1963. The meeting proved to be the perfect place for Martin Luther King Jr. To put his ideas to practice as he held his famous "I Have a Dream" speech there. The profoundness of his speech had been amplified by Lincoln's…
1. Glazer Nathan, Field Cynthia R., Cooper James Fenimore, "The National Mall: Rethinking Washington's Monumental Core," JHU Press, 2008.
2. Halbwachs Maurice, Coser, Lewis a. "On Collective Memory," University of Chicago Press, 1992.
3. Lane, Sarah. (2005). "Abraham Lincoln Memorial -- History," Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Classbrain Web site: http://www.classbrain.com/artmonument/publish/lincoln_memorial_history.shtml
4. Schwartz, Barry. "Iconography and collective memory: Lincoln's image in the American mind." Sociological Quarterly, 1991, Vol. 32 Issue 3, p301, 20p, 1 chart.
Political Science - Understanding Islam Activism in the Middle East
Listening to "Understanding Islam Activism in the Middle East," I, as part of the audience, became aware of the burden that Ziad Munson is experiencing as he discusses about a very sensitive topic, Islam activism, in relation to the Middle Eastern experience. This is because apart from the sensitive topic at hand, it is vital that Munson should argue to his audience that Islam is no different from any other religion, thereby making it easier for us (the audience) to understand how Islam activism has become at its present state among Muslim nations. These were my assumptions prior to listening to Munson's speech.
However, as Munson launches to his main argument, I realized that far from using the 'strategy' I thought he would be using for his argument, Munson opted to discuss about Islam activism in a similar manner as…
Federal Government Activism During the New Deal With That Which Came efore Progressive Reform/Red Scare
The New Deal seems to have been in many ways a border between the federal government activism of the period before the Great Depression and the period that followed after. According to many writers, "the New Deal represented activism in contrast to the inaction of the federal government under Hoover" (Abderrahmane El-Moudden, Ruby Maloni and Mustafa Turkes. The New Deal. On the Internet at (http://www.salzburgseminar.org/ASC/csacl/progs/reform/newdeal.htm).esides the change in activism, all this was reflected within the masses of voters, with an increased involvement on their part during the New Deal period and an additional worker support for the Democratic Party.
Many of the sources consulted lean towards the general opinion that before the New Deal, "the Republicans were the party of government activism and the Democrats the party of conservatism" (Randall G. Holcombe. THE GROWTH OF…
eligion, Spiritual Activism, Feminism, eproductive Justice
The concept of reproductive privilege is central to the proper interpretation of Amy Everhart's poem "Accidents." In fact, one may successfully argue that Everhart's poem is actually about reproductive privilege and her dearth of such a privilege because she is homosexual. The concept of reproductive privilege refers to the fact that some people -- based on their sexual proclivities -- are able to reproduce within nature, whereas other people are not able to do so. Specifically, heterosexual people are able to reproduce when they have sex with one another, while homosexual people are not able to bear children when they have sex.
Heterosexism, therefore, greatly supports this notion of reproductive privilege for the simple fact that reproduction requires heterosexual activity. What is most interesting about Everhart's poem is the fact that this privilege, like all privileges, is abused by some and denied to others.…
Everhart, A. (2012). Accidents. Bouquet of Woopsie Daisies.
Horn-Miller, K. (2002). Bring us back into the dance. Colonize This! New York: Seal Press.
Kaur, T. (2012). The soap box: on being a Sikh feminist. www.thefrisky.com Retrieved from http://www.thefrisky.com/2012-08-09/the-soapbox-on-being-a-sikh-feminist/
Shaw, S., Lee, J. (2009). Women's Voices, Feminist Visions. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Meeting Social Activist Obligations
I unequivocally agree with Collins regarding the statement about the responsibilities inherent in the social activism component of using the sociological eye. In fact, the comment by Korgen and White (2015) regarding that responsibility is no less than a call to compel people to actively participate in improving society through social activism. It is clear from this statement that there is no room for passive observance of these ideas. Society is predicated on the interaction between individuals and groups of peoples. How they interact, and striving to improve the way that they interact, is an intrinsic part of the basic social covenant which is implied in the foregoing statement.
Another critical facet of interpreting this statement as a call to action lies in understanding the very nature of it. The statement describes the action that is necessary for participants in society in a two-fold way. Initially,…
Gender and Jim Crow - Political Activism by Middle Class, African-American omen
Conventional wisdom paints the period between the late 19th century to the 1950s as a time of racial discrimination and violence for African-Americans in the southern states. However, in Gender and Jim Crow, Glenda Gilmore presents an account of how white supremacist politics were also mediated by gender, and how this period of racial discrimination was also marked by political activism on the part of middle class African-American women.
In the early parts of the book, Gilmore illustrates how gender was used as a tool in Jim Crow segregation. hite men in North Carolina, for example, justified white supremacy and disenfranchised black men by raising the specter of the black rapist and appealing for the safety of white women in their homes. This pushed black men into what Gilmore termed a "vortex of silence" (134).
Black women, on…
Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996
gender and how the characteristic is addressed within the precincts of play, poem, or short story. Further, a comparison of literary elements will be made, in the play, poem, or short story.
Gender and how it is handled in the confines of short story, play, or poem.
Poem -- Thomas Stearns Eliot's The Waste Land
A careful reading of T. S. Eliot's poem, The Waste Land depicts the author's profound anticipation of an important collection of concepts, considered as post-modernism for a major part of the second half of the 20th century. While it is well-understood that the poem by Eliot comprises of a portrayal of theatrical voices, critics are yet to fully understand the fact that a foundational portion of this drama is presentation of gender. Certainly, Eliot, who is, at times, openly positioned as an embodiment of male sexual/poetic hierarchy, is a pioneering 20th-century figure who depicted what…
Farmer. (2010, January 5). Analysis of September 1918. Retrieved from http://mrfarmer.wikifoundry.com/page/Analysis+of+September+1918
Lowell, A. (n.d.). September. 1918. The Complete Poetical Works of Amy Lowell. Houghton Mifflin Company.
Pondrom, C. N. (2005). T. S. Eliot: The Performativity of Gender in The Waste Land. Modernism/modernity, 12(3), 425-441.
eflexivity: "How did the author come to write this text…Is there adequate self-awareness and self-exposure for the reader to make judgments about the point-of-view?"
This work is probably strongest on the issue of reflexivity because the author makes clear that she was embedded in the controversy, though she also offers and outsiders perspective, the experiences of the work were lived experiences. Her introduction material makes clear that she had both a journalistic and personal interest in the development of the human rights condition within the culture of Columbia. This could have created a challenge to objectivity but her scholarly skill obviously well contains the desire to be overly personal or sentimental, a problem that can be seen in some ethnographic works.
Impact: "Does this affect me? Emotionally? Intellectually?" Does it move me?
The work did impact me, emotionally and intellectually as it adequately demonstrated atrocities, though like I said previously…
Richardson, Laurel. "Evaluating ethnography." Qualitative Inquiry, 6, n. 2, (2000) 253-255.
