Ethics in Drug Advertising
The marketing through direct-to-consumer drug advertising is a controversial topic. The basis of the ethical reasoning related to this manner is what role the patient should have in their treatments. If patients have the ability to diagnose their own afflictions then such advertisements might offer practical insights to the range of treatments that are available to the patient. However, most individuals would be much better off following the advice of a medical professional than to be convinced by a promotional message that they might be suited for some form of pharmaceutical treatment. Yet drug advertising clearly works as the numbers of patients and prescription drug users dramatically increase with each marketing campaign. This analysis will consider the ethics involved with direct-to-consumer marketing from a few different angles.
Most of the discussion about ethics and the social responsibility of marketers has been descriptive and…… [Read More]
power of a successful ad stems from the population it addresses rather than its words. To put it simply, ads must incorporate its potential customers' hopes, fears, wishes, and dreams, and position the product they are advertising as the key to them. 'Mass desires' is the term typically utilized for denoting such already existing feelings. They merely represent a common private want. Secretly, a large number of individuals desire the very same things - health, wealth, attractiveness, and happiness. An ad will be effective if its creators understand the way a given product will be able to fulfil these private desires (Lee, 2014).
Some advertisers, in a perpetual bid to draw customers and link their products to hedonistic, lavish or "cool" lifestyles, have repeatedly gone past the bounds of what may be regarded as socially and ethically acceptable advertising. An understanding of one's market can aid sellers in designing and…… [Read More]
However, there are often no rules, or weak ones, and that can create an ethical dilemma on the part of marketers. They must decide for themselves what lines they want to cross, and set their own codes of ethics. here rules only provide guidelines, these can be open to interpretation. As we have seen with the area of marketing to children, however, the marketing industry has kept ahead of the regulators in how they approach the issue. The government has barely been able to ban Joe Camel, and has no answer for companies that reach children with child-oriented web content that blends.
In order to create a code of ethics where there are no laws to provide guidance, there are bodies that have taken the lead. A company should begin, for example, with a statement of ethical norms from the American Marketing Association (2012). There are three ethical…… [Read More]
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a hreat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA oday, Volume 130, Issue 2678, 62.
he author discusses different types of advertising and promotion and finds ethical problems in the way many are handled, especially with reference to advertising and promoting goods and services to children. He cites the use of focus groups for toy companies and the ethical implications of improving advertising to kids.
Cohn, E. (2000, January 31). Marketwatch: Consuming Kids. he American Prospect, Volume 11, Issue 6, 13.
he author questions the promotion of certain products to children and finds marketers hiring psychologists to shape the message so as to reach children. Other psychologists have denounced such actions and have called for an emendation of the ethics code to govern this sort of promotion in the future.
Ethics in Pricing
Cranberg, G.…… [Read More]
Ethicacy of Five Hour Energy "No Crash Later" Claims
ecently consumer rights groups are gaining greater traction in the media with their claims that Five Hour Energy's claims of "no crash later" are inaccurate, and at worst, overstated. These claims are based on a study completed six years ago, and whose methodology is not sound (Fabregas, 2012). What's at the center of this debate is the chemical composition of Five Hour Energy and if in fact customers experience a crash after using it or not. The ethicacy of the products' claims are under attack in the media, and with the empirical studies showing evidence this is accurate. The momentum on social media continues to increase on this issue as well and the Five Hour Energy brand is in jeopardy of being negatively affected over the long-term if nothing is done. There also continues to be negative press for…… [Read More]
In recognition that these t-shirts might be found to be objectionable to many young women, who are among our best customers, we contacted Heather Arnet, Executive Director of the omen & Girls Foundation, and offered to discuss the issue with them. e recognize that the shirts in question, while meant to be humorous, might be troubling to some." Despite, or perhaps, one could argue, because of, the controversy generated by the sexually explicit t-shirts, on November 15, 2005, CEO Mike Jeffries stated that the company had enjoyed record third quarter profits. "These strong results reflect the broad momentum and successful differentiation of our brands, confirming our entire organization's dedication to building dominant iconic brands. e are uniquely positioned as the top of mind premium provider of sportswear with brands that appeal to a broad spectrum of customers in the pre-teen through post-collegiate demographic. This is a position we have worked…… [Read More]
Ethics of Marketing esearch in the Internet Era
Increasingly, management is being taken to be a critical production factor alongside the other factors of production. It therefore follows that the success of a business enterprise is largely hinged on the ability of management to make superior decisions. However, for managers to make effective decisions, they not only need a supportive decision making environment but also a set of tools to enhance their ability to correctly analyze and interpret information so as to advance the agenda of the business in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Marketing research is one such tool.
Marketing esearch as a Management Tool
The relevance of marketing research as a decision making tool for management cannot be overstated. According to Blankenship, Breen and Dutka (1998), marketing research can be taken to be "the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific situation…… [Read More]
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…… [Read More]
Creativity and good research is key -- not strategies that solicit information from the consumers in unfair ways or make promises about the products that are not valid. These unethical methods are not good business practices, as consumers will soon see through these transparent efforts and easily move their dollars elsewhere with a simple point and click.
