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"Alas!" said one, "what oceans yet remain
For us to sail! what labors to sustain" (Book IV).
Playing on their already frustrated emotions, they are quick to succumb when "the goddess, great in mischief, views their pains" (Virgil Book V). Stirred-up by the goddess, the women set fire to the ships, only to have them put out by the Trojans with some assistance from the gods.
Thus, this is just another example in which women are considered hindrances in the Trojan culture. Furthermore, the fact that they hinder the Trojans suggests their low position in society. Clearly, the concept of fate is very important in the Trojan society, and by attempting to thwart fate, the women are acting in a way that is contrary to Trojan beliefs and values. In addition, their grumbling and complaining makes them appear weak and unfruitful. This is especially true in the above situation. Virgil…… [Read More]
Aeneid - the Duty-Bound Aeneas
Aeneas was a Trojan prince who fled from the ruins of Troy to look for Italy as his new fatherland. In his voyage, Aeneas shatters the heart of Dido - the Carthaginian queen, pays a visit to the Underworld, and finds Lavinium, a city on the coast of Italy. His mother is the goddess Venus, and he is a descendant of mighty Jove. According to the mythology, the founder of Troy, Dardanus, was one of the many sons of Jupiter, with females other than Hera. The eventual founders of Rome were the descendants of Aeneas. The Aeneid, in its most basic form, is an epic poem that goes beyond glorifying Rome and her father, taking up the superseding theme of duty pertinent to the people in all societies.
Analysis of Aeneas' duty-binding in the Aeneid
Aeneas introduces himself in Virgil's Aeneid as: "I am Aeneas,…… [Read More]
" Finally, Lantinus seals Aeneas's fate as a future Latin by commenting on how the Trojan will bring peace. The king states, "peace is made when I behold him here." Aeneas's being welcomed with genuine warmth into Latinus's home and homeland signal a tremendous transformation in the title character of the poem. Aeneas is no longer just a Trojan, and he is no longer a Trojan without a homeland. Now Aeneas will inherit the kingdom and start a new lineage of Latins.
Aeneas becomes more emotionally hardened as he matures, although he is no less passionate of a man. His experience with Dido illustrates the shift in his emotions. Aeneas is known for his emotional stoicism, referred to in the epic as piety or temperance. Yet Aeneas's temperamental passion is one of his core character traits. He falls in love readily, and cannot communicate his feelings to Dido. Although he…… [Read More]
Juno does everything in her power to destroy Aeneas; yet he survives. The Homeric heroes had the luxury of divine help to complete their heroic missions.
Another important factor is Aeneas' family. Aeneas' first loyalty was to his family. Despite all the odds against their survival, Aeneas makes nothing short of a heroic effort to save his family from the violence of the conflict they face. He succeeds in saving his father and son, but his wife is lost. While he is unable to complete the self-assigned tasks of saving Priam and destroying Helen, he is nonetheless able to recognize and accept good advice when it is presented to him. It is not personal weakness that disables Aeneas to save his wife or prevent Priam's murder. It is simply the circumstances that surround him and to which he must submit. The same is true of Juno's rage. Aeneas has no…… [Read More]
After an unfortunate set of events which leaves Aeneas with only seven ships from his initial fleet, the Trojans find themselves on the shores of Carthage. Here, there are welcomed by the Phoenician princess, Dido, the founder of the city. The fact that the people of Carthage partially share the same fate as the Trojans makes it easier for them to interact and form bonds.
Gradually, a connection forms between Dido and Aeneas because of several interventions from the Trojan hero's mother, Venus, and they become lovers. Because of their relationship, Aeneas forgets the prophecy and decides to stay with his people in Carthage. Observing that Aeneas had forgotten his duties, the god Jupiter sends Mercury to remind him of the prophecy. Again, Aeneas sets sail, determined to have his descendents enjoy the cultural values of the Trojans.
Since my family comes from Puerto Rico, I am also familiar with…… [Read More]
Rhyming also conveys emotion in the Aeneid. The fist fou lines of the epic ead: "Ams, and the man I sing, who, foc'd by fate, / and haughty Juno's unelenting hate, / Expell'd and exil'd, left the Tojan shoe. / Long labos, both by sea and land, he boe." This opening passages also show how egula the mete is in the Aeneid, as each line has ten "feet." The tanslatos do a good job of conveting the mete and hyme but eading the poem in Latin is moe amazing.
Futhemoe, some of Vigil's efeences to Rome act as small histoy lessons about the time peiod of the Empeo Augustus duing which the book was witten. Augustus eigned duing the height of the Roman Empie. Vigil was alive duing the time of Rome's most ambitious expansions and witnessed how geat empies depend on the heoic qualities of thei leades. This theme…… [Read More]
..denies her semi-divine status as the daughter of Leda and Jupiter and secures her in the patriarchal hierarchy by referring to her as daughter of Tyndareus" (Bond pp). It is his mother, Venus, who stops him, telling him that the disaster is not Helen's fault and that he has other duties and priorities, reminding him to his senses and helping him to pass his first test of placing duty before feeling (Bond pp).