Tate, Winifred. Counting the Dead: The Culture and Politics of Human Rights Activism in Columbia Berkeley CA: University of California Press, (2007).
University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead" http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/10703.php
University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead" http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/10703.php
Advocacy From the Margins: Identifying Opportunities to Facilitate Social Services Delivery to the Disadvantaged
Across North America, women account for slightly more of the population than men, yet their earnings and opportunities for career advancement remain far less than their male counterparts. Certainly, some of these disparities are based on biological reasons involving the need for women to care for young children, but many other gender-based factors that marginalize women are founded on religious grounds or spurious rationale that has historically favored men in many world societies. Given the enormous numbers of people who are involved and affected by the outcome of advocacy efforts it is therefore important to identify opportunities to facilitate the delivery of social services that are by definition scarce in a fashion that is timely and effective. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to compare advocacy from the margins to…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN. West Publishing Co.
Bromley, V. & Ahmad, A. (2006). Wa (i)ving solidarity: Feminist activists confronting backlash.
Canadian Women's Studies, 25(3,4), 61-72.
Chinn, P.L. (2008). Peace and power: Creative leadership for building community. Burlington,
Live Concet Analysis
How Doing Good Makes Us Feel Poweful and Poweless at the Same Time
Design Activism vs. Design fo Social Change
The Awakening Consciousness of Designes 1960's
Thee has been lukewam inteest in public sevice design, social impact and design activism. But in most convesations, all othe designs wok to enhance the standad of living of the people; some of it must be activism. The agument is seldom boosted by the notion that achitectue has been impacted by intellectual movements and ats fo instance, modenism which fuels an idea of a evolutionay society. These movements had ideal poposals fo society's efoms. They wee elated deeply to commece and aesthetics as well (Jose et al., 2008). Conside the diffeence between modenism and activism fo that matte. The modenism idea states that people stand equals to each othe, while society became united in evey aspect fo instance uniting laboes,…
references and charitable habits of Generation Y, Generation X, Baby Boomers and Matures. Convio and Edge Research. (2010).
Boehnert, J. "In the Front Line," Creative Review, October 2008.
Borasi, G., & Zardini, M. (Eds.). Actions: What you can do with the city. Canadian Centre for Architecture. (2008).
Brown, T., Sklar, A., Speicher, S., Solomon D. And Wyatt, J. "Design For Social Impact," (New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2009), 80-81.
Cowan, G. "Street Protest Architecture," Bad Subjects, January 2004.
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
The Cold War of the communist and the capitalist countries gay way to spying worldwide, together with the political and military meddling in the inside matters of the poor countries. Some of these developments led to a negative consequence which called for much of the distrust and uncertainty towards the government that came after the cold war. Examples of these outcomes are the serious reaction of the Soviet Union towards the famous uprising against communism, which included the Hungarian evolution of 1965, also the invasion in 1961 of the Cuban Bay of Pigs by the U.S. And the Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968. The lie of Dwight D. Eisenhower, president of the U.S. In 1960, about the extent of the U2 episode led to an even greater distrust amongst the public against the government (Eisenstadt, 1956).
The establishment in the U.S. was disintegrated into political and military framework after…
Bellah, Robert. "New Religious Consciousness and the Crisis of Modernity." In The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles dock and Robert Wuthnow, 1976.
Braungart, Margaret M. And Richard C. Braungart. "The Life-Course Development of Left- and Right-Wing Youth Activist Leaders from the 1960s." Political Psychology, 1990, 11:243-82.
DeMartini, Joseph R. "Social Movement Participation, Political Socialization, Generational Consciousness, and Lasting Effects." 1983, Youth atul Society 15:195-223.
Dunham, Charlotte Chorn, and Vern L. Bengtson, "The Long-Term Effects of Political. Activism on Intergenerational Relations." Youth and Society, 1992, 24:31-51.
This study reviews Pat obertson's "Courting disaster: How the Supreme Court is usurping the power of Congress and the people." Pat obertson is the founder and chairperson of the Christian Broadcasting Network, founder of egent University, and The Center for Law and Justice. He and his wife have four children and thirteen grandchildren. They reside in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Using both legal and religious points-of-view, obertson attempts to prove that the current operation of the judicial system is dangerous to both the republican form of government and our individual freedoms. While seeking to strengthen his argument, the author has compiled fascinating facts, quotes, case decisions, and opinions of the Court (Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, 2007).
From this study, it is evident that obertson undertook a political expedition seeking to identify various issues that bedeviled the American society. However, he fails to provide solutions to the identified problems. This is an action…
Barrett, P., & Smolla, R.A. (2010). A year in the life of the Supreme Court. Durham [u.a.: Duke Univ. Press.
Edwards, L., & Meese, E. (2011). Bringing justice to the people: The story of the freedom-based public interest law movement. Washington, DC: Heritage Books.
Melashenko, E.L., & Smith, D.B. (2009). Rock-solid living in a run-amok world. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Pub. Association.
Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, G. (2007). America's battle for God: A European Christian looks at civil religion. Grand Rapids, Mich. [u.a.: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
In fact, Brierly and Costello bring into the argument the three variables commonly associated with industry growth -- labor, Capital, and Technology. Brierly and Costello used time series regression to test each of these variables in order to determine which made the largest impact on state economic growth, while holding the caveat that states should be careful when considering these variables as they do not have much control over them. Brierly and Costello's results suggested that increasing labor had larger impacts on state economic development than increases in the other two variables. This conclusion is correct only for the short-term, however. In fact, Brierly and Costello's reasoning for their findings that neither increases in labor or technology result in economic growth for states because their investments are typically more "long-term" (Brierly and Costello).
Instead of simply relying on capital, however, ichard C. Feiock argues that non-traditional methods can be beneficial…
1. Trogen, Paul. Which Economic Development Policies Work? Determinants of State Per Capita Income.
2. Feiock, Richard. Development Policy Competition and Positive Sum Growth: Incentive Competition and it's Alternatives.
3. Bronson, Allen and Robert Costelb. Accounting for State Economic Performance: A Time Series Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Limits of State Economic Policy.
4. Wilson, James: An Institutionalist Take on State Activism in Economic Development: A Theoretical System.
Contemporary Feminist Advocacy
Although there is not absolute consensus, popular writings about feminism suggest that there have been three waves of feminism: (1) The first wave of feminism is said to have occurred in the 18th through the 20th centuries and was characterized by a focus on suffrage; (2) The decades spanning 1960 to 1990 are said to encompass the second wave of feminism, to which a concern with cultural and legal gender inequality is attributed; and (3) The third wave of feminism began in the early 1990s partly in response to the conservative backlash the second wave engendered, and partly in recognition of the unrealized goals of the second wave of feminism up to that time ("NOW," 2009). This third wave of feminism made salient a more subjective voice that pointed at the intersection of race and gender with greater resolve than would have been possible when…
Coffey, L.T. (2011, October 11). Girl Project' reveals what teens are really thinking. Today People. Retrieved http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/44846267/ns/today-today_people/t/girl-project-reveals-what-teens-are-really-thinking/
Dow, B.J. (2003). Feminism, Miss America, and media mythology. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6 (1), 127 -- 150.