Managers must also make sure, before the campaign begins, that employees are in fact aware of what constitutes ethical behavior on an Internet-based campaign, as this may not always be as obvious as the mangers might like to believe. Having a brief 'ethics storming' session early on, in which employees discuss various real and pretend scenarios that stimulate discussion about how to run a campaign in a way that is effective and ethical is a good way to set a high ethical standard early on in the campaign, so problems will not occur…… [Read More]
One strategy that we have seen more and more actually preceded the current economic recession is product placement instead of traditional advertisement in commercials (Howard 2005). This may be one of the most effective innovations in our industry since the shift in the 1960s from word-heavy advertising to memorable visual images (Ogilvy 1983).
Q: The Internet and other visual media must factor into that shift as well.
A: Absolutely. The modern advertiser is learning not to focus exclusively on traditional modes of message transmission and product branding like television and billboards. The phenomenon of things like YouTube demonstrate the value of creating imagery that captures the audience's imagination and interest. In fact, future advertisers may eventually question the value of spending so much money on commercials and even product placement when it is possible to reach huge audiences on the Internet, essentially, for free.
Q: The way that the Napster…… [Read More]
Government's ole in Advertising egulation
History of attitudes towards advertising
Taste and decency
The advertising is a major contributor and visual segment of the complete marketing strategy of a business. It is also noted as one of the image carrier for an organization. The businesses seek support of advertising agenciesdealing in print and electronic media to establish an advertising campaign along with the design of such activities to further their marketing objectives (Shimp, 2013). There are various environmental factors as well as regulations that should be followed by the advertising agencies. The governments also take part in evaluation of the content printed in advertisements. The role of government in regulating the advertising material and assessment of the content is discussed below. It is required that the governments lower their involvement in such activities and empower the self-regulation of advertisement content through agencies, associations. And…… [Read More]
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]
First, they evaluate the truthfulness of the message. Next, they evaluate the authentic of the persuader. Third, they determine the persuader's level of respect for the persuadee. Fourth, they examine the equity of the persuasive appeal. Finally, they look at the social responsibility for the common good of the action they are being urged to take. Combining all five elements together, a person is able to make a judgment about a persuader's ethics.
Personally, I feel that ethical judgments are most effectively made at a situational level. I do not believe that universal ethics apply, but instead feel that situations can help determine the ethicality of a particular action. For example, I do not feel it would be unethical for an American President to lie to the American people about a planned attack on foreign country if being honest would jeopardize the soldiers on the mission. Likewise, I do not…… [Read More]
Marketing obacco Dilemma
After returning from Ohio on a road trip, some friends informed us that on the way back home while gassing up, they were asked by kids on two different occasions to buy them some cigarettes. Our friends told the kids no on each occasion. What does this isolated observation have to do with the tobacco industry? he tobacco industry has continued to market their products to children throughout the nation, and they have even gone after kids in other nations. "Since the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998, tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly increased in the retail environment." (New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services) he description of the kids, obviously minors, asking an adult to buy them cigarettes is illegal. What the tobacco industry has continued to do in regard to marketing cigarettes to kids is immoral, unethical and illegal. his paper…… [Read More]
(Southwest Airlines Corporation)
The employees are always put first at Southwest Airlines, and according to the CEO Herb Kelleher, who was responsible for founding the company Southwest Airlines, the philosophy that employees come first is deeply embedded in the psyche of the company, and if the employees of the company are happy and contented and fully satisfied with their work, then they will most definitely take better care of the customers of the company, and this is exactly what happens at Southwest Airlines. When the customers are happy at the treatment that they receive at Southwest Airlines, they, quite naturally keep coming back for more, and this in turn makes the shareholders extremely happy and satisfied. The employees at Southwest Airlines are some of the best and most highly paid employees of any airline, and in general, all the walls of the company are always filled with several pictures of…… [Read More]
By attempting to suppress debate about the subject, Monsanto created and subsequently reinforced the notion that BGH is a harmful substance. Eventually, the company was forced to exit the business, because of the damage they did to the product's reputation.
There are times when good ethics demands that a new product innovation be dropped, and this was likely one of those times. By pursuing profit instead, Monsanto has put the health of many Americans at risk and called even more attention to their unethical practices.
Financial information from MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/statemnt.aspx?Symbol=MON
Monsanto 2008 Annual Report. (2008). Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://www.monsanto.com/investors/financial_reports/annual_report/2008/default.asp
No author. (2008). Monsanto Receives Top Award from Leading Legal Publication. Monsanto Corporation. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://monsanto.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=660
No author. (2008). Monsanto Human Rights Policy. Monsanto Corporation. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://www.monsanto.com/pdf/responsibility/human_rights_policy.pdf
Klotter, Jule. (2002). Monsanto PCB Legacy. Townsend…… [Read More]
Accepting Client Assignments
Outstanding client service begins with a full understanding of the client organization, its business needs and the position to be filled. An AESC member should:
Accept only those assignments that a member is qualified to undertake on the basis of the member's knowledge of the client's needs and the member's ability to perform the specific assignment.
