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That is to say that the video does not really address the crux of the problem as much as it enunciates the communication skills of the therapist.
Adlerian therapy is a more comprehensive and thorough approach, which involves understanding the self-better and is focused on change not just at the individual level but on family level and consequently at a much broader social context. It follows an equalitarian approach wherein the client does not feel any inferiority in the presence of the therapist and mutual respect, understanding and establishing good rapport are fundamental to the approach. Goals are identified and client is made to understand his behavioral tendencies, maladaptive behaviors and guided towards reorientation. Adlerian therapy is thus a holistic one, which integrates a persons mind, body and the spirit in the therapeutic process when compared to other traditional models. In short, Adlerian theory emphasizes on living life in a…
Richard S. Sharf, 'Theories of Psychotherapy and Counseling: Concepts and Cases," 4th edition, 2008, pg. 112-126
Bob Bertolino, Ph.D, "Adlerian Therapy: Counseling and Personality Theory," Maryville University.
Adlerian Therapy and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)
There are two main theories that have largely influenced my counseling practicum as nurse. The two theories are almost totally disparate form one another, but, nonetheless, I have used them both separately and in fusion to guide my practice. These two theories are Adlerian Therapy and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) . Whilst the first is an offshoot of psychoanalysis and indeed psycho-dynamic with theories about family dynamics and constellation of client effecting his behavior as well as certain ideas about the need for client to achieve himself via work, the second takes more of a general stance and uses mentalism as its base. It asserts that it is thought and behavior that directs the individual and therefore the counselor helps the client investigate thought that is driving his actions. The client then is helped in shaping his environment / implementing certain behavior that…
Ehrenwald, J. (1991). The History of Psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.
Hoifodt RS, Strom C, Kolstrup N, Eisemann M, Waterloo K (2011). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in primary health care: a review. Fam Pract 28, 489 -- 504.
King, R. & Shelley, C. (2008). Community Feeling and Social Interest: Adlerian Parallels, Synergy, and Differences with the Field of Community Psychology. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 18, 96-107.
Rachman, S (1997). "The evolution of cognitive behaviour therapy." In Clark, D, Fairburn, CG & Gelder, MG. (2000) Science and practice of cognitive behaviour therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1 -- 26
It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)
In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…
Adlerian Psychology, Psyweb.com 2006, http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Corey, Gerald (1991) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Carlson, Neil R. (1995) Foundations of Physiological Psychology
CTA: Cognitive Therapy Associates, http://www.cognitive-therapy-associates.com/therapy/adlerian-therapy.php
An Adlerian approach to the case of B.A., the 14-year-old Guatemalan-American boy whose case was described by Layla, should primarily focus on B.A.'s feelings of inferiority and his sense of community and social being. Adlerian therapy generally concentrates on these two areas, and it is worth examining each specifically for B.A.
We can probably act from the assumption that B.A.'s feelings of inferiority are largely related to his family environment. Alfred Adler held that early childhood contains a lot of clues for how to interpret subsequent behavior -- in Corey's words, the Adlerian view is that "at around 6 years of age our fictional vision of ourselves as perfect or complete begins to form into a life goal." (Corey 99). In the case of B.A., he has had no physical contact with his mother from the age of five months -- too young to have any memories at…
Corey, G. (2008). Theory And Practice Of Counseling & Psychotherapy, 8th Edition. Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole.
Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.
itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):
brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…
Bury, D. (2000). "Constructivist paradigms in other therapies." Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Bitter, J. And W. Nicoll. (2000). "Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: process and practice." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue 1.
____. (2004). "Relational strategies: two approaches to Adlerian brief therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 1.
Disque, J.G. And J. Bitter. (2004). "Emotion, experience, and early recollections: exploring restorative reorientation processes in Adlerian therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 2.
The Margarita Case Study: An Application of Adlerian Theory and Therapeutic Techniques
Margarita is a twenty-six-year-old Puerto ican woman who has lived in the United States since she was a teenager and is married to a thirty-six-year-old African-American male. The couple has two children, a three-year-old boy and a one-year-old girl, and Margarita has also recently been accepted into law school following earning her MBA. Both members of the couple hold prominent positions in their community. ecently, Margarita has been prone to bouts of depression and fits of inexplicable rage against her husband, including one incident in which she threatened her husband with a knife. No actual violence has occurred, according to Margarita, and she herself cannot explain why she has these outbursts against her husband -- she only knows that she feels a sense of relief after they occur.
