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Leadership at the Core of Leadership Is

Words: 2959 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83223179


At the core of leadership is the interaction between the leader and the follower. Much of leadership theory can be understood in terms of how leaders and followers interact and what the underlying assumptions are with respect to the roles and nature of leadership. Because of the many different types of leaders, and successful examples thereof, leadership scholarship has developed multiple branches that seek to explain leadership, but no one branch has yet proved definitive. Instead of understanding leadership through a single paradigm, and it better to understand it in terms of multiple paradigms, and different leadership theories can be applied to the same situation, and any given leader might apply multiple leadership styles at the same time.

Part of the appeal of leadership scholarship is that it encompasses so many unique academic disciplines. Leadership scholarship began life as in business schools but has been studied in the psychological…… [Read More]


Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F. & Weber, T. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 60 (2009) 421-449.

Boyatzis, R., Smith, M., & Blaize, N. (2006). Developing sustainable leaders through coaching and compassion. Academy of Management Learning & Education. Vol. 5 (1) 8-24.

Falk, S. & Rogers, S. (2011). Junior military officer retention: Challenges & opportunities. Harvard University. In possession of the author.

Kocolowski, M. (2010). Shared leadership: Is it time for a change? Emerging Leadership Journeys. Vol. 3 (1) 22-32.
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Leadership and Change Management

Words: 7618 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 31773784

Leadership and Change Management

Consider a change that has been recently introduced in your organization. Using relevant change and leadership theories, critically analyze the benefits and problems that introduction of this change has brought. TO WHAT EXTENT HAS LEADERSHIP CONTRIUTED TO THE RESULTS OF THIS PROCESS?

RasgGas is a joint venture gas company between Qatar Petroleum, the State of Qatar's national oil and gas company (majority stakeholder), and ExxonMobil, an American Integrated Oil and Gas company. The company is about fifteen years old and has been involved in all aspect of exploration, development, production, liquefaction and marketing of gas from the North Field. RasGas is a major contributor to the State of Qatar's worldwide leadership in the production and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export. The company has utilized technologies to drill high capacity gas well and build the largest and most efficient liquefaction trains in the world. These…… [Read More]


Brisson-Banks, C.V. 2010. "Managing Change and Transitions: A Comparison of Different Models and the Commonalities." Library Management, Vol. 31, No. 4/5, pp.241-52.

Brown, A.D. 1994. "Implementing MRPII: Leadership Rites and Cognitive Change." Logistics Informational Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 6-11.

Drew, S. And C. Coulson-Thomas 1996. "Transformation through Teamwork: The Path to the New Organization?" Managerial Decision, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 7-17.

Eisenbach, R. et al. 1999. "Transformational Leadership in the Context of Organizational Change." Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 80-88.
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Adaptive Leader That Are Related

Words: 3136 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98538359

" (nd) Adaptive leaders do not simply come up with something or make it up as they go but adaptive leaders "create from the base of intent, visions, goals, and personal preconditions that are fixed and unchanging." (yrum, nd) yrum goes further to state that adaptive leadership "requires courage, conviction, and faith in the capacity to work with others and make situations better. There are 'spiritual' dimensions of leadership that transcend logic and reason. Adaptive leadership certainly requires competency, but it also requires a genius of judgment and encounters unprecedented situations not as a passive victim but as an energetic and active creator. Adaptive leaders will capture people's attention, command their best energies..." (yrum, nd) yrum states that adaptive leaders give "old cliches a new meaning: "Success is a journey, not a destination"; "What matters most is where we are moving, not where we stand." (nd) yrum states that adaptive…… [Read More]


Bloom, Benjamin (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. New York: Longmans, 1956).

Albano, Charles (1999) Adaptive Leadership. Leader Values. Online available at

Vandergriff, Donald E Major (2006) Adaptive Leaders Course (ALC) Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks - White Paper Coordinating Draft - a Proposed 'Addendum' to the Capstone Concept U.S. Army Capabilities Integration Center (Forward) 10 May 2006. Online available at 

Byrum, C. Stephen (nd) Adaptive Work: The Challenge of Modern Leadership. Signal Mountain, Tennessee. The Byrum Consulting Group, LLC. Online available at
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Leadership Technical Interpersonal and Conceptual Skills Interpersonal

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65951852


Technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills

Interpersonal skills entail knowing how to interact with others. No employee desires to have a boss who is inconsiderate or rude or one who has poor human skills. All these could reduce productivity and employee morale. Managers with effective human skills tend to have subordinates who have positive attitudes and strong desires to increase productivity. Managers are always expected in any organization to have harmonious relationships with those below them like supervisors, peers, and subordinates (Yukl, 2012).

Conceptual skills refer to an individual's aptitude to formulate ideas. These skills include formulating abstractions, thinking creatively, understanding issues, solving problems, and analyzing complex situations. Within the business context, these skills are viewed as integral prerequisites for top executive positions. Conceptual skills differ from technical skills and interpersonal skills. The three types of skills assume vital roles for certain purposes and in certain situations. However, conceptual skills…… [Read More]


Phillips, D. T (1993). Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times. Warner Books, Inc.

Yukl, G.A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education
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Leadership in a Permanent Crisis

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 31931260

They become mired in the emergency phase of crisis management.

The authors contend that because of this, leaders may fall into the trap of "hunkering down" and try to solve problems with short-term fixes such as tightening controls, across-the-board cuts, and restructuring plans. Leadership will turn to what they know how to do in order to reduce frustration and quell their own and others' fears. Their primary mode will be drawing on familiar expertise to help their organizations weather the storm.

The article suggests that in order to avoid this trap that leaders practice adoptive leadership. Adoptive leadership calls for seizing the opportunity of moments like the current one to promote organizational change. The turbulence of the present can be used to build on and bring closure to the past. In the process, key rules of the game are changed and parts of the organization are reshaped as the work…… [Read More]


Heifetz, R., Grashow, a. & Linsky, M. (2009, July). Leadership in a (permanent) crisis. Havard business review. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from
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Leadership in Human Relations What

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17428548

According to Blass, et al., writing in Human Resources Management, the best way to acquire political skills, is through the mentoring process. The inexperienced individual who has a desire to become a leader in the HR field must have a mentor who is "…armed with organizational experience" that is borne of "vicarious and firsthand experience" and is willing to share "insights and cues with proteges on what it takes to be successful in the organization" (Blass, et al., 2007, p. 6). Mentors must be able to have an "adaptive capacity" to teach the political skills necessary to lead, Blass continues.

Politically skilled individuals generally possess "greater adaptive capacity," Blass continues, which can result in "positive and strong leader reputation" (p. 6). Moreover, Blass argues that individuals with well-honed political skills gain "influence" because they are socially astute, have learned adaptability, and adjust behaviors "to meet situational demands" (p. 11).

A…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blass, Fred R. And Ferris, Gerald R. (2007). Leader Reputation: The Role of Mentoring, Political

Skill, Contextual Learning, and Adaptation. Human Resource Management, 46(1), 5-19.

Choo, Ho Geok. (2007). Leadership and the Workforce in Singapore: Evaluations by the Singapore Human Resources Institute. Research and Practice in Human Resource

Management, 15(2), 104-114.
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Leadership Should Be Reflected Upon

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19366650

Set direction by framing the key questions, protecting by managing the rate of change, orienting by defining realities and key values, and instilling conflict as a means to creativity.

The leader must be emotionally capable to withstand uncertainty, frustration and anxiety in order to communicate confidence."(Ronald A Heifetz and Donald L. Laurie) successful leadership is one under which not only the economy flourishes but the inter-relationships of workers are improved and their potential is fully utilized and rewarded.

Each leader has his own individual style to bring about the progress and prosperity of those working under him. It is however absolutely essential to understand that even in the corporate world today to lead is not to control but to provide support to the people so that they can solve their own problems. This kind of teamwork helps in instilling self-confidence and promoting collective gain instead of individual gains.

A leader…… [Read More]


Ronald A Heifetz and Donald L. Laurie. The work of leadership. Harvard Business Review. 1997. 2
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Adaptive Management Adaptive Project Management Adaptive Management

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76710634

Adaptive Management

Adaptive Project Management

Adaptive management is a structured and systematic process for continually improving decisions, management policies, and practices by learning from the outcomes of decisions previously taken (Intaver Institute, N.d.). The model was originally developed by ecologists who were trying to explain how life adapts to various changes to their environment. However, the model was eventually tailored to different leadership and management theories because the model had certain advantages in explaining how things can adapt to a dynamic environment. This allows projects the ability to make a plan that has an inherent amount of flexibility built into the plan itself. This approach seems to work extremely well in projects that are operating in a volatile environment.