Disclose promptly conflicts of interest known to the AESC member and accept assignments only if all affected parties have expressly agreed to waive any conflict.
Develop an understanding with the client that, among other things, makes clear the organizational entity that is defined as the client organization, the fees and expenses to be charged, and any ongoing assurances or guarantees relating to fulfillment of the assignment.
Agree with the client concerning any "off-limits" restrictions or other related policies that govern when and how the member may recruit from the defined client…… [Read More]
Morality is grounded in the profit principle. There are two versions that this principle tells. The first is that good business ethics is said to result into good business (Fieser, 1996). This however is considered to be a weak principle because the effect of morality principles that a corporation implements can only be seen after some span of time. For instance, the concept of implementing moral principles that desire the best interests of the public so that the corporation can have a long trusting relationship with its public customers can only be economically advantage after some time. This is because the corporation will still need to seek and wait for the consumers' trust. And, according to researches and studies, trust are usually given by customers after some continuous time of being satisfied with the products or services that the corporation offers. Fieser further provides the following examples to this principle.…… [Read More]
The group of jurors brings out the best in them in terms of reaching a common target.
A group crisis is an event that has a high - impact and threatens the viability of the organization. Crisis/stress is a factor that helps group evolves from stage to stage, get through phases. Under conditions of crisis swift decision should be made and considered necessary.
The jury room turns into an emotional stage, the jury becomes a target for other frustrations members may be having in their family life. Juror number three makes the whole case very personal, he wishes to condemn the young boy because he believes that by doing this he will punish his own boy who deserted him.
The stress that they are stuck on a hot weather in a room and they can not get out because one of them is determined to change their votes makes them…… [Read More]
Studies (Howard 2005) have indicated that it may be very difficult to position healthier foods against traditional fast foods, by virtue of the strength of the latter's long- standing successful history of advertising. Naturally, the fact that healthy fast food cannot hope to compete with traditional fast food in terms of taste and its purported addictive quality presents another challenge that must be met by creative advertising and marketing strategies to overcome those disadvantages from the advertising perspective. Incorporating Challenges into a Marketing Plan:
Incorporating those challenges into a marketing plan requires long-term vision to anticipate the likely pattern of consumer demand over time, specifically in response to advice about health, wellness, and the relationship of diet to overall human health.
Naturally, the healthy fast food industry should emulate some of the strategies that have traditionally proven successful, particularly in the case of fast food in terms of name recognition…… [Read More]
Morality of Statistics
Ethics/Business Statistics, Christian Worldview
The morality of statistics: Will statistics invariably lie?
A famous book from the 1950s was entitled How to lie with statistics. Implied by the counter-intuitive name was the concept that the old cliche that 'numbers don't lie' was false. In fact, as discussed in the article "eflection before action: The statistical consultant confronts ethical issues" by S. Andrew Ostapski and Claude . Superville, statistics can be highly subjective in terms of how they are presented as are the conclusions which can be drawn from them. Even researchers have been accused of manipulating statistics to prove 'facts' that are not true within academia. The pressures only increase when statisticians are asked to serve the financial 'masters' of commerce. "The ability to be creative in building interdisciplinary bridges can be risky, especially when the parties that are served do not understand the statistical process. The…… [Read More]
(Snyder & Deono quoted in Kjeldal 2003, Introduction section, ¶ 6).
The results from the study Kjeldal (2003) conducted with 70 participants in two stages suggest that the word association responses high self-monitors (HSMs) produce reflect selective activation of a personally meaningful, experiential, system. The responses low self-monitors (LSMs) produce, on the other hand, indicate an intellective factual system.
2. Decision Making Process Theories
Dr. onnie Halpern-Felsher (2009), an Associate Professor at theUniversity of California, San Francisco, identifies a number decision-making criteria in her report, "Adolescent decision making: an overview." According to Halpern-Felsher, determinations of definitions for a competent decision, the process of how the decision was made, differ dramatically. The actual behavior or outcome, albeit, does not determine competent decision making, however, during the normative model of decision-making process, one does consider the consequences to not choosing a particular behavior or a specific event.
Normative models of decision making,…… [Read More]
Discuss the various reasons marketers have been shifting their marketing dollars to sales promotion from media advertising. Discuss the pros and cons of this reallocation of marketers' advertising and promotion budgets.
Marketers are shifting their marketing budgets to support sales promotion from media advertising in an effort to get greater impact on brand recognition at the upper ends of their sales funnels, and more effectively influence lead generation in the lower areas of their sales funnels. Sales promotion is seen increasingly as having a more immediate impact on lead generation, lead fulfillment and the entire pipeline of sales activity. Media advertising on the other hand is not as easily tracked directly to sales activity and often is seen as "air cover" to drive up awareness of a given brand. Where media advertising is strategic and long-term in scope, in fact it has to be long-term to have an appreciable impact…… [Read More]
ethics problems in the study reviewed.
