Ethics In Research For Organizations Of All Research Proposal

Length: 3 pages Sources: 3 Subject: Business - Ethics Type: Research Proposal Paper: #83305104 Related Topics: Research, Social Work Ethics, Medical Ethics, Transparency
Excerpt from Research Proposal :

Ethics in Research

For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).

Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into how businesses and organization approach research and the expectations of stakeholders within that genre. The ideas of interconnectedness and consequentialism are part of a more philosophical way of looking at organizations. For instance, deontology, or duty-based ethics is from the Greek word "deon" meaning duty or obligation. This is a true basis for research ethics...


Actions, in deontology, are as important as results (Gutman and Thompson 2004). Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, found that actions are only ethical if they are universal, reversible, and allow for respect toward the individual. Kant's theory is a variation or derivation of the "Golden Rule" which instructs people to "treat others as you would want them to treat you." Some form of this rule is part of all the world's major religions (White, 2009).

Since we are a part of a capitalistic society, as capitalism matured, so did some of the ethical issues surrounding research (use of human subjects, methods, etc.). Ethics in research is a way to apply morality and ethical principles within the field. Any institution can use research for good or bad purposes, or can perform that research in a manner that manipulates others, which for some, can damage autonomy and access to the truth. This is often seen when individuals think about advertising or marketing research, but has bled off into other forms of research, which are then seen as manipulative (Schneider, 1983).

All research activities begin with a question. Research, in its most basic form is the process of answering that question, or questions. Academic research, though, is a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information so that it increases the understanding of the phenomenon under study. Regardless of the complexity or nature of the research project, there are at least eight characteristics that help define the process:

There must be a viable question or issue for research to occur.

That question(s) must be articulated clearly.

The scientific method should be followed.

Usually research needs sets of sub-problems to clearly articulate a primary hypothesis.

The hypothesis should guide the research.

Both qualitative and quantitative research requires using the hypothesis to guide the process.


Sources Used in Documents:


Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.

Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.

SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from

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