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Thirteen -- Adolescent Development Depicted in a Contemporary Film
Home life, family dynamics, and Tracy's relationship with her mom, dad, brother, her mom's boyfriend.
"How many times are you going to let him fuck you over," Tracy yells at her mom after finding her mom's boyfriend's clothes in the dryer. "His clothes should not be in your laundry," Tracy shouts, in an apparent mood swing brought on by her hatred for her mom's boyfriend; it's a mood swing because moments before Tracy and her friend and mentor Evie were strutting around in their new tight pants and sexy tops, being frisky, and flirtatious. Mom is busy doing a customer's hair in the kitchen (mom is a hairstylist who works at home), and Tracy makes a big fuss over those boyfriend clothes.
The home life is pretty seamy and unsophisticated, which helps explain why Tracy is so easily swept…
Steinberg, Laurence. (1996). Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Aspects of Adolescent Development and Psychology
What impact does technology have on today's adolescents?
Technology is inextricably linked with adolescent existence. In the past decade, technology has become pervasive amongst adolescents and affects the way in which adolescents communicate with one another and with their parents. In past generations, technology was primarily limited to television and video games (and possibly a computer), but current technology has blended forms of technology that were previously distinct. Cell phones now offer internet and video viewing possibilities, so that people are never without technology.
The internet is the most pervasive technological innovation; it governs communication through email, social media and blogging. There are multiple benefits of the internet, including that it helps adolescents meet more peers than they would be able to without the internet. However, the negative aspects of the internet include that adolescents can become involved in sexual predation, racism, and…
Bahr, S.J., Hoffman, J.P., and Yang, X. (2005). Parental and peer influence on the risk of adolescent drug use. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 26(6), 529-551.
Frymer, B. (2009). The media spectacle of columbine: Alienated youth as an object of fear. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(10), 1387-1404.
Harrison, K. (2006). The body electric: Thin-ideal media and eating disorders in adolescents. Journal of Communication, 50(3), 119-143.
Jaworski, B.K. (2009). Reproductive justice and media framing: A case-study analysis of problematic frames in the popular media. Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning, 9(1), 105-121.
There is an extended family network of grandparents, aunts, and uncles that provides additional figures to serve as role models for the subject, but she remains especially close to her mother and is above all cognizant of and concerned with the needs and expectations of her family as a whole.
The divorce of the subject's parents during her early adolescence necessarily had an effect on the relationship she developed with her mother, and the personality development of the subject herself. esearch has shown that the impact of a positive parent-adolescent relationship can mitigate the negative impacts of divorce, and lead to many other changes to the parent-adolescent relationship following the divorce, as well (Hines 1997). The relationship that Valerie has with her mother is very close, and one of shared responsibility and decision-making. It is likely that this relationship will develop in quite different ways following Valerie's eventual departure form…
Allison, B. (2000). "Parent-adolescent conflict in early adolescence." Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences Education 18(2).
Grotevant, H. & Cooper, C. (1985). "Patterns of Interaction in Family Relationships and the Development of Identity Exploration in Adolescence." Child development 56, pp. 415-28.
Grotevant, H. & Cooper, C. (1986), "Individuation in family relationships: A perspective on individual differences in the development of identity and role-taking skill in adolescence." Human development 29(2), pp. 82-100.
Hines, a. (1997). "Divorce-Related Transitions, Adolescent Development, and the Role of the Parent-Child Relationship: A Review of the Literature." Journal of Marriage and Family 59(2), pp. 375-388.
This period is also characterized by a youth's desire to obtain privacy. Youth encounter new situations in an exploratory manner seeking insight into the situation and needing to achieve their own interpretation of the stimuli presented to them (Ohrenstein, 1986). Peer relationships are of particular importance during this time period and can be viewed by youth as being more important than family relationships (Ohrenstein, 1986). This focus aids the youth in their transition from a family orientation to that of a social orientation particularly the role in a peer group (Ohrenstein, 1986). This is the beginning stage of integration into a community and society and lays the ground work for later community involvement.
Lack of support during this time period can result in a youth who has a sense of inadequacy and inferiority (Ohrenstein, 1986).
t this stage children being to find their place within their peer group and school…
At this stage children being to find their place within their peer group and school environment. The development of increased physical autonomy through participation in activities outside of the home allows them to explore additional relationships and environments. Youth seek this sense of autonomy and independence while at the same time being fearful of the lack of attachment and support of the family and the accompanying responsibilities (Ohrenstein, 1986). This confusion can take the form of ambivalence toward the parents and family in general and a frequent shifting between dependent and independent behaviors (Ohrenstein, 1986).
Ohrenstein, L. (1986). There is Nothing Latent About Latency: Its Impact on Parents. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 3(3), 143-150.
Adolescent Development, Socialization, and the Internet
Evaluate how social learning theory and strain theory could be used to explain adolescent development and behavior
Social learning theory suggests that adolescents learn from observing the behaviors of others, not simply in real life but also online. In fact, the mores and accepted behaviors for online interactions are often quite different from what is considered acceptable behavior offline. Teens may be emboldened by the anonymity conferred by an online avatar that enables them to hide their real names. Even if not anonymous, the distance between themselves and their online targets may encourage more meanness and cattiness than would ever take place in a face-to-face context.
As depicted in the Frontline documentary Growing Up Online, both adults and children will often not apply the same ethical standards to the behaviors in which they engage in online as they do to behaviors in…
What we learned. (2008). Growing up online. PBS. Retrieved:
Young, K. (2009). Online social networking: An Australian perspective. International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society, 7(1), 39-57.
In other words, it makes users less rather than more able to cope with life stressors and less socially functional and engaged with the world. ather than reaching out for help when they need it, marijuana smokers are more likely to drop out of life.
The type of marijuana available today is 'not your parent's marijuana' either. From 1980 and 1997, the amount of THC, the active chemical in marijuana that produces the marijuana high, rose dramatically. Marijuana is far more potent than it has ever been in the past: and so are its effects upon your daily life and your long-term future. Even if you just use it on weekends, marijuana's effects on memory and learning can last for days or weeks because of how long the drug is stored in the body. "A study of 129 college students found that among heavy users of marijuana - those who…
Volkow, Nora et al. (2005). Research report: Marijuana abuse.
National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved February 16, 2010 at http://drugabuse.gov/ResearchReports/Marijuana/default.html
The Surgeon General's warning on marijuana. (1982, August 13). MMWR. Published by the Center for Disease Control (CDC). August 13, 1982. 31(31); 428-9.
Retrieved February 16, 2010 at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001143.htm
Movies on Adolescent Development
View Two Movies Focusing On Adolescent Development
Adolescence is a stage of physical and psychological development that occurs between puberty and adulthood. It is usually the time of the teenage years although it has physical, psychological and cultural expressions that begin earlier or can end later Jaffe, 1998.
