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Addiction as a Disease:
Addiction is a term that has traditionally been used to refer to psychiatric syndrome that is caused by illicit drug use. Actually, addition is the only psychiatric condition whose symptoms are regarded as an illegal activity. In most cases, this term is described on the basis of drug use, which is the main focus of many research and treatment programs. Generally, drug addiction has significant negative effects on individuals using the drug and those around them such as family and friends. Family and friends are usually forced to watch their loved ones wilt away in illicit drug use. hile addiction has traditionally been regarded as a psychiatric condition, there are numerous debates that have emerged on whether it's a disease or merely an immoral act by a selfish individual. My standpoint is that addiction is actually a disease because of the observations I have made on…
Dingel, Molly J., Katrina Karkazis, and Barbara A. Koenig. "Framing Nicotine Addiction as a "Disease of the Brain": Social and Ethical Consequences." SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 92.5 (2011): 1363-388. Print.
Goldstein, Rita Z., and Nora D. Volkow. "Drug Addiction and Its Underlying Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the Involvement of the Frontal Cortex." The American Journal of Psychiatry 159.10 (2002): 1642-652. American Psychiatric Publishing, 2002. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. .
Miller Et. Al. Principles of Addiction: Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. Vol. 1. Waltham, Massachusetts: Academic, 2013. Print.
RICHTER, LINDA. "Addiction a Disease like Any Other." The Washington Times [Washington, DC] 6 May 2013, sec. 2: 2. Print.
Addiction in Nursing
Both alcohol and drug abuse are a serious issue plaguing the nursing profession. Drug abuse in nursing includes both illegal drugs and prescribed medications. Not only do they acquire these drugs from dealers on the streets, but also through diverting it from patient prescriptions. This paper will discuss the root causes of this serious problem. The statistics of the number of addicted nurses will be presented. Lastly, what can be done to address this problem will be overviewed.
Nurses are on health care's front lines. Their hard work, compassion and passion are in increasing demand. Increasing healthcare costs, an increasing aged population, high unemployment and poverty levels, and a variety of other societal factors have all resulted in increasing challenges for the nursing profession and an increasing reliance on their patient care skills. Disturbingly, there are also an increasing number of nurses who have an addiction problem.…
'1 in 3' nurses battle drug addiction: Half of complaints deal with impairment. (2006 Feb 3). Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://www.wlwt.com/health/6695910/detail.html .
Causes of drug addiction. (2010). Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://www.drug-addiction-support.org/Causes-of-Drug-Addiction.html.
Copp, M. (2009, Apr 1). Drug addiction among nurses: Confronting a quiet epidemic. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://www.modernmedicine.com/modernmedicine/Modern+Medicine+Now/Drug-addiction-among-nurses-Confronting-a-quiet-ep/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/592623.
Dunn, D. (2005 Oct). Substance abuse among nurses: Defining the issue. AORN Journal, 82(4). pp. 572-594.
Addiction to Alcohol
ith alcohol addiction posing major health and social problems in the United States, and the family remaining the basic social unit, the effects of alcohol addiction by a family member on the functioning of that social unit is of paramount importance in understanding the degree to which alcohol addiction is disruptive to family life; understanding this may lead to better ways to mitigate the effects of addiction on at least the social components of the problem. The question was asked: hen alcohol addiction is discovered or recognized in a family member living in the household, in what ways are the family dynamics -- the interrelationships and methods of communication -- altered? Some information was also developed regarding the most likely family member to feel the effects caused by another family member's addiction. Information was obtained from two groups with long and deep experience of dealing with the…
Beattie, Martha C. "Meta-Analysis of Social Relationships and Post-treatment Drinking Outcomes: Comparison of Relationship Structure, Function and Quality." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 62.4 (2001): 518. Questia. 14 June 2004 http://www.questia.com/ .
Bennette, Melanie E., et al. "Problem Drinking from Young Adulthood to Adulthood: Patterns, Predictors and Outcomes." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 60.5 (1999): 605. Questia. 14 June 2004
On the other hand, Taoism teaches that people should not "strive to serve society and honor people of worth." People should be uneducated, not honor others and should be protected from material desires, which means addiction would be acceptable because people should not be affected by others
The belief that people should be uneducated is not applicable to American society. To get a good job in America, most people have to have a good education. If people were uneducated, they would not make it far. Americans usually look someone who is uneducated down upon. The belief that people should not honor others, can be applied to American Society. By not honoring others, a person is more likely to feel better about them, however it is very difficult to do. There are numerous people that are honored. This includes the President, and many other famous people. In American society, a…
Therefore, aftercare often concentrates on different ways to manage stress, deal with urges, develop healthy relationships, etc.
One of the biggest issues with treating addictions is that the initial stages such as detoxification are typically successful; however, relapse rates tend to be high (McNeece & DiNitto, 2008). As mentioned above the number one reason for relapse and stress, but there are other factors that play into relapse. There has been research to suggest that many addicts are much better able to remain abstinent when they attach personal relevance to abstinence such as coming to believe that there are addictive behavior is structured to their relationships, occupation, personal goals, or freedom. However, it is still surprising many researchers in individuals at how illogical addictive behavior is in many people. For example, many addicts continue to engage in their addictive behavior despite severe consequences such as loss of family, loss of job,…
McNeece, C.A. & DiNitto, D.M. (2008). Chemical dependency: A systems approach (4th ed.).
Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Robbins L.N. & Reiger, D.N. (1991). Psychiatric disorders in America: The Epidemiologic
Catchment Area study. New York: The Free Press.
One researcher suggested that instead of seeking a strict operational definition, one should think of alcoholism as they do mountains and seasons: "you know these things when you see them" (Shaffer pp).
The most common conceptual error made by clinicians, researchers, and social-policy makers is to think that addiction resides as a latent property of an object, such as a drug or game of chance (Shaffer pp). For example, conventional wisdom refers to "addictive drugs" or "addictive gambling," however, addiction is not the product of a substance, game, or technology, though each of these things has the capacity to influence human experience (Shaffer pp). Experience is the currency of addiction, thus when a particular pattern of behavior can reliably and robustly change emotional experience, the potential for addiction emerges (Shaffer pp). Addiction is the description of a relationship between organisms and objects within their environment, it is not simply the…
Definitions of addiction on the Web." http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:addiction
Shaffer, Howard J. "On the Nature and Meaning of Addiction." National Forum.
9/22/1999. Retrieved July 17, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Methadone maintenance is essentially the use of methadone over a period of time for the treatment of individuals who are addicted to opioid drugs such as heroin. In more formal terms the central aim of methadone maintenance is defined as follows: "Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can help injection drug users (IDUs) reduce or stop injecting and return to productive lives" (METHADONE MAINTENANCE TEATMENT, 2002)
There is still however a certain degree of debate and contention about this form of treatment. The controversy around the use of methadone will be included in this overview of research and the benefits and concerns surrounding this form of treatment.
Overview: Benefits and Treatment Concerns
There are an increasing number of people addicted to drugs like heroin in the United States. It is estimated that about 980, 000 people are addicted to heroin as well as other opiates. Furthermore,…
Anderson I. And Kearney T. ( 2000) Use of methadone. West J. Med., 172(1), pp. 43 -- 46.
Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1070723/
Chapter 8 - Looking ahead on methadone. CAMH. Retrieved from, http://www.camh.net/Care_Treatment/Resources_clients_families_friends/Methadone_Maintenance_Treatment/mmt_clienthndbk_ch8.html
Kleber D. ( 2008) Methadone Maintenance 4 Decades Later. JAMA. 300(19),
Addiction is something that is rarely talked about. Such reticence is not surprising since most addictions generally invite social disapproval. The linkage between addictions and social disapproval is, however, unfortunate because it prevents the addict from seeking timely help in treating what is essentially a complex illness. The absence of medical and psychological treatment, in turn, often leads to serious consequences. Indeed, this chain of events is precisely what occurred in the case of a close family friend, Bob, who was addicted to alcohol.