The relationship between Margarita and her husband is…
Adler Graduate School. (2011). The theory and application of Adlerian psychology. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.alfredadler.edu/overview/adlerian.htm
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. New York: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Eischens, A. (1998). The dilemma of the only child. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/eischens2.html
Hazan, Y. (2001). About the psychotherapy of Adler. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.centroadleriano.org/publicaciones/ABOUT%20THE%20PSYCHOTHERAPY%20OF%20ADLER.pdf
real problems faced by real people in the world, it might seem foolish to analyze a fictitious character. But sometimes it is easier to understand human nature when we look to art or fiction, in part because art provides us with some needed distance at times and in part because fictitious characters are often relatively pure distillations of character types. This is the case with the character of Grace from the television show "Grace Under Pressure." This paper provides an analysis of this character using first the Adlerian therapy model, then analyzing her through a behavior model and then finally suggesting a treatment plan for a person with the profile of Grace.
Grace's character - to begin with a thumbnail of her - is presented in the series as a no-nonsense, take-no-guff survivor of a bad marriage that was often abusive (at least in psychological terms). After eight years of…
Amen, D. (2000). Change your brain, change your life. New York: Times Books.
Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. (2000). Current Psychotherapies. New York: FE
Fernandez, E. (2002). Anxiety, depression, and anger in pain: research findings and clinical options. New York: Advanced Psychological Resources.
Foster, R.P., Moskowtiz, M. & Javier R.A. (Eds.) (1996). Reaching across boundaries of culture and class: Widening the scope of psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…
Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.
Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
William Glasser developed his theory of eality Therapy in the early 1960s. He is best known for his book eality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry (1965), and for founding the Institute for eality Therapy, which is now called The William Glasser Institute. He has also developed supplements to reality therapy in the form of choice theory and control theory, which are all now aligned under the heading "new reality therapy" (Corey, 2009, p. 315).
eality Therapy has its roots in Adlerian Therapy. Both of these models place a strong focus on the interactions of people with others, and the development of relationships. While these theories overlap in terms of the interaction/relationship focus, they also complement each other in the sense that Alderian therapy centers mostly on how the client interprets events, whereas eality Therapy is more concerned with how the client attempts to control events (Corey, 2009).
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks / Cole.
Glasser W. (1965). Reality therapy: A new approach to psychiatry. New York: Perennial / Harper & Row.
Murdock, N.L. (2004) Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A case approach, University of Missouri-Kansas City
Therefore, the therapist and counselor should be aware of the subjective view or interpretation of reality of the patient. This has important implications in many fields; for example, in education. Using Adler's theory, "…apparent under-achievement in school is to be understood more in terms of the student subjective interpretations than in terms of standardized test results" (Dunn, 1971, p. 8). This also relates to Adler's emphasis on the uniqueness of the individual. For example he states that, "I have found that each individual has a different meaning of, and attitude toward, what constitutes success. Therefore, a human being cannot be typified or classified ( Adler, 1964, p. 68). This is a crucial aspect of his theoretical stance and the refusal to categorize human beings leads to an open-ended view of personality.
Holism is a concept that has a particularly significant place in the overall meaning of Adlerian theory. This…
Adler a. ( 1964) Superiority and social interest: A Collection of Later Writings. New York: Basic Books.
Dunn, a. (1971) an Introduction to Adlerian Psychology for the School Counselor.
Annual Convention of the Canadian Guidance and Counseling Association, Toronto, Canada.
Ewen Robert B. An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah, NJ:
The objective of this work is to provide viable research techniques to use in order to help a child and her family. This report represents a summary of Alicia Thomas, a nine-year-old African-American 4th grader with a series of legitimate medical as well as possibly psychosomatic physiological and psychological concerns. The young lady has been specifically diagnosed as having a duodenal ulcer with the inherent gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting and intermittent pain. The pain has been linked to increased absenteeism from school, four hospitalizations, adverse sleeplessness, nightmare experiences with detail of dismemberment and professed fears of death for herself and for her family members.