Faludi, Susan, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (Three Rivers Press, 2006)
Feminist Majority Foundation, Choices Campus Leadership Program. (2011). Retrieved http://feministcampus.org/default.asp
For example, the EP has the right to bring an action for failure to act, and can also take action to have the ECJ review acts of the Council or the Commission.
Despite those protections, the ECJ determined that the legal remedies provided for in the Euratom Treaty and EEC treaty might be ineffective or uncertain.
For example, an action for failure to act cannot be used to challenge a measure that has already been adopted.
In addition, though the EP has the right to seek a preliminary ruling on the validity of such an action, such a ruling does not mean that anyone will actually bring an action for annulment.
In fact, even though the Commission is required to respect the EP's prerogatives, it is not obliged to adopt the EP's positions as its own.
As a result, the ECJ concluded that the legal remedies available to the EP…
"Article 230." Treaty of Nice. 2000. University College Cork. 25 Aug. 2009
Case 70/88, European Parliament v. Council of Ministers, Judgment of the ECJ of 22 March
1990, European Court Reports 1990, p. I-2041.
The "No New Law!" campaign then shifted its focus to the establishment of freestanding clinics and insurance coverage for women who needed the procedure. Because provincial governments regulate health care in Canada, pressure was put on them for publicly funded clinics. Pro-choice activists also pressured the federal government to approve U-486 for Canadian testing.
Although criminal sanctions are no longer in force, improved equal access has been disappointing. ich women have always had access to safe abortions and always had a choice, but working women have not. Their choice was inhibited by the state's involvement. Weir (1994) states the women now who have the greatest difficulties are women of colour, rural women, women from under-serviced areas, poor women, unemployed women, women with disabilities, and women whose first language is not English. How much money women have and what kind of work they are employed in makes a huge difference in…
Albert, R. (2005). Protest, proportionality, and the politics of privacy: Mediating the tension between the right of access to abortion clinics and free religious expression in Canada and the United States. Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, 27 (1), 1-62.
Palley, H.A. (2006). Canadian abortion policy: National policy and the impact of federalism and political implementation on access to services. The Journal of Federalism, 36 (4), 565-586.
Weir, L. (1994). Left popular politics in Canadian feminist abortion organizing, 1982-1991. Feminist Studies, 20 (2) 249.
Of the top 150 medications that are sold by prescription in the U.S. 118 of these are medications that are either "derived from or modeled on naturally occurring substances." (SEAM Global, 2005) Some of the medications that count on habitat presently being destroyed are "aspirin, morphine, vincristine, taxol, digitalis, and most antibiotics."(SEAM Global, 2005)
VI. Internet/Networking: Role Played in Preservation
Through global and subglobal assessments of the ecosystem and monitoring of data in relation to global changes information may be shared from one region to another and earlier attempts made in changing, slowing or altogether avoidance of more extreme conditions. As stated on the web page of "GreenFacts.org": "Some ecosystem problems have been reduced by innovative local responses...Therefore institutions are needed at multiple levels to strengthen the adaptive capacity and effectiveness of sub-national and local responses. (GreenFacts.org, 2005)
VII. Globalization and Changes in Production
Changes have been seen in the…
Globalization's Effects "A World Connected" Online available at http://www.aworldconnected.org/article.php/231.html
Shah, Anup (2005) Effects of Consumerism 2005 April 18 Online available at http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Consumption/Effects.asp
Globalization: Negative Effects of Development (2005) Walon Laboratories Online available at http://whalonlab.msu.edu/Student_Webpages/2003_EC_Projects / Globalization/page_6.html.
Robbins, Richard H. Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism. Allyn & Bacon. Copyright: 2002.
The art of governance has been in existence since the Declaration of Independence but in my opinion, it has been the efforts and struggles of the legal bodies without political affiliation that have perfected the American Justice Department. These bodies effectively framed our Bill of Rights and our Articles of Confederation for governance and most of all they secured the general public's trust by setting up the American Constitution. Throughout history professionals from the field of law have demonstrated great dedication to public services causing various others and I, to admire their zealous efforts. Even today, despite leaving behind much of the idealism of my youth, I feel they are the ones who coalesce between society and the law.
It is schools like John arshall Law with a century and more of academic history that have presented to society pioneers in the field of law who have the…
My endeavor throughout my academic and professional experience has been to create awareness of civil rights violation. In March 2002 I was promoted to project coordinator and thus, further able to explore and cater to community outreach by encouraging people to take part in community activism.
While studying at... I am still a member of the ACLU club on campus, regularly planing group activism events for the students albeit on a restricted scale because of my busy schedules. In my quest to combine academics and my mission towards public service, I have discovered John Marshall Law School's Fair Housing Clinic - an ideal program.
In my opinion, by participating in Federal and State court litigation, administrative proceedings and through the acquisition of knowledge in fair housing law, I would be more equipped in preparing cases for my clients. Thus, I feel a degree from John Marshall Law School would ideally enable me to achieve my career goals as well as fulfill my aspiration to become part of a monumental institution of American heritage that serves the public.
gaining an understanding of Mary Crow Dog, what did you find most interesting about this chapter? Be sure to explain why you found it most interesting.
This chapter provides a lot of insight into gender roles and norms in the society, beyond learning about how these norms impacted Mary Crow Dog on a personal level. The phenomenon of child marriage, and of the lack of power women had over their own destinies, is evidence from the very first sentence of Chapter 12 "Sioux and Elephants Never Forget." The first sentence is tellingly written in the passive voice, when Mary Crow Dog writes about her marriage to Crow Dog. She writes, "I became Crow Dog's wife," not "I married Crow Dog," which would be the active voice phrasing. Mary Crow Dog purposely uses the passive voice because she was not even eighteen years old when she married. And more than that,…
Crow Dog, M. (1990). Lakota Woman. New York: Harper.
Mankiller, W. (1993). Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. New York: St. Martin's.
The Rise of Collective Bargaining
According to Brody (1993), the collective agreement signed between unions and employers meant that the unions were no longer pushing for activism, but rather they were running the unions as a business. The unions were mostly concerned with ensuring that employees had job security and they worked hard to quell any disturbances that might arise. With employees working as expected and employers willing to pay the employees as agreed, there was a need for the unions to honor their contractual agreements. The contracts removed the unions from management and offered the company managers leeway to run the business as deemed fit. Unions opted to have collective bargaining agreements that in the long run meant that the unions were powerless and the power of workers no longer rested with the unions (Aidt & Tzannatos, 2002). Adopting collective bargaining agreements meant that unions had to adhere to…
"Lady Gaga in part because she keeps us guessing about who she, as a woman, really is. She has been praised for using her music and videos to raise this question and to confound the usual exploitative answers provided by 'the media'… Gaga's gonzo wigs, her outrageous costumes, and her fondness for dousing herself in what looks like blood, are supposed to complicate what are otherwise conventionally sexualized performances" but this complication does not necessarily lead to a feminist liberation (Bauer 2010).