Bob began his journey towards alcoholism when he was just a teenager. Although he had heard about the harmful effects of alcohol, he was confident that he would be able to prevent any habit from getting out of control. This confidence, coupled with the irresistible pleasure of an alcoholic high, resulted in Bob spending many an evening with his friends knocking back beer after beer. Till…
Most of the time in families as the one that Jay come from, they separate making it harder for them to come together as a family in order to fix the issue. esearch does show that children of alcohol injuring individuals report a higher occurrence of emotional and school-connected difficulties.
Legal History of Jay: The parents of Jay began taking a great concern about their son right after he had an accident in the car which was two weeks after his 16th birthday. After that things went downhill for him because he got his driver's license taking away from him at that time and the later on were given a DUI charge. Jay thinks that his parents are making a big deal out of nothing and it is apparent that he is not taking this seriously at all. He makes the point that there should not be a whole lot…
Chen, Y., Song, G., Yang, F., Zhang, S., Zhang, Y., & Liu, Z. (2012). Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(12), 4386-402.
Drewes, J., Hemming, J., Ladenburger, S.J., Schauer, J., & Sonzogni, W. (2005). An assessment of endocrine disrupting activity changes during wastewater treatment through the use of bioassays and chemical measurements. Water Environment Research, 77(1), 12-23.
Gilron, G., Archbold, J., Goldacker, S., & Downie, J. (2007). Issues related to chemical analysis, data reporting, and use: Implications for human health risk assessment of PCBs and PBDEs in fish tissue. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 13(4), 773-791.
Hill, R.A., & Sendashonga, C. (2003). General principles for risk assessment of living modified organisms: Lessons from chemical risk assessment. Environmental Biosafety Research, 2(2), 81-8.
For low-functioning addicts, the negative consequences are all over the place and clear to anyone with which the addict has a relationship. Every decision, endeavor, or feeling revolves around and is controlled by the addiction, which creates all sorts of dysfunction across all of life.
Disease or personal moral failure?
According to the American Society of Addiction Medicine, addiction is defined as "a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory, and related circuitry; Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social, and spiritual manifestations; This is reflected in the individual pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other compulsive behaviors. The addiction is characterized by impairment in behavioral control, craving, inability to consistently abstain, and diminished recognition of significant problems with one's behaviors and interpersonal relationships. Like other chronic diseases, addiction can involve cycles of relapse and remission; Without treatment or engagement in recovery activities, addiction…
ASAM. (2011). Retrieved on March 30, 2011, from www.asam.org.
Knapp, Caroline. (1996). Drinking: A love story. New York, NY: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.
Stiles, Steven. (2011). Thorns in the heart. Second edition. Santa Cruz, CA: CreateSpace.
History Of Addiction
Addiction is an age old phenomena which has existed and has been persistent over the centuries, only difference has been it being acknowledged. People have been and will always be physically dependent on a number of external stimulants that provide them with satisfaction, gratification and enjoyment but when an individual's dependency on certain activities or some of these substances becomes obsessive in a gratuitous way then it is termed as an addiction. The contentment or happiness that was initially associated with stimulants has ceased to be the main reason of one being involved with them and it is slowly turning to the pleasures that are given by the substance or the activity becoming the life line of that person and hence ends up being a very crucial part of the person's existence and their survival (Senwor, 2010).
Different forms of addiction
Unlike the old schools of thoughts…
Pearson Education, (2006). Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/drug-addiction-drug-abuse-history.html
William, W., (2010). Significant Events in the History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://www.*****/pr/AddictionTreatment&RecoveryInAmerica.pdf
Melemis, S.M.(2014). The Genetics of Addiction. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://www.addictionsandrecovery.org/is-addiction-a-disease.htm
Senwor, W., (2010). History of Addiction. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://www.slideshare.net/Senwor680/history-of-addiction
Internet Addiction Disorder
Internet Addiction Disorder is a disease that has emerged in recent years and is at the time still new in terms of identification of symptom and treatment options as well. This work will research and examine information relating to the disorder illustrated in Internet usage, or over-use according to some.
Evidence of Internet Addiction Disorder
Stated symptoms of Internet Addiction are: (1) Using the online services everyday without any skipping; (2) Loosing track of time after making a connection; (3) Going out less and less; (4) Spending less and less time on meals at work or at home, eating in from of the computer monitor; (5) Denial of spending too much time online; (6) Others complaining of too much time being spent online; (7) Checking email too many times a day; (8) Thinking one has the best web site of all and pushing ones' UL…
Federvisch, Anne (1997) Internet Addiction 7 Aug 1997 Online available at; http://www.nurseweek.com/features/97-8/iadct.html
Addictions and Life Page: Symptoms of Internet Addiction (2005) Retrieved from the Internet 08-20-2005. http://www.addictions.org/internet.htm)
DeAngelis, Tori (2000)s Internet Addiction Real Monitor on Psychology Vol.31 No.3 2000 April. Online available at http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr00/addiction.html
Caught in the Net at Work (2000) Monitor on Psychology Vol.31, No.3 2000 April Online available at: http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr00/addiction_box.html
According to the American Psychological Association (Price, 2008) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2008), at least half of an individual's overall susceptibility to drug addiction can be traced to genetic factors. esearchers estimate that genetics account for a full 75% of a person's addiction to tobacco (Price, 2008). Studies on identical twins separated at birth have led to this claim, which revolutionizes research and understanding of substance abuse. One reason for the increased likelihood of addiction may be that some people are genetically predisposed to react a certain way to certain drugs; or are simply more sensitive to drugs ("Genetics," n.d.). Genes may determine whether a person reacts positively or negatively to a drug, leading to basic behavioral responses to drugs or alcohol. Furthermore, genetics might account for differential withdrawal symptoms.
The genetics of addiction are poorly understood and highly complex, given the wide variety of…
"Genes and Addiction." Retrieved online: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/genes/
"Genetics," (n.d.). Chapter 4. Retrieved online: http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1993/9311/931106.PDF
National Institute on Drug Abuse (2008). Genetics: The blueprint of health and disease. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/genetics-addiction
Price, M. (2008). Genes matter in addiction. American Psychological Association. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2008/06/genes-addict.aspx
D., Sayers, and Pearson)
In addition to this myriad of theories purporting answers to addictions, the following two approaches are also used.
Environmental Approaches to preventing substance abuse, particularly with includes education, but primarily focuses on changing the environment(s) of the addicted individual.
A www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=22336&topicid=1006&catid=15"The ehavioral Approach, especially with youth, reportedly proves effective in preventing substance abuse. (Addiction)
etter Understandings to attain a better understanding in the field of addiction, sociological research, as well as, a number of other disciplines in the social sciences could prove beneficial. Determining which one would be best, albeit, would be similar to asking an addict which drug or activity is best, in that in both cases, the answer would depend on the individual, the need, the circumstances, as well as, a number of other relevant components. What can be affirmatively answered, albeit, is that many in society currently concur that addiction constitutes: "a species…
Advanced Pain Treatment and Diagnostic Group. (2003). 15 April 2008 http://www.advancedpaintreatment.com/types.asp.
Addiction. (2008). Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 15 April 2008 http://www.rwjf.org/pr/productlist.jsp?topicid=1006&catid=15 .
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 15 April 2008 http://www.bartleby.com/66/34/12934.html
Drug-Impaired Driving by Youth Remains Serious Problem." National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA; October 29, 2007. 15 April 2008 http://www.nida.nih.gov/newsroom/07/NR1029.html .