The family consisted of eight total children and an intact parental situation but of these members, there has also been a history of mental retardation, depression and one sibling who has since deceased but in life was a main care provider. There is also…
Annunziata, Jane. (n.d.). "Play Therapy With A 6-Year-old With Jane Annunziata, PsyD." Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.apa.org
College of Agricultural Sciences (1999). Cognitive Development/Play-Overview. College of Agricultural Sciences, Penn State University. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.penpages.psu.edu/penpages_reference/28507/2850764.htmL
Ferguson, E.D. (1989). "Adlerian Therapy: An Introduction." Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Adlerian Psychology Association of British Columbia.
Wikopedia. (n.d.). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-traumatic_stress_disorder
If ape were legal
This is a story about a cancer patient who objectifies women and his life changes drastically for the better after his therapist takes an aggressive stance in one of the personal therapy sessions after a disturbing incident in his group therapy session. This paper reviews the relationship between the patient and the therapist by analyzing their dynamic through the following psychotherapies: Dynamic, Person-Centered, EBT and Alderian.
Psychodynamic psychologists research human habits by trying to find the unseen meanings in things that individuals think, do or state. This needs them to collect huge quantities of qualitative information about individuals, which is typically done with using the specific case-study technique. The topic of the case history is typically an individual who is dealing with a mental ailment and who is being treated with psychoanalysis. The professional gathers details from things the individual states or finishes treatment…
Gergen, K.J. (1999). An invitation to social construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Korobov, N. (2000). Social constructionist 'theory hope': The impasse from theory to practice. Culture and Psychology, 6, 365-373.
Martin, J., & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology, 1, 375-378.
Sammons, A. (2007). Psychodynamic approach: the basics. Psychodynamic Psychology.
The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…
Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper
He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social interest and raise his level of energy along with it. y developing a genuine human relationship with the patient, the therapist or doctor can re-establish the basic form of social interest, which the patient can use in transferring it to others. oth therapist and patient must realize that the latter's ultimate cure can come only from him.
Adler's approach has similarities with that of Socrates (Stein 1991). Socrates exhorted others to "know thyself," while Adler urged that people should think for themselves (Meyer 1980 as qtd in Stein 1991). Like Socrates, he would lead the person or patient through a series of questions to a contradiction within himself as revealed by his own answers. oth philosophers were committed to the search for…
Adler, A. (1932). Mind and Body. What Life Should Mean to You. Unwin Books. http://www.marxists.org/references.org/subject/philosophy/works/at/adler.htm
Boeree, G. (1997). Alfred Adler. Shippensburg University. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/adler.htm
Holmes, L. (2002). Clinicians' Personal Theories Influence Diagnosis of Mental Disorders. Mental Health Resource: Vanderbilt University. http://mentalhealth.about.com/library/sci/1202/blscdx1202.htm
Center for Existential Depth Psychology. (2004). Philosophical Forerunners of Existential Psychotherapy. Louis Hoffman. http://www.existential.therapy.co/Key%20Figures/Philosophical_Forerunners.htm
Affective and Alderian Systems
Imagine studying affective and Alderian systems of therapy. What will one discover? Is there anything different a person will learn from this experience? Therapy is a growing trend, and people are taking part in it on a regular basis. A number of areas are worth mentioning in regards to the case provided and to handle it from a therapeutic perspective.
When looking at this particular scenario, one needs to view it from that of the affective therapy domain. With the client, Darnell, the therapist begins by asking him to find out his day is going. The next question follows by means of eliciting emotion on how the counselor was struck by what he said. As a result, Darnell opened up on his emotions because he knew that his responses were safe knowing that his therapist is trustworthy (Corsini, J., & Wedding, 2008). Furthermore, the counselor is…
Corsini, J., R., & Wedding, D. (2008). Current psychotherapies. Belmont: Thomson.
Grunwald, Bernice Bronia. (1999). Guiding the family: practical counseling techniques.
New York: Brunner-Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group).
Harvard Medical School. (2006). Carl Rogers' client centered therapy: Under the microscope. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from Harvard Medical School: http://www.health.harvard.edu/press_releases/client_centered_therapy .
Frankl proposes that "he who can cling to no end point, to no time in the future, to no point of support, is in danger of allowing himself to collapse inwardly." 