Adolescence is also a time for cognitive development which takes place rapidly. Piaget in his cognitive development theory defines adolescence at the stage when the thoughts of the individual start taking more of an abstract form and where the egocentric thoughts of the individual decrease. This allows the adolescent to think and reason from a wider viewpoint. There are also biological changes which take place in the brain structure and its interaction with the increased knowledge, experience and the changing demands of the individual socially therefore it produces a rapid cognitive growth Golden & Norwood, 1993.
Golden, L.B., & Norwood, M.L. (1993). Case studies in child counseling. Princeton, NC: Merrill.
Jaffe, M.L. (1998). Adolescence. New York City, NY: John Wiley.
Development of independence is shown by their ability to accomplish tasks on their own. They can start new things and have a range of activities to choose from. At this stage, children learn to develop attachment to others. Pittman, Margaret, & Kerp (2011) argue that by the age of two and three years, it may take a child one hour before returning to a secure base ( close to care giver). At the age of four and five, the observation takes three hours before the child returns. This shift from shorter to longer cycle according to Bowlby, (1973), represented the child's relationship to the caregiver.
Normal and abnormal growth and development
Witner (1909) pointed out that the normal and abnormal development of a child is aspects of a child that can be diagnosed and even treated clinically. A normal development process of a child entail sound emotional, cognitive and physical…
Atkinson, B. (1984). Milestone for children. Nursing standard: official newspaper of the Royal College of Nursing, p. 372.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press
Bell.M.A and Wolfe, C.D (2004).Emotion and Cognition: An Intricately Bound Developmental Process. Child Development, March/April 2004, Volume 75, Number 2, Pages 366-370
Bee, H., & Boyd, D. (2009). The Developing Child. Pearson Education.
Coming of age movies offer insight into the prevailing social norms related to gender, sexuality, identity development, and communication. Hardwicke’s (2003) feature film Thirteen earned its actors accolades including Golden Globe and Academy Award nominations, but its salient themes deserve deeper attention from social scientists. The film addresses adolescent and developmental psychology in particular, within a broader sociological and cultural perspective. Protagonist Tracy is at the titular age of 13, pivotal because of puberty and related elements of biological development, as Arnett (2012) discusses in Chapter 2 of Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood.
Interestingly, sexuality takes a back seat to other elements of adolescent cognitive and social development in Hardwicke’s (2003) film. As Arnett (2012) points out throughout the text, adolescence is marked by dramatic cognitive shifts as the young person develops a stronger moral conscience. Early in Thirteen, Tracy witnesses her friends shoplifting, feeling palpably uncomfortable. Piaget’s theory of cognitive…
Arnett, J.J. (2012). Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood A Cultural Approach. Pearson.
Hardwicke, C. (2003). Thirteen. [Feature Film].
There are multiple stages of development that all children go through. The depth and breadth of these developmental changes ebb and flow greatly as growing children move from one stage of development to the next. Overall, there are several major developmental stages in the life of a child. There are the toddler years, the prepubescent years and the adolescent/teenage years. The brief literature review that follows in this report shall focus on the last of those. To be complete with this analysis, adolescence is not the end of human development given that many suggest that development extends into the 20's and 30's. Even so, the adolescent years of development are hailed by many as being the most pivotal, at least in some regards. While many would debate the above, it is clear that the adolescent years are among the most important.
Regardless of the development or life stage that…
Adolescence is an especially critical development stage for any individual. At this stage, individuals not only experience biological changes, but also become more aware of gender roles and expectations and experience cognitive development. Family and school become social incubators that trigger changes and psychosocial responses in adolescents. The film The Breakfast Club shows how a group of five adolescents go through critical changes in this stage of their life. This paper will highlight the developmental markers observed in one character depicted the film, Claire. Clare will be used as a case study to explore developmental issues related to gender, biology, and cognition. The paper also highlights various socialization agents (specifically school and family) and how they impact the individual’s self-concept, identity, and social role.
The Breakfast Club features five teenagers detained all day at Shermer High School. Several developmental markers are evident in the film. One of the markers is…
Infant Physical, Cognitive and Social Development
One of the most important aspects of a child's physical, cognitive and social development is motor skills development. In this case, an infant is expected to master fine and gross motor skills in order for him/her to effectively explore the surrounding environment/world. Gross motor skills are considered as large muscles movements such as arms and legs whereas fine motor skills are considered are movements of smaller groups of muscles like hand and wrist. Berk & Meyers (2016) have developed a table that provides a list of gross- and fine-motor skills milestones in different stages of an infant's development. As an 11-month old infant, David has relatively developed necessary and anticipated motor skills based on the milestones listed in the table. He has fairly developed nearly all motor skills expected of infants his age and seems to be progressing well in motor skills development. David's…
This research considered this by looking at a key constituent of low self-control which is the risk seeking tendency in order to decide its constancy and change throughout early childhood, its influences on changes in criminal behavior, and its receptiveness to a complete delinquency lessening program. These matters were looked at with information from the Children at isk (CA) program, an arbitrarily allocated interference that looked at early youth. The examination exposed considerable reliability in risk seeking, but there was proof of change as well, and these alterations were connected with contemporary alterations in delinquency. isk seeking alterations were not a consequence of contribution in the CA program, in spite of that program's achievement at dropping some appearance of delinquency (Hay, Meldrum, Forrest and Ciaravolo, 2010).
Part II: Assessment of the main strengths of the reading with particular emphasis on its utility for understanding adolescent development or social work intervention.…
Arthur, Michael W., Hawkins, J. David, Brown, Eric C, Briney, John S., Oesterle, Sabrina and Abbott, Robert D. (2010). Implementation of the Communities that Care Prevention
System by Coalitions in the Community Youth Development Study. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), p. 245 -- 258.
Hay, Carter, Meldrum, Ryan, Forrest, Walter and Ciaravolo, Emily. (2010). Stability and Change
in Risk Seeking: Investigating the Effects of an Intervention Program. Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://yvj.sagepub.com/content/8/2/91
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…
Larson, R., Tran, S. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43: 1012-1017.
Marshall, S., Parker, P., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. (2014). Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 85(3): 1275-1291.
Morton, M., Montgomery, P. (2013). Youth empowerment programs for improving
adolescents' self-efficacy and self-esteem: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1): 22-33.
Student counselors are can organize a student led drug abuse prevention committee and create awareness among the adolescent children. Study results have confirmed the positive value of such student led programs in preventing the malice of drug abuse. It has also been found that multiyear preventive programs have long lasting positive effects that short-term programs. . Programs such as 'Friendly Persuasion', 'Life skills Training', 'Midwestern Prevention Project' which were implemented in schools had a considerable measure of success in reducing drug abuse and in delaying the onset of drinking.[155-158]. Student counselors have to interact with teachers, social workers, health care professionals and other community-based groups to workout and implement student activity programs that can be run by adolescents.