It is argued that traditional project management technics have many issues adapting to a dynamic environment (Shenhar & Divir, 2007). Although traditional project management does make provisions for change management in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Intaver Institute. (N.d.). Adaptive Project Management. Retrieved from Intaver Institute Inc.: 

McCarthy, I., Tsinopoulous, C., Allen, P., & Rose-Anderson, C. (2006). New Product Development as a Complex Adaptive System of Decisions. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 437-456.

Shenhar, A., & Divir, D. (2007). Reinventing Project Management: The Diamond Approach To Successful Growth And Innovation. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
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Leadership the Mistaken Assumption That

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46989190

The self-organization concept refers to the identity, vision, mission, and values of the organization. An organization's identity includes current interpretations of its history, present decisions and activities, and its sense of its future. It is the identity that provides the capacity for evolution and self-organization.

To hold the organization together for an identity, the free-flow of information is considered important. Only when information belongs to everyone in the organization, people begin to organize rapidly and effectively around customers, competitors, and environments (Stewart and Manz, 1995). It is that creates the conditions for the emergence of fast, well-integrated, and effective responses. Also, free flow of information brings together members of an organization for solving the organizational problems (Ashby, 1969). Beyond that, customers become the stakeholders that help in refinement of the organization.

Therefore, one of the prime concerns for leaders become that they avoid the barriers that create hindrance in information…… [Read More]


1. Ashby, W.R. (1969). Self-regulation and requisite variety. In Emery, F.E. (Ed.), Systems Thinking, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

2. Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T. And Kerr, S. (2001). The Boundaryless Organization, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

3. Cherns, a. (1987). Principles of socio-technical design revisited. Human Relations, Vol. 40, pp. 153-62.

4. Cummings, T. (1978). Self-regulating work groups: a socio-technical synthesis. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 3, pp. 625-34.
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A Brief History of leadership

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80983456

History of leadership
Leadership has for long been the centre of focus for many organizational and psychological researches. The terms “leader” and “leadership” have quite a wide gap regarding their coming into existence. “Leader” came to being in the early 1300s whereas “leadership” surfaced centuries later in 1700s (Stogdill, 1974). Scientific research on leadership started far much later in the twentieth century (Bass, 1981). From then on, research on the topic has intensified. This essay seeks to track the changes in the definitions of leadership from the turn of the 20th century up to the present.
The evolution of leadership definitions
Defining leadership has not been that easy for scholars and practitioners. It is now more than a hundred years since academicians started researching on leadership. Through this period, the definition of leadership has undergone numerous changes. Factors such as the prevailing politics, world affairs and people’s perceptions have been…… [Read More]

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Results of Three Leadership Questionnaires With Discussion

Words: 1490 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87800955

Authentic Leadership Questionnaire measures leadership capacity across four different areas. These are self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. The first of these is about a person's capacity to know their own strengths and weaknesses but also includes things like "emotional intelligence" in which you know how to understand others and how they react to your leadership style. Internalized moral-perspective is about ethical decision-making and ethical behavior, which seems slightly irrelevant in the context of business leadership. Balanced processing is a more difficult concept because it is about evaluating information during decision-making, and about wise decision-making skills. Finally relational transparency is about being clear about one's own goals and motivations, which again sounds like it may be irrelevant to the concept of business leadership. elational transparency may be useful for a public high school principal trying to deal with her unionized underlings, but it is hardly a characteristic…… [Read More]


"Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire." In Northouse, PG. (2012) Leadership: Theory and practice. Sixth Edition. New York: SAGE Publications.

"Servant Leadership Questionnaire." In Northouse, PG. (2012) Leadership: Theory and practice. Sixth Edition. New York: SAGE Publications.

"Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire." In Northouse, PG. (2012) Leadership: Theory and practice. Sixth Edition. New York: SAGE Publications.
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Leadership There Are Several Documentations Regarding Leadership

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24427376


There are several documentations regarding leadership that have focused mainly on attributes that are usually explained in the context of combination of vision, confidence, initiative, and intelligence. Actually, some of the newest, most advanced researches combine current analysis with evolutionary examination regarding the topic. These findings have demonstrated that leadership incorporates a simple premise that an adaptive concept survives over time whereas what is maladaptive does not (Cruz, n.d.). One of the most recent hypotheses suggests that the leadership-followership paradigm is a group-level adaptation. This is primarily because the roles of leaders and followers may be embraced flexible by the same person since it beneficial to be a leader in some cases and a follower in others. However, there is need to understand the leadership-followership paradigm through identifying the definition of followership as it relates to leadership. This process also requires an understanding of perceived benefits or payoffs of…… [Read More]


Civil Air Patrol n.d., Introduction to Followership, CAP Officer Basic Course, viewed 5 April


Cruz, L n.d., Leadership You Don't Need a Title, Positively Successful Magazine, viewed 5

April 2013,
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Leadership That Influenced Me Leadership

Words: 2341 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 70404690

Change may be difficult for a company, but necessary if the company is to survive. An effective leader is one who is able to harness and negotiate this change so that the company is able to deal with it and survive.

ome limitations to overcome

A leader has to possess the following characteristics: Empowerment; Risk-taking; Participation; and Development (Eicher; online). In a practical sense, this translates into the following schema: I need to empower employees listening to their ideas regarding how the organization can work. I would need to also inspire the employees to work independently and to gain their own knowledge.

Thirdly, I would need to inspire an atmosphere of innovation so that employees and myself together can decide how to work through difficult situations, and this must be accomplished in a face-saving manner in a supportive rather than in an accusatory atmosphere. Finally, I must endeavor to foster…… [Read More]

Sales, A. (2006). Substance Abuse and Counseling: A Perspective The International Child and Youth Care Network,. Cyc-Online. 

Sun Tzu, (2001). The Art of War Wylie, TX: Pickard & Son, Publishers.

Wheatley, M. (2002). Silence is the Problem. Shambhala Sun. Retrieved on 5/18/2010 from .
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Leadership Success Common Measures and

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4331802

An additional theory that could be used to analyze a true leader is adaptability. Another writer notes, "Adaptive leaders learn to live with unpredictability. They spend less time fretting about the inability to establish a routine or control the future and focus more on exploiting opportunities" (Whiffen, 2007). Every organization experiences change, growth, and development. A good leader must be able to adapt to those changes, grow with them, and motivate their team to adapt, as well. The same writer continues, "Once a leader perceives changes in the operating environment, he should identify the 'critical elements of the new situation'" (Whiffen, 2007). This is essential for any organization, no matter the size. Nothing stays static, and new situations are always developing, so leaders must adapt to them, grow, and be open to change.

An example of a successful leader who headed a successful company is Herb Kelleher, the founder of…… [Read More]


Jerabek, S., & Day, D. (2009, November). Traits of leadership. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 78, 20+.

Whiffen, H.H. (2007). Becoming an adaptive leader. Military Review, 87(6), 108+.
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Leadership Would You Recommend Abrashoff

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 50365832

For example, a commander of a Navy ship should be able to use a participatory and responsive leadership style in day-to-day affairs, and allow the crew enough autonomy to feel invested in the experience of running the vessel. But that same commander must be able to use a more authoritarian style when commanding the ship during the intensity of a battle situation. Switching between both leadership styles makes for a better crew. Even when under the tight watch of a commander, units must be able to make intelligent, split-second independent decisions. This quality is fostered by using participatory leadership techniques during the everyday life on the ship.

But switching between leadership styles and changing one's fundamental leadership approach is more easily said than done. Furthermore, the organizational hierarchy of the organization in which one is a participant may be hostile to such alterations. The military tends to celebrate tradition and…… [Read More]


Clark, Don. (2010, April 18). Concepts of Leaders. Big Dog/Little Dog.

Retrieved September 26, 2010 at
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Leadership Development Programs Are Sparse

Words: 1896 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98778669


Baker, D.E., Walsh, M.B., & Marjerison, L. (2000). Developing high performance leadership at the process level. In E.F. Holton & S.S. Naquin (Eds.), Developing high-performance leadership competency (Vol. 6, pp. 47-72). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass & Stodgill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial application. New York: Free Press.

