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Adult Learning Through the Filters of B.F. Skinner & The Color Purple
Adult Learning as Seen Through B.F. Skinner and The Color Purple
The main character in the novel, musical play, and film The Color Purple is Celie, a fourteen-year-old girl living in rural Georgia between the years 1909 to 1949. Celie has been abused and oppressed by men throughout her life. Her father raped and impregnated her. He took her children away from her and let her think they were dead. Finally, her father gives Celie to Albert in marriage, even though Albert wanted to marry Celie's younger and prettier sister, Nettie. Shug is Albert's mistress who rotates in and out of his life, and in so doing, eventually aligns with Celie, becoming her mentor, protector, and lover. Celie's time with Shug is instructive and fosters many changes in Celie's thinking about religion, her own body, sexual relations, independence…… [Read More]
Adult learning self-assessments can prove influential for motivating students (Stipek, ecchia, & McClintic, 1992, cited in oss, 2006, p. 7). The assessment developed for this assignment was designed to enable students to provide feedback both about their instructor as well as about the course they took from their instructor. Assessments help students who might not be able to convey their learning progress otherwise (Loacke, 2004). Specifically, this assessment was an opportunity for adult learners with students within Miami-Dade county public schools to reflect on their learning experiences with teachers in an effort to improve them in the future. As such, there were two primary facets of the assessment: a Likert-based questionnaire (in which a rating of 1 was disagree and 5 was strongly agree), and a pair of essays in which students discussed, respectively, what aspects of the course and of the pedagogue's instruction they would like to improve. Student…… [Read More]
The importance in training and development with regard to understanding how adult learning works provides the ability to develop effective programs for adult learners in field of employment, education and interests.
When these two articles are blended together, however, they do not have to be mutually exclusive. The tips and training ideas can be taken from Lieb's works and applied to adult learning programs while the cautions of Brookfield's can also be respected and investigated more thoroughly.
As adult education continues to expand through online abilities, classroom learning and on site instruction at the workplace the understanding of how adults process information will continue to be important. Using the tips provided by Lieb will allow adults to be taught new material while at the same time investigating the concerns of Brookfield can be given attention.
It will be important to determine which of the experts is correct as future…… [Read More]
Adult learning theory Twenty-First Century 9(chapter 9 book Sharan Merriam - New
The primary purpose of Cari Kenner and Jason Weinerman's "Adult learning theory: applications to non-traditional college students" and Sharan Merriam's "Adult learning theory for the twenty-first century" is to denote differences in adult learners from conventional higher education learners, and to accommodate those differences to maximize learning potential for the former students. The authors achieve these goals by discussing the impact and context of student experience, various aspects of learning theory, and a multi-dimensional approach to learning.
Adult learners are greatly shaped by their previous experience which oftentimes involves elements of real life such as their occupational experience and that of raising children. Oftentimes, such experiences are what distinguish adult learners from "college kids." These experiences can inform their learning in higher educational settings, particularly if pedagogues are aware of them and exploit them in their teaching.
Learning…… [Read More]
Adult Learning Abstract
Self-Direction in Adult Learning Forums
Technology has radically changed the face of adult learning during the past 25 years. The traditional brick-and-mortar classroom, while still dominant, has been joined by a wide variety of technology-based learning venues known as Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). These virtual venues have been particularly successful in the field of adult education, where the freedom of location and schedule that these platforms offer are particularly attractive to learners. One trend that has been increasingly present in VLE education, and to some extent in the traditional classroom, is the use of self-directed learning.
Self-directed learning is defined as a "training design in which trainees master packages of predetermined material, at their own pace, without the aid of an instructor" (Simmering et al., 2009). Because it does not rely on the presence of an instructor, self-directed learning fits well in VLE platforms. It is particularly…… [Read More]
Personal Learning Style:
Strengths, Weaknesses, Improvement
Every student has a personal learning style. Although this is true for students of all ages, this notion is particularly pronounced in adult learners. Perhaps this is the case simply because adult learners have had ample time to become "set in their ways" with regard to what they feel comfortable with in the classroom. However, mere comfort can be deceiving, and many of the "ways" of learning adult students have become accustomed to utilize do more harm than good in their learning processes. In my case, I have found that my particular learning style can help, as well as hinder my academic progress -- this is particularly true considering issues of time management, research, and analysis skills.