Addictions come in various formats and types. Today, drug and substance abuse has been identified as some of the most prevalent forms of addiction – with most of those affected being the youth. In essence, the future of the world, and more specifically the future of our nation, is largely founded on the sobriety and ability of those in the youthful age bracket to effectively function (both mentally and physically) in an increasingly complex and dynamic world. Drug and substance addiction could cause significant impairments at a personal level. The impact of drug and substance abuse on social systems is even greater – with drug abuse and addiction being linked to increased crime rates, child neglect, increased burden on the healthcare system, etc. My review of existing literature reveals that although various strategies have been adopted in an attempt to reign in the concern of drug and substance addiction,…
Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., Clifasefi, S.L., Grow, J., Chawla, N., Hsu, S., Carroll, H.A. …Larimer, M.E. (2014). Relative Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention, Standard Relapse Prevention, and Treatment as Usual for Substance Use Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(5), 547-556.
Engel, K., Schaefer, M., Stickel, A., Binder, H., Heinz, A. & Richter, C. (2016). The Role of Psychological Distress in Relapse Prevention of Alcohol Addiction: Can High Scores on the SCL-90-R Predict Alcohol Relapse? Alcohol and Alcoholism, 51(1), 27-31.
Mohammadpoorasl, A., Fakhari, A., Akbari, H., Karimi, F., Bostanabad, M.A., Rostami, F. & Hajizadeh, M. (2012). Addiction Relapse and Its Predictors: A Prospective Study. J Addict Res Ther., 3(1), 122-126.
Addiction and Recovery: The case for subjective accounts -- Larkin & Griffiths
The Wounded Healer: A phenomenological investigation of the recovering substance abuse counselor -- Ham
This article sought to provide an understanding of the interconnections between self, identity and addiction through the use of qualitative methods. The authors argue that in order to truly understand the process and experience of addiction, it is necessary to incorporate subjective experiences into the research process that allow for a greater inquiry into the lived experiences, feelings, and concepts of self and identity as displayed by individuals coping with addiction. The authors employed Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to analyze observational data that was collected in a residential treatment facility. Traditionally IPA has been used with interview data, and the authors sought to extend the usefulness of this methodology to observational data. The observational data was collected by the first author of the paper,…
Internet Addiction a eal Thing? Konnikova addresses the growing problem of internet addiction amongst current populations. She starts with the findings from Marc Potenza, a Yale psychiatrist. Twenty years ago, he began his career treating common addictions like substance and alcohol abuse. Then as his career continued, he noticed harder to classify addictions. He mentioned trichotillomania, and those with gambling addictions. While these second class of behaviors were not considered addictions at the time, they certainly shared fundamental similarities with truly classified addictions.
Truly classified addictions physically affect a person. These other behaviors simply cannot. This is where the main difference lies. However, one of the biggest parts of addiction is the inability to stop. Substance and behavioral additions seem to also have another important component in common, some genetic basis, where genes seem to make some of these behaviors more likely. Aside from this, the article continues and moves…
Jabr, F. (2013). Gambling on the Brain. Sci Am, 309(5), 28-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1113-28
Kenny, P. (2013). The Food Addiction. Sci Am, 309(3), 44-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0913-44
Konnikova, M. (2014). Is Internet Addiction a Real Thing? - The New Yorker. The New Yorker. Retrieved 5 July 2016, from http://www.newyorker.com/science/maria-konnikova/internet-addiction-real-thing
Even though Aronofsky speaks of art and artists relatively more often, I would say, than other young directors, there is a strong idea that nature still grounds art, in contrast to the illusions and hallucinations of artifice. In Selby's novel, Marion is a painter, and her dream is to open a store that sells clothing based on her sketches. Marion is terrifically cultured, and her mind is filled with ideas about Italian museums, enaissance music, and light: 'All that summer and fall she painted, mornings, afternoons, evenings, then walked around the streets that were still echoing the music of the masters, and made out of interior monologues, and a film is necessarily more visual, more exteriorized.
Behavioral Couples Therapy:
Harry and Marion
It is clear from watching the movie that the extent and depravation that results from the profound acts of violence and addiction that plagues the beautiful…
Downs, W.R. (2006). The use of cognitive behavioral techniques in groups for male perpetrators of domestic violence: A framework for intervention. Cognitive Behavioral Social Work Review, 20(1), 172, 173, 175, 178,
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Ganley, a.L. (2008). Integrating feminist and social learning analyses of aggression: Creating multiple models for intervention with men who batter. In P.L. Caesar & L.K. Hamberger (Eds.), Treating men who batter: Theory, practice, and programs (pp. 196-235). New York: Springer.
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Psychosocial Ramifications of Drug & Alcohol Abuse
A Japanese proverb in its pithiness adequately accounts for the entire process of drug and alcohol abuse. To wit: "Man takes Drink. Drink takes Drink. Drink takes Man." One of the problems with understanding drug or alcohol abuse is the psychosocial ramifications associated with the problem. Moral associations cloud the behavioral and physiological factors. For some time now, alcohol and drug addiction have been identified as disease. It is however, not viewed as such by many who have a special stake in the matter. One of the common misconceptions associated with addiction is that it uni-dimensionally fulfills physical needs; and, withdrawal consists mainly of physical symptoms. Treating addiction as such is often therefore, fraught with pitfalls.
Essentially, drug (and alcohol) abuse and addiction can be viewed as a behavioral issue with psychological and physiological consequences. Simply put (clinical and neurological factors will also…
Addiction-Science. The Biological Basis of Addiction. 2000. Addiction Science Network. Available:
http://www.addictionscience.net/ASNbiological.htm . June 24, 2004.
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http://www.addictionscience.net/ASNclass.htm . June 25, 2004.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the major problems in today's society that continues to affect many young people. I have witnessed many young people about my age trying alcohol and drug abuse for various reasons including peer pressure. Some of these people try the substances for a short period of time and stop while others are engaged in a long-term struggle of substance abuse that sometimes last for a lifetime. Young people usually attempt to abuse different kinds of substances such as cigarettes, marijuana, alcohol, prescription and over-the-counter drugs, and household chemicals or inhalants. Alcohol and drug abuse has also affected some of my family members and generated considerable negative impacts and health outcomes.
Personal Impact of Substance Abuse
Generally, substance abuse has made a personal impact on me because of the experience of my sister whose struggle with alcohol and drugs…
United States. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institute of Drug Abuse.
DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction. National Institute of Drug Abuse, Nov. 2012. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. .
United States. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institute of Drug Abuse.
The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction: The Basics. National Institute of Drug Abuse, Sept. 2014. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. .
The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that in 2007 there were an estimated 33.2 million individuals living with HIV on a worldwide basis. Levi is just one of those individuals. The reason behind choosing Levi's and Steve's cases to analyze is that they play a personal and empathetic role for the researcher, a role that connects the researcher and the patient(s) due to the maladies that are affecting both Steve and Levi. The study that includes Levi is one that displays a common fate for HIV positive individuals, while the one that includes Steve is one that the researcher is very familiar with having witnessed similar behavior from high school students on a regular basis (the researcher is a high school teacher).
Neither Steve nor Levi are exhibiting true compulsive behaviors, however, they both are exhibiting addictive behaviors, with Steve's in the early stages and Levi's in the advanced…
Bakhbakhl, D.; Zhang, J.; Wong, W.C.W.; (2010) HIV and sexual risk behaviors amongst intravenous drug users at rehabilitation center in rural China, Journal of AIDS and HIV Research, Vol. 2, Issue 7, pp. 131 -- 137
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Dreyfuss, M.L. & Fawzi, W.W.; (2002) Micronutrients and vertical transmission of HIV, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, pp. 959-970.