Brungardt, C. (1996). The making of leaders: A review of the research in leadership development and education. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 3 (3), 81-95.

Burke, M.J., & Day, .. (1986). A cumulative study of the effectiveness of managerial training. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 242-245.

Collins, D.B., Lowe, J.S., & Arnett, C.. (2000). In E.F. Holton & S.S. Naquin (Eds.), Developing high-performance leadership competency (Vol. 6, pp. 18-46). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Conger, J. (1999). Leader's change handbook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Friedman, T.L. (2000). The lexus…… [Read More]


Baker, D.E., Walsh, M.B., & Marjerison, L. (2000). Developing high performance leadership at the process level. In E.F. Holton & S.S. Naquin (Eds.), Developing high-performance leadership competency (Vol. 6, pp. 47-72). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass & Stodgill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial application. New York: Free Press.

Brungardt, C. (1996). The making of leaders: A review of the research in leadership development and education. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 3 (3), 81-95.
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Leadership Within the Context of a Globalized Environment

Words: 3487 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43009954

Organizational Leadership and Performance

The environment in which leaders of today operate is increasingly global. It is important to note, from the onset, that today's globalized environment significantly differs from the environment business operated in a couple of decades ago. In addition to being fast-paced, today's business environment is also more competitive and complex. The demands of the current era have meant that leaders of today must embrace new leadership approaches -- different from those applied by their predecessors two or three decades ago.

The Need to Appreciate Diversity

Today, every leader, as Daft (2014, p. 326) points out, "needs to understand the complexity of diversity issues, learn to create an inclusive culture, and support the development of minorities…" Unlike was the case a few decades ago, today's leaders are expected to lead teams of individuals, all of whom come from diverse backgrounds, ethnic roots, and have different motivations. It…… [Read More]


Adair, J. (2009). Leadership and Motivation: The Fifty-Fifty Rule and the Eight Key Principles of Motivating Others. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Publishers.

Bell, A. (2011). Great Leadership: What it is and What it Takes in a Complex World. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.

Cancialosi, C. (2014). Today's Leaders Must Learn to Thrive in Disequilibrium. Retrieved from 

Daft, R. (2014). The Leadership Experience (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning
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Leadership Setting the Path to

Words: 2148 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50433203

The virtues of piety and civility

Piety is showing loyalty, respect and affection for those closely related (Sergiovanni 2005). Civility is the virtue that deals with the differences found in those unlike one's own. A leader is not limited to established relationships and bonds. He is not blind to other views. lindness to other shades of opinion prevents learning from them. Piety demands inclusiveness and undivided loyalty while civility accommodates diversity and tolerance. True leadership exercises both in a balanced way. Leadership finds solutions to problems for others. A wise leader values set bonds within his community. ut he also relies on others and their resources, which can supplement or replenish his own. He does not exist separately of others (Sergiovanni).

To exemplify responsibility and accountability

Leadership is position not only of prominence and privilege. It is also a position of responsibility and accountability. A leader must answer for his…… [Read More]


Elmore, R.F. (2005). Accountable leadership. 8 pages. The Educational Forum: Kappa Delta Pi

McLagan, P.A. (2002). Change leadership today. 5 pages. T & D: American Society for Training and Development, Inc.

Philips, R. (2005). 3 pages. Next century: the leadership? 3 pages. Dynamic Chiropractic: ProQuest Information and Learning Company

Sergiovanni, T.J. (2005). The virtues of leadership. 10 pages. The Educational Forum: Kappa Delta Pi
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Leadership in International Schools

Words: 29649 Length: 108 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20990082

Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education


Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools


What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?

Challenges of Intecultual Communication

Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values

Impotance of the Team

Leadeship Style


Cuent Leadeship Reseach

Tansfomational Leadeship


Contingency Theoies


Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship

Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change

Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…… [Read More]


Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press.

Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management.

Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
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Benefits of Early Leadership Training for Youth

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 1209423

Leadership Training for Youth

Annotated Bibliography

Allen, S.J. (2007, Spring). Adult learning theory & leadership development," Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, 7, 26-37.

The authors explore the relationship between leadership development and adult learning theory, specifically behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social learning theory. Leadership is studied within learning theories framework.

Charbonneau, D., Barling, J, and Kelloway, E.K. (2001). Transformational leadership and sports performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(7), 1521-1534.

The authors sought to test a model of transformational leadership with regard to its indirect effect on sports performance through the mediating effects of the athlete's intrinsic motivation. University athletes rated the transformational leadership of their coaches and their own intrinsic motivation, while the coaches assesses the athletes' performance. Kelloway's mediator tests (1996, 1998) were used to model the relationships. Intrinsic motivation was found to be a mediator of transformational leadership and sports performance,…… [Read More]

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Looking Into Ethics in Leadership

Words: 1215 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90256874

Leadership and Organization Culture and Ethics in Leadership

Model Preferred for Leaders to Follow

The DCL (Dynamic Culture Leadership) model is the most advantageous model for leaders, as dynamic leaders possess a basic grasp of their institution's affirmative moral duty and function from the perspective of a humanistic paradigm, as all organizations have a positive ethical duty to do ensure that "good" is done to all stakeholders, and nobody is harmed, by any means. On the basis of this premise, one may argue that businesses are morally obliged to work to the "good" of their workforce (who represent stakeholders that are non-owners). Therefore, dynamic leaders need to considerably focus on ethical and moral elements, for enhancing cultural values of the organization (Lowder, 2007).

Dynamic Culture Leadership (DCL) Model and How it is Applied.

Leaders, in this instance, need to adopt a leadership style aimed at evaluating the necessity of increased…… [Read More]


Dimitrios, N. K., Sakas, D. P., & Vlachos, D. S. (2013). Analysis of Strategic Leadership Simulation Models in Non-profit Organizations. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 73, 276-284.

Ledlow, G. R., & Coppola, M. N. (2011). Leadership for health professionals: Theory, skills, and applications. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Lowder, B. T. (2007). Implementing a dynamic leadership program: A moral construct for adding cultural value. Available at SSRN 1016601.

O'Connor. S.J. (n.d). CHAPTER 6: Management of Corporate Culture and Responsibilities
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Management and Leadership

Words: 2777 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11758406

Personal Leadership Platform

A leadership platform is a complex concept. The questions expanded my thinking into not only what I want to be as a leader, but also why those convictions are important. As a new marketing manager, I think this is a valuable activity to examine my beliefs and values of what my leadership should represent.

Purpose of Leadership

The simple purpose of leadership is to lead a group with a common goal. The true question is what a leader must possess in order to carry out the process of achieving a common goal. A leader must understand the big picture of the organization and the way the smaller parts work together to help achieve the overarching goals. Additionally, he/she must understand the strengths and weaknesses of an organization. Using data, leaders must work with those they lead to develop goals for company improvement. The leader is responsible for…… [Read More]


Ambler, G. (2008). Leaders vs. Managers….. Are they really different? Retrieved September 8, 2013 from 

Carlos L., (2013). Task and relationship orientation of Americans: a study of gender, age, and work experience. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from 

Daugherty R., (2013). Power and Influence: Strategies for Leadership. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from 

Fleenor J.W., (2006). Trait Approach to Leadership. Encyclopedia of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Sage Publications. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from
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Transforamtional Leadership on Subordiantes Development

Words: 1679 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80256873

" (Asgari and Silong, 2008)

Asgari and Silong states that there were two primary objectives of the study reported which were those of:

(1) assessing the impact of six dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors -- contribution and affect -- on citizenship behavior; and (2) to test the mediating impact of the LMX on the transformational leadership behaviors-citizenship relationship." (Asgari and Silong, 2008)

It is reported that the subjects of the study were full-time employees and managers working in the educational organization in the country of Iran. This survey included 220 respondents. Data is reported as having been collected "...on a structured questionnaire containing standard scales of transformational leadership behaviors, LMX, and organizational citizenship behaviors. After establishing the psychometric properties of the scales, hypotheses were tested through statistical analysis of the data." (Asgari and Silong, 2008) Results are stated to indicate that "...dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors are more likely to…… [Read More]


Asgari, Ali and Silong, Abu Daud (2008) The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership Behaviors, Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. European Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 6 No. 4 (2008).

