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Adult education has two branches. One can be called the purpose of education and the other can be named the practice of education. Many times it happens that in a practical set up the difference between the purpose and practice of adult education results in some sort of tensions in the working area. Tension does not necessarily mean that a problem arises that cannot be solved but it just means that the people who have been educated in a particular way and have been trained with a certain purpose of education do not find the same purpose being implemented in the place where they work. This is when these people become confused and they are unable to perform their job to the fullest.
Adult education and learning has changed over time in many parts of the world including Australia. The proposed model for adult education that was being practiced for…… [Read More]
Education - Theory
Adult Education Theories
Adult educations philosophies are fashioned in order to scope and characterize the process of individual educators. Teaching adults is way more sophisticated than teaching children due to a difference in life contexts. Consequently, adult education philosophies are essential in terms of directing and assisting oth adult learners and educators. It conceptualizes and clarifies adult's ehaviors and thoughts when they are in the learning environment. Adult learners learn ased on their life circumstances and the change of awareness or viewpoint. Adult education philosophy is one of the good ways to recognize the est methods of teaching adult learners. Educators are divided into a variety of types of characteristics ased on their viewpoint of adult education (Galraith, 2004).
Adults learn etter in a non-aggressive environment where they can work together with others and where they are in control of their learning course. They are more motivated…… [Read More]
Moreover, I would have expected a review of the past ten years of Adult Education Quarterly to reveal a dramatic increase in submissions related directly to the impact of technology on distance adult learning. As Taylor brings up the importance of international voices in the AEQ, educators are realizing the need for international curricula if not student bodies. What Taylor found in a 1989 to 1999 content analysis was not surprising, given the temporal and historical context of the research. For example, a gentle rise in the numbers of published female-authored articles is not surprising but the discrepancy between female-authored submissions and acceptances remains disturbing. Research conducted today would, or at least should, reveal less gender bias in admissions.
The ten-year survey should have yielded more dramatic shifts in the breadth of subject areas covered by authors, or at least those admitted by the editors at AEQ. Adult education is…… [Read More]
Historians are interested in a multitude of forces of influences that have led to the creation of the present status-quo and the history professors are focused on presenting those particular forces in a way that is understanding and relevant to the citizens of the contemporaneous society.
3. Does knowing our history even matter?
Definitely yes! In the words of the author, "Because human development is a continuous process in which the present is informed by both the known past and the projected future, adult education professionals must have a knowledge and understanding of the history of their field" (Thompson). Otherwise put, in order to best understand and adapt to the world today, we need to be familiar with the features that have influenced its past, how have certain conflicts become resolved and are certain situations prone to occur again or have they been eliminated for good? In all, we need…… [Read More]
BMCC: Provider of Adult Education
The BMCC Center for Continuing Education and Workforce Development through the City of New York offers a wide variety of classes in business management, career planning, personal development, and English language development. Career training classes offer programs in construction, real estate and computer software; business management offers classes in project management, entrepreneurship and finance; career planning offers assistance to people who need to develop interview or resume-writing skills; personal development offers classes in modern languages and local history; and ESL offers help with second language development and college preparation. The tuition rates vary depending upon the class that is being taken. Some of the classes are free of charge, such as the ACT Math, eading and Writing workshops that are designed for college students who need help with basic college skills. Other courses are reasonably priced, such as "Writing an Effective esume & Cover Letter,"…… [Read More]
Bergevin's Philosophy of Adult Education
According to Bergevin, three important points of adult education are to help the learner achieve a degree of personal satisfaction, help the learner to better understand their strengths and weaknesses, and help the learner understand the importance of lifelong learning. Bergevin also suggests that opportunities need to be available for learners to continue the spiritual and vocational maturation process, as well as opportunities to pursue education in areas where the individual may be lacking vital employment or survival skills. These points sum up my philosophy of adult education. My point-of-view is that everyone, regardless of their age, should strive to become a lifelong learner. This does not mean that everyone needs to keep attending college classes until they die of old age; this approach would not be either cost-effective or practical. However, everyone should continue to acquire new information, to make up for their areas…… [Read More]
Adult Education in Contemporary Society
Ultimately, adult education improves society and the individual at the same time. Hal Beder's studies indicate that most adult learners believe they have improved themselves and their employment after completing adult education courses. This improves the individual, giving them better job opportunities, more confidence in themselves and their abilities, and better skills to help take care of themselves and their families. However, a better-educated society is a more productive and successful society. Many of the readings and statistics show that there are still a remarkable number of people who have not completed high school in our country (I believe the number was 40% according the Census Bureau). This is startling, because it is such a high number. Many of these people are productive members of society, but they struggle with issues like poverty and hunger, simply because they do not have the education or skills…… [Read More]
In the work they review several burgeoning adult learning sites that can be accessed via the WWW.andhow they as a group and individually are changing the outlook of adult education, on a basic and continuing education level. Learners are seeking technology-based learning to decrease time expended as well as increase the flexibility of the learning experience, so their lives as wage earners in a family are only limitedly interrupted. The authors of the work are staunch advocated of technology in adult education and show their bias here by stressing the many positive aspects of applying technology to the adult classroom and the alternative adult learning environment. The most important content of this brief article is the emphasis of net-based research tools that review adult learning technology cites on a regular basis, allowing the learner to "shop" for the one that best meets his or her needs (www.thirteen.org/wnetschool).