Still, Gaga has been embraced by a generation of women, some who shun and some who embrace the feminist label. "Lady Gaga idealizes this way of being in the world. But real young women, who, as has been well documented, are pressured to make themselves into boy toys at younger and younger ages, feel torn. They tell themselves a Gaga-esque story about what they're doing. hen they're on…
Bauer, Joy. "Lady Power." The New York Times. June 20, 2010. June 21, 2010.
Love, Meredith A. & Brenda M. Helmbrecht. "Teaching the conflicts: (Re)engaging students with feminism in a postfeminist world." Feminist Teacher. 18(1).
Maloney, Malori. Lady Gaga: "I'm not a feminist. I hail men, I love men." Bitch.
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…
Dewey, Susan. "Dear Dr. Kothari': Sexuality, Violence Against Women, and the Parallel Public Sphere in India." American Ethnologist, 36/1 (2009): 124-139.
Duggal, Ravi. "The Political Economy of Abortion in India: Cost and Expenditure Patterns." Reproductive Health Matters, 12/24 (Nov. 2004): 130-137.
Grewal, Indu and Kishore, J. "Female Foeticide in India." International Humanist and Ethical Union. 1 May 2004. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Gupta, Nidhi. "Women's Human Rights and the Practice of Dowry in India." Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 48 (2003): 85-123. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
The media outlets that participated in discussing important race relations included such media giants as ABC News, ESPN, and the New York Times. But in Woods analysis also, there are disturbing trends. As he explains, for instance, many media outlets erroneously conflate the "Hispanic" with the word "immigrant." Some media commentators easily describe Mexican-Americans as "them" who could be contrasted with "us" (a code word for White Americans). These are but a few examples of how media misrepresents the realities of American diversity.
To improve diversity in the media, it is important to become proactive. First, we need to expose negative stereotyping and misrepresentation by responding to them in the media. We can contact the media stations and their sponsors and warn that we will withdraw our viewership and support unless they present American diversity in a balanced way. Second, we can pressure media stations to increase their ethnic staff,…
Diversity in the media and entertainment industries. (n.d.). Ethnic Majority. Retrieved from http://www.ethnicmajority.com/media_home.htm
Media activism. (n.d.). National Organization for Women. Retrieved from http://www.now.org/issues/media/index.html
Woods, K. (2001). The essence of excellence: Covering race and ethnicity (and doing it better). The Poynter Institute. Retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/content/content_view.asp?id=5048
Some of the biggest incentives for manufactures are the outrageously low tax bases in southern states. "When taxes are paid, southern levies are lower than most Northern states. GM's Hamtramck, MIG, plant, for instance, has one of the highest property tax mileages in the United States at 88 mills." (Corbett, 2002) Taxes are some much lower than in say Michigan or New Jersey and southern state officials are very open to negotiations to land the new factories and the plethora of jobs. In other words, land values are low and government incentives are extraordinary so the automobiles industry would be crazy to not migrate south for those reasons alone. "Furthermore, utilities costs are lower. After the products have been assembled, the South's location is superior to the Midwest or the East Coast for delivery." (Corbett, 2002) but there are other incentives.
Not only is the land for the new facilities…
Corbett, Brian (2002). Southern hospitality. Ward's Auto World, August.
(Huff, Social ork, 2000, Chapter 1, p.3)
Private efforts were not enough to treat the ills caused by the unchecked capitalism of the Gilded Age, however, an age that brought tremendous wealth to some Americans and tremendous poverty to others. During the first depression occasioned by this split between the haves and the have-nots in 1890, private relief organizations could not cope. "In Mulberry Bend, the heart of the Italian district, one-third of all babies born in 1888 died before their first birthdays. Traditional agencies such as the Children's Aid Society and the Salvation Army were overwhelmed, incapable of meeting the demands placed on their services." (Huff, Social ork, 2000, Chapter 1, p.4) "The old shibboleths commonly accepted as the major causes of poverty, low character, indolence, and intemperance, were replaced with more systemic theories," that sought economic and social causes as the cure, rather than moral reform. (Huff, Social…
Murray, Jill. (1996) "The Social Work History Online Time-Line." The School of Social Work. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005. http://www.gnofn.org/~jill/swhistory/
Huff, Dan. (2000) Social Work: Progress and Reform. A Cyberhistory of Social Work's Most Formative Years. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005 http://www.idbsu.edu/socwork/dhuff/history/central/tc.htm
Gilman was a social activist and herself experienced mental illness. These elements infuse her story "The Yellow Wallpaper" with greater meaning and urgency for Feminism and for plight of females then and now.
Gilman as social activist
Gilman advocates for woman. The woman owned by males and disallowed by husband, male physician, and brother from leaving the room becomes mad.
The woman is imprisoned -- locked in. Males stunt and kill her life. In the end she steps over them; Gilman is telling females to do so too.
Gilman's experience with mental illness and its treatment
Description of Gilman's experience
Elaboration of the haunting description of the wallpaper. Gilman's familiarity with the psychosis
E. Typical 19th century views/treatments of mental illness.
Description of contemporary treatment
b. Treatment of the character. It matched social beliefs and was created by males
How this knowledge enhances our understanding of the story and…
Bio.com Charlotte Perkins Gilman biography
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/c/charlottep402139.html#gXQCICbA9RaGTyI9.99 Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper
students opportunity discuss a key political science concept, show a basic understanding academic research reporting skills.
Define "loose construction" and "strict construction" methods of constitutional interpretation, and describe how each perspective aligns with formal vs. informal methods of change.
The 'strict construction' view of the Constitution has traditionally been aligned with conservatives such as Robert Bork who argue that "a judge interpreting the Constitution" should only consider "the words used in the Constitution [as] would have been understood at the time [of enactment]" (Linder, citing Posner, "Theories"). In contrast, the 'loose construction' view (traditionally aligned with more liberal politics) stresses the need to interpret the Constitution in a manner beyond the letter of the law. There are a number of factors which justices traditionally consider when making constitutional interpretations, including the text itself; likely intentions of the founders; precedents; consequences of the decision in the 'real world;' and so-called 'natural…
Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Conservatives embrace judicial activism in campaign finance ruling."
The L.A. Times. 2010 Jan 22. [2014 Apr 6]
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). Exploring Constitutional Law. [2014 Apr 6]
Judicial activists like Chief Justice Earl Warren used their power to invoke the Constitution in social changes like school desegregation. They believe the government must stay current with the times and change, rather than become archaic.
Capital punishment is one of the most hotly debated punishments in our judicial system. That is because it is a very emotional issue, and both sides are equally convinced their ideas are right. Because it involves taking a life as punishment for a crime, it is an ethical and moral dilemma, too. Supporters of capital punishment believe it helps keep crime down by scaring potential criminals about the sacrifice they could pay if they commit a heinous crime. They also believe that if the criminal committed a crime like murder, that they could do it again if they faced the possibility of parole, so they believe capital punishment is good for public safety. They…
Though six other Justices joined in overturning Staples' conviction, it was Justice Thomas who wrote the majority opinion, and he makes it clear that anything not explicitly allowed or made illegal by the law -- either in the Government's actions or in the actions of individual citizens -- is left to individual (or local, it is implied) discretion (Oyez 2009).