Andrew ilson writes that from the beginning of the tale, it has been prophesied that Aeneas will establish a race that is destined to rule the world in peace and prosperity (ilson pp). The Romans and Aeneas's mission comes from Jupiter, king of the gods and men, and it is Juno, queen of heaven, who is set on stopping Aeneas because she knows that it is destined for Rome to destroy Carthage, her favorite city, and so…… [Read More]
Book seven marks the second half of the poem, showing a new revitalization of purpose in both the writing and the journey. Recognizing that they have finally reached their promised land by fulfilling a curse from the Harpy, Aeneas finds himself in Latium, where the daughter of the king is fated to marry a foreigner.
For thus Anchises prophesied of old,
And this our fatal place of rest foretold:
hen, on a foreign shore, instead of meat,
By famine forc'd, your trenchers you shall eat,
Then ease your weary Trojans will attend,
And the long labors of your voyage end.
Remember on that happy coast to build,
And with a trench inclose the fruitful field.'
The king offers his daughter along with the land that Aeneas requests to found a new city, but Juno inspires a hated of the Trojans to delay the founding of their great city…… [Read More]
He becomes a greater hero because he is only human and yet he accomplishes many things. From going to and through the underworld to mustering up great courage to fight and carry on, Aeneas is a revered hero because he is human and, to this, we can relate.
5. Virgil writes the Aeneid because he has something to say about the hero of the story. The Aeneid also depicts other significant factors that influenced first century Roman life and seeks to the meaning of Roman life in general. Virgil also tells a tale of history and the human heart with the Aeneid. The story remains popular because of this aspect of humanity.
6. There is a general sense of hatred for the Greeks because they defeated Aeneas' country and everything in which he and his countrymen believed. The correlation between the Aeneid and the Odyssey is impressive because of the…… [Read More]
The first six books tell the story of Aeneas' trip to Italy, and his encounters with a number of people. The second part tells of the Trojan's ultimate victory over the Latin tribes. Agamemnon, one of the most famous plays from Ancient Greece, was written by Aeschylus as commentary on seduction, betrayal, and reconciliation. If Virgil and Aeschylus were to converse about women the might scratch their chins and say -- which women -- mortal or God? Greek or Trojan? Athenian or Theban?
For Virgil, every character means something to Aeneus' eventual fate. However, even the women that help him, or cause positive actions to occur are portrayed in a negative light. Oddly, this is the same for mortal and immortal women -- all portrayed in varying degrees as irrational, selfish, and emotionally driven. Thematically, this idea of women being irrational occurs near the beginning of the story when Aeneas…… [Read More]
Even then, Paris did not have to take Helen from her husband. In contrast, Aeneas apparently falls in love with Dido, and spends several years in Carthage as her companion. However, he places his personal emotions aside to go complete his fate, part of which includes the marriage to Lavinia.
Of course, one of the greatest character conflicts in the play is between Turnus and Aeneas. The general assumption was that Turnus and Lavinia would wed. Not only was Turnus the most eligible of her suitors, but the queen wished for their alliance, as well:
Fir'd with her love, and with ambition led,
The neighb'ring princes court her nuptial bed.
Among the crowd, but far above the rest,
Young Turnus to the beauteous maid address'd.
Turnus, for high descent and graceful mien,
as first, and favor'd by the Latian queen;
ith him she strove to join Lavinia's hand,
But dire…… [Read More]
Virgil's epic poem "The Aeneid" is often described as the poet's response to Homer's epics "The Iliad," and "The Odyssey" in that it details the Trojan ar and its aftermath from the Roman perspective. It is a Roman claim to great and far-reaching origins, and because of this apparently patriotic purpose, many classical scholars have attributed the poem's inspiration as Virgil's attempt to praise the emperor Augustus. However, to ascribe this simple purpose to such a complex text is somewhat problematic, as this paper will make clear.
In ascribing reasons for its author's motivation, a literary analysis of "The Aeneid" presents itself with some problems not present in a similar analysis of Homer's inspiring works. Although the actual status of Homer as either a poet or a collective name of several poets is uncertain, Homer's works formed the basis of virtually all of Greek classical literature. "The Iliad" and "The…… [Read More]
Here we can visualize, as Aeneas does, the importance of everything that is about to occur and has occurred in his life. By putting on the armor, he is asserting himself and accepting his duty as a Roman warrior. This is also a symbol of Aeneas taking charge of his destiny. He does not back down from this challenge, which makes us admire him.