Hopey, C. (1999).…… [Read More]
(2005) the needs of adult students are of a unique nature and include: (1) institutional flexibility in curricular and support services; (2) academic and motivational advising supportive of their life and career goals; and (3) recognition of previously obtained experience- and work-based learning. This work states eight principles along with their definitions and include the principles of: (1) outreach; (2) life and career planning; (3) financing; (4) assessment of learning outcomes; (5) teacher-learning process; (6) student support systems; (7) technology; and (8) strategic partnerships.
4) Research-ased Principles - Adult asic Education Reading Instruction (2002) Partnership for Reading. The National Institute for Literacy. 2002.
The Reading Research Working Group (RRWG) is a panel of experts on adult reading research and practice which was established by the National Institute for Literacy in cooperation with the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy and is part of the efforts of…… [Read More]
Perry (2006), expresses that heightened states of arousal can actually be negative when combined with the necessary atmosphere for proper adult learning.
3. What evidence of socio-centric tendencies do you find in either perspective? Support your findings with specific examples. There are numerous societal aspects found in both readings. Merriam (2005) expresses that life events i.e. divorce and have either a negative or a positive effect on the adult learner. Perry (2006) relates difficulties more to a cognitive level than does Merriam. Although both writers do express those life events, have an impact on learning and ability regardless of if the effect is negative or positive. All life events will have an impact; this is true for both writings. However, Perry (2006) is the only one that appears to believe that even positive events can in fact cause a negative outcome in the adult learning dynamic.
Merriam, S. (2005).…… [Read More]
Sternberg's definition of analytical or componential intelligence includes using higher-order thinking processes to obtain and retain knowledge. The creative or experiential component involves the ability to synthesize information and make connections. Finally, the practical or contextual aspect of intelligence involves using the information in the real world. He warns that many so-called intelligent people fail because they are unmotivated, they are unable to persevere, or they cannot control their impulses or desires for immediate gratification. He claims that the only authentic measure of intelligence is practical success.
In the context of adult education, adults must be able to utilize all of these components to be successful at a learning task. They must be able to not only obtain knowledge, but retain the information that they have learned. This often involves the use of higher-order thinking skills such as questioning, analysis and evaluation. They must be able to connect the information…… [Read More]
Learning communities need to be established, led by nongovernmental organizations, churches, women's groups, public schools, and others from a diversity of each society that engages in adult learning.
Meantime, global capitalism's forces have fully "infiltrated universities" and have "incorporated" global thinking into a great deal of adult education as well; hence, professor Peter Jarvis asserts that traditional adult education necessarily must develop a new approach to "counteracting the forces of consumerism" (Jarvis, 2008, p. 12). The author spends considerable time referencing globalization and the consumer society before outlining his take on adult education. In discussing adult education Jarvis makes a pertinent and salient point: since adult education has been "incorporated into the dominant system" there is a danger for those in adult education that have been "sitting in the sidelines of society for a long time" to be blown away by becoming part of the mainstream of education (Jarvis, 23).…… [Read More]
A better case scenario would be to lower the prices on the programs that are hard for students to afford, in an attempt to gain larger enrollments, thus fill the classes, and still make a profit. Another solution would be to offer scholarships or some sort of funding, through donations and grants, to help offset the costs for students who are less able to pay for certain programs. Instead of raising the price on the big-ticket programs, try to keep costs down in other ways, such as bringing in free speakers and other elements that keep the costs down, so they are able to offer programs that meet the educations needs of the students but still turn a profit for the institution. Another idea would be to produce more big-ticket programs that appeal to a broader audience, so they produce more of a profit without raising prices, which would help…… [Read More]
In Level 1 almost all of the adults can read a little but not well enough to fill out an application, read a food label, or read a simple story to a child. Adults in Level 2 usually can perform more complex tasks such as comparing-contrasting, or integrating pieces of information but usually not higher-level reading and problem-solving skills. Adults in levels 3 through 5 usually can perform the same types of more complex tasks with increasing length and subject matter (Ibid).