How Do You Get to the Supreme Court? estraint, estraint, estraint
In keeping with his generally conservative politics, Justice Thomas is also an advocate of judicial restraint. The Staples case demonstrates this quite clearly, as do other of his published rulings. In Archer et ux v. Warner (2002), Justice Thomas dissented form the majority opinion, which used what was considered the intent of a bankruptcy exemption for fraud to overturn the decisions of lower courts and demand that the Warners pay the Archers a previously agreed-upon settlement (Oyez 2009). In…
Fraser, N. (1992). "Sex, lies, and the public sphere: Some reflections on the confirmation of Clarence Thomas." Critical inquiry 18(3), pp. 595-612.
Gerber, S. (1999). First principles: The jurisprudence of Clarence Thomas. New York: New York University Press.
Klonick, K. (2009). "Clarence Thomas reaches new low in self-awareness." Accessed 26 October 2009. http://trueslant.com/kateklonick/2009/10/24/clarence-thomas-reaches-new-low-in-self-awareness/
Overby, L; Henschen, B.; Walsh, M. & Strauss, J. (1992). "Courting constituents? An analysis of the Senate confirmation vote on Justice Clarence Thomas." American political science review, 86(4), pp. 997-1003.
Their labor market position then becomes a matter of individual 'choice'....In Sweden, the definition of women's entitlements to welfare in family policies has changed dramatically since the early 1970s, away from the provision of benefits to them as mothers and toward benefits that they draw by virtue of their labor market status. Yet, paradoxically, the outcome of this shift has been the strengthening of policies that recognize women's needs as mothers. The framework of equal treatment on the basis of labor market participation supported by a full employment policy seems to have made possible the greater recognition of women's caring work in the family" (Lewis & Astrm 59).
In other words, Sweden is very permissive in granting paternal leave and day care to both parents, which benefits women, but men can also benefit from these policies, even though the greatest beneficiary of the policy may be women, as women have…
Baxter, Janeen & Erik Olin Wright. "The Glass Ceiling Hypothesis: A Comparative Study of the United States, Sweden, and Australia. Gender and Society. 14.2. (Apr., 2000):275-294.
Gustafsson, Gunnel. "Sustainable Pressure for 'Women-Friendliness' in Sweden." Political
Psychology. 19.1. (Mar., 1998): 43-61
Lewis, Jane & Gertrude Astrm. "Equality, Difference, and State Welfare: Labor Market and Family Policies in Sweden." 18.1. (Spring, 1992): 59-87.
Today, overt discrimination has largely disappeared in urban areas, but in rural regions Dalits often remain excluded from social and religious life, although here too prejudice seems to be declining (omini (29 August 2008).)
In short, Dalits have made huge strides in the Indian system ever since the modern constitution forbade their discrimination. By 1995, for instance, 17.2% of jobs were held by Dalits whilst Dalits too held 10% of the highest paying jobs in the Indian government. In 1997, a Dalit, K.R. Narayanan, was actually elected as president. Dalits have been elected to the highest judicial and political positions, and, in general, their quality of life has attained similar metric to that of the quality of Indian life in general. Discrimination still seems to be persisting in mute desegregated forms but it also seems to be waning.
As regards the hijra, in recent years, Indian constitution attempted to repeal…
Damal, Swarnakumar (2005). Dalits of Nepal: Who are Dalits in Nepal. International Nepal Solidarity Network
Left Justified. 1997 Excerpts from the Constitution of India
Hrw.org. 13 February 2007. "India: 'Hidden Apartheid' of Discrimination Against Dalits." http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2007/02/12/india-hidden-apartheid-discrimination-against-dalits
All these scenarios are finally reinforced with the debate of multiculturalism in present day America creating a very believable and understandable racist America.
American History has always been an idealist view of events. Students have read about the power of democracy and equality. However, events like slavery and the eradication of the Native American race are proof of the fact that equality and democracy do not always go hand in hand. As the founders took into play the concept of Manifest Destiny where Americas role in the world was seen as a conquering force the values of democracy were at times undermined.
However, because the dominant race always writes history the interpretation was not as clear. The present book by Spring highlights and traces American history in a manner that is multi-dimensional in view. Adapting a narrative style, Spring relates systematically the domination of the Anglo Saxon race. He does…
In the settlement houses, American women taught immigrant women about "American" culture and government and also educated Americans about the various cultures of the immigrants. These settlement houses also offered childcare for working parents, health care, English classes, community theater, and many other social outlets These settlement houses were perceived as "hotbeds of progressive reform" and "spearheads for reform."
eformers during the Progressive Era aimed to resolve the problems of American society that had developed during the major growth of industrial growth that was seen in the U.S. (USHistory.com. 2002). The frontier had been tamed, great cities and businesses had blossomed, but not all American citizens shared in this new wealth and optimism.
The majority of social problems during this era were addressed by professional social workers, most of which were female, who ran settlement houses in an effort to protect and improve the living and working conditions of the…
Campbell, Diance. Dore, Janice. (2002). The Nile of New England: A Study of the History of a Connecticut River Valley Town Over Three Centuries. Unit 3: The Progressive Era 1880-1920. Frontier Regional School District.
Encyclopedia of Chicago. (2002). Social Services. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/1160.html .
Muncy, Robyn. (2003). Women and the Progressive Era. University of Maryland -- College Park. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/pwwmh/prog.htm.
USHistory.com. (2002). The Progressive Movement. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1061.html .
Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.
Platt, a.M., & Cooreman, J.L. (2001). A multicultural chronology of welfare policy and social work in the United States. Social Justice 28, 91-137.
Reisch, M. (1998). The sociopolitical context and social work method, 1890-1950. Social Service Review, June, 162-181.
Carlton-LaNey, I., & Hodges, V. (2004). African-American reformers' mission: Caring for our girls and women. Affilia, 19, 3, 257-272.
Gordan, L. (2002). If the Progressives were advising us today, should we listen? Journal of the Guilded Age and Progressive Era 1, 1-8.
Gordan, L. (1991). lack and white women's visions of welfare: Women's welfare activism, 1890-1955. Journal of American History, Sept. 559-590.
Williams, L.F. (2003). An assult on white privilege: civil rights and the…
Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror. In a different mirror: A history of multicultural America (pp 1-170. New York, NY: Little, Brown & Company.
Kilty, K., & Haymes, M. (2000). Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.