One example of Aeneas' sense of family is seen when he turns away from Dido. He clearly falls in love with her but Mercury reminds him of his sense of duty and his responsibility to his family and his duty as a warrior. e read that Aeneas is "duty-bound" (110) and that he struggled with desire and "though he sighed his heart out, shaken still/ith love of her, yet took the course heaven gave him/and went back to the fleet" (110). Here we see how…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the work is also an important heritage in terms of Western art and culture. As such, it is worth preserving as the basis of the Humanities as the field is studied today. Works of art like the Aeneid is also valuable in terms of its impact on each individual effort of learning. Each reader, even today, may have a different reaction or learning experience to be derived from the work. Much can for example be learned from Aeneas' tenacity and adherence to his goal to the very end. From Dido, the student can learn how deeply love can affect the heart. Dido's life and death can also serve as a warning for the modern young woman, that this kind of all-consuming love can be dangerous not necessarily to fatal proportions, but also to the general work ethic. In literary terms, Dido also serves as a strong female character who…… [Read More]
Gilgamesh and Aeneas
The Epic of Gilgamesh and Virgil's Aeneas exemplify ancient epic poetry. Both works trace the psychological evolution of a semi-divine male hero who meets with immense personal trauma and hardship. Gilgamesh mourns the loss of his only companion, Enkidu, while Aeneas experiences the loss of his family, his people, and his homeland. In both cases, the pain transforms the hero into a wiser, more human leader. The ability to overcome personal loss and sacrifice becomes the hallmark of Gilgamesh and Aeneas. Each character must travel far from home to undergo their transformation into an ideal hero. During the course of their journeys, they encounter monsters and other supernatural forces that either assist or thwart their efforts. Throughout the course of the epics, both Gilgamesh and Aeneas exhibit typical heroic traits such as physical prowess, bravery, and leadership. They are both portrayed as possessing human weaknesses coupled with…… [Read More]
Gods in the Aeneid?
Viewed from Virgil's Aeneid perspective, gods are central to human existence and fate. They determine the fate of all mortals; Aeneid is included in the category of mortals; and is particularly interesting because his mother is a goddess. Jupiter is the supreme god and controls all other gods. Jupiter controls destiny. Thus, other gods are at his mercy. The other gods have their altercations among themselves and often drag humans into these discordances. They may, therefore either help or harm (Christos, 2012).
The fate of Aeneid is beyond the control of the gods. They make attempts to create short-lived diversions or even alter the manner that the fate comes to pass. Venus, Aeneid's mother, and the senior-most cheerleader is Aeneid's mother. She helps Aeneid to navigate the difficulties of life. She has practically protected him against Juno. She gives him sound advice on the direction he…… [Read More]
Eumaeus heard the discussion and said: "Don't listen to this girl, she has gone mad after having lost her father, the queen is not ready to pick a suitor yet!" I couldn't tell Eumaeus about my arrangement as he could have ruined it all.
After all the suitors had gathered in the great hall, I've locked all of the doors so that none could escape my father's revenge. My father appeared, and, as if he knew what my plan had been, he asked me for his armor and for his weapons. Soon enough, the great hall boiled as my father murdered every single one of my mother's suitors.
The story of Aeneis pretty much resembles that of Odysseus and like the Greek hero, the Trojan goes through great efforts until reaching his destination. Homer's influence on the Aeneis is seen clearly across the epic.
However, in an attempt to give…… [Read More]
Aeneas is said to possess spiritual or godlike qualities that make him fit his role as a hero and destined founder of Rome. Critics see this achievement as proceeding both from his destiny and his own actions. He is the son of the Trojan mortal, Anchises, and the goddess of beauty and love, Venus, and as such, enjoys special protection, while remaining mortal.
His most outstanding quality is his respect and fidelity to prophecy. Ever aware of his destiny and role in the founding of a nation, he always takes this into consideration in taking every action. This awareness and devotion to his noble destiny enable him to endure much suffering and difficulty, from the defeat at Troy to his final duel with Turnus in Italy.
His ability and decision to keep his focus on that destiny give his the power to ward off the weakening effects of frustration…… [Read More]
Mythology - Adaptations
When watching the Coen Brothers' film Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?, it becomes immediately apparent that the film is meant to be a creative adaptation of The Odyssey by Homer. Rather than a straightforward mimicking of The Odyssey, however, the film makes use of Homer's plot to tell a very different story about escaped convicts in the southern United States in the late 1930s.
The most obvious parallel between the original and the Coen brothers' adaptation is the main character, played by George Clooney. While he is called by his middle name, Everett, throughout most of the film, the full name of Clooney's character is Ulysses Everett McGill. "Ulysses" is, of course, the Latin translation of the name "Odysseus." By giving him an Irish last name, it could even be suggested that the Coen brothers are also making reference to another famous adaptation of The Odyssey,…… [Read More]
S. Eliot to Robert Frost. According to Theodore Ziolkowski,"Virgil has permeated modern culture and society in ways that would be unimaginable in the case of most other icons of Western civilization" (ix).