Very few adults are completely illiterate; they simply fall into the lower levels of literacy. Between 21 and 23% of the adult population or approximately 44 million people, according to the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS), scored in Level 1. Another 25-28% of the adult population, or between 45 and 50 million people, scored in Level 2. Literacy experts believe that adults with skills at Levels 1 and…… [Read More]
Adult Learner Typologies
There are four types of adult learner typologies. They include:
Type I or Independent adult education organizations - These exist solely to teach adult learners, and they would include institutions such as the University of Phoenix. They target adults, often with degrees, who want to change careers, need continuing education, or want to finish degrees, and they offer a variety of courses, mostly in business, but in other areas, as well. Content addressed includes everything from degree programs to individual courses for students finishing up their degrees.
Type II or Educational institutions -- These institutions include higher educational and primary and secondary schools that also offer adult education. They are primarily for young people, but they do serve adults in at least some capacity. An example of this would be a high school that also offers evening classes for parents, such as ESL classes, computing classes or…… [Read More]
I saw self-directed learning in my mother as she set her goal, which was to complete each class, and to earn her degree.
Motivation to Learn
I felt like my mother was really motivated to learn. She was internally motivated because she had always wanted the opportunity to earn her degree in education and to become a classroom teacher. She often spoke about how she wanted to be able to help others to succeed, so she was motivated by the idea of encouraging and motivating her students. She was also externally motivated by the idea of financial rewards because she knew that she would make more money by working as a classroom teacher than as a teacher's aide. My mother had the internal drive to learn combined with the external motivation of making a better living.
Importance of the Knowledge of Adult Development
According to Merriam (1984), it…… [Read More]
The two sets of priorities combined, the people have a rather distorted view over its role in the society he lives in. This is why it is important that action be taken in order to correct this belief through adult learning. For instance, the role of the individual in a Latin American country, one in which the socialist norms of production still represent the backbone of the economic development is his role as a consumer of the goods often provided by the state (Leis, n.d.). However, this attitude is most often viewed among the older generation, as the young generation has a different perspective more liberal oriented.
Therefore, this is one of the major issues adult education must change dramatically in Latin America. Especially during the Cold War era, the idea that the state could provide the necessary means for subsistence was a common practice across the Eastern bloc. However,…… [Read More]
As aforementioned, the organizations within a society comprise of schools, universities, businesses, government bodies and offices, political groups, NGOs, public and private sector organizations, etc. The primary purposes of these organizations are to tackle the daily problems as well as the long-term issues within a society that will help it grow, sustain and succeed. Keeping the diverse nature of the organizations in mind it is only common sense to know that each organization will have a different set of policies that will have diverse impacts on the society. It is important to note here that the policies though might be different but they are formed under the umbrella of an accepted set of rules.
These organizations perhaps play the major part in how an individual or a society acts upon what they have learned or what they know in a responsible manner. The main element within organizations that needs to…… [Read More]
While proving all students with equal opportunities, the professors at Highlander also emphasize on the individuality of each person. And this idea of individuality was implemented early on by founder Myles Horton, who refused to divide the students according to their appurtenance to different social classes, like most of the education institutions used to do. Instead, he embraced the idea that America was at its core an agglomeration of a multitude of nations, each with different values, principles and characteristics. Otherwise put, they embraced and promoted the concepts of cultural diversity. "It also did not bracket questions of recognition; instead, it embraced diversity with open arms" (Spencer).
The final outcome of an adult student's education depends directly on his capabilities and true desires to succeed. It is also true that in some cases, he will be forced by features independent of him to simply become accommodated with the…… [Read More]
Adult Education and the Social Media evolution a Case Study: M. LeNoue, T. Hall, & M.A. Eighmy. Adult Learning Vol. 22 No. 2 p 4-12, Spring 2011
The world is changing, and now social media and web-based tools are a part of adult education. The paper by LeNoue, Hall, & Eighmy (2011), Adult Education and the Social Media evolution," discusses this phenomenon. Given their academic backgrounds in education, including a specialization in education of adults, the authors present arguments with considerable force and knowledge from experience.