There is little question that in my case, I seem to value autonomy in my learning style much more than I did as a younger…… [Read More]
As a younger student, I remember being somewhat obstinate and inflexible in that I always wanted to do things my way, even with the benefit of adult instruction. Today, I have the ability to recognize expertise in others and I respect the fact that they may know much more than I do about how to accomplish something in their area of expertise. I believe that my ability to adapt to different situations and to follow the directions of experts in the workplace will translate very well to the adult learning environment. Naturally, I also have some reservations about returning to a formal academic learning environment after so many years away from it. On the other hand, I am very hopeful that the maturity and perspective that I have developed in the meantime will more than compensate for any awkwardness or initial discomfort on my part.
Finally, the author…… [Read More]
Training and Adult Learning
Operational processes and technologies are constantly evolving and more at speeds never before seen in organizations. It is more often than not these changes require the development of new skills sets from employees. Since change in the external environment are now virtually imminent then training and skill development can serve as the one of the primary methods of overcoming organizational change (Buckley & Caple, 2009). Many organizations face employee resistance during periods of organizational change and uncertainty however the new roles and organizational goals can be addressed through training and development.
Because of the importance of training in the modern economy, training effectiveness becomes a critical success factor to the organizations mission. It is possible to evaluate different training programs because there is an intended outcome for the knowledge transfer. Therefore, the desired outcome of the training program can be compared against the actual…… [Read More]
In this context then, it is more important for the manager to possess a wide array of purposeful and relational skills. These will help him / her envision the organization and as such set the basis of a strategic effort through which the firm would come to attain its objectives. Also, at the specific level of relational skills, these help the manager interact with all stakeholder categories within and outside the company. For instance, the manager has to interact with the employees, to mitigate conflicts, to ensure the staff members are motivated and performing at the maximum levels. Then, the manager has to ensure that the customers are listened to and their needs are served. Also, the manager has to ensure that the demands of the general public are listened and integrated. An organization will not be able to attain its objectives unless it has the support of the employees,…… [Read More]
There have been occasions during my career that required cultural unlearning and building cross-cultural relationships, although I was unfamiliar with the concepts at the time. I was still inclined to accept the institutional learning that I had been programmed with. One such occasion happened on the job when I found out that I would be reporting to a new supervisor. It turned out there was a need for cultural unlearning on my part to make our work relationship successful.
My new boss' sexual orientation initially appeared to me to be out of the norm. My need for unlearning was not especially deep, lucky for me, but there was some mental adjustment required. My preconceptions involved judgments about who would be an appropriate partner. Before our first meeting, it occurred to me that my boss might wonder if I had any such preconceptions, which were after all, fairly common…… [Read More]
Second, it suggests that once an appropriate curriculum has been compiled -- one that produces the appropriate results -- then this very same curriculum should produce the same results every time it is employed properly. And third, it suggests that language itself cannot be conceived of as anything other than a response to an external stimulus; therefore, we, as teachers, should not be concerned with the internal, conceptual aspects of learning a language, and only with the observable, verbal responses that our teaching techniques produce. Of course, these stand as direct consequences of accepting the theory of behaviorism within the context of teaching ESL; however, my experience has shown that, if anything, the version of behaviorism that allows for consciousness is the most beneficial for developing an efficient and successful approach towards teaching.
Unfortunately for the theory of behaviorism, this phenomenon is not easily explained without the existence of internal…… [Read More]
This can be exploited to encourage the adult students to get into adult education and continue from one stage to another.
Secondly nowles poses that experimental or pragmatic education is the most effective form of adult education. This involves allowing the learners to make mistakes and continue learning from the same. This, as a practitioner, I can use as a very effective tool of assisting the adult learners. It is worth encouraging them to try what they can especially in class participation, assignments, co-curricular activities without reservations and pointing out the shortfalls as I tell them how they can use the same to learn.
Thirdly, Andragogy presumes that for adults to be truly ready to learn new ideas, they need to feel the assurance that whatever they are due to learn or are learning is straightforwardly pertinent to their daily lives. This helps practitioners develop a learning curriculum that is…… [Read More]
As such, I then find myself truly understanding the concept as opposed to forgetting or misunderstanding the information if I don't have a relationship or something to hook the concept onto. The other factor that is especially relevant to me is that I truly need to feel like I have some control over the learning which is why I enjoy taking online courses which allow me to choose when to study and how to study. Lastly, I am much harder on myself as an adult learner than I was as an adolescent. When I was younger, I did not bother to even look at a teacher's painstaking commentary in my essays whereas now I cannot wait to obtain feedback and I feel an immense amount of passion toward pleasing the instructor, putting forth my best effort, and obtaining the best grade possible.