However that point might alter as the person grows. It happens and should happen in the process of living because no one can cling to just one meaning all his life. Meaning when realized alters and take on another shape and that forms the crux of Logotherapy. The role of the therapist in this regard is only to facilitate the process. he/she cannot give a person meaning to a life that is lived by the patient. The therapist must help resolve any past issues which are retarding the personal growth of the individual. He should try to untie the spiritual or philosophical 'knots' that have developed to help the patient become healthier.
What is needed here is to…
Frankl, oral communication, 1971.
Frankl, the Will to Meaning (Cleveland, O.: New American Library, 1969), p. 21.
V. Frankl, "Self-transcendence as a Human Phenomenon," Journal of Humanistic Psychology (1966) 6:97-107.
Frankl V.E. (1976). Man's Search for Meaning. New York: Pocket Books. 78.
journal and literature review that all centers on the same single test case of a patient situation that is known to the author. Indeed, the case in question is one the author of this report is aware of from an internship as a social work intern. The specific case is that of a seven-year-old Hispanic male that has been diagnosed with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). The boy in question comes from lower socioeconomic status and, obviously, is of a racial minority group at the same time. The author will cycle through five different book excerpts and journal articles that pertain in whole or in part to the plight and diagnosis faced by the boy mentioned above and the learning gleaned from each source will be applied to his case. While the boy in question has a comorbid diagnosis and faces some societal roadblocks…
Corcoran, J. (2003). Clinical applications of evidence-based family interventions.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Drake, K., & Ginsburg, G. (2012). Family Factors in the Development, Treatment, and Prevention of Childhood Anxiety Disorders. Clinical Child And Family Psychology
Review, 15(2), 144-162. doi:10.1007/s10567-011-0109-0
Depression in Adolescents Group
This group aims at aiding participants in modifying their cognitions, maladaptive schemas, and behaviors. Participants acquire a grasp of how to be more relaxed and occupied in more pleasing activities. Such changes to behavior will trigger the succeeding profounder change levels. Participating individuals will be aided in altering their depressogenic and impractical thoughts as well, to thoughts that are more practical, successively decreasing their depression levels. In order to achieve true, longer-term change, as well as to lower the possibility of recurrence of depression, one needs to modify maladaptive schemas. The group is presented with the 'schemas' idea, group members are aided in distinguishing their respective schemas, and efforts are initiated towards altering schemas. However, one must bear in mind the fact that this process of schema transformation is time-consuming and won't be achieved by the time of the group's termination. Participants in the…
Association for Specialists in Group Work. (2007). Best practice guidelines 2007 revisions. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 33(2). doi: 10.1080/01933920801971184
Clabby, J. F. (2006). Helping Depressed Adolescents: A Menu of Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures for Primary Care. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 8(3), 131-141.
Corey, G., Corey, M.S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Myers, J.E., Willse, J.T., & Villalba, J.A. (2011). Promoting self-esteem in adolescents: The influence of wellness factors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1), 28-36. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00058.x
Within months after Winfrey took over, the show went from last place in the ratings to overtaking Donahue as the highest rated talk show in Chicago. It was renamed the Oprah Winfrey Show. And the rest is history.
Considering her past, childhood and experiences and positive outlook in life, she didn't let anything deter her from reaching her goal and becoming successful. In fact, she uses them to inspire and reach out to others.
Self-confidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet realistic views of themselves and their situations. Self-confident people trust their own abilities, have a general sense of control in their lives, and believe that, within reason, they will be able to do what they wish, plan, and expect.
Surprisingly, lack of self-confidence is not necessarily related to lack of ability. Instead it is often the result of focusing too much on the unrealistic…
Self-Confidence. Retrieved April 27, 2007 from http://www.couns.uiuc.edu/New_Site/defaultwinter.html
Dr. C. George Boeree. (2006). B.F. Skinner, Personality Theories. Retrieved May 5, 2007 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html
Oprah Winfrey. (2007). Retrieved May 5, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oprah_Winfrey
Alfred Adler, Core of Personality. Retrieved April 26, 2007 from http://psych.eiu.edu/spencer/Adler.html
Personal Model of Helping
Therapists do whatever they can to help their clients overcome a wide range of problems ranging fromdeath of a pet to major life changing crisis, such as sudden loss of vision. However genuine a therapists' desire to help is, they will be limited by the tools he or she uses. It makes sense, then, as a therapist to design and integrate webs of models that have shown to yield efficacy. This new, personally designed model should work to assist and meet the requirement of every client. To embark upon this task of designing a personal model of helping, it is important to be aware of existing theories and models.