Atwater, L.E., Roush, P., & Fischtal, A. (1995). The influence of upward feedback on self and follower ratings of leadership. Personnel Psychology, 48, 35-59.

Atwater, L.E., Waldman, D.A., Atwater, D., & Cartier, P. (2000). An upward feedback field experiment: supervisors' cynicism, reactions, and commitment to subordinates. Personnel Psychology, 53 (2), 275-298.

Avolio, B.J., & Howell, J.M. (1992). The impact of leadership behavior and leader-follower personality match on satisfaction and unit performance. In K.E. Clark, M.B. Clark & D.P. Campbell (Eds.), Impact of Leadership (pp. 223-235). Greensboro, North Carolina: Center for Creative Leadership
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Titans Demonstrates Leadership Styles Leadership

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30349421

In addition to his role as political leader, Yoast leads from a symbolic framework. He had coached the team through fifteen successful seasons and therefore the entire town of Alexandria, the school staff, and the players all respected him as leader even after he was demoted. Yoast's spunky daughter looks up to her dad as a symbolic leader and because of her passionate involvement with the team, she also serves as a symbolic leader in the movie. Yoast symbolizes effective leadership in Remember the Titans, due to his self-sacrificing approach to teamwork, his ability to triumph in the face of adversity, and his visible successes on the gridiron.

Yoast's demotion itself can be viewed from within a structural and symbolic framework too. Because of to the social and political changes taking place in American society and at the administrative level of the school system, Boone replaced Yoast as a token…… [Read More]

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Personal Vision of Leadership Could

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: A-Level Outline Answer Paper #: 85559610

And finally, in the case of a general manager overseeing a team of technical workers or workers that have more knowledge of the project than him or herself, delegation might be best.

The different combinations of leadership strategies will depend on the type of the organization in question; the relationship of managers to employees; and the objectives of the leadership. In general, I would prefer to be part of a company that emphasized more participatory and delegative approaches. This no doubt comes from the values I was brought up with: I want to work hard and to do a good job, but I like to feel as if I have a hand in orchestrating the success of the enterprise of which I am a part. I believe I have something valuable to contribute to the organization and to me a job is never 'just a job.' Leadership is most effective…… [Read More]


Hershey-Blanchard situational leadership theory. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved: 

HR is not flexible with workplace flexibility. (2012). The People Group. Retrieved:
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2 Leadership Styles Transactional and Transformational

Words: 3752 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70862120

Transformational and Transactional Leadership

The global market place that is today's business environment is highly competitive, and organizational survival is increasingly perceived as being dependent upon the efficiency and effectiveness of its leadership. Changes such as the online markets and workforce, alteration of ethical and legal issues, demographic and social trends (global 'graying' of the populace), technological advances and increased globalization mean that leaders of businesses must re-evaluate and alter their styles as necessary to bring about and maintain success. Competitive advantage is the predominant goal of most business strategies - how to sustain it once achieved, and how to achieve it in the first place. Thus, understanding the effect(s) of leadership, its role in an organization, and how leadership style impacts an organization is fundamentally important. As stated by Ekuma (2014) the manner in which a company is directed affects its internal and external ethics as well as the…… [Read More]


Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., & Frey, D. (2013). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust. The Leadership Quarterly, 270-283.

Derr, C. (2012). Ethics & Leadership. Journal of Leadership, 9(6).

Du, S., Swaen, V., Lindgreen, A., & Sen, S. (2013). The Roles of Leadership Styles in Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 155-169.

Ekuma, K. (2014). Transformational Leadership: Implications for Organizational Competitive Advantage. Macrothink Institute, 4(1), 276-281.
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situational leadership'styles at Salesforce

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59385315

Situational leadership is a style of leadership that is based on flexibility, where the leader has an adaptive style that changes depending on the situation. Blanchard and Hersey have developed the concept of situational leadership that the leader adapts the style to fit the development level of the followers being influenced (Anthony, 2018). Salesforce was named the number one company to work for in America, and its corporate culture has been described as unique. The CEO is Marc Benioff, one of the company's co-founder, who is co-CEO with Keith Block. Benioff was instrumental in defining the company's culture and its leadership style. This paper will examine leadership as Salesforce, through the lens of situational leadership.
Situational Leadership Styles
There are several different situational leadership styles, which the leader would apply to different followers and different situations as need be. The four main situational leadership styles are delegating, supporting, coaching…… [Read More]

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Special Education Director Leadership Styles

Words: 11099 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58281810

More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)

Qualitative Research Methods

Qualitative research methods are those of:

(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.

(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.

(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…… [Read More]


Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.

Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.

Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.

Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from
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Org Culture Leadership Leadership Learning

Words: 4817 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5080702

" (Simon, 188) the fundamental perspective here is that leadership and the ability to apply actions based on culturally driven decisions are central to helping members of the organization learn in a concrete manner how best to accord with the reigning culture.

In order for this to occur though, there must be a certain initial scrutiny and selectiveness where leadership and personnel are concerned, endorsing an organization-wide emphasis on the quality of personnel. This implicitly brings us to consideration of the application phase in terms of learning organizational culture, which is inevitably associated to all actionable aspects of an organization's structure and operations. The correlation between recruitment, personnel makeup and leadership personalities is perhaps threaded by the common string of day-to-day responsibility within an organizational culture. And quite certainly, we see the stamp of organizational culture on so many of the most important applicable indicators. Schein, to this end, points…… [Read More]


Arnold, J., Cooper, C. & Robertson, I.T. (1995). Work psychology: Understanding human behavior in the workplace, Pitman Publishing, London.

Beer, M. & Walton, E. (1990). Developing the competitive organization: interventions and strategies. American Psychologists, 45(22), 154-161.

Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. Harper and Row, New York.

Bowditch, J.L. & Buono, a.F. (1994). A primer on organizational behavior. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York.
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Collaborative Leadership in Schools Leadership

Words: 5063 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 98201826

Brandt (2003) offers ten ways to determine if a school indeed meets the criteria of a learning organization. The first characteristic of a learning organization is that it encourages adaptive behavior in response to differing circumstances. The second is that the learning organization has challenging, but achievable objectives and goals. The third is that members of the organization can accurately identify the organizations' stages of development (Brandt, 2003).

The learning organization can collect, process, and act upon information that fits their purposes (Brandt, 2003). Learning organizations have the knowledge base for creating new ideas. The learning organization has the ability to grow and adapt. They are dynamic and in a constant process of evolution. Learning organizations frequently exchange information with external sources (Brandt, 2003). This happens in educational workshops, in-services, and conferences.

Another feature of the learning organization is that is seeks feedback on their products and services (Brandt, 2003).…… [Read More]


Anderson, J. (2008). Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities. The Elementary School Journal. 109 (1): 36-60.

Beasley, E. (2008). New leadership model for business fits schools too. Statesman Journal. August 26, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008 at 

Berenstein, L. (2006). Team Teaching with Academic Core Curricula Teachers: Using Aviation Concepts. Department of Aviation Technologies. Southern Illinois University. 43 (2): 1- 19. Retrieved October 19, 2008 at 

Brandt, R. (2003). Is this school a learning organization? 10 ways to tell. Journal of Staff Development. Winter 2003. 24 (1). Retrieved October 19, 2008 at
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Sales Leadership Implementing Sales Leadership

Words: 1020 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33024005

In markets where change is a constant -- an increasing state of affairs for many markets and industries in the modern era -- the complexities of the many factors affecting and influencing sales efficacy must be properly accounted for by sales leaders and communicated to sales teams in order for continued adjustments to sales strategy and techniques to remain effective (LaForge 2005). Collaboration must be fostered in the sales team in order to achieve the organization's goals while accountability is also a necessity ensuring that each individual member of a sales team is working effectively toward organizational goals (LaForge 2005). The result is a sales leadership mentality and structure that encourages open communication amongst all members of the sales force and that also recognizes and rewards individual achievements.

Transformational leadership that involves one-on-one communications between the sales leader and each individual member of the sales team and is used to…… [Read More]


Bakersfield. (2010). Sales management Leadership and Supervision. CSU Bakersfield. Accessed 23 November 2010.

Havaldar, K. & Cavale, V. (2007). Sales and distribution management. New Delhi: McGraw Hill.