2. According to the Whole-Part-Whole learning theory, learners…… [Read More]
Adult Learning: Andragogy
Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).
Adult Learning Principles
Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…… [Read More]
Adult Learning Theory: Applications to Non-Traditional College Students" presents a number of important factors that are intrinsic to the propagation of adult education. The authors take a decidedly comprehensive approach to characterizing key distinctions between adult learners and those who are non-adults. As such, the pair make a number of astute observations that directly affect the way that the curriculum and program content should be facilitated for these learners, in order to maximize the didactic process. A thorough review of this article reveals that by choosing to emphasize various aspects of the adult learning experience, the curriculum can be significantly tailored in order to curb the rate of attrition and help adult learners thrive.
The first several pages of this article are concerned with identifying and discussing the ramifications of attributes that are intrinsic to adult learners. Oftentimes, these learners are distinct from others in the fact that the former…… [Read More]
For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).
Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…… [Read More]
Teaching in an Adult Learning En Vironment
This study will set out thoughts on teaching class in an adult learning environment. Included will be influential variables including classrooms, teachers, and students. The adult learning environment involves a great diversity of individuals from various backgrounds, racial groups and ethnicity as well as being differentiated by their life experience in terms of career background and academic achievement background. The adult learning environment is likely to have individuals whose first language is other than English and these individuals are in various stages of mastering the English language. In addition, the learning environment will be characterized by individuals whose ages are in a wide range from individuals in their early twenties to individuals who are senior citizens as more baby-boomers will stay in the workforce far past retirement age. Added to this the adult learning environment will be inclusive of individuals who are technology…… [Read More]
validity and legitimacy; the sources add to the value of the information presented, which is the strategy that many scholarly articles follow.
Knowles, et al., Definitions
On page 7 of the article the authors use references provided by Knowles (1980), Knowles, Holton, and Swanson (2005), Tough (1979), Mezirow (1991), and MacKeracher (2004). First of all it is interesting that the range of dates provided by these references jumps 25 years from 1980 to 2005. I have chosen these references which help provide the "primary principles of adult education" because: a) adult education is the primary topic being researched and analyzed; b) the bullet points direct the reader to the important concepts of why and how adults learn; and c) Knowles' work is cited over a period of 25 years, so Knowles follows and investigates the digital revolution from when it first began to take shape in 1980, to nine years…… [Read More]
Kolb's model of adult learning explains how learning in adults occurs. According to the model, adult learning occurs in four stages (Kolb, 2015). The first stage is the experience of an event or situation (concrete experience). In the second stage, the learner reflects on the experience (reflective observation). The learner then -- in the third stage -- draws from theories and concepts to gain a deeper understanding of the experience (abstract conceptualization). In the fourth stage, the learner uses the experience as a basis for responding to similar occurrences in future. In this paper, I describe an experience I extremely felt motivated. I then analyze the experience based on Kolb's model.
At my place of work, the department I work in recently got a new manager. The new manager was recruited after his predecessor retired following two decades of service to the organization. The previous manager had over…… [Read More]
I remember almost nothing from the history class, but I still use information that I learned in the art class.
Houle's Classification Criteria for Continuing Education
According to Houle (as cited by Conner, 2004), learners can be classified as goal oriented, involving people who use their education to accomplish goals, activity-oriented, which includes those who learn because they enjoy the social contact, and learning-oriented, which embodies those who learn information for its own sake. I fall into more than one category. I am definitely goal oriented, and I have pursued a formal education because education is the only way to advance in our society. On the other hand, I also enjoy learning for its own sake. My learning-oriented activities, however, are not formal. I spend a lot of my own time reading and researching topics that interest me, but I do not normally attend classes to learn about these topics.…… [Read More]
Judgment, however, should be suspended long enough to try to determine why someone does something a certain way. If this can be determined, it is another lesson worth having. This is true of the student that is just learning about business, and true of the established businessperson.
Unlike that student learner, the businessperson that has already been working in the world for a while will be much harder to teach. Once someone has gotten used to doing something a particular way, it becomes more difficult to change that person's behavior. However, those that lead others in business, such as human resource personnel, can take many of the suggestions in Vaill's book and use them to show others in their company how they can change only small things and still be more self-directed learners.