This study addresses a variety of issues, effects, and usage situations that they have experienced in teaching student/adults. The modern e-learning process has evolved to include a variety of means that enable the student/adult to participate and overcome inherent barriers. Indeed, LeNoue and colleagues (2011) summarize their work with the critical point that so many strategies now exist to make e-learning effective that it…… [Read More]
In the field of education there are many distinguishing characteristics a learner can have. One of the attributes that every learner has is the style in which one learns ideas and concepts (Dunn & Griggs, 2000). The three main learning styles recognized by psychologists are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic (Dunn & Griggs, 2000). Visual is they style that focuses on a learner's ability to see, auditory is hearing, and kinesthetic is touching or feeling of items or an experience through movement (Dunn & Griggs, 2000). Everyone has a combination of these three learning styles and most learners are strongest in one of them.
When a learner, especially an adult, has issues in learning they are experiencing a performance gap. A performance gap is a lack of skills or knowledge, motivation, or confidence that negatively affects how an individual performs his or her job (Pershing, 2006). When an individual (learner) develops…… [Read More]
Further education, which is commonly abbreviated as FE, is a term that is used to refer to adult education or post-compulsory education that is different from the education provided in higher education institutions like colleges and universities. Further education or adult education may be provided at any level beyond compulsory education such as basic training, Higher National Diploma, and Foundation Degree. Further education or adult education is provided in FE colleges, which educate more than 3 million people annually and enhance social inclusion. These colleges provide a significant portion of state-supported adult and lifelong or continued learning provision. The FE colleges provide a diverse range of learning programs and qualifications that are distinct from schools and universities. In addition to academic qualifications and a series of accredited and non-accredited adult programs, these colleges provide several vocational qualifications.
oles and esponsibilities of a Teacher in FE/Adult Education Sector:
Generally,…… [Read More]
I remember almost nothing from the history class, but I still use information that I learned in the art class.
Houle's Classification Criteria for Continuing Education
According to Houle (as cited by Conner, 2004), learners can be classified as goal oriented, involving people who use their education to accomplish goals, activity-oriented, which includes those who learn because they enjoy the social contact, and learning-oriented, which embodies those who learn information for its own sake. I fall into more than one category. I am definitely goal oriented, and I have pursued a formal education because education is the only way to advance in our society. On the other hand, I also enjoy learning for its own sake. My learning-oriented activities, however, are not formal. I spend a lot of my own time reading and researching topics that interest me, but I do not normally attend classes to learn about these topics.…… [Read More]
Within Human esources Development
The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.
An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."
Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece,…… [Read More]
This can be exploited to encourage the adult students to get into adult education and continue from one stage to another.
Secondly nowles poses that experimental or pragmatic education is the most effective form of adult education. This involves allowing the learners to make mistakes and continue learning from the same. This, as a practitioner, I can use as a very effective tool of assisting the adult learners. It is worth encouraging them to try what they can especially in class participation, assignments, co-curricular activities without reservations and pointing out the shortfalls as I tell them how they can use the same to learn.
Thirdly, Andragogy presumes that for adults to be truly ready to learn new ideas, they need to feel the assurance that whatever they are due to learn or are learning is straightforwardly pertinent to their daily lives. This helps practitioners develop a learning curriculum that is…… [Read More]
Adult education [...] advantages and disadvantages of returning to school as an adult.
Returning to school as an adult has many advantages. Many times, adults returning to school have discovered that they really do not like the career they chose to major in as a teenager, and their interests and thoughts have changed. They return to school to study a new discipline. For example, a lawyer discovers they really do not enjoy practicing law, and they return to school to get a degree in education, so they can teach. These adult learners are often extremely motivated, and so they finish school more quickly. Many adult learners I have talked with also say they get more out of school the second time around. The first time they are not so interested, and the second time, they are.
In addition, most adult learners have already completed their basic education, if…… [Read More]
The writer also creates a new perspective when exploring different arguments. This new perspective creates a foundation for enhanced critical thinking and psychological skills. Finally, journal writing is also a self-directed activity that prepares students to critically understand and evaluate books and articles.