The first noted ethical issue in the document reviewed in this study is the ethical issues represented by the small group that is used in representing the sample group in the study as the group is all from one small area in a Southern U.S. state only and there is no representation of a sampling of individuals country-wide in this study relating to social media marketing.
Stated as well in the limitations of the study is a lack of representing of a wide range of advertising and marketing companies and the lack of representation of individuals in advertising and marketing companies in all countries are there are only advertising and marketing firms from one country represented in the study. This leaves a question about the use of social media in other countries and the methods for advertising in those countries.
The study…… [Read More]
Marketing to Children
I feel that there should be rules that companies have to follow with respect to marketing to children. Basically, I do not buy into the argument about critical analysis. The way that the brain develops, young children do not, physically, have the capacity for critical analysis. As children age, they will begin to develop the different levels of cognition that allow for critical thought, to the point where a teenager is fully capable of thinking critically (Kuhn, 1999). The problem, even then, is that children do not have much practice in critical thinking at that age. Advertisers use the most up-to-date knowledge of psychology and sociology to sell their products -- most adults can offer little resistance, let alone children. Thus, children are a vulnerable population, psychologically ill-equipped to critically analyze marketing communications. Thus, a young children cannot reasonably draw the line between fast food and obesity…… [Read More]
There is a ripple affect that ensues from this as well, reaching out to affect jobs, which affect incomes, which again affect economical aspects.
5. The ethical decision-making framework includes the concepts of ethical issue intensity, corporate culture, and individual factors. Discuss how these concepts influence the ethical decision-making process.
The ethical issue intensity concept is truly foremost in determining the degree by which the decision-making process is extended. When the degree of intensity regarding the ethical issue at hand is substantial, the decision making process is likely to be handled with either more care in its concern or more hastily in its chaos. Factoring in corporate culture, the decision making process will be sensitive to the exact nature of the ethical issue in connection to specifics outlining the concept of corporate culture. Individual factors will contribute to the decision-making process according to the various manners of the specific individual…… [Read More]
In many powerful nations with whom U.S. corporations would like to do business (such as Mexico, India, and China) the price of bribery is factored into the everyday costs of doing business. There are profound cultural differences regarding perceptions of the ethics of bribery and in some government officials' views, receiving a bribe is an expected part of their informal salary. However, legally, the hands of U.S. companies are tied, no matter how widely embraced bribery may be abroad. "The United States' 1977 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act prohibits payments made to foreign government officials with the aim of gaining or maintaining business" although gifts "to officers working for foreign corporations are legal" which allows some organizations to disregard the spirit of the law; regardless, to do so is unwise and illegal (Allen 2000).
Topic 1: Ethics culture
Q1.How would you describe the ethics culture of the organization?
Google…… [Read More]
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…… [Read More]
PharmaCARE -- Case Review
There are numerous stakeholders and stakeholder groups that are presented in this case. The stakeholders can be thought of in two different primary groups to make the first set of distinctions, internal and external groups.
The management team
CompCARE and PharmaCARE Investors
Colberian Citizens and orkers
The Drugs Patients
Employees, Management, and Investors at ellco
Society in General
PharmaCARE's Unethical Treatment of the Colberia's
PharmaCARE's received support from the Colberia's in many forms, yet they compensated the Coberia's with nearly nothing and even worse caused ecological damage to their communities. The first way in which the Colberia's supported the PharmaCARE Corporation is through their sharing of intellectual property that had been passed down their ancestral linages for an untold number of years. The "healers" had accumulated generations of ancient tidbits that were undoubtedly accumulated through trial and error…… [Read More]
Unlike some professions, there is no ethical code for marketing professionals. But that does not mean that marketers can ignore the impact their powerful message has on others. In recent years, marketers have been criticized for making unhealthy pastimes attractive (such as eating fast food and smoking cigarettes) as well as marketing to vulnerable populations such as adolescents and children who cannot distinguish advertising from information. On one hand, in a free society, marketers have relatively free rein in terms of what they can transmit, so long as they do not outright lie. On the other hand, there have been calls to regulate advertising and marketing because of fears of its negative social impact. Companies that have violated ethical guidelines have been faced with legal sanctions and boycotts. “Nutella, a sugary hazelnut spread that was pitched as part of a nutritious breakfast for children—the company was sued, ultimately reimbursing up…… [Read More]
Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues of RU 486
Abortion is a totally unacceptable, cruel and unethical practice and should be considered illegal except under some special cases and medical circumstances that indicate a danger to the mother. Our judicial system must consider the ethical and moral aspects of abortion as an intrinsic part of the problem when approaching this social issue. Even from the practical prospective the abortion pill RU486 has not been a breakthrough and instead of making abortion a private and safe method it has only increased the physical discomfort and the psychological ordeal for the woman.