As they become more self-directed, their desire for knowledge will rise and they will begin to try…… [Read More]
" (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998)
Activities in the classroom that use generative themes derived from the adult learner's lives "have been seen to facilitate their acquisition of literacy." (Friere, 1992; as cited in: Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) According to Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson (1998) the use of "life-context-specific materials and activities in adult literacy programs is supported by research that documents the powerful role of context in learning." Stated as an example is "...workplace literacy programs teach literacy skills as they are needed within specific work contexts. Compared to programs that concentrated more on 'genera' literacy, adult programs that incorporated job-related materials were associated with larger increases in both job-related and general literacy." (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) However, it is noted that other studies state findings that "much of the growth made by participants in general literacy programs is likely to be lost if recently learned skills…… [Read More]
Adult Life Change: Sarah Brown
At present, the Sarah Brown of the case study is a woman facing a midlife crisis. Suddenly bereft of her husband and her customary occupation, she finds herself immediately responsible for the support of an adult daughter whom she felt she had long settled in the workforce. Sarah is not so old that she is merely interested in taking stock of her past life, merely longing to share her personal and professional experiences with her children. Sarah wishes to develop a new sense of self. She should be able to enjoy the security and independence of autonomous adulthood without the need to care for children or a husband.
As noted towards the end of the case study, Sarah still desires male companionship, and thus wishes to build a future as well as a past, even though she is no longer in the first stage of…… [Read More]
Within Human esources Development
The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.
An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."
Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece,…… [Read More]
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…… [Read More]
PESONAL OBJECTIVES FO TEACHING
My personal objectives for teaching are to inspire students to continue to pursue learning. I do not believe that my goal as a teacher of nursing is to simply impart insight related to whatever module or learning objectives that I have at that particular moment in time in which I am working with students. Instead, my true aim is to impart such insight so well and in such an accessible, interactive way that it actually fosters a passion for learning about nursing in general for my students. I want them to learn from me, but I also want them to see that what I am teaching them is only part of a larger, evolving truth related to this profession. I desire for them to understand that they too, can conduct research and attain a status within this profession in which they can learn more…… [Read More]
Adult Learning Assessment
Adult learners comprise one of the fastest-growing segments of students today, and adult learners typically have needs that differentiate them from the younger learner. There is already much scholarship devoted to how the adult student learns new information. This understanding of the different learning styles has been taken into consideration in the design of courses and curricula for adult learners.
However, teaching tools are only part of the equation. Educators must also be able to assess if the adult learner is indeed retaining the information at both a critical and analytical level. Thus, in addition to the development of curricula, Cooledge et al. (2000) discussed the need to develop proper assessment tools for adult learners. In particular, Cooledge et al. (2000) focuses on the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment, one of the most popular tools in adult education.
The first part of this article is a…… [Read More]
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…… [Read More]
Adult Education and the Internet
Higher Education, the Internet, and the Adult Learner
The concept of using the Internet in the pursuit of higher education is not exactly new. Indeed, the institution of "distance learning," has been in full swing since the heyday of late night Sally Struthers correspondence-school commercials. What has changed, however, is the increasing legitimacy and widespread use of the Internet in the pursuit of higher education -- from the research of traditional college students, to the complete education of students enrolled in "online universities" and courses.
Adult students face unique challenges when they utilize the Internet as part of their education in ways that mirror the issues they face within other instructional modalities.
In seeking to understand just how adults learn, these issues must be viewed collectively, for general adult learner/adult education studies must be considered as a whole along with the added factors arising out…… [Read More]
In a more globalized society, competition has become as ubiquitous as it is contentious. Companies, customers, and governments continue to expand and move, irrespective of geographic boundaries. The information age, has allowed the seamless and cost effective exchange of goods services and information. As the information age, along with more interconnected societies continue to grow, so too will the need for effective job training. Unfortunately, adult education has not become a paramount interest to society. This is apparent with the overall lack of adult education and training mechanisms within the community. In order to better compete in a more globalized society, the constituents within society must be properly trained. America in particular, has fallen behind its Asian counterparts as it relates to both math and science. These two subjects are critical to the new found information transfer currently underway. Consequently, the adult population is not properly trained to…… [Read More]
Learning Objectives for Adult Education
Managing and Exploiting the Impact of Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education
As the American population becomes increasingly diverse, so goes classroom diversity (Cooper, 2012). By the end of the current decade, a White majority will no longer exist among the 18 and under age group. This rapid progression towards a plurality has already impacted primary schools, but the trend toward increasing diversity is beginning to affect adult education classrooms as well. If educators simply ignore this trend, not only will the academic success of students be harmed, but also the professional skills of educators. The solution, according to Brookfield (1995), is not the adoption of an innocent or naive attitude towards the diverse needs and abilities of racially and ethnically diverse students, but to engage in a process of critical self-reflection. Such a process would help educators uncover their own hidden motives and intentions,…… [Read More]
Metacognition and Effective Study Strategies Among African-American College and University Students, Bernadette Nwafor discusses the fact that many African-American students have trouble with basic concentration and retention skills and how the implementation of various study techniques could enhance student concentration. Nwarfor purports that those students that try to understand what they are reading through "meaningfulness, collaboration and establishment of relationships between new ideas and old experiences" are more likely to do better on tests than those who learn by merely reading through text or memorization It is her perception that African-American students learn better when they can relate to the material in question. In this article she studies the three kinds of memory (sensory, short-term and long-term memory) as she shows that if a person associates something familiar with new material they are able to retain it better in their long-term memory. She cites for her example a study by…… [Read More]
(3) According to the Multiple Intelligences Survey, I have quite a bit of intrapersonal and interpersonal intellegence and a moderate amount of musical and kinesthetic intelligence. This makes sense because I enjoy analyzing people and situations; and, I decided to leave my old job because I was bored sitting still behind a desk and not talking to anyone for most of the day.