Addiction is not simply an extension of bad habits, or else every person who drank wine would be an alcoholic and every person who tried pain killers after surgery would grow into a heroin addict. The truth is that some people are susceptible to addiction and others are not, and the only factors that can account for the individual differences in reaction to addictive substances are those that are biological in nature. Therefore, addiction is clearly a disease and should be researched and treated as such. Many sources have been presented showing that addiction is not a disease, primarily due to backlash against the Twelve Step movement or some other distaste for the underlying principle of the disease model. Yet consistently the research points to the inability of addicts to manage their addictions in ways that are compatible with cognitive-behavioral therapy and other interventions that circumvent the disease model.
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Dodes, L. (2011). Is addiction really a disease? Psychology Today Dec 17, 2011. Retrieved online: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-heart-addiction/201112/is-addiction-really-disease
Addiction is one of the major issues in today’s counseling practice that occurs in various forms and continues to affect many people. Kottler & Shepard (2015) define addiction as behavioral patterns that are not only applied to substances but to activities as well. This paper provides an addictions chart that provides different kinds of addictions that clients might seek services for and treatment approaches for the addictions.
Types of Addiction / Treatment Approach
When working with clients with drug addiction, a treatment approach that could be utilized is substance abuse prevention and mitigation program. Through such programs, the client receives mental health/psychological support to address the cognitive or psychological issues resulting in the drug addiction. Moreover, the client receives the necessary social support network for overcoming the addiction through group therapy.
An alternative treatment approach to drug addiction is medications that help manage withdrawal symptoms, treat co-occurring conditions,…
Kottler, J.A. & Shepard, D.S. (2015). Introduction to counseling: voices from the field (8th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
The research question was assessing substance abuse treatment effectiveness. This is an important topic because substance abuse is a chronic disorder that many patients are unable to get rid of and this causes social strife and increases criminal activity in the country. Heroin addiction is currently the most abused drug in the country and this trend not only affects the poor but also the will to do individuals in society. It is therefore vital that we address the treatment methods currently being used. We have assessed the various treatment options that are currently available for the treatment of heroin addiction. Methadone, naltrexone, and buprenorphine have been assessed and described in detail offering information on the effectiveness of each drug. We have established that methadone is still the most effective drug for the treatment of heroin addiction. The other two drugs are also effective in their own way, but when…
Ball, J. C., & Ross, A. (2012). The effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment: patients, programs, services, and outcome. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science & Business Media.
Devi, J. P., Ab Rahman Azriani, W. M. Z., Ariff, M. N. M., & Hashimah, A. N. (2012). The effectiveness of methadone maintenance therapy among opiate-Dependants registered with hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II Kota Bharu, Kelantan. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS, 19(4), 17.
Dunn, K. M., Saunders, K. W., Rutter, C. M., Banta-Green, C. J., Merrill, J. O., Sullivan, M. D., . . . Psaty, B. M. (2010). Opioid Prescriptions for Chronic Pain and OverdoseA Cohort Study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 152(2), 85-92.
Fareed, A., Vayalapalli, S., Stout, S., Casarella, J., Drexler, K., & Bailey, S. P. (2010). Effect of methadone maintenance treatment on heroin craving, a literature review. Journal of addictive diseases, 30(1), 27-38.
Livingston, J. D., Milne, T., Fang, M. L., & Amari, E. (2012). The effectiveness of interventions for reducing stigma related to substance use disorders: a systematic review. Addiction, 107(1), 39-50.
Messina, N., Grella, C. E., Cartier, J., & Torres, S. (2010). A randomized experimental study of gender-responsive substance abuse treatment for women in prison. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 38(2), 97-107.
Whelan, P. J., & Remski, K. (2012). Buprenorphine vs methadone treatment: A review of evidence in both developed and developing worlds. Journal of neurosciences in rural practice, 3(1), 45.
Peer 1 Tara
I found the discussion on serotonin and the thalamus to be interesting. What is your take on the way addiction impacts the brain and the body’s need to feel good? Does this affect one’s natural ability to unwind, relieve stress, or fall asleep? I myself would like to study this area more in detail because I am interested in understanding how addiction can worsen or spiral into even deeper troubles as the body becomes more and more dependent on a certain feeling. I think a lot of it has to do with simply not being able to rest the mind, relax and sleep. People chase oblivious states, which is like a substitute for good, healthy sleep. They do not have the capacity or ability to engage in sleep because they are missing something. I would like to see if healthy eating and exercise in the…
Kandeger, A., Selvi, Y., & Tanyer, D. K. (2019). The effects of individual circadian rhythm differences on insomnia, impulsivity, and food addiction. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 24(1), 47-55.
Younes, F., Halawi, G., Jabbour, H., El Osta, N., Karam, L., Hajj, A., & Rabbaa Khabbaz, L. (2016). Internet addiction and relationships with insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress and self-esteem in university students: A cross-sectional designed study. PloS one, 11(9), e0161126.
Choudhery, A. A., & Ansari, T. (2020). LOCKDOWN SYNDROME VS COVID-19 IN INDIA. European Journal of Biomedical, 7(8), 382-385.
Garnero, M., Del Sette, M., Assini, A., Beronio, A., Capello, E., Cabona, C., ... & Pesce, G. (2020). COVID-19-related and not related Guillain-Barré syndromes share the same management pitfalls during lock down: The experience of Liguria region in Italy. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 418, 117114.
The purpose of this executive summary is to provide an overview of the issue of the opioid epidemic in the U.S. and how supply-side factors have played a role in the spread of this epidemic. According to Pacula and Powell (2018) in the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, published at Rand.org, the opioid crisis “is a complex, multifaceted, and dynamic problem requiring a comprehensive strategy for dealing not just with the stock of addicted users who are at risk of overdosing, but also considering the flow of new initiates and escalators in abuse.” This summary will discuss the background of the issue, the results of the research by Pacula and Powell (2018), available federal data, appropriate economic predictors, and three reliable and implementable recommendations.
The opioid epidemic has ravaged the U.S. in recent years. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services shows that 2016 alone, 116…
Blackstone, E. A., Fuhr Jr, J. P., & Pociask, S. (2014). The health and economic effects of counterfeit drugs. American Health & Drug Benefits, 7(4), 216.
Council of Economic Advisors. (2017). The underestimated cost of the opioid crisis. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/images/The%20Underestimated%20Cost%20of%20the%20Opioid%20Crisis.pdf
HHS. (2018). About the U.S. opioid epidemic. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/opioids/about-the-epidemic/
Pacula, R. & Powell, D. (2018). A supply-side perspective on the opioid crisis. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP67511.html
Addiction does not have an assigned definition. This effectively means that there are various definitions to drug and alcohol addiction that have been explored in the past. For purposes of this discussion, addiction will be defined as “a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking, continued use despite harmful consequences, and long-lasting changes in the brain” (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2019). In addition to evaluating the effectiveness of group therapy aid in the treatment of alcohol addiction, this paper will, amongst other things, highlight various aspects of the formations designed to assist alcohol addicts as well as those affected by the alcohol addiction problems/behaviors of loved ones.