LaForge, R. (2005). New directions in sales leadership research. All Business. Accessed 23 November 2010.
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General James Mattis Leadership

Words: 3539 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52874438


General James Mattis is one of the prominent military leaders and highly successful in his 40 years of service. This paper examines how General Mattis’ utilized strategies, styles, behaviors, and qualities that are comparable to those of past Maverick leaders. The analysis also demonstrates how General James Mattis adapted these strategies, styles, behaviors, and qualities to work in the contemporary operating environment. As part of this analysis, a discussion of the moral and ethical compass of General James Mattis is also included. As shown in the paper, the strategies utilized by Mattis include intellectual risk-taking and people-centered approach in commanding troops whereas the styles include combative approach and strategic thinking. On the other hand, General Mattis’ behaviors include extreme aggressiveness and interaction with subordinates while his qualities include intellectualism, positive attitude, and courage.

Comparing General James Mattis to Maverick Leaders of the Past

General James Mattis is recognized as…… [Read More]

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organizational change and leadership effectiveness

Words: 1234 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48508299

.....change management for any leader.

The most important feature of change management for any leader is the alignment of company culture and its behaviors to suit desired outcomes. Therefore, change management depends on setting strategic goals and objectives first, and then managing change incrementally. As Jones, Aguirre & Calderone (2014) put it, "plans themselves do not capture value; value is realized only through the sustained, collective actions" of the organization's members. This is especially true in large organizations, but change management strategies and philosophies apply to organizations of all sizes and types.

When leaders are managing long-term major changes in their organization, they may need to keep in mind the four types of organizational change: scale, magnitude, duration, and strategic importance. The scale of the change determines whether it affects the entire organization or only one department. The magnitude of the change refers to the degree to which the change…… [Read More]

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Personal Reflection on Different Leadership Styles

Words: 2468 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91093360

Perceived Leadership Integrity

Leadership Style

My leadership style can be best described as servant leadership. This approach is based on the idea that the leader exists to bring out the best in the people who are being led. Ultimately, I feel that as a leader I fit in a role where I am seeking to optimize the strategies and plans related to the organization as a whole, and that the best way for me to do so is to ensure that the people under my charge are equipped to perform at their highest level (Greenleaf, 2016). One leader alone cannot bring about the organizational results that are desired; only the entire organization can do that. Therefore, the role of the leader is to facilitate each and every member of the organization to operate at his or her highest possible level, without constraints, and that they may be encouraged to do…… [Read More]

References (2016). Lewin's leadership styles. Retrieved February 13, 2016 from 

Cherry, K. (2016). Leadership theories: The 8 major leadership theories. Retrieved February 13, 2016 from 

Faleye, O. (2007). Does one hat fit all? The case of corporate leadership structure. Journal of Management & Governance. Retrieved February 13, 2015 from 

Greenleaf Center (2016). What is servant leadership? Greenleaf Center. Retrieved February 13, 2016 from
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Building Leadership Capacity Fiedler Has

Words: 2680 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78146378

The model that emerged from the study proposes that there is a relationship of life mission with transformational learning and self-directed learning. Adult educators may improve their learning process when they provide some way for learners to understand their life's mission and relate it to learning. This may help the learning experience go from being teacher-directed to being more student-directed. The study suggests that purpose seeking must be included in emancipatory learning as well as awareness building (Kroth, p.134).

Stephen Brookfield recently published a study of the theory entitled epositioning ideology critique in a critical theory of adult learning about adult learning and how it differs from other types of theories. Looking at contemporary readings in adult educational, particularly those of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, as interpreted by Habermas, who taught "risk sliding into an exclusive engagement with the pragmatic dimensions of his thought to the exclusion of…… [Read More]


Brookfield, S. (2001).Repositioning ideology critique in a critical theory of adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, vol. 52(11.

Brookfield, S. (2002). Overcoming alienation as the practice of adult education: the contribution of Erich Fromm to a critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult Education Quarterly, Vol. 52(2).

Barry-Craig P. Johansen and Gary N. McLean (2006). Worldviews of adult learning in the workplace: a core concept in human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 8(8.)

Belzer, a. (2004). "It's not like Normal School": the role of prior learning contexts in adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, Vol. 55(1).
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Creative Nursing Leadership and Management

Words: 2704 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34142187

Nursing Theories Practices

Nursing Theories

Sister Callista oy initiated the Adaptation Model of Nursing in 1976. The theory has since then evolved to be one of the prominent nursing theories. The nursing theory defines and explains the nursing care provisions. The model by oy sees an individual as a composite of systems with an interrelationship (including biological, social, and psychological). According to Haaf (2008), a person strives towards retaining a balance across the systems and the outside world, although absolute balance levels do not exist. Individuals work towards living in unique bands that they can adequately cope. The model has four major concepts of environment, person, nursing, and health and its application has six steps.

According to Kraszeski & McEwen (2010), a person is a representation of societal standards, principles, or focus. oy's model positions the individual as the bio-psychosocial being throughout a continually changing environment. The person allows for…… [Read More]


Butts, J.B., & Rich, K., (2012). Nursing Ethics: Across the Curriculum and Into Practice. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

Clark, C., (2008). Creative Nursing Leadership and Management. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Clarke, V., & Walsh, A., (eds) (2009). Fundamentals of mental health nursing. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Cowen, M. Maier, P. Price, G. (2009). Study skills for nursing and healthcare students. Harlow: Pearson Longman.
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Schooling I Settled on the

Words: 414 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43785140

It is difficult to learn how to motivate individuals to adapt to new methods and break old habits; individuals may resist change, but a good leader can inspire them to do it and teach them how (CLA, p.1).

Transformative learning involves a change of consciousness about one's self and how one's relationships affect the world through one's workings in one's own fields of influence. I belong to many collective dimensions, such as my economic class, my race and my gender. My thinking about myself and how I will change myself in order to affect my students demands that I feel positive about myself and my efforts. I do believe that what I plan to do will have a positive effect on many others in the future (Goodman, p. 1).

orks Cited

CLA. (2005). hat is adaptive leadership? Cambridge Leadership Associates. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Retrieved January 21, 2008 at

Goodman, Anne.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

CLA. (2005). What is adaptive leadership? Cambridge Leadership Associates. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Retrieved January 21, 2008 at .

Goodman, Anne. (2006). The TLC approach to transformative learning: grounded hope. Transformative Learning Centre. University of Toronto, Canada. Retrieved January 21, 2008 at .

Paul, Richard. (2006). Critical Thinking: learn the tools the best thinkers use. New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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Breaking the Glass Ceiling Xerox's Ursula Burns

Words: 2071 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20649573

Ursula Burns, Chief Executive Officer at Xerox

Although many authorities agree that the glass ceiling is still in place, it is clear that it has at least been shattered somewhat with many women leading Fortune 500 companies today. Leading the charge has been Ursula Burns, chairman and chief executive officer at Xerox Corporation since July 2009, making her the first African-American woman to lead an S&P 100 corporation. This paper reviews the relevant literature to provide Burns' background, an analysis of her leadership style and philosophy and how they align with the corporate culture at Xerox, an examination of Burns' personal and organizational values and an evaluation concerning how Burns' values most likely influence ethical behavior at this company. Finally, an analysis of Burns' three greatest strengths and weaknesses is followed by a discussion concerning the quality that most contributes to this leader's success and an assessment concerning how communication…… [Read More]


Alleyne, S. (2010, February). Unduplicated success: Named CEO of Xerox, Ursula M. Burns is making history as the first African-American woman to run one of the world's largest corporations. Black Enterprise, 40(7), 88-92.

Brimhall, C.L., Greif, T. & Buchsbaum, T. (2013, February). Teaching authentic adaptive leadership and organizational strategies using a case study. International Journal of Strategic Management, 13(1), 97-101.

Bryant, A. (2010, February 20). Xerox's new chief tries to redefine its culture. The New York

Times. Retrieved from ?
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Einstein the Quote Any Man Who Has

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80501265


The quote any man who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new, Albert Einstein captures the essence of why many services providers including those in the medical profession set for mediocrity over continually pushing themselves for excellence. The many errors in the healthcare services industry can be attributed to outmoded, often very expensive processes that have lost touch with patients' needs (Kumar, Steinebach, 444).