Abortion is the one of the most debated social issues of this century. The controversy as to the right that man has over the life of a baby in the fetus and in controlling its entry into the world is a much-debated topic. Abortion is nothing but putting an end to…… [Read More]
Moral Medicine, and a Doctor's Duty to the World
The 18th chapter of On Moral Medicine talks about the way medical professionals build their identity as practitioners and how the form relationships with other professionals and with patients. The author uses four unique terms to define his ideas on the four things these relationships can be based on: covenant, contract, code, and philanthropy. Using these concepts, he explores the current and the ideal relationships which define the medical field and experience. In the end, the author finishes by suggesting a change in the way doctor-patient relationships are conceived, but from the evidence of his own work one can see that he may not push this revolution far enough.
The idea of a covenant in this context is the idea of a deep commitment that transforms those who make it. Covenants are usually made through the exchange of gifts and responsibilities,…… [Read More]
marketing that was previously considered ethical but that is now considered unethical. What caused this change?
The marketing and selling of tobacco-related products has gone through one of the most fundamental shifts in marketing ethicacy ever seen in the United States in the last century. From being seen as a symbol of confidence and commonly prescribed by society as a means to reduce stress and enjoy life, today the impact of tobacco consumption has shown to cause a multitude of cancers (Fairchild, Colgrove, 2004). Tobacco companies often crossed the line and began to market many of their tobacco products to children as well, with the idea of getting 12 and 13-year-old addicted to cigarettes and chewing tobacco to make their lifetime customer value as customers even more lucrative for tobacco companies (Fairchild, Colgrove, 2004). Of the many approaches relied on to accomplish this goal the most insidious was the Joe…… [Read More]
Ethics, Human esources, Management
Discuss the ethical issues that need to be considered when you (1) design a research project, (2) collect data, and (3) analyze and report data.
When a research project is designed, data is collected, and then the data is analyzed and reported, there are a number of ethical issues that have to be carefully considered. Unfortunately, many researchers who are inexperienced are not clear on how they should address the issues that surround the collection of data (Cohen & Arieli, 2011). That is especially true if the project requires the researcher to collect data from human subjects, as there are additional points that have to be raised and more care that has to be taken (Gorard, 2013; Kara, 2012). The design of the research project should take that into account, and should work with that information from the beginning so that there are no surprises in…… [Read More]
American Association of Advertising Agencies was founded in 1917 as national trade association in the United States that represents advertising agency business the American Association of Advertising Agencies, 2013a ()
The association is management-oriented, and it offers expertise, broad services, and information to its members in regards to advertising agency business. Its members contribute an approximate of 80% in the total advertising agencies revenue worldwide. Not all the larger multinational advertising agencies are members of the 4A, but their members have a billing of less than $10 million per year. Since it is a national trade association, it is bound by its own by-laws and constitution, which strengthen the association. The association has been credited with been one of the associations that helped in regulating advertising in the United States. The association has its headquarters in New York City.
Membership to the association is by election after interested members fill…… [Read More]
Marketing is a multi-faceted discipline within business that incorporate a wide number of theories, philosophies and techniques. All are geared towards a simple objective -- to increase sales. This paper will examine some of the key issues in marketing today. These include the relevance of sales people using a push strategy, ethics in advertising, public relation and publicity and the expectations that a business might have of a sales professional. The essay will conclude by summarizing the key points and providing some final thoughts.
Push Strategies and Salespeople
There are typically two kinds of marketing strategies, the push and the pull. While both have the objective of winning sales, they differ in how the potential customer is approached. In a pull strategy, the customer is enticed or drawn in. This can happen any number of ways, but ultimately the point is that the company is seeking to attract the customer…… [Read More]
109). But the new types of data kept by corporations are highly individualized, and contain information beyond the surface demographic to which the consumer belongs: the information is so personal it can be easily used to commit credit card or insurance fraud, and besmirch a customer's name.
While increased access to such data might be a boon to sellers it is hardly likely to be as beneficial for consumers. Sellers might weakly protest that knowing more about the consumer enables them to offer special promotions of interest to their core contingent of loyal purchasers. However, most consumers do not want to be barraged by advertising, and their information, once it leaves their possession, can easily fall into unscrupulous hands, the more it is passed around. Selling databases of consumer information is far from unheard-of. A consumer who obtained a discount on a bag of pet food with a 'rewards card'…… [Read More]
This advertisement, a commercial on cable television, advertised an insurance company. The advertisement featured a typical couple driving down the road chatting, when a car sideswiped them without any warning. The advertisement was intended to educate the public as to the importance of insurance because of life's unpredictability, but the shock tactic used in the commercial has negative effects on the watchers. Like news shows, the advertisement is meant to inspire fear, which creates a negative social environment.
But advertisements don't necessarily have to create a negative environment in order to be ethically and socially negative. Neither do they have to offend target markets with less than tasteful techniques or shock tactics. They can be deceptive, convincing consumers to purchase products they don't need. One type of advertising particularly guilty of this offense is paid programming, or television length commercials that appear on home shopping networks or traditional networks at…… [Read More]
Marketing and Advertising
Marketing & Advertising
(01) uper Bowl commercials cost millions of dollars (as an example, companies paid an average of $2.6 million for 30 seconds of airtime in uper Bowl XLIV for the chance to reach a projected audience of 90 million viewers worldwide). Go to this site to view the latest uper Bowl ads. Identify which ad you believe was the most effective for domestic and international markets and why.