4) by providing a positive developmental environment at school the student counselor optimizes the chances of a student succeeding in his overall development. As Pittman states, "Adolescents who are merely problem-free are…
CBASSE, "Community Programs to Promote Youth Development (2002)"
National Academy Press, Available Online at, http://books.nap.edu/books/0309072751/html/R1.html#pagetop
The subject interviewed is a 17-year-old Hispanic male from Cleveland, Ohio. Although his legal name is Harley, this adolescent chooses to call himself by the name "Renegade." Renegade lives in a loft with 12 other boys ranging from the ages of 15 to 27 above a rare book store in a historic and impoverished section of the city. Renegade was either orphaned or abandoned at a young age, and spent many years bouncing around foster homes and group homes as a ward of the state of California. Since leaving the care of the state, Renegade was able to uncover many mysteries about his past that were officially "sealed" regarding his biological family. Renegade was not given any information about his ethnic background as a child, but his mocha-colored skin and dark, striking hair obviously set him apart as an ethnic minority. There were Latino and Mexican boys in…
Aranel et al. (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_H._Erikson
Brainmeta. (2004) "Jean Piaget" Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://brainmeta.com/personality/piaget.php
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [3/10/2005] from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html .
Karp, J. (2004) "Erikson's stages of psychosocial development." (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erikson%27s_stages_of_psychosocial_development
Adolescence: A conflicted life period
Adolescence is often considered to be a particularly 'fraught' time during the average individual's life history. Although the construction of adolescence and the age during which someone is considered to be an adolescent may vary from culture to culture, most societies define a certain period of time as 'not childhood' and 'not adulthood.' There are common physiological changes seen in all adolescents such as menstruation in females; lowered voice in males; and increased height and body hair in both genders. Adolescents also begin to experience and experiment with showing sexual desire. However, these changes can cause great anxiety and confusion, as the adolescent struggles with his or her emerging adolescent identity.
Females in particular tend to be more anxious about their body image than boys because of the great emphasis placed upon female beauty within the culture as a measure of self-worth…
Zastrow, C. & Kirst-Ashman, K. (2010). Understanding human behavior and the social
Environment. 8th ed. Cengage Learning.
Adolescents & Advertising Media Messages
Examination of a Commercial
The advertisement chosen for examination in this brief study is Britney Spears Pepsi commercial in 2010, which was part of the advertising during the World Cup. The intended audience for the advertisement is the general audience and specifically male and female young people. The ad features Brittney Spears singing, drinking Pepsi, and volley a ball. Brittney appears beautiful and sexy in this commercial and gives the appearance that drinking Pepsi will make everyone athletic and sexy. This ad would be interpreted of course by each gender differently as the male gender would interpret the commercial to mean that drinking Pepsi would ensure that they attract sexy girls and females would view the commercial as appealing to them to drink Pepsi to ensure that they are hot and sexy like Brittney Spears. This ad is not accurate in its portrayal of body…
(13) Kaiser Family Foundation (2005). Generation M: Media in the lives of eight to eighteen-year-olds. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm .
(14) How to Magazines Effect Body Image (2008) Center on Media and Child Health. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/how-magazines-affect-body-image/
(15) Ransohoff, J. (2010) Teens and the Media. Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.pamf.org/teen/life/bodyimage/media.html
Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment
School Organization and Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment
att's article explores the connection between school organization and adolescents' mental health. There is a commonly held belief that adolescents receive a superior educational and interpersonal experience in private schools and small schools. att cites studies by Coleman and others that have given support to the perceived superiority of private schools. Coleman's findings in support of private schools did not however address mental health, but were instead limited to academic achievement.
att's questions "Are private schools better not only for academic achievement but for mental health? Are small schools associated with broad indicators of emotional well-being?" (2003, p.345) form the basis for her study. att's study addresses these issues by examining three indicators of adolescents' emotional adjustment: depression, suicide attempts and violent dispositions.
att's study analyzed data collected by the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health, which surveyed health-related…
Watt, T.T. (2003). Are small schools better for adolescents' emotional adjustment? Sociology of Education, 76(4), 344-367.
In fact, even executives in fashion and beauty magazines see an alarming trend of "too thin" to the point of looking emaciated and unhealthy -- certainly not a look that "sells" (Wilson 542).
What is happening is a continual push to be something different, not because there is actually anything wrong with us -- at all. It is because advertising tells us that something is wrong. Advertising is part of the marketing mix that is designed to persuade a consumer to purchase something. Of course, there are many ways of doing this, and the "science" of this media has certainly evolved in the last century. Advertising is subliminal, sophisticated, pervasive, covert, overt, and a seminal part of the contemporary world. However, advertising has become so sophisticated that it sends messages both overt and covert that even if we are not paying attention to the exact product, the images we see…
Croll, J. "From Body Image and Adolescents." Elements of Arguments. Ed. a. Rottenberg and D. Winchell. 9th. New York: St. Martin's, 2010. 536-41.
Wilson, E. "When Is Thin Too Thin?" Elements of Arguments. Ed. a. Rottenberg and D. Winchell. 9th. New York: St. Martin's, 2010. 542-4.
His article does an excellent job of discussing in comprehensible terms the recent research which has addressed the current state of knowledge about the relationship between substance abuse amongst teens and mood disorders and provides a breakdown of possible treatment options.
Flaherty, L., & Flaherty, M. (2005). Adolescent psychiatry: he annals of the American society for adolescent psychiatry (Vol. 29). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Analytic Press.
his resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. he topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. o the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating:…
This resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. The topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. To the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating: one which discusses comorbidity amongst teenagers with depression and substance abuse issues and another which discusses issues related to dual diagnoses in adolescents with depression and substance abuse issues.
Schwartzberg, A.Z. (Ed.). (1998). The Adolescent in Turmoil. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26000946
Schwartzberg addresses several of the salient issues that have arisen in modern times with regard to adolescents and mental health conflicts. A significant amount of the book focuses upon diagnosing and treating adolescents struggling with depression. Within this text, he also addresses the normal and pathological adolescent as well as the overall development of the adolescent which can be helpful in addressing the differences amongst adolescents with depression and those without. There are additional sections that discuss specific issues that afflict troubled adolescents such as eating disorders, mood disorders, aggressive and violent behavior, and suicide. This text is written in comprehensible terms and the reader does not need to have extensive medical background to understand its contents.
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.
Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…
Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.
Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.
Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.
Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.
On the other hand, 'resistance for liberation' may have the obverse effect causing children (in this case adolescents) to take these self-same disabling elements and use them for their growth and success.
Poverty may be a social construct but it need not tarnish an individual for life. Ultimately, the individual decides what to do with his or her life, and the same circumstances that can turn one into a drug-doped self-destructed convict can turn another into a bastion of society.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, ., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.R., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, R., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
To specifically teach the biology of puberty, students can fill in diagrams of the body and brain, identifying the areas associated with the hormones the human body releases in during puberty and the areas of the body affected most by these hormones (Puberty, 2007, Discovery.com). Understanding the physical reasons for hair growth and the male change of vocal tone can make these changes seem less frightening when students experience them personally.