It is important to note, from the onset, that the relevance of group therapy in the treatment of alcohol addiction cannot be overstated. In essence, “the natural propensity of human beings to congregate makes group therapy a powerful therapeutic…
Addiction as a Disease
While drug addiction may not bring about obvious physical changes like some diseases, it still causes permanent changes to the brain. Drugs circumvent the natural system of rewards generated by the brain, whereby performing a pleasurable action will cause a release of dopamine. "The natural capacity to produce dopamine in the reward system is reduced, while the need persists and the drug seems to be the only way to fulfill it. The brain is losing its access to other, less immediate and powerful sources of reward. Addicts may require constantly higher doses and a quicker passage into the brain" ("The addicted brain," 2009). Contrary to Hojung Lee's suggestion, addiction is not really analogous to a habit, despite the fact that it is often called that (as in "he has a drug habit"). The compulsion to use is irresistible to the addict, which is why addicts will…
The addicted brain. (2009). Harvard Mental Health Letter. Retrieved from:
Bevilacqua, L. & Goldman, D. (2009). Genes and Addictions. Clinical Pharmacology
Therapeutics, 85 (4): 359-361. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2715956/
This is what creates the continual need to share literally everything going on in their lives, as each post releases a significant dopamine rush (Charman-Anderson, 17, 18).
Dopamine is also the reason why the many forms of computer addiction are so difficult to treat. ith anonymity comes the opportunity to create multiple identities or personas online (Soule, 66, 67). This is what leads employees who have Internet addictions to create many different online identities, giving them ethical and moral leeway they would never give themselves. This aspect of personas and the forgiven unethicacy of conduct of personas is a key factor in online crimes committed by employees during company hours (Nykodym, Ariss, Kurtz, 82, 83). The personas of the addicted computer addicts are orchestrated for specific dopamine-driven production to fuel and feed habitual behaviors online
(Quinn 180). These strategies to ensure a steady supply of dopamine may not even be…
Charman-Anderson, Suw. "Seeking Addiction: The Role of Dopamine in Social Media." Computer Weekly (2009): 16-23.
Neumann, Peter G. "Are Computers Addictive?" Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM 41.3 (1998): 128-135.
Nykodym, Nick, Sonny Ariss, and Katarina Kurtz. "Computer Addiction and Cyber Crime." Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics (2008): 78-85. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 3 Dec. 2012.
Quinn, Brian. "The Medicalisation of Online Behaviour." Online Information Review 25.3 (2001): 173-80.
Father and Son Addiction
Drug and alcohol addiction is one of the most compelling problems faced on multiple levels by society in the United States and across the world today. On the societal level, the problem affects the level of crime and public safety, as well as the relative moral fabric of society in general. On the collective level, it affects family unity and well-being. On the individual level, it destroys the lives and relationships of the addicts themselves. Indeed, there is no level on which addiction and drugs hold any long-term benefits. Sadly, it is the short-term high that takes precedence over all else for the addict. The fact that it is short-term creates a vacuum that is impossible to fill. Filling this vacuum, however, is the aim of all addicts, which creates long-term problems in search for short-term solutions. The Sheff family, and particular the father and his…
Sheff, N. (2009). Tweak: Growing Up on Methamphetamines. New York: Atheneum Books.
Sheff, D. (2009). Beautiful Boy: A Father's Journey Through His Son's Addiction. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Letter to My Addiction:
To an Old Friend,
Chai Latte, you have always been there for me every day, even when no one else was. As a result, you were my first love because I could turn to you when I was happy, sad, stressed, or angry. You were always there to give me comfort and relief by taking away my fears and insecurities, while giving me hope and strength to face the next moment and situation. While I felt alone in the beginning, you became my best friend by being ever-present to an extent I no longer feel lonely or alone. Your ability to lessen my pain, struggles, and worries made me to lean on you on a daily basis.
You appealed to my senses by enabling me to have increased focus and attention, especially in moments when I was tired and helpless. I turned to your strength at…
Etiology of Theories on Addiction
There are different sorts of addictions and substance abuse methods that plague the world today. However, in order to cure an addiction, one needs to go down to its root cause, and eliminate it, after which the damages caused can be mitigated and prevented. There are several theories and approaches to tackle an addiction problem. Most trained professionals use these theories in their treatment plan to get a better understanding of when and how the addiction came into being. After which, along with therapy, counseling and medication, the road to recovery can begin.
Medical etiology is the study of causes of an illness or any psychological condition. When a diseases is uncovered which the doctors are unable to explain and understand, an etiologist is responsible for determining the reason for its origin and being (Alcoholism, 2005). In this manner, the etiologist and the doctors are…
Alcoholism, N.I. (2005). Module 2: Etiology and Natural History of Alcoholism. National Institute of on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
O' Farrell, T., & Fals-Stewart, W. (1999). Treatment models and methods: Family models. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sheehan, T., & Owen, P. (1999). Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook. New York: Oxford University Press.
Food Addiction: Causes and Treatment
Fortuna, J.L. (2012). The obsesity epidemic and food addiction: Clinical similarities to drug
Dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 56-63.
As of 2010, nearly 70% of adult Americans were overweight or obese. Fast food establishments are abundant, portion sizes are larger, and people generally have insufficient intake of Omega 3 fatty acids. Additionally, Americans do not get sufficient physical exercise.
Sugar primes endorphin and dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, similar to the "high" experienced by users of illegal drugs. In some individuals, this brings about addictive behavior very similar to that seen in alcoholics and substance addicts.
Fortuna reviewed the literature that investigated two clinical similarities between food addiction and drug dependence.
Animal studies show that bingeing on high-sugar foods, compared to fat dense foods, trigger the release of endorphin and dopamine.
3. Similar results were obtained with human…
Fortuna, J.L. (2012). The obesity epidemic and food addiction: Clinical similarities to drug
Dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 56-63.
Karim, R., and Chaudhri, P. (2012). Behavioral Addictions: An overview. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 5-17.
Liebman, B. (2012). Food & addiction: Can some foods hijack the brain? Nutrition Action
The book adds substance, extent, lucidity, and substantiation to the clinical and training processes, and will add energy to mainstreaming motivational advances to behavior change in health care. Primary care physicians and practitioners can augment their expert work and improve patient outcomes by learning about motivational interviewing.
Motivational Interviewing can be defined as a client-centered, directive method for making better inherent motivation to change by investigating and resolving ambivalence. It comprises a mixture of philosophical and clinical aspects that together make up the whole of MI. Motivational interviewing distinguishes and recognizes the fact that clients who need to make changes in their lives move toward counseling at dissimilar levels of eagerness to change their behavior. If the counseling is mandated, they may never have thought of altering the behavior in question. A few may have thought about it but not taken action to do it. Others, particularly those freely seeking…
Miller, William R. & Rollnick, Stephen. (2002). Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change. New York: The Guilford Press.
Smith, David E. & Seymour, Richard. (2001). Clinician's Guide to Substance Abuse. New York: McGraw-Hill.
These kinds of compulsive behaviors are observed on a daily basis. It has been highlighted by the authors that there is an acceptable use policy implicated on the students in academic institutions and on the daily basis, without regarding the restrictions placed by these policies, students work against the policy. According to the policy, computers within the universities can only be used for academic purposes only. The policy has highlighted that computers in an academic environment should not be used for online sharing, downloading, social networking and gaming (Nykodym, Ariss, & Kurtz, 2008, p. 7). But in the campuses and academic institutions, it is seen that the students usually sit in for social networking and gaming. Thereby, from here it can be seen that either the students don't want to follow the policies or they don't want to understand the restrictions placed in the policies.
The authors have highlighted that…
Nykodym, N., Ariss, S., & Kurtz, K. (2008). Computer Addiction and Cyber Crime. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics .
Poulsen, K. (2011). Kingpin: how one hacker took over the billion-dollar cybercrime underground. Crown Publishing Group.
Roberts, K. (2010). Cyber Junkie: Escape the Gaming and Internet Trap. Hazelden Publishing.
Ross, A.J. (2008). How to Hug a Porcupine: Negotiating the Prickly Points of the Tween Years. McGraw-Hill Professional.