Centralia 1947 Mine Explosion
Throughout the annals of the American industrialized age, countless tragedies have occurred within the workplace and these incidents have forced the public at large to consider the weighty issue of applying moral precepts to the realm of public administration. While the tomes of American jurisprudence are littered with examples of corporate enterprises and bureaucratic entities failing to uphold their basic responsibilities, perhaps no case has demonstrated the capacity to generate both outrage and activism as readily as The Blast in Centralia No. 5: A Mine Disaster No One Stopped. Authored by John Bartlow Martin, this seminal case study examines the unique confluence of internal and external circumstances which eventually resulted in the 1947 explosion of Centralia Mine No. 5, a catastrophe which claimed the lives of 111 coal miners. By carefully retracing the series of events preceding the actual explosion, including a history of the Centralia…
Hartley, R.E., & Kenney, D. (2006). Death underground: The centralia and west frankfort mine disasters. Chicago, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Fanning, F. (2007). Public sector safety professionals: Focused on activity or results?. Perspectives Newsletter, 6(3), 11-15. Retrieved from http://www.usmra.com/repository/category/disasters/Best-of-the -
Martin, J.B. (1948). The blast in centralia no. 5: A mine disaster no one stopped. In R.J. Stillman
Social Activism and Literature
Two of the major themes in 20th century American literature are war and social protest. The United States has been engaged in a steady series of wars since the beginning of the 20th century. With the carnage of the First World War, the horrors of the Second, the futility of Vietnam, many writers and artists contributed to the literature of protest with respect to war, and America's involvement in it.
Amy Lowell's September, 1918 is a good example of how writers reacted to the First World War. Its presentation of a wistful era where there is no war, juxtaposed against the current "broken world," illustrates the yearning that many had for a world without war. The First World War had essentially eliminated any romance that there was of war in society, and its brutality would spark this sort of response across the world. For the first…
Parini, J. & Cutter, M. (2009). Themes in Contemporary American Literature. Cengage.
Political Activism and College Students -- First Peer-Reviewed Article
The study (1) was conducted as a research question in order to review the "contemporary trends in student organizing" and to examine how student governments and student movements influence the policies of higher education (Klemencic, 2014). Prior research presented by the author (2) includes: National student unions tend to be training grounds for future political leaders (Luescher-Mamashela and Mugume, 2014); student activism disrupts higher education; obstructs educational reforms; exerts pressure for social change, but are "recognizable features of campus life" (Altbach, 1966-2006); the international economic downturn forced universities to increase income from private sources (Marcucci and Usher, 2012).
The author (3) selected universities where studies had been made about why and how students organize. There was no need to obtain (4) informed consent from the participants since it was a literature review of existing studies. The research instruments (5) were previously…
Klemencic, M. (2014). Student power in a global perspective and contemporary trends in student organizing. Studies in Higher Education, 39(3), 396-411.
Pascarella, E.T., Salisbury, M.H., Martin, G.L., and Blaich, C. (2012). Some Complexities
in the Effects of Diversity Experiences on Orientation Toward Social/Political Activism
and Political Views in the First Year of College. The Journal of Higher Education, 83(4),
Moreover, the global neglect of women (in terms of science) is reflected in the fact that women have been excluded as experimental subjects in drug research, Rosser continues. Certainly pregnant women have been excluded from experiments with pesticides and radioactive materials, but beyond that Rosser explains that "…these drugs and materials are then used without ever having been tested on women" (1991, p. 143). And yet notwithstanding their exclusion from testing, women's research has led to a vast resource of knowledge vis-a-vis the natural environment.
To wit, Rachel Carson correctly extrapolated the deadly effects on the environment due to agricultural pesticides (DDT in particular), and in fact changed the way the government approached pesticides (1991, p. 144). Indeed, Carson's books ("Silent Spring," "Under the Sea-Wind," and others) had an enormous impact on the nation's grasp of environmental dangers and led eventually to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency…
Alldred, Pam, and Dennison, Sarah, 2000, 'Eco-Activism and Feminism: Do Eco-Warriors and Goddesses Need it?', Feminist Review, No. 63, 124-127.
Biehl, Janet, 1991, Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics, South End Press, Cambridge MA.
Eaton, Heather, 2005, Introducing Ecofeminist Theologies, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York.
Kheel, Marti, 1993, 'From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge', in Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature, G. Gaard Ed., Temple University Press: New York.
It appears then that the authors believe that democracy has taken a very different form from its position less than a century ago. Citizens and politicians no longer work together to achieve the democratic aim. Instead, both sectors use the means at their disposal to make the differences that they deem necessary on an individual rather than a collective level.
While this is a more contemporary argument than the one in Politics by Other Means, it nevertheless still does not address the issues from all sides. Still, the authors appear to assume the relative integrity of politicians in terms of achieving political rather than personal aims and the drive of citizens to participate, as well as their trust in the political process.
Knight and Lewis (in Ginsberg and Stone 176) address the feelings involved in political participation more fully, by means of the concept of ideological sentiment. The authors note…
Crenson, Matthew a. And Ginsberg, Benjamin. Downsizing democracy: ho America sidelined its citizens and privatized its public. JHU Press, 2004.
Crenson, Matthew a and Ginsberg, Benjamin. "Citizens to Customers: How America Downsized Citizenship and Privatized Its Public." In . Making government manageable: executive organization and management in the twenty-first century. Edited by Thomas H. Stanton and Benjamin Ginsberg JHU Press, 2004.
Ginsberg, Benjamin and Shefter, Martin. Politics by other means: the declining importance of elections in America. Basic Books, 1990.
Knight, Kathleen and Lewis, Carolyn V. "Does Ideology Matter?" In Do Elections Matter? Edited by Benjamin Ginsberg and Alan Stone. M.E. Sharpe, 1996.
Prevailing Legal Theory in the United States Today
Common legal theories in the United States today
The most commonly-espoused legal theories in the media today are those of 'strict construction' and 'broad construction' (otherwise known as 'judicial activism.') Strict construction, according to its adherents, means strictly adhering to the 'letter of the law' and strictly interpreting the Constitution according to the original intent of the authors of the document. Strict construction uses a "literal and narrow definition of the language without reference to the differences in conditions when the Constitution was written and modern conditions, inventions and societal changes" (Sollum 2009). Strict construction interpreters have been highly critical of decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education, which examined evidence of the psychological impact of segregation upon young, African-American children and oe v. Wade, which created a test of viability for the fetus while protecting women's absolute right to choose…
Carmona, Ana Julia Bozo. (1999). Toward a postmodern theory of law. Paideia project.
Retrieved May 24, 2011 at http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Law/LawBozo.htm
Jones, Jeffrey. (2009). Americans in agreement with Supreme Court on gun rights. Gallup.
Retrieved May 24, 2011 at http://www.gallup.com/poll/108394/Americans-Agreement-Supreme-Court-Gun-Rights.aspx
Open Market Operations
Monetary policy may involve several facets, including reserve requirements, discount rate and interest rate targeting. The U.S. Federal Reserve's long-time strategy has been to use interest rate targeting through Open Market Operations primarily to keep the economy in its attempts to keep the economy in a state of equilibrium.