Analysis of the Quote

In a paradoxical sense, the more pressure on the healthcare industry to change in terms of quality of care, with the pressure equally applied across physicians to care providers and healthcare maintenance organizations (HMO) the greater the resistance to change (Kumar, Steinebach, 444). Mediocrity within the healthcare industry is actively protected as a result, making innovation and risk-taking for consumers seen not as a revenue or cost advantage, but a cost drain and risk to profitability (Wright, 205).…… [Read More]


Sameer Kumar, and Marc Steinebach. "Eliminating U.S. hospital medical errors. " International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 21.5 (2008): 444.

Haeusler, J.. "Medicine Needs Adaptive Leadership. " Physician Executive 36.2 (2010): 12-15.

Wright, D.. "Medical malpractice and physician liability under a negligence rule. " International Review of Law and Economics 31.3 (2011): 205.
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Bundy R Changing Role of

Words: 7658 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 82546171

The enablers include the competence of the people, the culture of the corporation, internal development, worker engagement, efficient and effective communication, and innovative learning.

Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. (1996). The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: progress and prospects. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4), pp. 779-801.

The research attempts to advance debates on a nascent link between the human resource systems and the strategic impact of human resource management (HRM) decisions on performance outcomes. The implications of 'best practice' for HR system structure and effects are extensively discussed to literally build the ground of the organizational value creation. Nonetheless, researchers need to give careful thought to the meaning of HR measure at the corporate level because HR practices usually different across business units and facilities within a corporation, particularly as diversification and size increase.

Moss, J. (2000)"trategies for recruiting volunteers. A management sub-feature." Lessons from the…… [Read More]

Shackleton-Jones, N. 2003. 'Blended Learning at Siemens: A Training Manager's View'.

Article in TrainingZone.

In this article, Shackleton-Jones briefly describes the various training needs that are necessary behind the use of blended learning approach.
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Functions of Management Assessing the

Words: 1358 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74425051

Finally and one research says most significant, a transformational leader is willing to sacrifice on behalf of both the goals they are accomplishing and their teams (Arnold, Loughlin, 2010). Self-sacrifice is a major component to trust in a leader and matters more than any title, position of legitimate power or status (Johannessen, Olsen, 2010). This specific role in management is often performed across a very wide spectrum of quality and accuracy, and it is common in larger organizations to see two or more organizational structures emerge. The formal organization chart is often devised to communicate reporting relationships. Yet the more often used organizational structure is that mapped by the areas of control transformational leaders have over specific projects and departments. Leadership emerges from this more informal yet vastly more effective organizational structure because the relationships are predicated on trust (Arnold, Loughlin, 2010). The leading function of management encompasses all of…… [Read More]


Kara a. Arnold, and Catherine Loughlin. 2010. Individually considerate transformational leadership behaviour and self-sacrifice. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 31, no. 8, (November 20): 670-686.

Johannessen, J., and B. Olsen. 2010. The future of value creation and innovations: Aspects of a theory of value creation and innovation in a global knowledge economy. International Journal of Information Management 30, no. 6,

(December 1): 502.

Marker, D.. 2010. Leadership or Management? Management Quarterly, July 1, 31-34.
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Total Rewards and Compensation at

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52295276


This has certainly been the case with KFC and its burgeoning operations in many Asian countries where cultural factors that can affect business operations are particularly pronounced. For example, according to Briscoe and Schuler (2004), "In a highly successful strategy, KFC employed a first-generation Chinese-American to return to China to establish its chicken restaurants. These international employees may not be placed on a full expatriate compensation package, but rather may receive a form of hybrid compensation, with some aspects of the package received by a traditional expatriate and some aspects of local employees" (p. 219). Even though these KFC expatriate executives may not receive the full measure of the compensation package offered counterparts in other countries, these assignments are widely regarded as being important to achieving longer-term career goals, professional development and providing valuable work experience in cross-cultural settings (Konopaske et al., 2009).

Evaluate the monetary and nonmonetary programs…… [Read More]


Briscoe, D.R. & Schuler, R.S. (2004). International human resource management: Policy and practice for the global enterprise. London: Routledge.

Glover, J., Rainwater, K., Jones, G. & Friedman, H. (2002). Adaptive leadership (part two): Four principles for being adaptive. Organization Development Journal, 20(4), 18-19.

Konopaske, R., Robie, C. & Ivancevich, J.M. (2009). Managerial willingness to assume traveling short-term and long-term global assignments. Management International

Review, 49(3), 359-360.
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Google's Project Oxygen

Words: 3171 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 60193875

Google's Project Oxygen: Do Managers Matter?

Today Google is irrefutably one of the most buoyant, stimulating and hence possibly most sought-after corporations in the world. The organization is rated as one of the best on account of its performance as an enormously coveted employer and all of this emanates from the carefully developed and assiduously followed 'Google culture'. In addition, the corporate culture is linked to elevating and inspiring the thinking as well as the creativity of its employees with the programs set for the avant-gardists in the company. For quite some time since its inception, Google as a company, together with its founders questioned whether managers matter and whether they had any significance on the performance and productivity of the company. The company's organizational culture is a flat organization where it does not focus or concentrate on hierarchy and it encourages a philosophy of cooperation and joint effort. However,…… [Read More]


Bryant, A. (2011). Google's Quest to Build a Better Boss. New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2015 from: 

Garvin, D. A. (2013). How Google measures high-scoring management. The Hindu. Retrieved 3 October 2015 from: 

Garvin, D. A., Wagonfeld, A. B., Kind, L. (2013). Google's Project Oxygen: Do Managers Matter? Harvard Business School.

Google (2010). The Google Culture. Google Company. Retrieved 3 October 2015 from:
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Leader's Self-Insight 1 1 Your Learning Style Using

Words: 3023 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73993967

Leader's Self-Insight 1.1: Your Learning Style: Using Multiple Intelligences

I scored evenly on all of the types of intelligence measured by this self-assessment: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and musical. This indicates that I am a well-rounded person with the ability to work in multiple environments on different tasks.

Leader's Self-Insight 1.2: Your Leadership Potential

I scored slightly more (7) on the even-numbered indicators than on the odd ones (6), indicating I have leadership capabilities such as "vision and change." However, the scores were about even.

Leader's Self-Insight 1.3: Are You on a Fast Track to Nowhere?

On people skills, I scored 3 out of the 4 qualities. I believe I have solid interpersonal skills. On working with authority, I scored 2. I believe I need to work more on my assertiveness and courage when dealing with persons in positions of authority because I remain afraid to speak up and express…… [Read More]


Daft, R.L. The Leadership Experience.
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Business Structures Are'so Highly

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 77848257

The difficulty for most contemporary leaders (and frankly most managers at all levels), is to encourage proactive and positive dissent without feeling threatened by it -- part of the ability to ask the right questions that tend to engender new and creative answers. A wise CEO thus says, "I don't shoot messengers -- that's why I have them."

Clearly, globalism has changed the world of business in all aspects. Gone are the days in which visionary leaders simply set the strategic plan in a well-orchestrated seminar. Instead, leadership becomes an even more all-encompassing and difficult paradigm shift. The modern world is adaptive, and requires individuals who can adapt proactively, positively, and without becoming mired in bureaucracy. The modern leader must certainly be innovative, relatively charismatic, and certainly informed. But that same leader must understand that leadership is not the responsibility of the few, but the many. Dissent should be encouraged…… [Read More]

Heifetz, R. And Laurie. R. (January-February 1997). The Work of Leadership. Harvard Business

Review. Retrieved from:
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Group Protocol for Adolescents -

Words: 1719 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96453566

Next, the facilitator will pose an introductory question that will stimulate brainstorming by engaging students in the "why" of their involvement in the group (Bouassida et al., 2006). Next a transitory question will lead to examination of the problem at hand, where the members of the group attempt to answer key questions including (1) what is the foundation of the problem (2) what tools are available to solve the problem (3) what are the most probable outcomes of a problem given the information provided (Bouassida, et al., 2006).


Bouassida et al. (2006) provide the rationale for this protocol, suggesting it enables group members to participate in a manner that allows greater collaboration and verification of the results. This form of focus group enables each member to participate on an equivalent basis. The outcome will result in rapid resolution of complex problems including those presented in the future to students…… [Read More]


Bouassida, M.S., Chridi, N., Chrisment, I., Festor, O. & L. Vigneron. (2006, Jun).

Automatic verification of a key management architecture for hierarchical group protocols, in, Cuppens, F. And Debar, H., editors, 5th Conference on Security and Network Architectures.