The negative thing associated with this practice is that the individual may buy unnecessary items since the practice is carried out without proper consideration. Furthermore, shopping has the ability of becoming a negative addiction if it leads to the purchase of items that will no longer fit the individual after a short period of time. While shopping is a good activity, it turns to a negative addiction if it's driven by a state of tension and anticipation.
Similar to positive addictions, negative addictions are recurring habits or behaviors that are learned or acquired through trial and error or through observation of other people. When an individual is continually exposed to the substance or behavior with some level of satisfaction, the urge or craving for the substance or behavior emerge gradually following repeated practice and experience. The craving or urge for the habit or substance is a person's way of anticipation…
Chakravarthula, S. (2001, December 16). Addiction. Retrieved September 9, 2012, from http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=1308
Pressley, J. (2010, February 28). The Positive and Negative Effects of Addictions. Retrieved September 9, 2012, from http://ezinearticles.com/?the-Positive-and-Negative-Effects-of-Addictions&id=3844619
Chemical Addiction Progress More apidly in Young People than Adults?
Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).
Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly…
Chapter 2 -- The Role of PPC in a Managed Care Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/tips/13b.htm
Chemical Dependency. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aboutdrugtreatment.org/chemical_dependency.htm
Chemical Dependency. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.galaxrecovery.com/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
Drug and Alcohol Information. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:
faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.
Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.
A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.
The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.
These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…
Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.
Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available: http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .
Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
The recurrence of homelessness for individuals may be frequently attributed to drug addiction.
The recurrence of homelessness for individuals may be frequently attributed to mental illness.
There is a clear reciprocal relationship between homelessness, drug addiction and mental illness.
Mental illness plays a significant role in preventing homeless individuals from f inding suitable long-term housing. .
Singleton identifies the systematic procedure as a form of data gathering in which a survey or interview will be utilized in order to gather information for further analysis. His text points to the large-scale probability study as a form in which substantial populations can be measured according to representative sample sets. The "scientific sampling…
The National Institutional Health (NIH). (1979). Regulations and Ethical Guidelines. The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Singleton, R.A. & Straits, B.C. (1999). Approaches to Social Research. Oxford
Psyco-Social Dynamics of Alcoholic Addiction Family
Alcoholism is a disease.
It affects the entire family and creates an environment of dysfunction and disorganization.
ithin the family, the social and psychological ramifications of alcoholism affect the alcoholic, his or her spouse, and the children.
Children Supporting Paragraph
Children must cope with the effects of an alcoholic on the family (disorganization).
There are five roles which serve as coping mechanisms.
The mascot, placater, acting out child, lost child, responsible child.
Child Roles Supporting Paragraph
Roles either make things better or worse.
The responsible child excels
The mascot and placater child intermediate.
The former does so from foolery, the second from caring.
The lost child disassociates.
The acting out child gets in trouble.
Spouse Supporting Paragraph
A. Spouses are more of a determinant of an alcoholic's behavior than children.
B. Spouses have three perspectives on actions of the alcoholic.
1. They like alcoholism…
Devine, Cindy and Valerie Braithwaite. "The Survival Roles of Children and Alcoholics: Their Measurement and Validity." Addiction 88.1: 69-78. 1993. Print.
Glover, Geraldine. "The Hero Child in the Alcoholic Home: Recommendations for Counselors." School Counselor 41: 185-191. 1994. Print.
Janzen, Curtis. "Family Treatment for Alcoholism: A Review." Social Work 23.2: 135-144. 1978. Print.
Johnson, Patrick. "Dimensions of Functioning in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Families." Journal of Mental Counseling 23 (2001): 127-136
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…
1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.
2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.
3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.
4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
An addiction can be considered a physical and psychological incapability to avoid the consumption of drugs, chemicals, substances, or even taking part in an activity even when doing so causes both physical and psychological harm (Nutt, 2018). The Addiction term is not only applicable when it comes to cocaine and heroin use. Any person who cannot function normally without taking some specific chemical or drug is considered to be substance dependent (Nutt, 2018). The obsession with some activities such as working, eating, and gambling is considered an addiction (Clark & Limbrick-Oldfield, 2013). This type of addiction is commonly referred to as behavioral addiction. As stated by Robbins and Clark (2015) behavioral addictions have gradually become a recognized psychiatric disorder. Recently pathological gambling has been allocated to the DSM-5 category (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There are several other disorders that have been suggested as being part of the behavioral addiction category…
Therefore there should be more in-depth research into the types of content that are associated with television addiction.
The analysis of this article and other sources also raises the important issue of whether one can or even should avoid the influence of television in the information age. Television and other related media have become part of our everyday world and the problem of possible television addiction should be dealt with in terms of a healthy balance in television viewing. ather than a carte blanche condemnation of television there should be a more intensive focus on the negative forms of content that may lead to forms of addiction and other problem areas.
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. etrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35619009 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database:
Natural Remission Has Had on the Addiction Field
Spontaneous remission from addiction is often referred to under different titles. These include, natural recovery, maturing out, and unassisted change. All of these titles refer to the process of recovering or being in remission from an addiction without the intervention of conventional methods and techniques of addiction treatment. Until fairly recently the idea of spontaneous remission had been vilified in the medical profession as being misleading and even dangerous. A paper by Chiauzzi and Liljegren ( 1993) entitled Taboo topics in addiction treatment: an empirical review of clinical folklore, stated that the concept of natural recovery was identified as a ... Taboo topic, stating that disease model advocates had put forth a tautological argument that an ability to cease addictive behaviors on one's own suggests that the individual was not addicted in the first place, .the failure to seek treatment for a…
Burman, S. (1997) The challenge of sobriety: Natural recovery without treatment and self-help groups. Journal of Substance Abuse, 9, 41-61.
Granfield, R. & Cloud, W. (1996). The elephant that no one sees:
Natural recovery among middle class addicts. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 45-61.
Hester Reid K., Miller, William R. ( 1995) editors: Handbook of Alcoholism Treatment Approaches: Effective Alternatives: (2nd Ed.) Allyn & Bacon (Review) ( PDF) Retrieved April 15, 2005. Web site: http://www.unhooked.com/booktalk/hester_miller_handbook.html.
Addictive Virus" -- later to become the thirteenth chapter of their bestselling book Affluenza -- John De Graaf, David ann, and Thomas H. Naylor engage in a highly rhetorical comparison of addictive shopping to physical addictions such as alcoholism and drug addiction and behavioral addictions like compulsive gambling. It becomes clear shortly into their paper that their purpose is largely alarmist and moralistic, rather than medically or therapeutically intended: none of the authors has any medical or psychiatric credentials. I hope by addressing three aspects of their paper -- their rhetorical strategy, their shifts in focus, and in particular their examples presented as evidence, particularly their closing example -- that I may show the ways in which their thoughts actually confuse rather than clarify issues of behavioral addiction.
The title alone of the essay gives, in miniature, a fair taste of De Graaf et al.'s rhetorical strategy: the phrase "the…
Boyer, Peter J. "The Deliverer: A Pizza Mogul Funds a Moral Crusade." The New Yorker Feb 19, 2007. Accessed 10 Feb 2011 at: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/02/19/070219fa_fact_boyer#ixzz1DejZemmm
De Graaf John, Wann, David, and Naylor, Thomas H. "The Addictive Virus." In Maasik, Sonia and Solomon, Jack, Signs of Life in the U.S.A.: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. Sixth Edition. New York: Beford St. Martin's, 2008. 71-5.