As I was enjoying the surveys so much, also I took Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory and discovered that my learning style consists of doing and feeling or what Kolb would abbreviate as "CE/AE." When these findings are placed on the two-by-two grid by Kolb, my learning style is accommodating. An accommodating learning style is often times referred to as a "hands-on" style and one that relies upon intuition over logic. In fact, these findings also did not surprise me because I have to do something at least…… [Read More]
According to the University of Canberra's Academic Skills Centre (2008), learning is a highly complex process that "takes place at different levels of consciousness, and in different ways, in everything we do. Moreover, individual people learn in different ways and have their preferred learning styles." One of the keys to improving student learning is to understand the different types of learning styles and apply that knowledge to study habits and practices. Study skills are themselves behaviors that need to be learned like any other. Using a combination of disciplinary techniques and cognitive shifts, students can improve their capacity for learning. This will, in turn, help boost grades and test scores. However, learning in an academic context is about more than earning grades. Learning should ultimately enhance one's view of the world and increase tolerance of diversity.
The theory of multiple intelligences has formed the theoretical foundation for the study…… [Read More]
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…… [Read More]
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…… [Read More]
This study investigates how ESL students' perception affects the teacher-student interaction in the writing conferences. The multiple-case study explores: ESL students' expectations of the writing conference and factors contributing to the expectations, participation patterns of ESL students in the conferences, and ESL students' perception of the effectiveness of teacher-student conferences. A questionnaire, distributed to 110 (65 NS and 45 ESL) students enrolled in the first-year composition classes, examines students' previous writing experience and expectations of the writing conferences. Pre-conference interviews with 19 focus students (8 NS and 11 ESL) were conducted to verify the survey results. Students' participation patterns were investigated via the video-recorded writing conferences of the 19 focus students. Students' perceptions of the conference were investigated through the post conference interviews with the 19 focus students and follow-up interviews with six Chinese students.
esults of the research that Liu (2009) conducted determined that ESL students and NS students…… [Read More]
Adult Day Care Industry
ABC Adult Day Care will be a mid-sized company, which will provide adult day care services to the residents of Boston. This mid-sized adult care facility will serve adults aged fifty years and above. It will provide community-based day health services for the elderly and disabled. Services offered include living assistance, nursing, therapy, meals, and social activities. Their services will be secure and safe, presenting the elderly with an excellent place where their caring services will be met. ABC Adult Day Care will be a privately held organization headed by its founder, Ben Stevenson. Mr. Stevenson has extensive experience in strategic business planning. His advanced knowledge and interest in business are the driving force behind his business. A few employees who have extensive experience in adult care fields will support the daily operations of the facility. With the rising rate of inflation, many American families struggle…… [Read More]
The findings yielded a direct correlation between poor inhaler use and poor literacy: Poor inhaler technique was found in 89% of patients reading at less than the third-grade level compared with 48% of patients reading at the high-school level (Nowlan, illiams, Baker, Honig, Lee 1991).