In the Aeneid, Virgil through out the story emphasizes through his characters that responsibility is of higher precedence than of love. He makes it apparent in ook II, in which Aeneas focuses on his responsibilities rather than on his wife as they fled the city and even in ook IV Aeneas suppresses his feelings of love for Dido and rather prefers his fulfilling his duty. While women in "The Aeneid" by Virgil hold love in a higher position than responsibilities. As in book II when Aeneas and his family are escaping from the city, Aeneas' wife Creusa vanishes but as Aeneas was so determined to fulfill his duties that he doesn't even notice when or how she vanished.…… [Read More]
Taking a character from The Iliad and setting him on his own journey, the Roman Virgil's epic The Aeneid necessarily contains certain parallels with the earlier Greek text. The overall story of this lengthy poem in and of itself reflects many of the same basic understandings of mankind's place in the universe, its relationship to the gods, and the relationships that exist within society and between men that are already described above, demonstrating that no real fundamental change has occurred in this schema. Aeneas, the titular hero of the tale who flees his native Troy after it is sacked by the Greeks, is as important as the individual heroes of the war itself, but more than a tale of individual heroism The Aeneid is the story of the founding of a people and the long trajectory of history and humanity. It is a tale for and in many…… [Read More]
As their saga unfolds, we realize that Turnus does not experience the same protection as Aeneas and we can even say that while fate is working for Aeneas, it is working against Turnus. Aeneas never looses sight of the prize and Turnus' death provides even more confirmation that his life is indeed in the hand of protective fate.
It is important to realize the significance of how the gods intervene in human fate. hile we have established that human fate can indeed be altered it is done almost always through the actions of a god. Some events are predestined to occur and only the circumstances relating to them can be altered or influenced by the gods. Free will without the intervention of the gods reveals itself most predominantly when Jupiter chooses not to become involved with the war between the Trojans and the Latins. ith this example, Virgil allows human…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, both heroes are very similar in their characterizations: they are both human and are subject to the whims of the gods. Odysseus confides his most troubling mistake: "From the start my companions spoke to men and begged me to take some of the cheeses, come back again, and the next time to drive the lambs and kids from their pens, and get back quickly to the ship again, and go off sailing across the salt water; but I would not listen to them," (Homer, 143). Despite the fact that Odysseus is responsible for the deaths of many of his men, once he manages to get them out of the predicament he still revels in his victory. So much so that he ends up exposing his identity to the Cyclops and opening himself and his men up to the retribution that the Cyclops' subsequent prayers to Poseidon incur. Similarly, Juno's…… [Read More]
Either as mothers, sisters, wives, daughters, mistresses, lovers or supernatural creatures, women populate the world of the Odyssey and bring thus an important source of information when it comes to finding parallels between their representations in real life as drawn from the representations they get in the Homeric epic.
Based on the same starting point as the Odyssey, another ancient author, the Roman irgil wrote the epic Aeneid. He lived in the most flourishing times of the Roman empire, in the first century BC, almost seven centuries after the Odyssey and the Iliad had probably been written. The heroes in irgil's epic are still men, but the women gain a new role: that of sounders and rulers. Analyzing the whole range of epics and poems written by ancient Greek and Latin writers, A.M. Keith points out that "classical Greek and Latin epic poetry was composed by men, consumed largely by…… [Read More]
Indeed, similarities between Virgil and Dante's depiction of the underworld were evident in Canto IX, wherein Dante witnessed suffering in the City of Dis:
To the high tower with the flame-tipped top
Where at one spot there straightaway stood up
Three infernal Furies stained with blood,
Their bodies and behavior that of women.
Their waists were cinctured with green hydras;
For hair they had horned snakes and poison adders
With which their savage temples were enwreathed.
This passage reflects Dante's subjective interpretation of what Limbo, or the City of Dis, is like: similar to Virgil, he believed that the underworld is a place where suffering thrives and moral decline the cause of humanity's hardships. Furthermore, the underworld is a state where restlessness and dissatisfaction in life is the norm rather than the exception. Fury, as reflected in the passage, reigns in the underworld, an emotional state that was the result…… [Read More]
One obvious parallel between the tale of the brothers and earlier legends is that of Achilles, the great warrior who was the son of a goddess who was almost supernatural in his greatness. Another parallel is that of Oedipus, who was abandoned when he was a boy because of the fearful prophesy foretold about his future. But unlike these previous mythical characters, rather than coming to a bad end, Romulus overcomes the difficulties of his circumstances and triumphs. There are also many versions of the Roman foundation story which contain non-Greek elements, like the idea of a 'phantom phallus' impregnating the boys' mother, which could suggest a kind of immaculate conception (iseman 60). The death of Remus at the hands of his brother for disobediently jumping a wall is also a unique and somewhat perplexing aspect of the story: why did Romulus 'need' a twin?