According to Muirhead (2002), the Journal riting approach relies on a student-centered assessment philosophy. In this model, students are not empty vessels to be filled up with knowledge. Instead, students and instructors are seen as academic partners. The adult students are autonomous and independent, and much of their studying depends on innovative assignments and assessment tools.
Because much of the learning is student-centered and done independently, it is even more important for the instructor to provide clear feedback. Towards this, Muirhead (2002) recommends the development of a rubric that allows an instructor to effectively grade and render evaluation. Developing such a tool takes time, and must be…… [Read More]
In a more globalized society, competition has become as ubiquitous as it is contentious. Companies, customers, and governments continue to expand and move, irrespective of geographic boundaries. The information age, has allowed the seamless and cost effective exchange of goods services and information. As the information age, along with more interconnected societies continue to grow, so too will the need for effective job training. Unfortunately, adult education has not become a paramount interest to society. This is apparent with the overall lack of adult education and training mechanisms within the community. In order to better compete in a more globalized society, the constituents within society must be properly trained. America in particular, has fallen behind its Asian counterparts as it relates to both math and science. These two subjects are critical to the new found information transfer currently underway. Consequently, the adult population is not properly trained to…… [Read More]
Adult Learning Assessment
Adult learners comprise one of the fastest-growing segments of students today, and adult learners typically have needs that differentiate them from the younger learner. There is already much scholarship devoted to how the adult student learns new information. This understanding of the different learning styles has been taken into consideration in the design of courses and curricula for adult learners.
However, teaching tools are only part of the equation. Educators must also be able to assess if the adult learner is indeed retaining the information at both a critical and analytical level. Thus, in addition to the development of curricula, Cooledge et al. (2000) discussed the need to develop proper assessment tools for adult learners. In particular, Cooledge et al. (2000) focuses on the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment, one of the most popular tools in adult education.
The first part of this article is a…… [Read More]
Sociology and Adult Education
Many believe that vessel education and training that that the very foundation of success. A strong educational background can help any individual branch into new opportunities, where individual goals and community goals are intimately intertwined. In addition to traditional education facilities, the United States has a prominent adult education industry which helps bring academic practices and continuous learning to individuals already within a working environment. Essentially, adult education helps empower both the individual and the community through a continual closure to new and useful information that continuously pushes the individual towards more progressive action.
There is a wide variety of types of adult education offers within mainstream American society today. Essentially, what sets adult education apart from traditional educational program is the fact that adults are already within the workforce are returning to an educational civility in order to train on some potentially lucrative…… [Read More]
Adult education [...] three major elements regarding the history of adult education that have had the greatest impact on adult education today. Three of the most important elements that still impact adult education today are the U.S. Department of Agriculture and The Land Grant Act (The Morrill Act) that helped form Land Grant educational institutions, and formed the backbone of the Cooperative Extension System formed in 1914, as well. Cooperative Extension services continue today in all the states, they are a large area of adult education in society, offering classes in everything from gardening to health, and often they are free. Next, is the Chautauqua Institution, and finally is the American Association of Adult Education, formed in 1926.
The Morrill Act, passed in 1862, helped create colleges in every state in the union. These colleges would teach the necessities of life at the time, including agriculture, mechanical arts, and homemaking.…… [Read More]
They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation. Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society."
Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…… [Read More]
The benefits of this study will be both to adult learners and to their educators. The benefits to the students should be obvious; though it will take time and further research to evaluate and implement the suggestions made by this study on a large scale, the needs of the students in a multicultural setting will be better met by educators who better understand the diversity of needs and styles that multiculturalism helps to propagate and condense in the classroom.
4) the theoretical frameworks of multiculturalism and teaching theories are best suited to the study proposed. The varying degrees of assimilation and resistance to it need to be both respected and understood for effective teaching to take place, as well as an understanding of specific practices and behaviors of other cultures. Multiculturalism, though now a disputed framework, still provides the clearest and most readily applicable insights into these areas, and will…… [Read More]
adult learner, including statistics, and self-directed learning. Adult education has seen dramatic growth since the introduction of online and self-directed courses, and the numbers show it. As noted, in 1991, approximately 58 million adults participated in adult education courses, while in 1999; the number grew to 90 million. The latest figures show an even more dramatic rise in numbers. The National Center for Education Statistics indicates that by 2005, 53.9% of adults aged 16 to 64 had participated in adult education, for either business or pleasure, jumping to 133 million people (Editors, 2009).