Also, trusting adults can be difficult for students at this age. Parents may be worried about what their child is learning in class on this subject. To bridge the difference between adult and child attitudes, and create dialogue, teachers can create supportive assignments such as asking students to brainstorm questions they have about the opposite sex and the experience of puberty, and then assigning students the task of interviewing a parent or trusted adult of the opposite sex to…
Puberty." (2007). Lesson Plans Library: Grades 6-8. Discovery.com. Retrieved 26 Aug 2007 at http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/ragingteens
This term seems to have been coined in the 1990s when researchers were attempting to describe a constellation of behaviors observed in persons using the Internet to such an extent that it began to cause other aspects of their lives to become dysfunctional. The DSM-IV disorder most similar to the pattern of behaviors observed with overuse of video games is pathological gambling. Presumably, the more colloquial term addiction was derived from the similarities to gambling addiction. For this report, this pattern of heavy video game playing is referred to as "video game overuse." (Khan, 2007) Kahn additionally relates that: "Symptoms of time usage and social dysfunction/disruption appear in patterns similar to that of other addictive disorders. It is not clear whether withdrawal symptoms are associated with video game overuse; some excessive users do not exhibit "cravings" for the games if they are unavailable, while other users insist they cannot reduce…
Hauge, Marny R. And Gentile, Douglas a. (2003) Video game addiction among adolescents: associations with academic performance and aggression - Presented at Society for research in child development conference, April 2 -- 3 Tampa Florida.
Special Report: Video Game Addiction (2005) New Orleans WDSU.com. 24 Feb 2005. Online available at http://www.wdsu.com/news/4160216/detail.html .
Khan, Mohamed K. (2007) Emotional and Behavioral Effects, Including Addictive Potential, of Video Games. Report of the Council on Science and Public Health. CSAPH Report 12-a-07
Computer Games Addiction (2005) National Institute on Media and the Family. Online available at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_gameaddiction.shtml
This was equivalent to those youth utilizing ongoing, long-term services (Pollio, Thompson, Tobias, eid and Spitznagel, 2006).
There are several significant limitations that must be considered when looking at the results of this study. First, there was lack of a control group which limits the conclusions that can be drawn concerning causal assertions about the effectiveness of services. It is thought that future research on service use for this population needs to include a comparison condition of other troubled youth, perhaps runaway/homeless youth not seeking crisis services. Features of the sampling strategy limited the generalization of the findings. Since the sample included only service-using youth, it is not generalizable to the entire runaway/homeless population. The authors believed that the youth in this sample were representative of the population of service-using runaway/homeless youth from Missouri, Illinois, Nebraska, and Kansas. However, other research has suggested that this population is not representative…
Pollio, David E., Thompson, Sanna J., Tobias, Lisa, Reid, Donna and Spitznagel, Edward.
(2006). Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter
Services. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 35(5), p. 852-859.
Third, increased cognitive demands in school challenge the adolescent. Fourth, the adolescent must develop more mature verbal communication skills. Fifth, the teenager will develop an ego separate from the parents, whereas in childhood the ego remained closely linked to that of the parents. Sixth, the adolescent formulates clearer career goals. The seventh task of adolescent development comprises the psychological detachment from the parents, often entailing interpersonal conflicts and difficulties relating to authority figures. Eighth, the adolescent develops stronger relationships with peers that help him or her formulate a sense of self. The ninth task of adolescence relates to the development of the sexual self: the teenager also comes to terms with gender issues. Tenth, the adolescent develops a personal system of values that may remain with the individual throughout the lifetime. The eleventh and final state regards controlling immature impulses and becoming a more mature manager of instincts and behaviors.
Herdt, G. (2004). Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture. Sexuality esearch
& Social Policy, 1(1), 39-62. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.1.39
One of the most contentious debates in the field of psychology today is the question of nature vs. nurture, or the extent to which biology influences personal psychology vs. cultural constructs. Although it has fallen out of favor somewhat, there is also the Freudian 'essentialist' argument, which suggests that certain mental models span across cultures. According to the article, "Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture," traditional theories of adolescent development have emphasized the importance of the individual, and focused upon the creation of an adult self as if it existed outside of culture in both the Freudian and biological discourses of psychology. Herdt (2004) conducts a review of Freudian and developmental psychology, to argue for a more culturally-informed understanding of the progression of adolescent development.
In the field, a philosophy of…
Herdt, G. (2004). Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture. Sexuality Research
& Social Policy, 1(1), 39-62. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.1.39
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
Current essay is a discussion of the antisocial behavior disorder amongst adolescents. The author critically reviewed studies on the topic. The literature suggests that neighborhood and peer holds a great influence as regards antisocial behavior amongst adolescents. Previous research has confirmed socialization experiences outside of the family shape what goes on inside of the family. Also there is possibility that peer and neighborhood characteristics are related to parenting and family relationships. Presence of violence in neighborhood may cause stress among parents resulting in poor parenthood quality.
Mediating Effects of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
The importance of socialization contexts outside of the family has been well documented. In particular, neighborhood (e.g., violence, collective efficacy) and peer relationship (e.g., relationship quality, peer deviancy) factors both have been linked to a number of adolescent outcomes, such as self-esteem, academic…
Barnes, J., Belsky, J., Broomfield, K.A., Melhuish, E., & the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team (2006). Neighborhood deprivation, school disorder and academic achievement in primary schools in deprived communities in England. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 127-136.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Capaldi, D., DeGarmo, D., Patterson, G.R., & Forgatch, M. (2002). Contextual risk across the early life span and association with antisocial behavior. In J.B. Reid, G.R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (p.123-145). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chapple, C.L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly,22, 89-106.
Movie: The Karate Kid (2010)
Targeted Age Group: PG rated, 10+ (The Karate Kid-Family Movie Review, 2015)
'The Karate Kid' is appropriately PG-rated; there is, however, some content that adults might wish to know of, especially because this drama has a few themes aimed at older viewers. The beginning of the movie shows a climbing scene of a child's height chart. Typical milestones, like beginning kindergarten and losing the first tooth are included; however, the last 2 entries are daddy's death and the child's 9th birthday. While at this juncture, the background music is jolly and light, the death of his dad when Dre was just 8 years of age has a mildly shocking impact, and may upset younger children (Andlor, 2013).
Analyze the chosen media content for its appropriateness for the cognitive development level of this target audience. In doing so, make sure to explain what characterizes the cognitive…
ACCM. (2015, 05-27). Retrieved from Childrenandmedia.org.au: http://childrenandmedia.org.au/movie-reviews/movies/frozen
Andlor, M. (2013, March 14). The Karate Kid (2010). Retrieved from Isthismoviesuitable.com: http://isthismoviesuitable.com/2013/03/14/the-karate-kid-2010/
Council, A. (2010, 05-27). Karate Kid 2010. Retrieved from http://raisingchildren.net.au/movies/karate_kid_2010_movie.html?context=485
Council, A. (2015, 05-27). Frozen movie. Retrieved from Rasingchildren.net.au: http://raisingchildren.net.au/movies/frozen_movie.html?context=485
Middle Eastern Students: What Is the Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years- Grades 8-9
Benefits of student advisory
Adolescence and its effects on learning
Functions and Expectations of Advisory Program
Middle Eastern Student advisory experiences
Social and economic mobility is a function of educational achievement. It is important to ensure that all children receive education in order to secure their future and that of the nation. The U.S. accommodates many immigrants from the Middle East. Several studies done in the recent past have examined how immigrants fair in the educational system. However, few studies attend to the subject of adolescent students from the Arab world participation in advisory programs for schools and the effects of such participation explicitly. It is not clear whether the results of adolescent participation in school advisory programs would necessarily coincide with the participation by Arab immigrants. Considering the consistent negative portrayal of…
Alexander, W.M., & George, P. S. (1981). The exemplary middle school. New York, NY: Holt, Reinhart, & Winston.