Q3. To what extent is…… [Read More]
Despite his guilty attitude towards loving the excitement of Latin pagan literature, Augustine is a man who is converted through reading. He struggles with the intellectual side of pagan life that attracts him, as opposed to what he regards as the simplicity of Christianity. He reminds himself it was "was even "the least of the apostles" by whose tongue thou didst sound forth these words." (VIII.6.245) Words from the Bible eventually gave Augustine guidance to put away his old life and take joy in the words of God. "Not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying, but put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh to fulfill the lusts thereof." (VIII.12.265)
Augustine writes a story of a journey of his own spiritual, like the pagan texts of Virgil. Augustine's story is of spiritual wanderings, homecomings, and…… [Read More]
goddesses Venus and Juno conspire and interfere in the lives of Aeneas and Dido to carry out their own plans
The struggle between the Gods is main theme of the narrative. There are many times that a reader might even fail to notice the actions of the human characters of the story due to over-interference from the gods. The conflict is between two gods, Juno and Venus. Juno is Saturn's daughter, Jupiter's wife and the patron god of Carthage. In the narrative he doesn't like Trojans because of a decision made by Paris (a Trojan) in a divine beauty competition. Juno is also aware of the prophesy that Carthage will be destroyed by the descendants of Aeneas (the Romans). On the other hand, Venus is the goddess of love, the patron god of Trojans and the mother of Aeneas. The conflict arises when Juno tries to destroy Aeneas (a mortal)…… [Read More]
Many have seen her as Aeneas's counterpart, as she herself has led her people from Tyre to Carthage in an attempt to escape environmental vicissitudes. Like Aeneas, she is a true leader, a strong willed character and independent woman. Juno and Venus (the Roman counterparts of Hera and Aphrodite) manipulate them and Dido is soon seen infatuated with Aeneas, neglecting all ruling duties. She cannot change destiny and realizes this in ook IV, as she points out that "What am I saying? Where am I? What madness / Takes me out of myself? Dido poor soul, / Your evil doing has come home to you." According to ancient traditions, for a strong character such as Dido, the only possible ending is by suicide.
A comparison between Dido and Helen, both in terms of the influence they have on men and on their power to change courses in history and determine…… [Read More]
In her different stages of love and grief, Virgil uses direct parallels from the female characters in the Odyssey -- Calypso, Circe, Nausicaa, and Arete especially -- to make Dido the most well-rounded and fully realized woman of classical literature. She does not embody merely one motive and does not represent only one thing to Aeneas, nor is she entirely defined through her association with Aeneas, but rather in paralleling aspects of Odysseus' women by different turns she becomes wholly her own. The fullness of her character also portends the depth of the enmity that would develop between Rome and Carthage, and makes the division between she and Aeneas as powerful as any declaration made by the gods. In short, Virgil's crafting of Dido in the Aeneid makes her both human and symbol, with a consistency of meaning across her personal and her political import that makes her the perfect…… [Read More]
They displayed great knowledge of architecture, and their building style had been noteworthy.
As the Roman Empire began to take shape, Romans built several wonderful architectural structures for their time. They built city walls, fortifications, temples, bridges, and pavements. Most of the structures were built using large stones which were gently cut. Romans are also among the first nations in the world to have built a functional sewer system. Their remaining of their architectural structures withstood the passing of millennia and survived till today. Christian churches and even apartments buildings were built over Roman temples and other public buildings with some of them, like the Theater of Marcellus being functional even today.
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "orld Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,…… [Read More]
Unlike Teiresias, she does not use divination or prophecy but only her memory of events on earth. Finally, Odysseus sees the shades of various prominent characters from the Iliad and learns from this the manner of their deaths.
Dante is led to the Inferno (described as a physical journey under the earth, but, by this late date, clearly the journey is metaphorical) by Virgil. He does not seek divination, but does encounter (Canto XX) diviners, who, in poetic justice, are forced to walk with their heads turned backwards because, while on earth, they could not see the future as they claimed. Like Odysseus, Dante sees the eschatological fate of many recently deceased contemporaries. But in this case, the theme is used by Dante to suggest that his and his family's political enemies (he was a White Guelph) were, literally, damnable.
In the Odyssey, the journey to the underworld takes place…… [Read More]
sof Hengest, though the employment of this striking phrase within the space of a few lines to designate both the opposing parties must be regarded as confusing" (rown) This not only provides confusion for the interpretation and translation of the poem but also for the actual context and flow of events. Thus, this can be an example of transmutation that in turn can determine the value of a translated version or its lack of consistency.