Adult learning has taken off in the Internet age, and it is very interesting to note that the very highest percentage of adult learners returning to school, for various reasons, is the group who has already completed at least a bachelor's degree. Sixty-five percent of these adults have participated in adult education classes for business or pleasure.…… [Read More]
philosophy that best reflects my opinion of adult education. Google "philosophy of adult education" and you will find essentially personal essays and thoughts about the philosophy of how and why adult education exists.
My personal philosophy of adult education is a result of my personal awareness of the essential purpose of education. From my view, education should be an empowering tool, which enables adults to attain their full potential and realize their objectives throughout their lives. In this example, education should offer adults the opportunity to augment their employment skills so that they can pursue the career they really want to succeed in life. I believe it is the goal of adult education to be able to identify the candidates of adult learners who can benefit from adult education and realize their dreams.
One of the main purposes of adult education is to enable adult learners to make the most…… [Read More]
This type of education has worked best within societies that contain large amounts of oppressive practices, where the oppressed need to learn some autonomy. More developed countries however tend to favor the more traditional types of education (Werner, 2000).
It is important to assess the specific needs of one's own educational environment. Some environments, as seen above, would benefit more from the behaviorist philosophy than from the humanist philosophy, and vice versa. It is therefore important to establish an initial focus, determine goals, and assess student needs. When there is for example a need for strongly skill-centered learning, such as a computer-skills course, this would benefit little from a behaviorist methodology. When the course is however more flexible and artistic, it might be better to focus on students' individual needs and concerns. In order to find what would work best in a specific classroom therefore, once should assess needs…… [Read More]
As the population grows older there becomes more of a need for educational attainment to stretch beyond the traditional years in which one would think of it being. Older adults are playing a bigger and bigger role within our society and educating this group will benefit everyone involved. I feel that not only does there need to be a push to make sure that education institutions are offering opportunities to older adults there needs to be a campaign of information geared towards this group so that they know what is out their and available to them. The percentage of people in this age group taking advantage of post secondary education needs to be increased for the good of the overall workforce.
Adult Learning. (2007). etrieved November 24, 2009, from National Center for Education
Statistics Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2007/section1/indicator10.asp
Framing New Terrain: Older Adults & Higher Education. (2007). etrieved November 24,…… [Read More]
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…… [Read More]
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…… [Read More]
This helps the institution become more successful and viable, and it creates a more diversified and content student body. It is the responsibility of students to demand this type of diversity if it does not already exist, as well. Students have the right to expect the best educational experience they can imagine at their institutions, and institutions have the responsibility to continually upgrade their delivery and content to meet the needs of a changing student body. Diversity brings greater awareness and understanding, and it brings new opportunities to learn from a more diverse population. An institution that remains stagnant when it comes to diversity will find itself behind the times and losing enrollment to more progressive schools, and so, it is the responsibility of the institution to keep current and foster diversity.
Diversity is the wave of the future, and an institution has to prepare its students for the future,…… [Read More]
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…… [Read More]
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…… [Read More]
The findings yielded a direct correlation between poor inhaler use and poor literacy: Poor inhaler technique was found in 89% of patients reading at less than the third-grade level compared with 48% of patients reading at the high-school level (Nowlan, illiams, Baker, Honig, Lee 1991).
This study's result would have a direct impact upon traditional patient educational efforts, as health education still tends to rely heavily on printed materials. These materials might also be written at too high a level. Making use of pictorial materials and personal demonstrations, the authors concluded, might be more effective than using traditional verbally-based media. The study suggests that different approaches are needed, and more personalized intervention may be required for asthmatics, at least during early stages of treatment. However, there is an issue of correlation vs. causation -- individuals with low levels of literacy may have difficulty learning in general, regardless of the medium,…… [Read More]
" (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998)
Activities in the classroom that use generative themes derived from the adult learner's lives "have been seen to facilitate their acquisition of literacy." (Friere, 1992; as cited in: Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) According to Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson (1998) the use of "life-context-specific materials and activities in adult literacy programs is supported by research that documents the powerful role of context in learning." Stated as an example is "...workplace literacy programs teach literacy skills as they are needed within specific work contexts. Compared to programs that concentrated more on 'genera' literacy, adult programs that incorporated job-related materials were associated with larger increases in both job-related and general literacy." (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) However, it is noted that other studies state findings that "much of the growth made by participants in general literacy programs is likely to be lost if recently learned skills…… [Read More]
Community colleges are well suited to provide many of these basic courses, both for students who will later leave for a larger college and those who attend community college for other reasons.