Today, open market operations (purchase and sale of U.S. Treasury and other federal agency securities) are the principal tool used by the Federal Reserve in implementing monetary policy (Federal Reserve eb site). The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) of the Federal Reserve decides on the short-term objective, an objective that can be either a desired quantity of reserves of a desired price, also called the federal funds rate; this, in turn, will have the effect of making interest rates increase or decrease. "The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions lend balances at the…
Chappell, Henry W., Rob Roy McGregor, and Todd Vermilyea. "Majority Rule, Consensus Building, and the Power of the Chairman: Arthur Burns and the FOMC." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 36.3 (2004): 407+. Questia. 19 Apr. 2005 .
Chappell Jr., Henry W., and Rob Roy McGregor. "A Long History of FOMC Voting Behavior." Southern Economic Journal 66.4 (2000): 906. Questia. 19 Apr. 2005 .
Open market operations. 2005. Federal Reserve, http://www.federalreserve.gov/fomc/fundsrate.htm
Orphanides, Athanasios. "Monetary Policy Rules, Macroeconomic Stability, and Inflation: A View from the Trenches." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 36.2 (2004): 151+. Questia. 19 Apr. 2005 .
" (edhead 2008) (Manow 2001)
These factors are showing how institutional investors are playing an important part in offering additional amounts of liquidity to a variety of businesses. This helps them to address a number of issues they are facing ranging from managing strategic acquisitions to having additional financing for bringing new products or services in the marketplace. When this happens, these organizations become more competitive and flexible in meeting the needs of customers. (Manow 2001)
Institutional investors and the short-termism theory
However, one the biggest criticisms of the role of institutional investors is they are encouraging companies to focus on meeting short-term objectives. This is because all investors want to see an increase in their profit margins. When this happens, the price of the stock will move higher from these favorable perceptions. During the annual proxy vote (for the board of directors), this ensures that they will be reelected…
Bhojraj, S, 2003, 'The Effects of Corporate Governance,' the Journal of Business, vol. 76, no.3, pp. 133 -- 142.
Davis, E, 2002, 'Institutional Investors, Corporate Governance and the Performance of the Corporate Sector', Economic Systems, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 203 -- 229.
Manow, P, 2001, Comparing Welfare and Capitalism, Psychology Press, London.
Palley, T, 1997, 'Managerial Turnover,' Journal of Economic Behavior, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 547 -- 557.
Epoch of Resentment
Throughout history, society has felt compelled to devise labels for nearly every category or trait. People may be given a specific label based on their age, economic status, education level, ethnic background, geographic location, occupation, political beliefs, religious beliefs, and various other factors. Although the use of labels based on one category may dominate at certain time periods (i.e., ethnicity-based labels dominated in the early 1950s), labels based on age seem to be common regardless of the time period.
Individuals ages 20-29 are commonly referred to as "Generation X" Other names for Generation X include "Gen X," the "Generation Without a Conscience," the "Lost Generation," the "Me Generation," the "Slacker Generation," the "Twenty something Generation," or the "Yuppies With a Conscience ut Without Fat Paychecks." While labels may be useful in distinguishing members of various categories based strictly on age, labels are most often used in a…
Barna, George (1992). The Invisible Generation: Baby Busters.
Bartlett, John. The Future is Ours.
Cohen, Jason and Krugman, Michael (1994). Generation Ecch!
Cote, James E. And Allahar, Anton L. Generation on Hold: Coming of Age in the Late Twentieth Century.
Disparity of Targeted Funding in the Black Urban Community
There are many ways to get funding for different types of projects, no matter where a person or organization is located. Some of the areas most in need of funding for projects are in black, urban communities (Barnes, 2005; Day, 2002; Haight, 1998; Patillo-McCoy, 1998). Money is often scarce there, and without funding there are few programs that can help people who really need it. This puts these residents at a distinct disadvantage, and makes it more difficult for them to get out of poverty and build better lives for themselves. No matter what types of programs need funding and financial help, there are different ways in which getting that funding can be considered.
Church congregations often help raise money for community projects, but there are other ways in which these congregations can help those in need (Billingsley, 1999; Brown &…
Barnes, S.L. (2005). Black church culture and community action. Social Forces, 84(2): 967-994.
Billingsley, A. (1999). Mighty like a river: The black church and social reform. NY: Oxford University Press.
Brown, R.K., & Brown, R.E. (2003). Faith and works: Church-based social capital resources and African-American political activism. Social Forces, 82(2): 617-641.
Calhoun-Brown, A. (1996). African-American churches and political mobilization: The psychological impact of organizational resources. The Journal of Politics, 58(4): 935-953.
Egyptians of all classes and ages took part in the protests, united in demands and ambitions such as improved wages, improved conditions of working, and political freedom. However, it was the surprising figures of young individuals who took part in the demonstrations that provided drive to the revolt. The young individuals were also key to maintaining the uprising given that numerous meet in Tahrir (Liberation) Square in Cairo as well as other cities across the nation. Egyptian youth are actually the faces behind this leaderless uprising; the revolution was generally impelled by their skill in utilizing social media to gain attention (oudi-Fahimi, El Feki & Tsai, 2011). The new youth backed, and at times, instigated by women is now an aware global citizen, refusing to bear the inability of its rulers to be with the times and provide means of development and rapidly changing economic and social paradigms.
Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012). Blogs and bullet II-New media and conflict after the Arab spring (No. 80). Peaceworks. United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
Al-Natour, M. (2012). The role of women in the Egyptian 25th January revolution. Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5), 59.
Auer, M. R. (2011). The policy sciences of social media. Policy Studies Journal, 39(4), 709-736.
Frederiksen, M. (2011). The key role of women in the Egyptian revolution. Retrieved March 01, 2016, from http://www.marxist.com/key-role-of-women-in-egyptian-revolution.htm
Bartoleme De Las Casas
An Analysis of the Activism of Bartoleme De Las Casas
Often characterized by modern historians as the "Defender and the apostle to the Indians," Bartolome de Las Casas is known for exposing and condemning as well as exaggerating and misrepresenting the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New orld against Native Americans. Marked by emotional polemic and often embellished statistics, Las Casas' voluminous works brought him both support and opposition in his own time. hile being harshly criticized as a threat to Spanish rule in America, De Las Casas was also continually financially supported by the Crown and offered high offices by the Church (Benzoni 48). Though more than four hundred years have passed since his death, the works of this controversial Dominican friar continue to elicit strong reactions from both detractors and defenders -- from both those who condemn him and those who praise…
Adorno, Rolena. "Discourses on Colonialism: Bernal Diaz, Las Casas, and the Twentieth-Century Reader." MLN, vol. 103, no. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 239-258. Print.
Alker, Hayward. "The Humanistic Moment in International Studies: Reflections on Machiavelli and Las Casas." International Studies Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 4 (Dec., 1992), pp. 347-371. Print.
Bandelier, Adolph Francis. "Bartoleme de las Casas." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol.
3. NY: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Print.
you pick 2 companies write their motivation techniques. I pick intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. And compare companies. Do papers have database, searches people pulled web. You find UOPHX Website writes companies listed, pick.