The advertisement that I believe has the most appeal to domestic markets is the Chrysler Commercial titled "Its Halftime in America." If effectiveness is defined as the ability to cause the consumer to remember the commercial, to encourage the customer to be engaged with the brand, to bring about a positive customer attitude toward the brand, and to tip the consumer toward converting those feelings and perceptions about the brand into a purchase of the product, then…… [Read More]
A eport on Advertising Industry
This paper presents a detailed report on the environmental factors, competitive environment, and current trends in the advertising sector. The purpose of this report is to highlight and discuss the major challenges which companies in the advertising sector are facing in the present business landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the advertising industry; its introduction, functions, and purposes, and proceeds by discussing the major environmental forces that impact the companies in this industry. These are political, economic, social and technological forces. The later section explains the competitive environment in detail. That is, how advertising companies are managing to compete in the presence of a stiff competition from existing competitors, new entrants, and substitute services. The report also discusses the introduction and role of the five key players of the advertising industry. Moreover, the trends, opportunities for graduates, Gap analysis and action…… [Read More]
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]
S. Court Systems don't happen again (Lewis, 2005).
In January, 1997 an unannounced audit by Ernst & Young uncovered violations of worker safety throughout a Vietnamese contract manufacturing plant where children were also found working well over the hours they were allowed to under international law (Lewis, 2005). The workers had no idea they were working for world-known Nike at the time. Not a single worker had been shown a code of safety conduct, been to a safety briefing, or had their injuries reported. If injured they were sent home, and also they were penalized for taking time off for weddings and funerals; it was actually glorified slavery (Lewis, 2005). Today with the rapid growth the social media these practices would have been even more detrimental to the Nike brand and sales overall (Bernoff, Li, 2008).
Nike's blurring of their compliance from a marketing standpoint and the stated compliance…… [Read More]
Adamson, John. Law for Business and Personal Use. Mason: South -- Western, 2008.
Lamb, Charles. Marketing 5. Mason: Cengage -- South Western, 2011.
Simms, Mary. "What are the Different Consumer Groups." E. How. Last modified 2012. http://www.ehow.com/info_8060212_different-consumer-groups.html
Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/03/
Mary Simms, "What are the Different Consumer Groups," E. How, last modified 2012, http://www.ehow.com/info_8060212_different-consumer-groups.html
"Community," American Marketing Association, last modified 2012, http://www.marketingpower.com/Community/Pages/sigs.aspx
"The American Citizen Interest Groups," Twyman-Whitney, last modified 2012, http://www.twyman-whitney.com/americancitizen/links/lobbies.htmv
John Adamson, Law for Business and Personal Use (Mason: South -- Western, 2008) 164 -- 178.
John Adamson, Law for Business and Personal Use (Mason: South -- Western, 2008) 164 -- 178.
John Adamson, Law for Business and Personal Use (Mason: South -- Western, 2008) 164 -- 178.
John Adamson, Law for Business and Personal Use (Mason: South -- Western, 2008) 164 -- 178.
Charles Lamb, Marketing 5 (Mason: Cengage -- South Western, 2011), 35 -- 39.…… [Read More]
However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? hat if a food company donated food that was safe but 'past its expiration date' to a famine-stricken nation? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical. From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.S. Everyone, in short,…… [Read More]
aters appears to have fairly limited ethics. His moral imperative appears to be guided by whatever will benefit him the most personally. Under his watch, the organization has become less effective and has seen its size reduced by 60%. aters does not feel the need to work hard, so he provides a poor example for his team as well. He is an ineffective leader, and is not respected by his charges. Beyond that, he is failing in his responsibility to the shareholders. As a manager, he has a duty to act as an agent of the shareholders (Donaldson & Davis, 1991). This means that he should be pursuing tactics that will earn the company the most profit. aters instead is pursuing self-interest to the detriment of earning the most profit.
The corporate culture appears to be contributing to the dilemma. Nobody in senior management appears to be especially concerned with…… [Read More]
Effects of social advertising on the American society
Having seen that the society at large is highly dependent on the social media, and it is on these social networks that the social advertising has turned to, it is necessary to look at the extent to which the society today has been affected by the medium of transmission and the content of the social advertising.
The underlying fact about the social advertising is that they want to make a positive impact on the society in general, it is the drive to see a better society that makes the foundation and core business of the organizations involved in social advertisements.
It has been seen that the same techniques used in promoting profitable goods and services can as well be used for information purpose, educate and motivational aspect to the public about the non-profitable issues like HIV / AIDS, the energy conservation, politics…… [Read More]
Ethics in Marketing
BP and Toyota have been in the news due to serious failures, which created significant safety risk and ultimately resulted in deaths as well as significant environmental damage in the case of BP with the exposition on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. In both cases there were internal failures. In these two cases there were notable failures which received a high level philosophy and have damaged the reputations of the firms. The causes of the safety problems may be divergent, but the marketing problem of the two firms are similar'; to guide the firm though a recovery and restore faith in the brand; unless this is achieved the firms are likely to suffer financial with lower sales.
