Ethics in Research
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into how businesses and organization approach research and the expectations of stakeholders within that genre. The ideas of interconnectedness and consequentialism are part of a more philosophical way of looking at organizations. For instance, deontology, or duty-based ethics is from the Greek word "deon" meaning duty or obligation. This is a true basis for research ethics...
Actions, in deontology, are as important as results (Gutman and Thompson 2004). Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, found that actions are only ethical if they are universal, reversible, and allow for respect toward the individual. Kant's theory is a variation or derivation of the "Golden Rule" which instructs people to "treat others as you would want them to treat you." Some form of this rule is part of all the world's major religions (White, 2009).
Since we are a part of a capitalistic society, as capitalism matured, so did some of the ethical issues surrounding research (use of human subjects, methods, etc.). Ethics in research is a way to apply morality and ethical principles within the field. Any institution can use research for good or bad purposes, or can perform that research in a manner that manipulates others, which for some, can damage autonomy and access to the truth. This is often seen when individuals think about advertising or marketing research, but has bled off into other forms of research, which are then seen as manipulative (Schneider, 1983).
All research activities begin with a question. Research, in its most basic form is the process of answering that question, or questions. Academic research, though, is a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information so that it increases the understanding of the phenomenon under study. Regardless of the complexity or nature of the research project, there are at least eight characteristics that help define the process:
There must be a viable question or issue for research to occur.
That question(s) must be articulated clearly.
The scientific method should be followed.
Usually research needs sets of sub-problems to clearly articulate a primary hypothesis.
The hypothesis should guide the research.
Both qualitative and quantitative research requires using the hypothesis to guide the process.
It is important that I am honest to anyone who I choose to be my mentor. Communication must be frank and honest, as learning is the key to research. Requirements for IRB Approval Institutional Review Boards (IRB) are the governing bodies that determine what research may be conducted at the university. This is the approving authority for future knowledge and must be treated with honor and respect. As a student under
In this area the facilitators are the human resource personnel. The contribution of HRM to ethics in organization is widespread. Human resource management serves with models and theories to implement an ethical environment for the development of organization. First and foremost relates to performance management. This is a sort of theory that involves performance appraisement, compensation, selection and training. The improvement through this process leads to motivation in employees.
Acquiescence to cynicism breeds failed change programs, increasing the level of organizational cynicism, making future change programs more likely to fail as well (Reichers, et al., 1993). To give this guidance, the leader must understand the implications of the change process. Some of the managers and employees will struggle in the new environment. Thus, the company must be prepared to either let these individuals go, or be prepared to
At NIB (National Irish Bank), the unethical behavior of employees according to Knights and O'Leary (2005) was at no time suppressed. Leaders in this case according to the authors were largely concerned with profit maximization. This is a clear indication that when leaders fail to mould subordinates, the consequences could be dire. Indeed, a report issued by the inspector general with regard to the scandal at the institution revealed that
biomedical ethics research, internet searching articles, specific topic-based book Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine, Bonnie Steinbock, John D. Arras, Alex J. London 7th ed. The General topic: Part 2 Allocation, Social Justice, health Policy. Organ donation: Ethics of gift vs. market exchanges The dramatic difference between the philosophy of deontological, or Kantian ethics and consequential or situational, utilitarian ethics would seem to be crystallized in the issues that arise over the
Business Ethics The organization should take a position that it is okay to pursue its actions on the issue. Hartman (2013) makes the point that the business, and the people within the business, should follow a path that emphasizes selfishness. This selfishness is an expression of individual liberty and should not be constrained by the wishes of others, so long as the actions do not harm others. Given that actions are