Al-Khatab, A. (1999). In search of equity for Arab-American students in public schools of the United States. Education, 120, 254.
American Psychological Association. (2010). 2008 APA survey of psychology health service providers: Special analysis. Washington, DC: Author
Arnold, J. (1991). The revolution in middle school organization. Momentum, 22(2), 20-25.
Over the last five years research has indicated that the brain of an adolescent is not as developed as researchers once thought. In fact, advances in technology have made it possible to further examine the development of the human brain. esearchers have found that part of the frontal lobe, referred to as the pre-frontal cortex that is believed to be the management center for the body, is not fully developed in adolescents (Sowell et al., 2001; Cobb, 1998). The article explains that the lack of development in this part of the brain explains some of the behaviors that are displayed by teenagers because it is responsible for advanced cognition ("Adolescence, Brain Development..,"2004). Advanced cognition permits human beings to prioritize thoughts, visualize, think in the abstract, predict consequences, plan, and manage impulses ("Adolescence, Brain Development..,"2004). With these things being understood the underdevelopment of this part of the brain could explain why…
Achenbach T.M. (1978). "Psychopathology of childhood: Research problems and issues." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46,759-776.
Adams, Gerald R., Raymond Montemayor, and Thomas
Gullota, eds. Psychosocial Development during Adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications (1996).
Adolescence, Brain Development and Legal Culpability. (2004) Juvenile Justice Center
The Issue of Students of Arab Descent
Scope for Advisory Participation groups
ole of Involvement from Parents as External Stakeholders
Barriers and Facilitators to Parent Involvement
Advisory Participation and Policy Implications
elation between Parental Involvement and Child Growth
The ole of Native Americans in Interventions
Traditional Parenting Practices
Middle Eastern Students: Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years - Grades 8-9
It is believed that when children and adolescents take part in group activities, they experience better social and psychological health. Indeed, it has also been documented that participating in team sports leads to positive health outcomes. Analysts observe that such eventuality accrues from the social dimension that team sports provide. The positive involvement by adults and peers enhances such gains (ochelle M. Eime, Janet A Young, Jack T. Harvey, Melanie J. Charity, & Warren . Payne, 2013). eader advisory techniques; applied with youthful patrons present an…
Abdul Tawab, N., Saher, S., & Nawawi, N. (2013). Learning About Youth. New York: Population Council.
Aghajanian, A., & Cong, W. (2012). How Culture Affects on English Language Learners' (ELL's) Outcomes, with Middle East Immigrant Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 172-180.
Alnawar, H. (2015). Raising Teachers' Cultural Knowledge of Middle Eastern Students in The Classroom. California State University - Capstones and Theses.
Badri, M., Al Quabaisi, A., Al Rashedi, A., & Yang, G. (2014). The causal relationship between parental involvement and children's behavioural adjustment to KG-1 schooling. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy.
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…
Attachment behaviors and attachment experiences are central to child development, and can have lasting impacts on adult psychology. Attachment refers to a “sustained, developmental...connection,” (Mossler, 2014, 13.1). The attachment process is emotional, but it also serves distinct biological and evolutionary functions in enabling the survival of the species. As Mossler (2014) points out, attachment bonds can be formed between an infant and any adult due to the fact that early humans contended with far greater physical and environmental risks that might leave infants vulnerable should one or both parents perish. Infants experiencing healthy attachments will also evolve a sense of security that is essential for psychological resilience and the reduction of risk for separation anxiety and other attachment-related issues. This paper outlines the different attachment theories provided by Bowlby and Ainsworth, both of which show how attachment experiences are central to the evolution of fundamental social needs, such as trust…
Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A Meta-Analysis of After-School
Programs hat Seek to Promote Personal and Social Skills in Children and Adolescents. American Journal Of Community Psychology, 45(3/4), 294-309. doi:10.1007/s10464-010-9300-6
he main idea of the study is to gauge the impact of after-school programs by evaluating a substantial sample of studies related to the subject, identifying various outcomes, variables, and locating themes or characteristics identified with positive outcomes (Durlak et el., 2010, p. 294). he study also emphasizes the role of after-school programs in building or strengthening personal and social benefits to those who enroll in them. Durlak et al. utilize a meta-analysis method in order to assess the efficacy of after-school programs in their promotion of personal/social skills in children and adolescents. hey located and reviewed 75 reports examining 69 separate after-school programs. Using a standardized mean difference (SMD), the researchers developed an index…
This study attempts to fill a gap in literature on how parental management of adolescents' social skills relates to parental management of peers. The main objective of the study is to identify predictors as to what can produce positive outcomes in the parent-peer relationship. The study uses a mostly white sample and utilizes a questionnaire, survey method in order to obtain data on parental goals, management of peers, and their perception of youths' social skills. Adolescents also completed a questionnaire about how they viewed their social skills. The surveys were then compared and path analysis used to interpret the data. The researchers found that having goals was associated with positive outcomes in adolescent development and that parental beliefs are instrumental in forming the social skill levels of youths in the long run (Mounts, 2011, p. 416).
The study's strengths lie in its clear, consistent approach to the issue highlighted in its introduction; it makes strong and effective use of prior literature in order to establish a substantial and rational basis for its purpose. It clearly defines the methodology and how results were obtained, and it discusses findings in a relevant and insightful manner that is consistent with the scope and aim of the study. It identifies predictors of parental management of peer relationships and also identifies a number of variables associated with outcomes, such as assertiveness, responsibility, empathy and self-control, all of which are meaningful in the overall assessment of positive development of youths' social skills (Mounts, 2011, p. 420). The study has no methodological weaknesses and is thoroughly explanatory and logical.
The study is helpful in my own study as it could be used to frame the directional course of my interaction with the issue of using golf programs to help develop positive skills in youths of different backgrounds. The main finding of the study, that positive beliefs, goals and trends in caring adults positively impacts the development of social skills in youths, is a strong support for my study and may be discussed in detail in my study's literature review section, as it gives a quantitative analysis of how effective positive leadership is in the lives of under-developed youths who stand to benefit from positive intervention, such as an after-school program like golfing, which can help them to develop their personality, social and academic skills accordingly.
Unfortunately, for those individuals who did not use direct coping strategies but instead used the kind of coping that distances one's thoughts, emotions, and physical presence from the stressor (e.g., denial and wishful thinking) or disengages completely (e.g., escape and emotional numbing) to cope with discrimination stress tended to have lower self-esteem.