Another important aspect in relation to the style of writing is focused on the artistic literary techniques. More precisely, the accent lies in the way in which the verse and the rhyme are constructed. Up to the interpretation of Tolkien, the rhyme and the verse were considered as lacking precision and value. Still the rhyme is thoroughly analyzed for any potential matching to an already invented system of rhythm and alliterations. A perfect example in…… [Read More]
Such works bring to mind Freud's theory of genital anxiety, which is present in both men and women. At the same time - and this is where Bourgeois's revolt against myth occurs - what would otherwise be seen as a fetish object for men is deployed here as a weapon instead. Thus, by subverting the feminine into a weapon, Bourgeois is simultaneously responding to the psychic myths of Western civilization and transgressing them in an effort to posit a new model of the real.
Throughout the course of his career, Anselm Kiefer has attempted to unite myth and history through an immense terrain of entangled cultural references and pictorial techniques. In doing so, Kiefer has effectively attempted to bear the weight of our collective historical tragedies and redemptive hopes that many artists in the last forty years have attempted to convey. Few of them, however, do it so effectively as…… [Read More]
Finally, Vigil's pesence thoughout the Divine Comedy is thee fo a philosophical eason, as well; he is meant to epesent the claity of eason in a spiitually chaotic univese.
Home, autho of the geat epic the Odyssey, also appeas in Dante's Divine Comedy, in the Limbo section of the Infeno. Home was also the autho of the Iliad, which tells the stoy of the Tojan Wa. Home's pesence in Dante's wok effectively connects the Floentine poet with the politics and poetics of ancient Geece. This is futhe symbolized by the fact that Home, in the Infeno, leads as "Lod" thee Latin poets - Hoace, Ovid, and Lucan. This futhe undelines the effect that the ancient Geeks had on the Romans - and the double influence that both had on Dante as a poet and politician.
The Latin poet Lucan, although not as well-known as Hoace and Ovid today, was an…… [Read More]
Carthage and Rome
Comparing Carthage and Rome
One of the greatest wars Rome ever fought was against Carthage -- and it was actually a war that happened three times. Called the Punic Wars (Punic another name for Phoenician -- the nationality of the men who founded Carthage), the contests revealed much about both nations, and created heroes and legends for all antiquity to marvel over. This paper will compare and contrast the two civilizations of Rome and Carthage from the standpoint of "persons within the community," showing just how such persons helped both powers came to be and how they went on to fare when they both began to war with one another.
Started near Tunis at around the end of the ninth century BC, Carthage took over the rule of "leader" amongst the colonies of Phoenicia nearly three hundred years later when in the sixth century BC Tyre…… [Read More]
As the poem progresses Flecknoe blesses his son, which may make some wonder why the church did not perform the blessing. This slight against Flecknoe's character demonstrates that Dryden has no respect for Shadwell's virtues. Any individual, especially a king, who cannot have his son blessed by a priest, would be viewed in a negative light by the masses. Dryden illustrates that Flecknoe's failures are similar to Shadwell, insinuating that Shadwell's future work will be clouted by his personal issues with drugs and alcohol and thus continue to be garbage. Many playwrights like to introduce jokesters or fools into his or her plays to demonstrate the author's superior intellect. In the poem Mac Flecknoe the character resembling Shadwell is a bumbling idiot and constantly demeaned by Dryden (Cox, 2004).
According to dictonary.com plagiarism is "the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the…… [Read More]
Short story -- A brief story where the plot drives the narrative, substantially shorter than a novel. Example: "Hills like White Elephants," by Ernest Hemingway.
Allusion -- A casual reference in one literary work to a person, place, event, or another piece of literature, often without explicit identification. It is used to establish a tone, create an indirect association, create contrast, make an unusual juxtaposition, or bring the reader into a world of references outside the limitations of the story itself. Example: "The Wasteland" by T.S. Eliot alludes to "Paradise Lost" by John Milton.
epetition -- The repeating of a word or phrase or rhythm within a piece of literature to add emphasis. Example: The story of Agamemnon in The Odyssey by Homer.
Blank verse -- Unrhymed lines of ten syllables each with the even-numbered syllables bearing the accents, most closing resembling the natural rhythms of English speech. Example: "The…… [Read More]
Dante and Beatrice
An Analysis of the Relationship of Beatrice to Dante
Dante describes his meeting with Beatrice at an early age and in La Vita Nuova (The New Life) discusses and poeticizes the love he instantly held for her. Beatrice becomes for Dante a gate to the divine love that he examines in La Comedia, today referred to as The Divine Comedy. This paper will analyze the relationship between Dante and Beatrice and show how her role in his life is like that of a muse -- an agent of God, drawing the poet closer and closer not to herself but to the Divine.