CEISMC (2006). Focus Group Protocol, Center for Educational Integrating Science,

Mathematics and Computing at Georgia Tech College of Sciences. Retrieved October 18, 2007:
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Temasek Holdings Is a Sovereign

Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 17438737

The literature is clear about what sorts of leadership work best in the crisis. hile leaders must be determined that the organisation will emerge from the crisis intact, the leader must also behave in a manner that conveys full trust in her leadership style. hen the crisis is one of leadership, this is doubly important. The literature also makes clear that there is a need for positivity and relationship building in order to ensure that there is a high level of trust in the leadership. This trust will allow the leader to guide the organisation out of the crisis.

If Ching adopts these tactics, then she is likely to regain full confidence in her leadership, and be able to then have the authority needed to build alliances within Temasek and reach collaborative solutions to the problem of returns on the investment portfolio.

orks Cited:

Chen, Y. & Tjosvold, D. (2006).…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chen, Y. & Tjosvold, D. (2006). Participative leadership by American and Chinese managers in China: The role of relationships. Journal of Management Studies. Vol. 43 (8) 1727-1752.

Heifetz, R., Grashow, a. & Linsky, M. (2009). Leadership in a (permanent) crisis. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from

James, E. & Wooten, L. (2010). Orientations of positive leadership in times of crisis. Handbook on Positive Organisational Scholarship. Darden Business School Working Paper No. 1634025.

Kirkpatrick, S & Locke, E. (1991). Leadership: Do traits matter? The Executive. Vol. 5 (2) 48-60.
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What Does the Leader of the Future Look Like

Words: 2665 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69276060

Future Leader

What does the leader of the future look like?

New and distinctive challenges for leader face?

What does a blueprint for dynamic planning look like?

Competencies and Future Decision-Making

What disciplines or areas must the new leader focus on?

What lessons have past leadership behaviors taught us?

What type of leadership will the current and next generation look for?

Executive Leader Competencies and Crisis Consequences

Scientific Management paradigm influence

Network-Centric paradigm influence

Current and Future Decision-Making and Variable Influences

What does the leader of the future look like?

As the world approaches 2015-2025, leaders can expect rampant change and complexity along with inevitable crises that each change could bring (Modis, 2003).Modis suggested that at the present complexity growth rate "... [by] the year 2025 we would be witnessing the equivalent of all the major milestones of the twentieth-century[i.e. electricity, automobile, DNA structure described, nuclear energy, WWII, space travel,…… [Read More]


Allen, L. (2000). Competencies that count: Strategies for assessing high performance skills. Lab working paper No. 2 (Vol. TM 032-324). Providence, RI: Brown University.

Anonymous. (2003). Recognizing the symptoms of reckless leadership. Harvard Business Review, 81(10), 65.

Bracken, P. (2008). Futurizing business education. The Futurist, July-August, 38-42.

Bush, G. (Ed.). (2006). President's state of the union address. Washington, DC: White House
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Are Charismatic Leaders Born or Made

Words: 3044 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54112988

Transformation Leadership: Nature vs Nurture

Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership: The Nature vs. Nurture Debate

Transformational Leadership: The Nature vs. Nurture Debate

Spain's famous football club, eal Madrid, has a history of changing managers as often as players change their socks (Clegg, 2010). The hope that this pattern would end with the hiring of the Portuguese manager, Jose Mourinho, was well deserved, given the great deal of respect he has earned among footballers across Europe and in the Americas. Aside from being exacting and detail oriented, Mourinho is the epitome of a transformational leader. Many experts believed that Mourinho would be the best person for reining in the massive millionaire egos on the team, thereby improving the team's performance on and off the field. Leadership experts equated the challenges Mourinho was facing with those any executive would face in a boardroom.

According to Clegg (2010), Mourinho is more manager than leader…… [Read More]


Caldwell, C., Dixon, R.D., Floyd, L.A., Chaudoin, J., Post, J., & Cheokas, G. (2012). Transformative leadership: Achieving unparalleled excellence. Journal of Business Ethics, 109, 175-87.

Clegg, J. (2010, June 2). The way Mourinho Manages: Real Madrid's new manager's attention to detail and teamwork can apply in many areas. Wall Street Journal [Online]. Retrieved from 

Garman, A.N., Davis-Lenane, D., & Corrigan, P.W. (2003). Factor structure of the transformational leadership model in human service teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(6), 803-12.

Hopwood, C.J., Donnellan, M.B., Blonigen, D.M., Krueger, R.F., McGue, M., Iacono, W.G. et al. (2011). Genetic and environmental influences on personality trait stability and growth during the transition to adulthood: A three-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(3), 545-56.
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Ei in Comparison to Other Models

Words: 1734 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 43447920

Strategy to Enhance Emotional Intelligence in Leaders

Emotional Intelligence defined

The ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others is termed as emotional intelligence. This ability in individuals also helps in defusing of conflicts. Many aspects of an individual's daily life is affected by emotional intelligence like the way one behaves in general and with others (Andrews, 2004).

There are four basic attributes that determine the degree of emotional intelligence in an individual. Self-awareness or the ability to recognize one's own emotions and how they affect that an individual's thoughts and behavior and helps in the identification of strengths and weaknesses and this impact self-confidence is one of the attributes.

Emotional intelligence also can be measured by the ability of an individual to be self-aware and thus using this awareness, be able to manage oneself by controlling impulsive feelings,…… [Read More]


Andrews, L. (2004). Emotional intelligence. New York: F. Watts.

Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N., & Dasborough, M. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence?. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 247-261. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.01.006

Bennett, K., & Sawatzky, J. (2013). Building Emotional Intelligence. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 37(2), 144-151. doi:10.1097/naq.0b013e318286de5f

Follesdal, H., & Hagtvet, K. (2013). Does emotional intelligence as ability predict transformational leadership? A multilevel approach. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(5), 747-762. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.07.004
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How to be a Good Commander

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92334690

Six Principles of Mission Command
Trust, understanding, clarity and discipline sit at the heart of the six principles of mission command. Prudence plays a part as well in terms of accepting risk in a mission. One of the most important aspects of successfully accomplishing a mission, however, is the ability to engage with others in effective teamwork. Teamwork amongst officers and enlisted is essential in the military. Effective teamwork relies on a secure platform of trust to serve as its foundation. Embedded in the foundation of strong leadership is the necessity for thorough flow of communication and the consent for deliberation. Providing quality leadership allows for greater influence and effectiveness within mission command.
Teamwork is built on mutual trust and commitment to the team. Every member has to have a sense of his value, of what he brings to the team and why he is essential to the team’s…… [Read More]

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Methods to Increase Morale at the Workplace

Words: 2348 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69904683

Organizaion Behavior

Organization Behavior

Organization Behavior / Army Morale

Organization Behavior / Army Morale

Performance among military personnel is always based on their commitment and morale towards the achievemnt of organizational goals. The outcomes are not necessarily based on the quality of skills of the employees. Scores of top military managers with an understanding of human resource motivation models identify the workplace motivators as accustomed to specific employees. The consequence is that there are elements of sound motivation systems that encourage supportive supervision.

According to Fennell (2011), the diffusion and displacement of responsibility mechanisms continue to obscure morale agencies in terms of the potential actors. esponsibility of displacement refers to responsibility attribution for an individual's actions and authority figures with tacit condoning or explicit directed behaviors. Diffusion of responsibility is applicable in similar ways while referring to ways of dispersing responsibility among people's actions for group members. Distortion of dehumanization,…… [Read More]


Bender, B., (2012). Army morale declines in survey. Retrieved from 

England: Pearson Education Limited Shimoni,

Feaver, P.D. (2009). Armed Servants: Agency, Oversight, and Civil-Military Relations. New York: Harvard University Press.

Fennell, J. (2011). Combat and Morale in the North African Campaign: The Eighth Army and the Path to El Alamein. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Sustainable Organizations the Challenge of

Words: 2896 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 46152146

This latter approach, showing the financial benefits of attaining both sustainability initiatives, is far more valuable to the organization in the long run and also protects the company's most important asset, its people and the knowledge they have.