When it comes to who decides what courses should be offered at the community college, college administrators and teachers are better suited than students in the matter. Educators and administrators have a greater view of what students need to succeed in a job and at other schools. They are more likely to understand the trends within certain fields. Additionally, as advisors and educators, they have a responsibility to turn out graduates who are able to successfully find jobs based on their skills. While students may feel like they understand what they are doing and where they are going, many students simply do not have the perspective needed to guide their own educations.
While community colleges must offer courses…… [Read More]
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…… [Read More]
Thus one teaching strategy or method of lecturing will not serve the adult learning population as a whole. ather the teacher would do best to incorporate tactics that allow more active participation, interaction and creative teaching principles in the adult learning environment.
Because an adult serves as his/her own architect, it is feasible to consider the possibility that the adult learner actually recognizes the teaching methods that will best work in their situation and assist them in their pursuit of knowledge. Teachers should investigate this notion and inquire about students learning preferences in order to facilitate an optimal classroom environment conducive to the highest levels of learning.
Boulmetis (2000) further supports the notion that alternative methods may enhance the process of learning for the adult, suggesting that teaching should be colorful and unique to be effective. The teacher has an obligation in the adult learning environment to modify the curriculum…… [Read More]
That should not be surprising in light of the fact that many are surprised to hear of the extent to which people relied on so-called "snail mail" even for correspondence in decades past; let alone the concept of taking advanced education courses through traditional mail service.
Pittman seems to make a point that relates to the proposed area of hypothetical research (above) in that he criticizes the adherence to the mode of lesson presentation, irrespective of whether the medium involved is face-to-face instruction or computerized lesson module. According to Pittman, expansion of educational efforts to include novel and newer media is a necessary but largely insufficient first step. In many respects, the principal flaws inherent in the traditional concept of education transcends the shift to even the most advanced computer presentation. Specifically, lecture-based lesson presentation is not conducive to the highest retention of student interest, and the limits of passive…… [Read More]
Only the radically new perspectives offered by social justice theorists can help create a more egalitarian society. Generalizing about how diversity factors influence student learning becomes not only unnecessary but also harmful. Race is not a biological reality, instead it is a social construct (Baily & Cervero). The color-blind and multicultural perspectives are still widely practiced in adult education. Unfortunately outmoded, those theories generalize the experience of all non-white groups as being Other and therefore inferior.
Overcoming the current problems in adult education involves deep structural changes to adult education. Discovering and refining the "hidden curriculum" is one of the most important steps educators can take (Baily & Cervero). Critical analysis of educational literature can help foster awareness of how white power and privilege are embedded and reinforced continually. As awareness of how inequity is embedded in the fundamental assumptions of academic discourse dawns on students, they will become self-empowered.…… [Read More]
Standardized tests do not do well in measuring the emerging content standards, and over use of this type of assessment often leads to instruction that stresses only basic knowledge and skills. Although basic skills may be important goals in education, they are often overstressed in an effort to raise standardized test scores. Basic skills and minimum competencies become the main goal of schools and teachers as accountability and minimum competency exams concentrate on these areas (Critical Issue: ethinking Assessment and Its ole in Supporting Educational eform, 1995).
ecently, educators, policymakers, and parents have begun to recognize that minimums and basics are no longer sufficient and are calling for a closer match between the skills students learn in school and the skills they will need to succeed in the world. Schools are now expected to help students develop skills and competencies that apply to real life, genuine situations, and schools are…… [Read More]
Adult Learning: Andragogy
Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).
Adult Learning Principles
Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…… [Read More]
Adult Learning Theory: Applications to Non-Traditional College Students" presents a number of important factors that are intrinsic to the propagation of adult education. The authors take a decidedly comprehensive approach to characterizing key distinctions between adult learners and those who are non-adults. As such, the pair make a number of astute observations that directly affect the way that the curriculum and program content should be facilitated for these learners, in order to maximize the didactic process. A thorough review of this article reveals that by choosing to emphasize various aspects of the adult learning experience, the curriculum can be significantly tailored in order to curb the rate of attrition and help adult learners thrive.