Consequences/Effects of Low Self-Esteem
A number of studies have shown that low self-esteem is predictive of negative outcomes. Parker et al. (2005) found that girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest jealousy of friends and that a reputation for being jealous of friends was associated with aggressive behavior and other peer adjustment difficulties, including loneliness.
Donnellan et al. (2005) found a link between low self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. The authors cited osenberg (1965), who suggested that low self-esteem weakens ties to society and weaker ties to society decrease conformity…
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 15, 328-335.
Edwards, L.M. & Romero, A.J. (2008). Coping with discrimination among Mexican descent adolescents. Marquette University Education Faculty Research and Publications. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/edu fac/59.
Krayer, A., Ingledew, D.K. & Iphofen, K. (2008). Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach. Health Education Research, 23. 892-903.
Martinez, I & Garcia, J.F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 19-29.
Bay-Cheng, L.Y. (Aug., 2001). SexEd.com: Values and norms in Web-based sexuality education. Journal of Sex Research, 38(3), 241-251.
Beebe, T.J., Asche, S.E., Harrison, P.A., & Quinlan, K.B. (Aug., 2004). Heightened vulnerability and increased risk-taking among adolescent chat room users: Results from a statewide school survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(2), 116-123.
Borzekowski, Dina L.G. & Rickert, Vaughn I. (2001b). Adolescent cybersurfing for health information: A new resource that crosses barriers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 813-817.
Brown, J.D. (Feb., 2002). Mass media influences on sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 42-45.
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…
Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view
Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young
Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street
Northern and Southern Colonies before the Civil War
In the middle of the 19th century, the industrial revolution that was growing depicted the presence of the two countries all of the most progressive independent states. The symbolic status in England laid the foundation of working class exploitation, urbanization and industrialization and the other one based on village, farmhouse, agriculture, and trustworthy relations between tenants and squires in 1845. egarding the census of the 1850, the population of the United States was about twenty-three million; this was a rise from thirteen million in the year 1830. As of 1850, the North saw increased populations of immigrants incoming. The census that was carried out in 1860 showed the population of the United States to be about thirty-one million. This represented a thirty-nine percent increase in a span of ten years where the South only had eighth million whites compared to twenty million…
Fitzhugh, George. Cannibals All! Or, Slaves Without Master. (Port Royal, Caroline, VA: 1857). A. Morris, Publisher, chapter 1, 1-4
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon "Commercial development and immigration in the North at midcentury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 11, 304-334
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs, and Gjerde Jon. "Agriculture and Slavery in the South at Midcetury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 12, 335-360
McPherson James M. "The United States at Midcetury" in McPherson James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. (Oxford: 1988). Oxford University Press, Chapter 1, 7-46
What Kinds of Changes Are Occurring Within the Brain During the First 2 Years of Life?"
There are several kinds of changes that occur within the brain during the first 2 years of life (Bornstein & Lamb, 89). In fact, some developmental specialists believe that if first two years of life periods in brain development are not utilized, opportunities for brain development can never be regained because in later years the flexibility of using brain is lost. By the time a baby is born, she will have l00 billion brain cells, but these cells are not connected in circuits the way they will be, when the brain begins to mature. In the first two years of life, the brain rapidly forms connections between brain cells and ultimately a single cell can connect with as many as 15,000 other cells (Bruer, 75-81).
During the first year of life, the…
Bornstein, M.H. & Lamb, M.E. Development in Infancy: An Introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1992
Bruer, J.T. The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning. NY: Free Press, 1999.
Campbell, F.A. & Ramey, C.T. Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 1995, 32(4): 742-772.
Dawson, G & Fishcer, K. Human Behavior and the Developing Brain. NY: Guilford, 1994.
(Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies," 2004)
2. Alphabetic Principle-related Skills: This includes: "phonemic awareness, the ability to manipulate the sounds of oral language and phonics and the relationship of letters to sound." (Ibid) Strategies includes instruction" that focuses on high-frequency, sound- spelling relationships." (Ibid)
3. Fluency: This is the ability to read "quickly, accurately and with appropriate expression." (Ibid) Strategies include: "guided oral reading and repeated reading" (Ibid) for improving fluency and comprehension.
4. Vocabulary: The size of the learner's vocabulary is that which leads to "large variations in reading ability." (Ibid) Strategies include "direct [and] explicit instruction and learning from context while reading" (Ibid) for increasing vocabulary among students.
5. Reading Comprehension: This is the most "apparent deficit in students' reading abilities at the secondary level." (Ibid) Strategies include the following:
a) Comprehensive monitoring;
b) Cooperative learning;
d) Story structure;
Davey, Heidi (2006) Motivation and Adolescent and Adult Readers. PowerPoint presentation. Hoffman Estates High School, Northern Illinois University. Online available at http://www.reading.ie/conferences/2006/Motivation%20and%20the%20Adolescent%20Reader.ppt.
Alvermann, Donna E. (2001) Effective Literacy Instruction for Adolescents. National Reading Conference (NRC) position paper - revised. 25 Oct 2001. Online available at http://www.coe.uga.edu/reading/faculty/alvermann/effective2.pdf .
Reading Literacy for the 21st Century (2004) published online and available at http://www.all4ed.org/publications/Reading%20for%2021st%20Century.pdf .
Wigfield, Alan (nd) Motivation for Literacy During Adolescence. Online available at http://www.soe.umich.edu/events/als/downloads/wigfield.pdf .
bevy of information about diabetes and the many different considerations for treatment that pertain to it. In this regard I found it quite comprehensive. It provides a good deal of detail about treating this condition from administering insulin to the different ways the human body can change: and the ways those changes inherently affect treatment. The article is loosely structured around a case study of an adolescent diabetes patient who is incurring difficulty with managing type 1 diabetes. Her story is used as a framework for the author's explanation of treatment concerns pertaining to adolescents which involves physical attributes, hormonal ones, and even social ones. The author explores the different types of diabetes and a number of different options for managing this condition. The focus of the way the majority of the information is presented, however, is within a context that applies to adolescents.
I learned a substantial amount of…
Trast, J. (2014). CE: diabetes and puberty: A glycemic challenge. American Journal of Nursing. 114(7), 26-35.
There is a high correlation between youth with substance abuse problems and youth with mental illness. Often, the substance abuse is a means of self-medicating. There are a lot of potential underlying factors for this high comorbidity, but it is important to recognize that the comorbidity exists, and it has implications for treatment. Proper psychiatric care is often required in concert with addiction treatment interventions, in order to ensure that youth facing these issues are able to overcome their addictions.
There are a number of psychiatric disorders that can occur with substance abuse during adolescence. For example, among those with an alcohol use disorder, 37% had comorbidity with a mental disorder. The odds are particularly high for multiple addictive disorders, such as drug use disorders. Some of the most common comorbidities with substance abuse disorders are antisocial personality disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (egier et al.,…
Bukstein, O., Brent, D. & Kaminer, Y. (1989). Comorbidity of substance and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 146 (9) 1131-1141.