Motivating employees at two companies:
Ben & Jerry's versus Southwest
Motivational theories by their very nature address companies in a fairly generic, prescriptive format. However, two corporations exist that continue to be very successful, after many years of impressive financial growth, seem to break all molds, yet confirm one of the most noteworthy theories regarding what motivates employees -- intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. Ben & Jerry's began as a small company based in Vermont that, despite or because of its ethical ideals, has become an integral part of American culture. Ben & Jerry's changed the way Americans consume ice cream, shifting the focus from quantity to quality. Southwest Airlines is a largely regional airline…
Activism. (2012). Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved:
Bailey, Jeff. (2008). Southwest. The New York Times. Retrieved:
The efforts of the Movement would be frustrated by the conditioning of those in the older generations who had only known crushing poverty. To them, the goals of freedom and equality seemed so far away that to fight for them was impractical. For them, political imperatives were a distant priority behind whatever means could be gathered for survival. This demonstrates the power that poverty has had in detaining the advance of African-Americans.
Certainly, Moody's own experiences would help to demonstrate this. In her youth, Moody experienced poverty without fully understanding the racial constructs that dictated it. As her education advanced, she became increasingly acquainted with the idea that her race made her subject to separate laws, discriminating violence and, ultimately, those conditions of poverty within which she came of age. The activism of her adulthood would bring her face-to-face with poverty as an impediment to the collective of advance…
Moody, a. (1968). Coming of Age in Mississippi. Dell.
Moody, p. 5
Moody, p. 14
Moody, p. 104
Pearl Mary (Gambanyi) Gibbs (1901-1983) was one of the major political activists supporting Aboriginal rights in Australia from the 1920s all the way to the 1970s. The highlights of her work include organizing the key -- pickers strike in 1933, being involved in organizing the Day of Mourning in 1938, speaking for the Committee for Aboriginal Citizen ights, calling for Aboriginal representation on the New South Wales board, being the organizing secretary for the new Melbourne-based Council for Aboriginal ights, establishing the Australian Aboriginal Fellowship in 1956, being the first and only female member of the NSW Aboriginal Welfare Board in 1954, and establishing the Australian Aboriginal Fellowship in 1956 (Gilbert, 1983; Goodall, 1983; Goodall, 1988; Horner, 1983). This list of accomplishments is just a scratch on the surface of the life of this amazing political activist and leader. Her activism for the rights of Indigenous peoples was…
Attwood, B. (2003). Rights for Aborigines. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Attwood, B. & Magowan, F. (2001).Telling stories: Indigenous history and memory in Australia and New Zealand. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Celermajer, D. (April 22, 2005). The stolen generation: Aboriginal children In Australia human rights dialogue: "Cultural rights." In Carnegie Council for Ethics and International Affairs. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/archive/dialogue/2_12/section_1/514
Commonwealth of Australia (2012). Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution: Report of the Expert Panel. Retrieved November 3, 2012 from http://www.youmeunity.org.au/uploads/assets/html-report/index.html.
MEDIA & GLOBAL POLITICS
Shirky's piece is about the potential for media to change the course of government and politics across the world. He writes of ways that specifically the technology of social media has the power and/or potential for political activism and social change. The 21st century has seen an increase in the frequency and the efficiency of grassroots activism and social movements around the world, due in great part because of the Internet and social media. In fact, the drastic increase in this kind of activity began in the late 20th century:
Since the rise of the Internet in the early 1990s, the world's networked population has grown from the low millions to the low billions. Over the same period, social media have become a fact of life for civil society worldwide, involving many actors -- regular citizens, activists, nongovernmental organizations, telecommunications firms, software providers, governments…As the…
Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford University Press. Pp. 299-432.
Morozov, E. (2011). Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. Public Affairs: New York. Pp. 1- 32, 179-204.
Shirky, C. (2011). The Political Power of Social Media. Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb2011, 90(1), 28-41.
Le OI Jones was the original name for the activist who became Amiri Baraka. He came from the Beat Movement to activism after the assassination of Malcolm X, taking his new name. As a writer, he was able to contribute a literate voice to the civil rights and Black Power movements. This paper will outline those contributions that he made to both of these movements, including founding the Black Arts Movement.
Jones was born and raised in Newark and took an interest in both music and writing at an early age. After graduating Howard University with a degree in English in 1954, he joined the Air Force. He was dishonorably discharged and then relocated to Manhattan. He attended Columbia University and became an artist in Greenwich Village, before becoming affiliated with the Beat Movement (Biography, 2014). He married Hettie Cohen and the two started a literary magazine together,…
Als, H. (2014). Amiri Baraka's first family. The New Yorker. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/amiri-barakas-first-family
AmiriBaraka.com (2014). Poet, playwright, activist. AmiriBaraka.com. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.amiribaraka.com/
Biography. (2014). Amiri Baraka. Biography.com. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.biography.com/people/amiri-baraka-9198235#synopsis
Ulaby, N. (2014). Amiri Baraka's legacy both controversial and achingly beautiful. NPR. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.npr.org/2014/01/09/261101520/amiri-baraka-poet-and-co-founder-of-black-arts-movement-dies-at-79
Kanye West's Yeezy Season Three Collections And Subversion Of Dominant Culture
Fashion is something that is thought to be changing with time. The fashion of the ancient times is not the same fashion of today, and the fashion of today has a little chance being the fashion of the times to come. As with the fashion progression in the United States of America, the fashion protagonists, and experts have contributed much to fashion. Fashion remains to be the people's choice and touches on the interests and tastes of the people. In the United States of America, fashion has been a way of life, finding its way almost into everything that involves human beings. The contributions are varied like with those who have progressed with the traditional career of fashion to those who have entered into fashion from other fields of play like Kanye West. In his Yeezy Season Three collections,…
Clay, Andreana. 2012. The Hip-Hop Generation Fights Back: Youth, Activism, and Post-Civil Rights Politics. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Hall, Stuart. 1993. What Is This "Black" in Black Popular Culture? Social Justice, Vol. 20, No. 1/2 (51-52), Rethinking Race (Spring-Summer 1993), pp. 104-114
Rose, Tricia. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover [u.a.]: Wesleyan Univ. Press
Based upon these results, Kasser posed the question as to what other values advanced by capitalist society were linked low levels of mental and physical health, such as maintaining a strong social image. He tested the links between aspirations to financial success, the need for social esteem, and image-related concerns in his next study. Social image was measured by ranking such statements high as: "Your name will be known by many people; You will be famous; You will be admired by many people." Valuing an 'appealing' appearance involved agreeing with statements about having an attractive image and successfully hiding the effects of aging as important values. In this second round of surveys, extrinsic drivers such as money, fame, and materialism all seemed to be linked as a 'cluster' of aspirations found in persons who also ranked high in anxiety and depression and low in vitality and levels of self-actualization.
Activism. Tim Kasser Website. April 4, 2010. http://faculty.knox.edu/tkasser/activism.html
Aspiration Index. Tim Kasser Website. April 4, 2010.