This study's result would have a direct impact upon traditional patient educational efforts, as health education still tends to rely heavily on printed materials. These materials might also be written at too high a level. Making use of pictorial materials and personal demonstrations, the authors concluded, might be more effective than using traditional verbally-based media. The study suggests that different approaches are needed, and more personalized intervention may be required for asthmatics, at least during early stages of treatment. However, there is an issue of correlation vs. causation -- individuals with low levels of literacy may have difficulty learning in general, regardless of the medium,…… [Read More]
Learning Platforms -- K-12 and Beyond
A Comparison of Learning Platforms that Focus on the K-12 and Higher Education Learning Environments
Many of the educational initiatives in recent years have focused on improving the delivery of services by incorporating learning platforms that focus on the K-12 and higher education learning environments, such as WebCT or Blackboard. To determine how these learning platforms are being used today and for what learners, this paper will provide an overview of the features of learning management systems (LMS) that have assumed increasing importance for a wide range of corporate and government-sponsored learning environments. A comparison and evaluation of these platforms and their applicability to the different learning environments is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Background and Overview. In their book, Handbook of Distance Education Technology, Anderson and Moore (2003) suggest that it just makes good sense…… [Read More]
During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.
Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]
Learning to read and write are complementary skills. While in the younger years, writing depends on reading skills, by middle and high school, they are complementary skills: reading is necessary to do writing assignments, while writing about what has read increases comprehension of the reading materials. For this reason, separating reading and writing instruction from content areas is arbitrary and will eventually interfere with the students' progress in those content areas.
From the day children are born, parents are told by doctors, teachers and other experts to read to them, and to read to them every day. They are told to do this because hearing language that contains story lines, rich language and vivid imagery facilitates language development and develops a desire to read. From "The Poky Little Puppy" to Rudyard Kipling, children's literature exists that uses language in exciting and colorful ways. Good children's literature doesn't sound the same…… [Read More]
Small Group - Feedback Assessment
Student reads quietly and stays in one place in the reading area.
Student reads quietly. S/he moves around once or twice but does not distract others.
Student makes 1-2 comments or noises when reading, but stays in one place in reading area.
Student reads loudly, makes repeated comments or noises OR fidgets and moves about often, distracting others.
Stays on task
Student reads the entire period. This may be independent reading or done with adult or peer assistance, as assigned.
Student reads almost all (80% or more) of the period.
Student reads some (50% or more) of the time.
Student wastes a lot of reading time.
Chooses Appropriate Books
Student chooses a book, which s/he has not read before, which is at or above grade level, or has been previous approved by the teacher.
Student chooses a book, which s/he has…… [Read More]
') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.
Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…… [Read More]
.. than grown-ups understanding, caring and self-motivation of children [are] what should be] cultivated... It can be very damaging for a person's development to be treated as a child until the age of 21... children can make very valuable contributions to society with their fresh perspectives and playful attitudes. This is to be supported and treasured.
Instead, however, since childhood independence and autonomy often are not encouraged, today's young students often become inflexible, non-adaptive, and non-spontaneous, therefore operating based on confusion, fear, or "by rote" within new or unfamiliar environments. The example Rich gives of the elementary school-aged boy who was not expected to clear his own dishes from the table, at home or at school, and who is surprised about being asked to do so by the author (and initially reluctant to do so), is illustrative in that respect.
It is not surprising that in the school environment, as…… [Read More]
Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared with Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents
I Situations Faced by Children of Alcoholic Parent(s)
II ehavior of Children with Alcoholic Parent(s)
II Hypothesis #2
I The Possibility of Developing Alcoholism on ACOA's
II ACOA's have Lower Self-Esteem Compared to Non-ACOA's
Comparing the Differences etween ACOAs and Non-ACOAs in Terms of Social and Intimate Relationships
IV Protective Factors For Resiliency
Children of Alcoholics Screening Test
Are You an Alcoholic?
Intimate ond Measure
Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale
The family is one of the most important institutions in our society today. It is from our family where we are able to develop ourselves and start the journeys we take in life. Usually, the upbringing of each family member depends on the psychological nature of the other members who are able to provide influence or may have cause effects…… [Read More]
There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of the controversy concerning violence in the media, which some believe leads to more violent behavior in real life as individuals observe and learn from "fake" violent depictions.
There is growing evidence that violent media does in fact lead to increased real-world violence, both with "copy-cat" crimes and simply with violence generally. Exposure to violence lowers inhibitions against violence and possibly alters perceptions about the meanings and intentions behind others' behaviors, as well, causing nonviolent acts to be perceived as…… [Read More]
They are somewhat vague about how the contrasting learning needs of younger and older groups can effectively be met in a single classroom setting, but nonetheless note that there is a great need for community research to clarify this issue. The conclusions and attitudes of these authors are also much more accommodating of the differences in learners than those of Caudron.
Having noted the above, the article could benefit from a clearer explication of different teaching methods that could work not only for the different groups, but for integrated groups as well. Another limitation is that the article differentiates between two age groups, without acknowledging that there could be learning style differences within a single age group. While therefore accepting that there could be different learning styles, the article still treats these somewhat simplistically.