Research Proposal for Couples Counseling
Sexual addiction is currently not recognized by the DSM-V as an addiction, and therefore some discrepancy among counselors about how to approach this issue exists, particularly when it comes to couples counseling. Research indicates, however, that sexual addiction is on the rise and that counselors require advanced training in this area to know how to treat it effectively and help couples address this issue that may be negatively impacting their relationship (Gilbert, 2014; Griffiths & Dhuffar, 2014; Karila et al., 2014; Rosenberg, Carnes & O’Connor, 2014; Phillips, Hajela & Hilton, 2015; Kraus, Voon & Potenza, 2016). In order to better understand how to help counselors address the issue of sexual addiction in couples counseling, there needs to be more research on how counselors themselves view this issue and whether or not they recognize it as something that serves as an obstacle for healthy relationships…
ecovery can be a difficult journey for many. The reality of having to change old habits for new ones can take a lifetime. The recovery approach/model realizes the struggle of change and transformation and makes it so that way emphasis is not placed on the destination, but rather the journey. Although other approaches like the disease/medical model aim to treat one aspect of recovery from addiction, the recovery model encompasses all aspects making it one of the most advantageous models to adopt to fight addiction.
The recovery approach/model to addiction and/or mental disorder places a strong emphasis on a support for an individual's potential for recovery. ecovery means a person undergoing a personal journey instead of determining and setting an outcome. This personal journey involves the development of hope, a sense of self, a secure base, social inclusion, meaning, empowerment, and coping skills that will take that person past the…
Barker, P. & Buchanan-Barker, P. (2012). Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing. Currentnursing.com. Retrieved 24 July 2016, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Tidal_Model.html
Best, D. & Lubman, D. (2012). The recovery paradigm - a model of hope and change for alcohol and drug addiction. Aust Fam Physician., 41(8), 593.
Hall, W., Carter, A., & Forlini, C. (2015). The brain disease model of addiction: is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises?. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(1), 105-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366 (14)00126-6
Hammer, R., Dingel, M., Ostergren, J., Partridge, B., McCormick, J., & Koenig, B. (2013). Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm. AJOB Neuroscience, 4(3), 27-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2013.796328
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction
Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview
PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma
Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD
Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion
Genetic and Environmental Influences
Models of Assessment/Conclusions
Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"
This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.
A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…
References" f C l "1":
Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90
Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135
Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).
'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
Physiological effects are also a give away when we think of the effects of substance abuse. For instance, it has been noted that women have higher chances of developing liver disease, brain and heart damage than men even if their period of drinking is lesser than their male counterparts. A link between breast cancer and alcohol abuse was also found (National Women's Health eport Online, 2007).
Treatment-wise, it was noted that women who struggle with substance-related problems do not have accessible services and resources. There is also a need to "develop training curriculum for workers on the issues of domestic violence..." (Institute for Women's Leadership, n.d., pp. 3-4) as domestic violence often leads to substance abuse as it is used by women as coping mechanism to such kind of marital difficulties (NCADV, 2009). The method of "intervention" or other forms of therapy which are confrontational in nature are also problematic…
Califano, J.A. Jr. (1998). Substance Abuse and Addiction - the Need to Know. American Journal of Public Health, 1, pp. 9-10.
Chih-Hung, K. et al. (2006). Tridimensional Personality of Adolescents With Internet Addiction and Substance Use Experience. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(14), pp. 887-894.
Diaza, D. (2009). Women and Substance Abuse. Retrieved from www.womeningovernment.org/policies_publications/policy-issues/women-and-substance-abuseonMarch 14.
Estronaut (1999). Women and Substance Abuse. Retrieved from www.estronaut.com/a/women_substance_abuse_drugs_alcohol.htm. onMarch 14.
As is the case with so many other benign behaviors (and even behaviors that are generally useful and beneficial), the Internet became a source of compulsion and addictive behaviors for many of those who are already naturally inclined toward compulsivity and addiction (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). Those who use the Internet appropriately generally establish routines for checking e-mail and may also regularly use the Internet for social networking and interpersonal communications. However, they do not characteristically spend ever-increasing amounts of time online; they do not neglect other aspects of their lives to pursue online activities, and they can function without becoming dependent on their Internet habits.
Conversely, some Internet users exhibit these typical signs of compulsion and addiction that are generally associated with compulsion and addiction (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). They may spend so much time checking email, updating social networking pages, pursuing online interpersonal communications, and playing computer games…
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Attending an Alcoholics Anonymous Session
Personal experience after attending an open meeting on alcohol addiction
While studying undergraduate psychology, I was required to attend a meeting organized by non-profit organization, Alcoholic Anonymous. This very simple experience proved to be revealing to me, not only as an individual but as a nurse-in-training, as well. There is no social boundary for alcohol addiction, and for the affected individual, the condition may be personally ruinous. As I witnessed later on, after beginning clinical practice, alcohol withdrawal is associated with physical effects that are just as destructive as addiction itself is. At Alcoholic Anonymous sessions, alcoholics are understood and accepted, and this aids many of them in abstaining from alcohol. In the course of the meeting, I mulled over how much more helpful it would be for people suffering from this condition if this acceptance and understanding went beyond the short 1-hour sessions. For…
Coleman, J. (2012, March 9). Alcohol Addiction. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://nursing.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Alcohol-Addiction.aspx
Drugs: Use, Abuse and Addiction - Lesson Plan. (2014, December 1). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/cycp-cpcj/dr-al/lp-pl/index-eng.htm
Jacobs, L., & Hyman, J. (2010, February 24). 15 Strategies for Giving Oral Presentations. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.usnews.com/education/professors-guide/2010/02/24/15-strategies-for-giving-oral-presentations
Puerto ican Woman with Comorbid Addiction: A Case Study
Ms. Perez is a 53-year-old Puerto ican female who has complained that she is suffering from co-morbid addictions of alcoholism and gambling. Ms. Perez has sought treatment for alcoholism in the past but the combination of living near a casino and the availability of alcohol has caused her to relapse as well as to engage in gambling on a regular basis. Her gambling has negatively impacted her marriage and has also caused her to borrow significant sums from her retirement account. The patient is exhibiting the symptoms of depression, including a sad and lethargic demeanor.
One option for the patient is prescribing Antabuse (Disulfiram), a medication which "blocks an enzyme that is involved in metabolizing alcohol intake" and "produces very unpleasant side effects when combined with alcohol in the body" ("Antabuse," 2017). The drug is designed to interfere with…
Antabuse. (2017). Drugs.com. Retrieved from: https://www.drugs.com/antabuse.html
Armand, W. (2016). What's the best way to quit smoking? Harvard Health Publications.
Retrieved from: http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/whats-best-way-quit-smoking-201607089935
Campral. (2017). Drugs.com. Retrieved from: https://www.drugs.com/campral.html
Psychology: K2 Drug Use and Addiction
K2 Drug Use and Addiction: Psychology
K2 use and addiction has, in recent years, grown to become one of the leading social concerns for policymakers in the U.S. It is estimated that approximately 11% of the current high school population is addicted to K2. This is a worrying trend given that K2 produces more harmful effects than naturally-occurring marijuana. This research paper examines the prevalence and risk factors for K2 use, the difference between K2 and naturally-occurring marijuana, and the possible solutions that could be adopted to address the problem.
K2 Use and Addiction in New York City
ecent years have seen a significant rise in the emergence and use of novel psychoactive substances, the most common being synthetic cannabinoids (K2) and psychedelic tryptamines. This study focuses on the former, the synthetic 'substitute' for naturally-occurring marijuana. The University of Michigan's Institute for Social esearch…
Bassett, M. T. (2015). 2015 Advisory No. 6: Increase in Synthetic Cannabinoid (Marijuana) -- Related Adverse Events and Related Emergency Visits, New York City. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Retrieved October 19, 2015 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/ah/marijuana-alert.pdf
Bernock, K. (2015). Education and Tools to Address the Rising Prevalence of Synthetic Cannabinoid Use. Consultant, 55(9), 692-700.