Greenbaum, P., Prange, M., Friedman, R. & Silver, S. (1991). Substance abuse prevalence and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders among adolescents with severe emotional disturbances. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 30 (4) 575-583.
NIH (2011). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental disorders. NIH.gov. Retrieved April 11, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-disorders
NIH (2016). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental illnesses. National Institute of Drug Abuse Retrieved April 11, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-illnesses/why-do-drug-use-disorders-often-co-occur-other-mental-illnesses
Prejudice in Individuals:
Prejudice is the rigid irrational attitudes and opinions possessed by individuals or members of a specific group about another individual or group. onsequently, being prejudiced is defined as having preconceived beliefs regarding some people groups or cultural practices. In addition to being preconceived and difficult to change, prejudices can be positive or negative. While is possible to be prejudiced and fail to act upon the beliefs or attitudes, negative prejudices can result in discrimination. This negative form of prejudice is practiced in order to guard opportunities through denying access to groups of people. There is an urgent need to lessen prejudice because of the changing social structure, demographics, work place settings, and education settings. However, many efforts to reduce prejudices in these various settings have been legal and have failed to confront the dynamics of the disorder.
There are two prejudicial processes that operate differently…
Cole, J. (n.d.). Understanding Prejudice Behavior. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.beyondprejudice.com/under_stand.html
"Prejudice and Discrimination." (n.d.). Cliff Notes. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Prejudice-and-Discrimination.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26886.html
Schamotta, J. (n.d.). The Development of Prejudice. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8547880_development-prejudice.html
Adolescent Substance Abuse
Substance abuse, commonly referred to as drug abuse and alcohol abuse, has recently gained popularity amid the youth of America. This has been confirmed by SAMHSA (2003) whose survey indicated that around 2.2 million teenagers were convicted of being involved in substance abuse in 2003. Teenage is called the golden period of a person's life as this is full of excitement and energy. People are willing to experience all the good and bad things in life, and for some natural reason, bad things tend to be more attractive. Therefore, the inclination of youth towards excessive usage of drugs and alcohol is not surprising. However, the teenage period does not last long. If people continue the same activity as adults, this can ruin a person's social, academic life, putting a stop to his professional career. This makes it a critical problem that should be resolved as a priority.…
Diller, J.V. (2007). Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services. 3rd ed. pp. 28.
Mark, T.L, Song, X., Vandivort, R., Duffy, S., Buttler, J., Coffey, R., Schabert, V. (2009). Characterizing substance abuse programs that treat adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_5/article12.pdf
SAMHSA. (2003). Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/2k3nsduh/2k3Results.htm
Tripodi, S.J.; Bender, K; Litschge, C; Vaughn, V.G. (2010). Interventions for Reducing Adolescent Alcohol Abuse: A Meta-analytic Review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010; 164(1):85-91
Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…
ACT (2006b). Reading for college and reading for work: Same or different? (Report). Iowa City, IA: Author.
Cooney, S. (1999). Leading the way: State actions to improve student achievement in the middle grades. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
Elmore, R. F. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development in education. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
Graves, Michael, and Lauren Liang. (2008). "Four facets of reading comprehension instruction in the middle grades," Middle school journal (March 2008).
Adolescent Development in the Movie The Breakfast Club
The 1985 film The Breakfast Club, which was written and directed by John Hughes, presents an ideal opportunity to study and psychoanalyze adolescent development. The film portrays five different teenage stereotypes (the jock, nerd, criminal, prom queen, and social outcast) which are consigned to detention in the library on a weekend day (Tanen & Hughes, 1985). As the teenagers gradually get to know each other and interact amongst themselves, they reveal crucial causes and effects of some basic psychological principles related to the development of adolescents. They share a number of problems in common including an almost universal sense of alienation from their parents and from adults in general. As such, there are several psychological theories that apply to them, including, most eminently, Erickson's stages of development.
Erickson's stages of development are predicated by some basic facts of what is known as…
Tanen, N., & Hughes, J. (1985). The Breakfast Club. U.S.: A&M Films.
Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.
Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…
Caissy, G. (1986, November/December). Early adolescence: The physical transition. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987a, January). Early adolecscence: A time of stormy emotions. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987b, February/March). Early adolecscence: The social demension. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987c, June). Early adolecscence: The intellectual domain. FWTAO newsletter.
Sexual Activity in Adolescence
The scholarly literature on adolescence and health reflects the fact that some young people make risky decisions regarding sexual activities -- and the use of drugs also plays a role in their behavior. In this paper, those issues and others related to adolescent behaviors -- including the earlier initiation of sexual activities -- will be presented through in-depth analysis.
Adolescent Sexual Activities and Psychosocial Adjustments
There has been an assumption in the literature for some time that when adolescents delay their first sexual experience, they adjust better psychosocially as young adults a bit later in their lives. Another assumption has been that instances where young adults have their first sexual intercourse experience between 16 and 18 years of age "…are linked to lower adjustment in many life domains" (Haase, 2012, 199).
However, a peer-reviewed research article in the journal European Psychologist challenges those notions with empirical…
Cooper, M.L., Wood, P.K., and Orcutt, H.K. (2003). Personality and the Predisposition to Engage in Risky or Problem Behaviors During Adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 390-410.
Fantasia, H.C., Sutherland, M.A., and Kelly-Weeder, S. (2012). Gender Differences in risky behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. Journal of the American Academy
of Nurse Practitioners, 24(7), 436-442.
Haase, C.M., Landberg, M., Schmidt, C., Ludke, K., and Silbereisen, R.K. (2012). The later, the Better? Early, Average, and Late Timing of Sexual Experiences in Adolescence and Psychosocial Adjustment in Young Adulthood. European Psychologist, 17(3), 199-212.
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…
Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .
Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.
Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
Leadership Training for Adolescents
The focus of this work is the examination of whether early youth leadership training for adolescents could be a vehicle to address these problems among youth in rural communities. This study is quantitative in nature and investigates the existence of current leadership training programs at primary and high schools. The effect of newly developed leadership training programs and their effect on selected study participants will be examined. The sampling in this study will involve various age groups between 12 and 18 years of age.
Research questions in this study include those stated as follows:
(1) What is the relationship between early leadership training and problem solving skills among rural youth?
(2) What is the relationship between early leadership training and self-esteem among youth?
(3) What is the relationship between early leadership training and enhancing leadership skills among rural youth?