By far the most complex in terms of learning style application is McCarthy's article, which focuses…… [Read More]
The child will undoubtedly feel a heady rush after attaining the long-desired goals of individuality and independence, but this newfound joy in freedom may come across as arrogance to their parents. This appraisal is not always entirely undeserved. Children might feel that they are superior to their parents because of their advanced degrees and knowledge, not to mention their salaries. They might even feel a little ashamed of their parents because they 'wasted their life,' so to speak, or they might feel frustration with their parents' lack of desire to improve their own situations. This arrogance is usually only temporary, but it can last long enough to drive another wedge in between the relationship shared by the parent and child.
Finally, adult children who have graduated with advanced degrees often have difficulty relating to or even spending time with their parents because of the vast differences between their lifestyles. For…… [Read More]
n other words, it can be criticized for being somewhat discursive and for not providing any form of comparative analysis.
Alternatively, one could argue that methodologically the research falls into the category of a case study, a legitimate form of intensive qualitative research. n the final analysis the article does provide some illuminating insights into the possibilities of literature for social and emotional development in gifted students.
Article 3: The Connection between Social-Emotional Learning and Learning Disabilities: mplications for ntervention by Maurice J. Elias.
The author of this article identifies a number of problematic social and emotional areas for the learning disabled or special needs student. These include the recognition of emotions in self and others; the regulation and management of strong emotions and the recognition of strengths and areas of need ( Elias, 2004). The article also reviews the literature and theoretical positions on this topic. Furthermore, the author…… [Read More]
Using the example of the Hispanic population in the United States, Jeria claims that adult education has created invisible groups of students. Like Kazanjian as well as Atleo & James, Jeria emphasizes diversity awareness as a key to improving pedagogy.
However, Jeria takes diversity further by incorporating issues related to social class and access to cultural capital. Cultural imperialism has clouded the perspectives of any students not considered part of the dominant culture. Even though Hispanic students comprise a large portion of the student bodies on many campuses in the United States, Hispanic students continue to remain invisible, marginalized, and ignored. They are excluded from the historical narratives of American identity. Hispanics are also marginalized in adult education, their needs obscured by overemphasizing their cultural and linguistic deficits.
Like Kazanjian, Jeria notes the deficits implicit in an exclusionary education system, one that neglects to acknowledge diversity. Instead of focusing on…… [Read More]
If we can study these thematic relationships, and understand how persons with disorders are interpreting and judging these relationships, then we can perhaps intercede in those interpretations and judgments by way of thematic relationships that help train people with disorders to respond differently, or to process the relationship in a way that treats them away from cognitive processes that impair them, and towards processing these relationships in ways that help them move forward as healthier adults with a higher or improved quality of life.
Thematic similarity relationships are worthy of further study in adults. There is much room for progress in this regard as an applied science, and we should strive to gain as much clinical and practical information about its usefulness as a therapeutic approach as possible.
Cottrell, G. (1996). Proceedings From the Eighteenth Annual
Conference of the Cognitive Science. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Gray,…… [Read More]
Today, "Prisoner eentry into Society" is considered to be a "key corrections issue." ("Prisoner eentry'... ") Another key issue "Second Chances," was reinforced by President bush during 2004, when he noted: "America is the land of second chances, and when the gates of prison open, the path ahead should lead to a better life. We must do right not only by the ex-offenders, but by their families, their victims, their victims' families, and their communities."("Offender eentry...")
Allender, David M.. "Offender reentry: a returning or reformed criminal?," The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, December 1, 2004.
FEDEAL OFFENDE EENTY: KATHEINE HAIS," Congressional Testimony, October 7, 2004.
Fretz, alph. "Step down' programs: the missing link in successful inmate reentry.(CT FEATUE)," Corrections Today, April 1, 2005.
Harris, Kevin. "Increase in reentry stabilizes prison population. (National News Briefs)," Corrections Today, April 1, 2006.
OFFENDE E-ENTY: EGINA B. SCHOFIELD," Congressional Testimony, November 3,…… [Read More]
As is stated by Bennett "When teachers accept the goal of developing competencies in multiple systems of standards of perceiving, evaluating, believing and doing, it becomes obvious that knowledge about multiple dialects and languages is part of becoming educated" (p. 297).
While neither educators nor parents can magically erase all cultural and ethnic barriers and inequities, any more than they can resolve all of the communication problems created associated with an increasingly diverse classroom, they can achieve significant results by making a conscious and concerted effort to ensure that every student is treated fairly and in a manner that respects rather than ignores their cultural heritage.
Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) evitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208
Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14
Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive…… [Read More]
This program experience, concurrent with my faith-based experience developing an additional residential treatment program provided the core of my personal and professional learning of both direct patient care and cemented my belief in the need for such programs to exists and grow to better meet the needs of the growing drug problem in my community and many others.
Upon completion of the position of Director of Residential Programs for the Jefferson County Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, I sought out in 2006 another position that would further my learning as a community service provider. My new task would be based around not the management of one county facility but the development of regional programming needs in the are as a member of the Southeast Texas Regional Planning Commission -- Quality Management-Substance Abuse Division. I currently hold this position which includes a variety of tasks and learning opportunities: Conducting organizational…… [Read More]
Sociology and Adult Education
Many believe that vessel education and training that that the very foundation of success. A strong educational background can help any individual branch into new opportunities, where individual goals and community goals are intimately intertwined. In addition to traditional education facilities, the United States has a prominent adult education industry which helps bring academic practices and continuous learning to individuals already within a working environment. Essentially, adult education helps empower both the individual and the community through a continual closure to new and useful information that continuously pushes the individual towards more progressive action.
There is a wide variety of types of adult education offers within mainstream American society today. Essentially, what sets adult education apart from traditional educational program is the fact that adults are already within the workforce are returning to an educational civility in order to train on some potentially lucrative…… [Read More]
This is the essence of Knowles' self-directed learning.
The last sentence of Stephen Brookfield's Chapter on "Adult Learning: An Overview" states "To understand adult learning we need to know it's connections of learning in childhood and adolescence and to the formation during these periods of interpretive filters, cognitive frames and cultural values."
Brookfield's assertion is somewhat at odds with Knowles concept of the difference between child and adult learning, although it is developmental in nature. One possible way of reconciling the difference between Brookfield and Knowles is to propose a stage theory of learning that shows progression from childhood to adolescence to adulthood, incorporating different theorist's ideas about the relationship between learner and teacher at different developmental, emotional, and experiential stages.
Stage 1: Childhood. Child is eager to learn but not certain of how to go about it. Learns to please self 'in the moment' of experience, but without…… [Read More]
Graduate Certificate Nursing Education
Learning of Anorexia Nervosa & Handling Its Patients
Final Learning Report
DESCRIPTIN F BJECTIVES & THEIR STATUS
Drafting a learning contract and adhering to it along with constant support from my supervisor, was an effective activity which constituted of four weeks. every objective had a milestone plan and necessary measures which were required to be taken for achieving them. Self-expectation after reaching these goals was also documented in order to have a clear picture of my proficiency level in the developing knowledge of Anorexia Nervosa after this activity. The primary objective was to have clear understanding of Anorexia Nervosa, its causes, symptoms and possible treatments. Furthermore, second main objective was to deal with patients having this disorder and their families. These two major goals encompassed the rest. Through reading of the concerned topic were performed and were brought into practical application. Furthermore, efforts were made to…… [Read More]
Integrating Learing Theories
Integrating Learning Theories
In adult education, there are number of theories utilized to influence the tools educators are using to connect with students. To fully understand them requires looking at the different ones. This will be accomplished by focusing on simulating the ideal teaching philosophy, current research in adult theory, comparing / contrasting them and analyzing those which integrate with our personal teaching philosophy. Together, these elements will highlight the best techniques for reaching out to adult learners.
Simulate the ideal teaching philosophy
The ideal teaching philosophy is one that connects to individuals using their unique learning styles and has a way of reinforcing them. This involves having a combination of active classroom discussion, group work and hands on training. During this process, they will utilize technology to enhance their understanding of key concepts and focus on meeting important objectives in the course. When this happens, the…… [Read More]
While commenting on the works of Baldwin & Ford, Detterman (Detterman & Sternberg, 1993) observed that the American enterprises were more likely to lose in case of teaching employers as they diverted lump sum of $100 billion annually to tutor employees. The loss is experienced because whatever is learned in an adult learning session is not practiced at the workplaces.
This problem is indicative of the dire need for combining knowledge with current practical work. The internships of doctors and people doing Ph. D serve as examples to show the link between learning and practical work (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The variations in practical applications and formal learning make it necessary that lifetime learners find out fresh strategies to tackle these variations. These variations comprise of the high work requirements that make the job training mandatory, unavoidable variation in an occupation, tech-literacy and the disparity created between the skilled and…… [Read More]