If working for the marketing the department's responsibility is to support the firm's recovery, but this does not mean it should be undertaken in an unethical manner. The marketing…… [Read More]
.....ethical plan and strategy is integral to an organization's overall commitment to social responsibility. In "Marketing Ethics and Social Responsibility," Marinova (2013) first discusses the general importance of ethics as a general marketing strategy, in order to promote the brand as one that is socially responsible and thereby position the organization not just ethically but also strategically within the marketplace. Next, Marinova (2013) defines terms related to ethics and corporate social responsibility to help organizations to identify their weaknesses in these areas and make strong commitments to change and revising their ethical policies, particular in marketing. Moreover, the author offers some of the direct marketing solutions related to specific issues like false advertising and the sale of potentially harmful products from toys containing lead paint to food products containing items known to cause obesity or other diseases. The tremendous strengths of the Marinova (2013) article are only partially offset by…… [Read More]
Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Extension to Consumer Advertising Imagery
The last few decades have seen the emergence of two trends that have important implications for the field of consumer advertising. The first trend, as indicated in Gulas and Mckeage's literature review, is a growing body of research evidence that the imagery projected in consumer advertising has psychological and sociological effects.
This indicates that consumer advertising imagery is now being measured for its possible effect on consumer psychology and social behavior. The second trend, which is related to the first, can be seen in the widely acknowledged public demand that businesses need to demonstrate their social responsibility and conscience in all forms of organizational activity. These two trends make it evident that advertisers and their agencies can no longer defend socially irresponsible advertising imagery by using the traditional argument that consumer advertising merely mirrors society. Instead, as this paper will establish,…… [Read More]
reaking the definition of business ethics into individual ethics and organizational ethics helps provide an optimal definition. As an individual one must be able to look at him and be comfortable with their conscience. Further an individual must have self-esteem and self-confidence to do take the right action. Remaining patient allows a person to look at the long-term results of his actions and avoid being too focused on the short-term consequences. Ethical rules have no value if they are not practiced consistently. Taking time to reflect before acting also allows one to consider appropriate behavior.
From an organizational level the same principles should apply. The organization must develop do's and don'ts initiated by the managers at the highest levels. Employees need to feel positive as individuals and feel positive about the organization. Each worker must continue to hold to his values and realize that consistent long-term application of values leads…… [Read More]
Though the Vioxx incident is one of the more major breaches of this implicit public contract, the issues of improper marketing -- especially in over-promoting a drug's efficacy and unethically downplaying a drug's risks -- are an industry-wide problem (OBM, 2005) for that reason, Merck and other pharmaceutical companies ought to adhere to the same standards as social marketing. Social marketing, which is generally not for a profit, is concerned only with public welfare, and thus faces slightly different ethical issues (Brenkert, 2002). Both commercial and social marketing are concerned with improving the well-being of the consumer, but in social marketing "the intended well-being of the people targeted is not simply an individual or subjective matter" (Brenkert, 2002). The same should be true of pharmaceutical marketing; though these companies must turn a profit, their main concern -- like the main concern for all other sectors and practitioners in healthcare --…… [Read More]
Personal and Organizational Ethics and Values between for-Profit and Not-For-Profit Organizations
For-profit and not-for-profit companies often operate very differently from one another. Here this will be shown with a comparison between the American ed Cross (a not-for-profit company) and the Coca-Cola Company (a for-profit company). The background of each one of them will be addressed, and they proposed solutions and recommendations will be discussed. Each company has its problems, whether it is for-profit or not, but there are unique problems faced by each kind of company. The differences in whether they are for-profit or not-for-profit can have a significant effect on the companies themselves and whether they are able to continue being successful or whether they must make changes in order to see growth and development in the future.
Case Study Analysis of Personal and Organizational Ethics and Values between For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Organizations:
The ed Cross and Coca-Cola
Introduction…… [Read More]
ecommendations for Organizations
The many factors of data mining and their use for profiling customers and their needs also create opportunities for organizations to build greater levels of trust with their customers as well. And trust is the greatest asset any marketer can have today. The following are a series of recommendations for how organizations can address demographic influences that impact their marketing strategies in light of concerns surrounding the ethics of data mining.
First, it is imperative, across all demographic segments that marketers make a deliberate a very clear effort to explain their opt-in and opt-out policies and also provides evidence that they do what they claim to in this area. The greatest challenge for the consumer is controlling their personal information online and ensuring it is well managed to their preferences (Pratt. Conger, 2009). Marketers who give consumer control over their data in this way will…… [Read More]
Ethics in Marketing
Ethics of Marketing
Ethics in Marketing
In order to realize themselves as socially responsible corporate entities, business organizations have to maintain a sound ethical track record in every aspect of their business (Arnold 2009). They have to formulate their business policies and strategies in such a fashion that no societal values are exploited and no human being is harmed in any way (Crane & Matten 2007). It is essential for organizations to keep themselves on the safest ethical path in their marketing, promotional, and general operational activities (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel 2012). It cannot only save them from severe criticism by their stakeholders, but also contribute towards a sustainable future in their industry. especting the ethical values and social norms of a society helps an organization in standing on competitive grounds among its competitors and strengthening its public image (Abela & Murphy 2008).