The first several pages of this article are concerned with identifying and discussing the ramifications of attributes that are intrinsic to adult learners. Oftentimes, these learners are distinct from others in the fact that the former…… [Read More]
Also, the privacy of the venue, outside of a workplace or family setting, would encourage participation and attendance amongst fellow learners undergoing the same struggle.
c. How can finding a solution result in significant changes/improvements?
Possessing the skills that make one literate means an individual is less likely to need government assistance, is better able to be promoted and to find a secure job, and can feel more meaningfully engaged with society. Also, recruiting teachers and even properly trained volunteers from the community will enable more people to see that illiterate adults are often not lacking in intelligence, but simply in opportunities. Special volunteer campaigns could be created soliciting teachers with specializations in learning disabilities and ESL to treat the needs of these populations. To educate adults with more foundational skills, teenage volunteers and members of the community could provide tutoring services. This would create greater community connections between different…… [Read More]
For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).
Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…… [Read More]
Adult Education and the Internet
Higher Education, the Internet, and the Adult Learner
The concept of using the Internet in the pursuit of higher education is not exactly new. Indeed, the institution of "distance learning," has been in full swing since the heyday of late night Sally Struthers correspondence-school commercials. What has changed, however, is the increasing legitimacy and widespread use of the Internet in the pursuit of higher education -- from the research of traditional college students, to the complete education of students enrolled in "online universities" and courses.
Adult students face unique challenges when they utilize the Internet as part of their education in ways that mirror the issues they face within other instructional modalities.
In seeking to understand just how adults learn, these issues must be viewed collectively, for general adult learner/adult education studies must be considered as a whole along with the added factors arising out…… [Read More]
irtual High School (www.govhs.org) is a virtual K-12 school that offers classes in just about every curriculum and where students can take a variety of courses, including advanced placement courses, gifted & talented courses, and more. They offer semester, and full-year courses, along with summer school. It does not offer high school graduation to students.
Cisco Corp. (http://www.cisco.com/web/learning/le31/le46/learning_customer_e-learning_connection_tool_launch.html) offers the Cisco Learning Network, which offers virtual corporate training for anyone who registers with the network. They offer certifications, instruction on Cisco products, and even interactive games for students.
The Air Technology Network (http://atn.afit.edu) is affiliated with the Air Force Institute for Advanced Distributed Learning, and they offer virtual and satellite programs geared specifically to the military. They also support the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserves, and offer a wide variety of training from health to human resources and photojournalism.… [Read More]
It threw off the momentum of the class, and I felt I had not stressed timing enough. Several also straggled in after the lunch break, and the people that were on time seemed to resent it. I think if I did the training again, I would simply begin the training on time, and not worry about those who were late, if they missed anything, they would have to cover it on their own.
A also felt that the manual might not have been necessary, that students followed along on their computers and with the Power Point, and the manual may have been overkill. However, at least one student said they were glad they had the instructions in writing so they could refer back to it after they got back to their locations, so perhaps it wasn't such a bad idea, after all. This was the first training I developed, and…… [Read More]
Children who possess this curiosity will become adults that are more fully engaged in their world, and that examine their environment for better alternatives; this is the kind of adult that I would like to see eventually emerging form my continued educational practice.
While I see educators more as guides than as authoritarian figures, there does need to be a clear hierarchy established between the teacher and the learner. This does not have to be strictly and explicitly defined, but rather should come more easily from the tone with which the classroom is run and how conflicts are handled when they arise (Gordon & Burch 2003). Simply guiding rather than directly instructing works until it doesn't, in other words, and once that point is reached instructions need to be followed. Even such instances are part of the educational process when it comes to building critical thinkers and careful…… [Read More]
Part of that includes instilling in students an intellectual curiosity, receptivity to learning through genuine understanding, and definitions of professional success that are motivated by positive aspirations rather than by overcompensation impulses triggered by negative assumptions, messages, or early experiences. In addition to ensuring basic literacy and computational skills required by adults in society, modern primary education must dedicate itself to producing graduates who have discovered their greatest intellectual abilities and developed a genuine interest in a specific academic and/or vocational application of those aptitudes and interests in a manner most conducive to their long-term fulfillment and (ideally) to their optimal benefit to their families and communities in adulthood.
Toward that end, modern education must adapt to the wealth of empirical evidence that traditional methodologies (such as passive lecture and rote memorization, in particular) are comparatively ineffective at achieving the highest goals of education in society. Specifically, as society becomes…… [Read More]
With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.
Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…… [Read More]