Further study of the litany of pains and costs driven by a lack of human sustainability does little to bring valuable solutions to bear on this critical problem. Instead there needs to be more of a focus on how apply transformational leadership skill sets to the parallel progress of environmental sustainability and human sustainability at the same time. The need to quantify this dual compliance strategy has been attempted and shown promising results, with the combined effects of each generating cost savings from more effective product development and recycling strategies (Hahn, Figge, Pinkse, Preuss, 2010). The payback in terms of reducing turn-over, medical costs, and increasing morale and trust that leads to…… [Read More]


Richard E. Boyatzis. 2008. Competencies in the 21st century. The Journal of Management Development, 27(1), 5-12.

Catalano, Ralph. 1991. The Health Effects of Economic Insecurity. American Journal of Public Health 81, no. 9, (September 1): 1148-52.

Cascio, W.F. 1993. Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned? Academy of Management Executive, 7, 95-104.

Greenberg, E.R. 1991. Downsizing: AMA survey results. Compensation and Benefits Review, 23, 33-38.
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Sustainability Science

Words: 2946 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60519991

Sustainability Science

Phase 4 Discussion Board

The article that I will be reviewing is "Key competencies in sustainability: a reference framework for academic program development." This article was published in the journal Sustainability Science and directly covers the development of the academic discipline. The authors note that as the discipline matures into a full-fledged academic discipline, there is a need to understand the nature of sustainability science and what the key competencies are going to be to understand the discipline. The authors have studied a number of journal articles on the subject to make a determination about what competencies are required: systems thinking, anticipatory, strategic, interpersonal and normative.

The authors have a good understanding of what sustainability science is. They point out rightfully that systems thinking is critical, because sustainability science is about the systems that support human life. Strategic competencies is required because interventions are required to save us…… [Read More]


Coca-Cola 2011/2012 Sustainability Report. Retrieved October 29, 2014 from 

Engelman, R. & LeRoy, P. (1993). Sustaining water: Population and the future of renewable water supplies. Population Action International Retrieved October 29, 2014 from 

Saal, D. & Parker, D. (2011). Productivity and price performance in the privatized water and sewerage companies of England and Wales. Journal of Regulatory Economics. Vol. 20 (1) 61-90.

Wiek, A., Withycombe, L. & Redman, C. (2011). Key competencies in sustainability: a reference framework for academic program development. Sustainability Science. Vol. 6 (2011) 203-208.
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Work Teams Teamwork Has Become

Words: 1884 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7129866

In the context of Charters Schools, distributed leadership that connects organizational features (culture, business practices, motivation etc.) provides a greater opportunity for members to learn from one another. An increased participation in decision making is another characteristic of effective organizations that may be identified in the organizational structure of Charter Schools USA. An increased participation in decision-making leads to a greater commitment to organizational goals and group strategies are free to develop. Such form of leadership allows the increase in self-determination, and the members may anticipate and respond to the demands of the organization's environment.

Another important issue that makes Charter Schools USA effective is the use of 360 degree appraisal of performance, which involves a group of people who interact with the employee in many different ways and are able to rate his performance. esearch and practice has already proved the effectiveness of the feedback from multiple sources and…… [Read More]


About Charter Schools USA, Retrieved at

Campion, M.A., Medsker, G.J., & Higgs, a.C. (1993). Relations between work group characteristics and effectiveness: Implications for designing effective work groups. Personnel Psychology, 46, 823-850.

Peterson, K. (1995) Critical Issue: Building a Committed Team, Retrieved at

Leithwood, K., (unavailable year), Educational Leadership, a review of the research, Retrieved from
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Manager the Introduction Describe -Development Important

Words: 8775 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63909353

manager." The introduction describe " -development important a manager mix a bit coaching theories ( I a coaching I techniques Kolb' learning cycle techniques fuore managers improve ), I a part body essay real life examples managers coaching techniques -development successful ( describe techniques ).

The importance of self-development in becoming a manager

Self-development is defined first and foremost as an overall holistic desire to find one's freedom and the desire to connect with one's self and own sense of worth, integrity and happiness so as to enjoy abundant happiness both at home and at work. Self-development in simpler terms is that amazing quest / journey that a person embarks on; a point of realization when all the pieces of a person's life fall together and they finally remove their own self limitations and inhibitions that hinder or stop any person more so a manager from achieving greatness. This definition…… [Read More]


BRUCE, H.A. 1938. Self-development: how to build self-confidence, a handbook for the ambitious, New York, Three Sirens Press.

BRUCE, H.A. 2010. Self-Development: A Handbook for the Ambitious, Whitefish, Kessinger Publishing, LLC.

BYNUM, W.F.A.P., R. (ed.) 2005. Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations, London: Oxford University Press.

CLELAND, D. & IRELAND, L. 2006. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation, New York, McGraw-Hill.
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Improving Group Productivity the National Call Center

Words: 2831 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83976034

Improving Group Productivity

The National Call Center for the Veteran's Administration (VA) Education Department employs over 700 people, which can be called upon to answer incoming calls from veterans. Within the four regional offices, there are employees of various positions, including Case Managers, Educational Liaison Representatives, application processors, and leaders who verify compliance, productivity, etc. With all employees being called upon to answer incoming calls, each employee needs to be aware of changes on an immediate basis, which can incorporate over 50 changes on a given day. As a result of work demands on all employees in different roles of the organizational structure, adequate training programs are of extreme importance in ensuring employees are properly trained, contain clear definitions of expectations in the various roles, and support teamwork within the groups to provide for efficiency in operations as well as performance goals and objectives.

A key component to the process…… [Read More]


Anthony, L. (2013). How do I Improve Team Communication? Retrieved from Chron: 

Archibald, R.D. (2013). nlocking a Project Team's High-Performance Potential Using Cognitive Readliness: A Research Study Report and Call to Action. PM World Journal, vol 11, issue XI, 1-46 Retrieved from http:/;/

Fisher, R. (2005). Intergroup Conflict. Retrieved from Colorado University: 

GI Bill. (2013, Nov 22). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs:
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Kubler Ross

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88020922

Organizational change is not typically examined by investigating the emotions of members. The Kearney & Hyle (2003) research seeks to show that successful organizational change must take into account emotional issues like loss and grief. By applying Kubler-oss's stages of grief model to educational institutions, the researchers suggest how organizations can prepare for an execute change more effectively.

The purpose of the Kearney & Hyle (2003) study is to study organizational change in terms of individual emotional experiences with change and loss. The researchers apply Kubler-oss's stages of grief to the individual members of the organization experiencing change. Because of the authors' interest in change in educational institutions, the current study focuses on applying the Kubler-oss theory to organizational change in an educational institution. It is hypothesized that unsuccessful organizational changes do not take into account the individual stakeholders and their emotional states during the upheaval. The authors suggest that…… [Read More]


Kearney, K.S. & Hyle, A.E. (2003). A look through the Kubler-Ross theoretical lens. In Anfara & Mertz (Eds) (2015). Theoretical Frameworks in Qualitative Research. 2nd Ed.
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Prisoners Dilemma Prisoner's Dilemma and Teamwork Prisoner's

Words: 1757 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43624511

Prisoners Dilemma

Prisoner's Dilemma and Teamwork

Prisoner's Dilemma and Teamwork

Since its initiation in the 1950s by Merrill Flood and Melvin Dresher who presented the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) (Flood, 1958), this game theory has been researched by a number of scholars, in particular after obert Axelrod pioneered the idea of the iterated PD in his book 'The Evolution of Cooperation'. The PD is a distinctive non-zero-sum game discovered in game theory. The foundation of the game is on the renowned expression of PD, the Canonical PD payoff matrix (obert Axelrod, 1984), in which the results are shown non-zero for the players in its traditional outline. Below is a graphical presentation of the prisoner's dilemma ("PD"):

Figure 1-Definition of Prisoner's Dilemma Problem

In this game, players are required to either decide to cooperate or defect unconnectedly. If both the players decide to cooperate, 3 points are given to each of them.…… [Read More]


Flood, M.M., (1958). Some Experimental Games, Research Memorandum. RM-789,RAND Corporation

Fogel D., (1993).Evolving Behaviors in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Evolutionary Computation 1(1)

Forsyth, D.R.(1999). Group Dynamics, 3rd Ed. Belmont, CA: Washington Publishing Company

Jennifer Golbeck, (2002).Evolving Strategies for the Prisoner's Dilemma, Advances in Intelligent Systems, Fuzzy System, and Evolutionary Computation