This paper…… [Read More]
They sampled 800 consumers from a larger metropolitan area in the U.S. The method they used relied on strictly African-American consumers. This prompted them to exclude non-African-American consumers leaving them with 761 responses.
Again on page 7 normal distribution was calculated in 3 steps. The first step involved using Muncy-Vitell questionnaire. The second step they measured culture following Hofstede's dimensions using Dorfman and Howell's scale. Lastly, the third step measured the demographics of the people who particpated in the survey.
Confidence intervals seen as ranges, page 5 shows the ranges for individualism which is zero, collective culture to 100, invidiualistic culture. The masculinity index ranges from zero for feminine cultures all the way to 100 for masculine cultures. Power index ranges from zero, culture with a small power distance to 100, culture with a large power distance.
For poisson page 8 or 208 of the article shows the means of…… [Read More]
Behavioral analytics are making it possible for companies to combine personas and social networks, gaining invaluable insights into the performance of promotional programs in real-time. In addition to all of these benefits, analytics will make it possible for marketers to fine-tune each element, offer and even digital channel used in the presentation of a promotional offer to a specific audience. By combining all available sources of analytics, marketers will be able to have a 360-degree view of customers while also aligning their promotional strategies to each phase of the buying process with much greater precision than has ever been possible before (Acker, Grone, Blockus, Bange, 2011).
Impact of the Internet on Advertising
In strategic terms the Internet has made digital marketing, promotion and advertising strategies more precise and measurable. The proliferation of analytics applications, many of them Cloud-based, are revolutionizing how marketers plan and execute their promotional, advertising, and services…… [Read More]
This phenomenon objectifies women by suggesting (at least implicitly) that only the opinions and sensibilities of the most attactive females, such as the models featued in advetisements, ae wothwhile. The mee absence of females of aveage and less-than-aveage elative physical attactiveness fom commecial advetising conditions eveyone in society to ignoe women unless they ae paticulaly sexually attactive. Besides being unfai to women who happen not to look like the models in commecial advetising, this also devalues any legitimate talents and the intelligence and meaningful contibutions of women who do happen to be elatively attactive. It ceates the natual infeence that attactive women who ae successful achieved thei success by vitue of thei physical appeaance instead of thei othe attibutes.
In addition to objectifying women as though they ae nothing moe than thei elative level of physical attactiveness, the ovewhelming focus on sexuality and female attactiveness in commecial advetising also denigates…… [Read More]
hat types of sports events do they go to? Are they eb savvy? Are they frequent fliers? Once you develop that kind of intimate understanding of your shoppers, you can truly begin to cultivate their loyalties" (Pedersen 1999:1).
On one hand, this may make consumers uncomfortable -- but it may also mean that when a supermarket chain discovers that the majority of its customers have young children, the chain may include a new line of baby care supplies or discounted coupons on diapers bought in bulk. If a credit card company discovers that the majority of its users are not frequent fliers, it may create a new rewards points program that offers different promotional strategies than mere upgrades to first class.
Take for example a promotional strategy whereby Coca-Cola "joined forces with Random House to offer sample chapters of unpublished novels in cases of Diet Coke. The idea was hatched…… [Read More]
The aspect of Steve and arry's marketing strategy that emphasizes comparable quality for lower prices than its competitors appeals very directly to all parents who pay for their children's clothing. Whereas teens and young adults respond most positively to any association between products and popular celebrities and sports figures endorsing them, their parents are practically oblivious to those connections, except perhaps to the extent they realize that products associated with celebrity endorsements are likely to cost more than they perceive them to be worth (elch & elch 1998).
Ordinarily, parents are accustomed to arguments, especially with teenagers, over their preference for name-brand apparel despite the similarity in quality. Long-standing authoritative marketing research into consumer buying trends (Ogilvy 1983) suggests that teenagers (and many young adults) are much more status conscious than mature adults.
According to general principles of social and developmental psychology, this is partly because of the heightened importance…… [Read More]
Globalization and international marketing ethics problems" by Yucel, Elibol and Da-delen was published in the International Research Journal of Finance and Economics in 2009. The outlines some of the ethical issues that marketers must deal with when they operate internationally. The authors seek to present guidelines to assist marketers in behaving ethically. The authors take the view that a uniform code of ethics should be adopted by either the TO or the UN to help guide ethical practice for international marketers.
The significance of the article is that it recognizes the complexity of the issue of ethics in international market. The authors realize that when different countries have different ethical systems, there are going to be instances where conflict arises. hile this may not have been a significant issue for much of human history, in a globalized environment this issue is significant. The others provide a variety of philosophical perspectives…… [Read More]