Significance of the Study
The significance of…
In a widespread "declaration of principles for youth participation in community research and evaluation" stated is that participation by youth in community research and evaluation transforms its participants, it transforms their ways of knowing, their activities, and their program of work." (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd) Youth participation is additionally reported to promote the empowerment of youth and to acknowledge their experience and expertise and to develop their organizational and community capacities." (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd) Youth participation additionally works in building partnerships and valuing the resources and assets of "all age groups" as well as providing strength to relationships that are supportive between adults and youths. (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd ) Youth participation is reported as well to equalize "power relationships between youth and adults" as well as to establish common ground for them to overcome past inequities and collaborate as equals in institutions and decisions." (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd)
Checkoway, B. And Richrds-Schuster, K. (nd) Participatory Evaluation with Young People. Retrieved from: http://ssw.umich.edu/public/currentprojects/youthAndCommunity/pubs/youthbook.pdf
Stiflier, L. (2010) Leadership Development in Rural Communities. Community and Economic Development in North Carolina and Beyond. Retrieved from: http://ced.sog.unc.edu/?p=872
Nowadays, adolescent problem behavior is conceptualized as 2 empirically derived syndromes: externalizing problems (including delinquency and aggression) and internalizing problems (including depression, anxiety, and withdrawal) (Achenbach, 1991a, 1991b). Little is known about the structure of internalizing problem behavior. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during adolescence. (eitz, Dekovic, & Meijer, 2005, ¶ 2).
At the end of their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer (2005) recount that prior research primarily focused on externalizing problems, the structure of a limited range of problem behavior, and basically found support for a 1-factor structure. Their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer assert, extended previoius research as it explored externalizing, as well as internalizing problems, examining whether both types of behaviors belonged to one single factor of general problem behavior (1-factor model), or whether the two types behavior ought to be deemed two separate…
Bartlett, R., Holditch-Davis, D. & Belyea, M. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents.
Pediatric Nursing. Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from HighBeam
Biglan, Anthony., Foster, Sharon L., Brennan, Patricia A., & Holder, Harold D. (2005). Helping
Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development & adolescent depression
This is a paper concerning the development stages of an adolescent and depression. Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development will be used to explain what may lead to a child feeling depressed or suicidal.
DEPRESSION IN TEENS
Approximately five percent of children and adolescents experience depression at some point in their lives (AACAP 1998). Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson studied the development of the adolescents. Their theories will give clearer understanding to why teenagers become depressed and what can be done about the problem. Depression comes from a variety of problems in the adolescent's life. Recognizing depression is important. "Out of 100,000 adolescents, two to three thousand will have mood disorders out of which 8-10 will commit suicide" (Brown 1996). The causes of depression in a teenager can stem from family problems, peer pressure and bullying, and changes in…
Bond, Lyndal; Carlin, John B.; Thomas, Lyndal; Rubin, Kerryn; & Patton, director, George. "Does Bullying Cause Emotional Problems? A Prospective Study of Young Teenagers." BMJ: British Medical Journal. 9/1/2001, Vol. 323. Issue7311. p. 480
Chandler, Jim M.D. FRCPC. "Depression In Children and Adolescents -- what it is and what to do about it" http://www.klis.com/chandler/pamphlet/dep/depressionpamphlet.htm
Depression in Children and Adolescents" A Fact Sheet for Physicians. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov /publicat/depchildresfact.cfm
The Depressed Child" AACAP Facts for Families American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Fact sheets No. 4. 1997.
The concept of egocentrism in adolescence has been controversial for years. Many theorists have addressed the topic with differing beliefs and conclusions (McDevitt, 2002). Egocentrism in adolescence can be painful not only for the adolescence but for those who are within his or her life circle. It is all about concern that they are being watched. Teens often stop letting mom or dad go to their school, they do not want to be seen in public with them and they insist on wearing the popular name brand clothing or they believe that their life will be ruined.
There are several schools of thought regarding egocentrism in teens. Piaget believed that it actually began to dissipate during the teen years though he did develop a theory about why teens are preoccupied with what others think about them (McDevitt, 2002). According to Piaget it is actually a bit contradictory. It is…
Child Development: Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents. (2nd Ed.) By McDevitt & Ormrod. Pearson-Prentice Hall 2002.
Learn the signs of early puberty http://pediatrics.about.com/cs/conditions/a/early_puberty.htm
Boys Delayed Puberty: How To Ease Fears by Charles Wibbelsman, MD
During the study a number of factors were considered for the evaluation of the fact that females unlike males in Saudi Arabia constitute a larger proportion.
Lifestyle and dietary
Adolescent boys and girls were studied for at least two weeks on their feeding habits, for this period, females were observed to consume more snacks than male in that males could only consume snacks once a fortnight unlike their female counterparts who for the 14 days averagely took snacks at least 12 days. For the consumption of rice, bread, nuts and fish the percentage of females consuming this surpassed that of men i.e. 54.8 to 50.5%, this shows that females consumes more food products that are energy giving than males in Saudi Arabia leading to deposition of more calories in the body triggering obesity as it is supposed that the body can not convert the whole chunk of calories. More…
Al-Gelban, K.S. (2008). Diatery Habits and Exercise Practices among the Students of a Saudi
Teachers Training College. Saudi Med J, 29 (5), 754-759.
Al-Rukban, M. (2003). Obesity among Saudi Male Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med Journal, 34, 27-33.
Al-Shammari, S., Khoja, T., & Al-Subaie, A. (1994). Trans-cultural Attitude Towards Being
Treating Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia nervosa is an eating confusion described by a terror of fatness experienced during the adolescence period that leads to them to starving themselves leading to harmful low body weight, a moody fear of being fat and compulsive hunt for thinness. Though not limited to a certain age or sex, it mostly affects the female. The eating disorder affects both the physical appearance; thin appearance and psychological health. Though the origin of anorexia nervosa is blurred, severe fasting and weight loss are regularly linked with efforts to manage the increasing psychological and social burden of adolescence, the disorder leads to a reported death rate of 6-10% of the adolescent who do not seek medication in time Berkman et al., 2006.
The worry among most clinicians is whether to focus on anxieties the adolescence have during this period of growth or addressing the rigorous dieting and…
Berkman, N.D., Bulik, C., Lohr, K., Brownley, K., J., S., Rooks, A., & Gartlehner, G. (2006). Management of Eating Disorders. North Carolina: AHRQ Publication.
Cachelin, M., & Rebeck, R. (2000). Barriers to Treatment for Eating Disorders among Ethnically Diverse Women. California: Wesleyan press.
Lock, J., Couturier, J., & A., S.W. (2006). Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa Treated With Family Therapy. Ontario: DOI press.
Shepphird, S.F. (2010). 100 questions & answers about anorexia nervosa. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
NUTRITION DURING THE ADOLESCENT STAGE IN PREVENTING FUTURE DISEASES? HOW MIGHT NUTRITION AFFECT GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND LEARNING DURING THE ADOLESCENT STAGE? SOURCES I NEED FOR MY BIBLIOGRAPHY: I REQUIRE THREE (3) PEER-REVIEWED JOURNALS AND TWO CREDIBLE WEBSITES.
The importance of nutrients during adolescence
Adolescents in the contemporary society find it difficult to follow a strict set of rules and most are inclined to pay little to no attention to their health. Nutrition is a delicate topic when considering adolescents because many consider that their health status is not going to change in the future. The fact that overweight adolescents have come to represent an important problem in the present contributes to the gravity of this situation and it is thus essential for teenagers to have a complex understanding of the concept of nutrition. Nutrition is important when considering learning and behavior, this meaning that the future of society partly rests…