Forrester M.B., Kleinschmidt, K., Schwarz, E., Young, A. (2012). Synthetic Cannabinoid and Marijuana Exposures Reported to Poison Centers. Hum Exp Toxicol, 31(10), 1006-1011.
Walker, D., Neighbors, C., Walton T, Pierce, A., Mbilinyi, L., Kaysen, D. & Roffman, R. (2014). Spicing up Military: Use and Efects of Synthetic Cannabis in Substance Abusing Army Personnel. Addictive Behavior, 39(7), 1139-1144.
In Alberta, liquor stores have been privatized, although the government still maintains strict regulations on anyone who sells liquor. It is available in liquor stores, retail outlets, and in bars and restaurants. Many people felt this would lead to widespread addiction and abuse, but studies indicate that may not be the case. In an economic study completed in 2005 comparing Ontario and Quebec's monopolies with Alberta's privatization, the results were surprising. People believe that revenues would decline if the monopolies went public, but in fact, because Alberta sets a flat rate for liquor prices, revenues actually went up in Alberta, not down. In addition, a wider variety of products and brands is available in Alberta than in either of the other two provinces, and there are more locations available to buy liquor in Alberta ("Privatization of alcohol trade"). In fact, since privatizing the liquor industry, Alberta's sales have almost doubled,…
Author not Available. 2005. Quebeckers and privatizing the retail trade of alcohol. Montreal Economic Institute. http://www.iedm.org/uploaded/pdf/sondage0905_en.pdf (Accessed February 18, 2009).
Editors. 2009. Alberta liquor privatization. Alberta Gaming and Liquor Commission. http://aglc.ca/liquor/albertaliquorprivatization.asp (Accessed February 18, 2009).
Editors. 2009. Today's LCBO. Liquor Control Board of Ontario. http://www.lcbo.com/aboutlcbo/todayslcbo.shtml (Accessed February 18, 2009).
Editors. 2005. Privatization of alcohol trade in Ontario and Quebec. Montreal Economic Institute. http://www.iedm.org/main/show_mediareleases_en.php?mediareleases_id=88 (Accessed February 18, 2009).
LaFond Padykula, N. And Conklin, P. (2010). The self-regulation model of attachment trauma and addiction. Clinical Social Work, 38(4), 351-360.
LaFond Padykula theorized the self-regulation model (SRM) as a means of informing the practice of assessing and treating addiction and attachment trauma. dialectical philosophy John Bowlby[footnoteRef:1] (1988) developed the theory of attachment through his seminal work observing the distress of infants and young children who had been separated from their mothers. Bowlby asserted that attachment was not consciously controlled but was instead hard-wired in humans and many other animals. [1: Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York, NY: Basic Books.]
The theory builds on and integrates the attachment behavior research by Bowlby, positing addiction as the efforts of an individual to regulate their own attachment in the direction of more normal adaptive behavior. The theoretical foundation for the self-regulation…
Erickson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and Society. New York, NY: Norton.
Erickson contributed to the development of ego psychology beyond the framework that Freud presented in that Erickson attributed the formation of personality to culture and society in addition to sexuality. Erickson's theories consider the ego to be the most important aspect of personality as it can function independently from the id and the superego. Because the ego is an influential and powerful aspect of the personality, it adapts to the presenting situations to promote mental health and appropriate social adaptation. Erickson studied individuals exhibiting normal personality in addition to people who were considered to be neurotic. In this way, Erickson contributed to theory in the fields of normal psychology as well as abnormal psychology.
Interning at an Addiction Rehab Facility
Strategies of Care within Addiction Rehab Facilities
There is no other time that one needs help more than when in the context of facing a drug addiction. It is important than our modern facilities be able to incorporate viable strategies for patients and addicts who need real results the most. Working within a drug rehab context, it is important to see how important strategies of applied research are in finding methods that are actually effective in treating the myriad of different signs and symptoms the disease of addiction has within the individual case loads.
In a number of health organizations operating today, one of the most fail safe methods of collecting research and data is through a more qualitative approach. This is often difficult because it is not as fail safe as more quantitative measures, such as forcing patients to take drugs tests or…
NLM (2012). Substance abuse treatment of women. Chapter 4. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NK83257
- Screening and assessment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books.NK83253
rauser, D (2010), Sublingual buprenorphine relieves symptoms of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC. Retrieved on December 9, 2012
Fisher, P.A. et al. (2011). The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral dis-inhibition in childhood and adolescence,
Developmental Psychopathology. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335443
Hamdan, a.H. (2012). Neonatal abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC.
Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.emedicine.medscape.com/article/978763-clinical
Johnson, K et al. (2003). Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome, Archive of Disease
in Childhood. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.bmj.com/content/88/1/F.2.2.ful
Johnson, K and Leff, M (1999). Children of substance abusers. Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/Supplement_2/1085.long
Kraft, W.K. et al. (2010). Future trends…
NLM (2012). Substance abuse treatment of women. Chapter 4. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83257
- Screening and assessment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books.NBK83253
Brauser, D (2010), Sublingual buprenorphine relieves symptoms of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC. Retrieved on December 9, 2012
[how] such activities fit into an individual's sexual biography and impact relationships between sexual partners and peers" (p. 1099).
Participants will be invited to complete a brief online questionnaire that details their participation in OSAs, as well as their demographic information and the nature of their current relationships, including their relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and participation in extra-dyadic sexual relations (i.e. infidelity). In addition, participants will also complete a screening questionnaire to determine whether or not they meet a clinical cut off point to be considered addicted to Internet Sexuality or OSAs (Delmonico & Miller, 2003). The surveys will be delivered using a free online survey website, such as SurveyMonkey.com, and the sample will be drawn from a selection of students on campus through posting on social networking sites such as Facebook and using flyers posted around the campus. Due to the online nature of the survey, all data collected…
Cooper, a., Morahan-Martin, J., Mathy, R.M., & Maheu, M. (2002). Toward an Increased Understanding of User Demographics in Online Sexual Activities. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 105-120.
Cooper, a., Mansson, S., Daneback, K., Tikkanen, R., & Ross, M.W. (2003). Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(3), 277-291.
Delmonico, D.L. & Miller, J.A. (2003). The Internet Sex Screening Test: A comparison of sexual compulsives vs. non-sexual compulsives. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(3), 261-276.
Doring, N.M. (2009). The Internet's impact on sexuality: A critical review of 15 years of research. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 1089-1101.
Substance use and mental health problems often go hand-in-hand. People who feel depressed or anxious may depend on marijuana, alcohol, or other substances to feel at better or at ease. Although not everyone who experience mental health problems abuse substances, it is more common than imagined with people abusing prescription medication as well from Adderall to Vicodin (Montvilo, 2013). Although my immediate family has not experienced substance abuse problems, some within my family have gone through depression and anxiety issues. Other more distant relatives have experienced problems with marijuana and prescription medication. While their reasons differ, it amazing how family dynamics play a role in the creation of substance abuse and mental health problems.
The first person to look at is my father. He experienced a bout of depression when he had to deal with a potential loss of work a few years ago. He is the main provider…
Montvilo, R. (2013). Addictions & substance abuse. Ipswich, Mass.: Salem Press.
A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed
The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments have grown in popularity. MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) and MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) as clinical initiatives have specifically been analyzed, with a sound evidential pool recording their efficacy. Integration of the latter initiative’s aspects and cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive psychology strategies resulted in the former’s creation. At first,…