The first is the humanistic approach based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's triangle consists of basics needs at the base followed by needs of safety, love and belonging, achievements and lastly self-actualization at the top.…
Brew. (2007, Nov 27). Models of Helping. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/18616_chapter3.pdf .
Eysenck 1965; Thomas et al. 1968; Heatherington and Parke 1986; Sheldon 1994a
Brian Sheldon, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1995) iii, Questia, Web, 3 Apr. 2011.
Albert Ellis' RET is a Relative Emotional ehavior Therapy where it provides help with people cope with their difficulties in life and thus improve their individual growth. asically, RET follows building blocks of therapy, based on the online source, http://www.counselingceusonline.com/rebt.htm:
Rational Emotive ehavior Therapy places the responsibility for a person's fate squarely upon his or her own shoulders. It is one's irrational eliefs () that causes "traumatic" experiences to result in neurosis. The client learns that by itself an Activating event (A) in the outside world does not cause or create any feelings or emotional Consequence (C). The RET therapist leads a client to attack his or her irrational beliefs by Disputing (D) them. Once the client's attack has been successful, he or she is free to establish sensible beliefs and appropriate behavior which are psychologically healthy Effects (E).
This kind of approach will easily help the therapist as well…
CounselingCEUsOnline (Accessed: 2005) "REBT: A Primer for School Counselors" [Online]
Family & Sociology of Marriage
The purpose and social function of marriage has changed. While marriage was once a binding declaration of commitment and love to another person of the opposite gender, avowed and proclaimed in a holy ceremony, today marriage has become a catch all; a legally binding contract between two people who, for any reason, can choose to end the marriage without stigma or difficulty. Today, half of marriages end in divorce (CDC, 2010). And yet, millions of people remain happily married in America. Why? How? What is it that enables some couples to remain not just married, but happily so? Sociologists have analyzed the social, cognitive, and emotional consequences and detriments to failed marriages on the family. esults seem to indicate that successful marriages are not successful by chance, but rather, the product of hard work, compromise and mutual respect. While these criteria do not guarantee a…
Dankin, J., Wampler, R. (2008). Money Doesn't Buy Happiness, but It Helps: Marital Satisfaction, Psychological Distress, and Demographic Differences Between Low- and Middle-Income Clinic Couples. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 36:300 -- 311.
Freeman, C., Carlson, J., & Sperry, L. (1993). Adlerian marital therapy strategies with middle income couples facing financial stress. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 21(4), 324 -- 332.
Reis, H.T., and Collins, N. (2000).Measuring relationship properties and interactions relevant to social support. In S. Cohen, L.G. Underwood, & B.H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 136 -- 194). New York: Oxford University Press.
Rogers, S.J. (2004). Dollar, dependency, and divorce: Four perspectives on the role of wives' income. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 59 -- 74.
However, psychology, even scientific psychology, presents falsifiability challenges not evident in the natural scientists. Some scientists might argue that Freud has been shown to be a poor theorist, given what has been revealed about the brain since Popper's day. If a depressive shows no improvement after years of Freudian therapy, but does show improvement after taking Prozac, that could be said to prove Freud wrong. Unfortunately, so many other external factors can affect a person's mood it is hard to attribute a single cause to a person's remission. It could be the drug or other conditions in the individual's environment. While large drug trials try to use large sample sizes as a way of reducing the influence of extraneous variables as well as use control groups who receive a placebo, the less observable and testable the phenomenon, the more difficult it is to measure. Even attempts to demonstrate improvement of…
Cohen, Patricia. (2007). Freud is widely taught at universities, except in the psychology department. The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/25/weekinreview/25cohen.htm
Good and bad theories. (2007, April 27). On Philosophy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://onphilosophy.wordpress.com/2007/04/27/good-and-bad-theories/
Lutus, Paul. (2009, May 12). Is psychology a science? Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.arachnoid.com/psychology/
Marian, Lucian. (2008). Falsifiability. Debunking primal therapy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://debunkingprimaltherapy.com/3_falsifiability-testable/