The Vita Nuova
In the Vita Nuova, of course, Dante is drawn solely to Beatrice without anticipating the higher love that Beatrice reflects in her own person. It is this reflection in her that attracts Dante, although he does not place it as a reflection…… [Read More]
Dante, Boethius, And Christianity
Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy, of which the Inferno is the first of three books, called Boethius, an early Christian, "The blessed soul who exposes the deceptive world to anyone who gives ear to him." But Boethius was not a non-conflicted Christian, and it seems, neither was Dante, who wrote the Divine Comedy at least partly as a sort of historical-political payback. (For example, in Canto VI of the Inferno, Ciacco mentions Pope Boniface VIII, the reigning Pope of his time, "whose intervention in the affairs of the city was, in Dante's view, a main cause of its miseries" (Sinclair, p. 95). St. John, on the other hand, was a non-conflicted Christian, who believed wholly in Jesus as the son of God, and entertained no other ideas. Although he likely wrote, and therefore thought in Greek, his devotion to Jesus, as one of Jesus'…… [Read More]
In The Inferno, Beatrice is more the goal to which the poet aspires as he passes through Hades, and later through Purgatorio before reaching Beatrice in the ideal Paradise.
Many of the elements of courtly love, which Dante expresses elsewhere with reference to his beloved Beatrice, are evident in this epic work as well. For example, Beatrice and the Virgin Mary are the two women who send Virgil to guide the poet through the Inferno, and this also adds luster to Virgil as a spiritual guide as Dante adheres to the Italian, Christian view of women, a school touched by sentiment and by the elevation of women to a high place. Beatrice is the ideal woman who is held in highest esteem by Dante. She is his symbol of all that is high and beautiful, and her selection of Virgil does him credit. Virgil is to be his guide through…… [Read More]
Penelope: The Crafty Ideal of Greek omanhood
One might think of Achilles, the hero of the Iliad, as the Greek masculine ideal. He triumphs over his enemies in an open agonistic contest because he is a greater warrior than they. He shows the virtue of compassion when he finally yields Hector's body to Priam. Even Achilles's arrogance and his obsession with honor, his inability to deal with slights to his reputation, though they might seem repugnant to our sensibilities, are clearly meant to elicit the sympathy from Homer's audience. They might wish to act in the same way if they stood in his shoes. Yet Odysseus, the hero of the Odyssey, presents an entirely different masculine ideal. He shuns glory because it brings responsibilities that are not really in his best interest. Though a brave and able fighter, he is "the man of many wiles" who triumphs because of his…… [Read More]
Homer's Odyssey is a classic epic poem, demonstrating all the hallmarks of epic poem structure and the epic journey cycle. The narrative of the Odyssey follows the return on Odysseus from Troy, a journey that takes ten years and spans many locations and setbacks, until he finally reaches his home in Ithaca. Even then, Homer must deal with one final setback before being successfully reunited with his family. This paper will focus on three central themes that define the epic poetry genre -- an epic hero
There are several elements of an epic poem. An epic poem should have an epic hero and in this case that is Odysseus. He is the focal point of the action (no author, 2012). His journey is entirely about him, to the point where his actions dictate the fate of all those around him. The key supporting characters are in his and his…… [Read More]
Heroic Ideal Greece, ome
An Analysis of the Heroic Ideal from Ancient Greece to oman Empire
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece begins with Homer's Iliad, which balances the heroic figures of Achilles and Hector, two opposing warriors and men of honor, amidst a war on which not even the gods are in agreement. Hector and Achilles mirror one another in nobility and strength and both represent an ideal heroic archetype of citizenry -- men who do battle to honor both their countries and their names. To illustrate, however, the way the ideal of heroic citizenship changes from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism, it is necessary to leap ahead several centuries and survey the several different bodies of work.
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece somewhat continually dwells on the same themes with regard to heroic citizenship, whether in Homer or in the Golden Age…… [Read More]
Paradox of Imperialism as Presented in Heart of Darkness
Beginning in the 1500's, European countries explored the world and claimed large parts of it as their own. This was the beginning of the Age of Exploration, as first the Portuguese and Spanish, then the British, Dutch, French, and other Europeans raced to discover and claim new areas of the world. By the 1800's the Age of Exploration had settled into a system of Imperialism which maintained huge Empires for the economic benefit of the home countries in Europe. While the stated goal of creating such Empires was to bring civilization to uncivilized parts of the world, the need for raw materials combined with a commercial greed created a system that cruelly exploited indigenous peoples and raped whole territories of natural resources. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, paralleled this ultimate paradox of Imperialism by describing how a good man named Kurtz,…… [Read More]
O rother, Where Art Thou?
Homer in Hollywood: The Coen rothers' O rother, Where Art Thou?
Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is based. In Contempt, Prokosch, a rich American dilettante film producer played by Jack Palance, hires Fritz Lang to film a version of Homer's Odyssey, then hires a screenwriter to write it and promptly ruins his marriage to rigitte ardot. Fritz Lang gamely plays himself -- joining the ranks of fellow "arty" German-born directors who had earlier deigned to act before the camera (like Erich von Stroheim in Wilder's Sunset oulevard, playing a former director not unlike himself, or…… [Read More]
teacher & student relationship between Dante and Virgil in Dante's Inferno
his paper presents a detailed examination of the relationship between Dante and Virgil in Dante's Inferno. he writer uses examples and character analysis to present the relationship between the two to the reader.
he unfolding of Dante's Inferno is one in which the reader is drawn into the personality characteristics of the players. Because the topic of the writing is enmeshed in the understanding of hell it is important that the reader become attached to the various players in the work so the reader can understand who the events took place. he relationship between Dante and Virgil is extremely important to the context of the story. Dante and Virgil have a relationship that provides a tour and pathway to the ideas the writer wants the reader to understand and grasp. he relationship between the two moves in several directions…… [Read More]
From this point-of-view, Aeneas can be viewed as having failed also from the role of hero because he did not succeed in averting the danger. Even so, it is important to note the fact that Berlioz portrayed him still as a chosen individual. The fact that Aeneas had a premonition in a dream of the falling Troy made him a particular actor in the scene. The symbolism in this sense is related to the dream and the warning. However, the warning came too late and Aeneas failed as the head of his men and as the potential defender of Troy.
There are two feminine characters in Les Troyens. One is Dido, Queen of Carthage, and Cassandra, the Trojan prophetess and Priam's daughter. Cassandra's role however is very important because it draws the attention on the Shakespearian influences of the opera. In most of Shakespeare's works there is such a present.…… [Read More]
For this reason, I think Aeneas is different than the other heroes. His sad story has made him think more about fate and the future.
Out of all the stories of heroes, Marvel Comics and otherwise, I have to say that Spiderman is the ultimate American heroes. Spiderman incorporates the American dream. Peter Parker was a sad, artistic guy who didn't quite have the girl and was a little bit of a nerd, but then he became Spiderman, a beloved celebrity. This shows other Americans that they can do anything. Also, the Spiderman story shows that those who we think are our friends can be our enemies, that integrity is key, and that we must always fight for good, not for evil or for revenge. Spiderman faces real struggles like every American faces. In the end, though, he's always able to pull through. That's why I think he is our…… [Read More]
Three different types of basic switches can be built and utilized in a Hyper-V virtual network: internal, external and private switches (Virtuatopia, 2012). An external switch at the top layer of a Hyper-V virtual network and controls access to/routes transmissions in and out of the virtual network, maintaining communication between the virtual network and the external physical network (Virtuatopia, 2012). Once inside the network, an internal switch works much like a standard virtual switch, replicating the actions and functionality of a physical switch in a traditional network and controlling/routing transmissions from terminal to terminal within the virtual network and especially between the parent partition and child partitions (Virtuatopia, 2012). A private switch creates links and controls between child partitions within the virtual network, but do not provide a route to the parent partition or the external switch and thus are more contained (Virtuatopia, 2012).
Hyper-V's switch schema offers a greater…… [Read More]
Role of Free ill and Fate in Oedipus Rex and Othello, the Moor of Venice
Free will and fate play a major role in determining the outcome the hero experiences in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex and illiam Shakespeare's Othello, the Moor of Venice. In Oedipus Rex, Oedipus's destiny has been predetermined and despite his many efforts, he cannot escape the future the gods have planned for him. Oedipus Rex's form relies on a chorus to serve as an emissary between the gods and the audience and ultimately aims at allowing the audience to achieve catharsis. On the contrary, in Othello, the Moor of Venice, Othello's future is determined through a series of actions that were not influenced by the gods, but rather through free will. Othello, the Moor of Venice's form breaks up the action into separate "vignettes" that ultimately highlight the depravity of man and aims to serve as a…… [Read More]
Trojan Wars and Culture
The three epic stories namely, The Iliad, the Trojan Women, Pericle's Funeral Oration are powerfully written master pieces of work, that illustrate the element of horridness of war beautifully.
The story of Homer's Iliad focuses on the "rage of Achilles." eading this epic poem makes one believe that it is based entirely on the totality and gruesomeness of war. However, it tells us about the details of war with full description and information. Though war is an important aspect of the tale, but the real story is based on the remarkable fighter and hero-that man is none other than Achilles.
Achilles possesses the greatest military expertise of any of the Achaean ranks and also the greatest fighting ability out of all of the warriors, Trojan or Achaean. At the beginning of the epic, Achilles becomes liberated from his fellow warriors and retreats back to…… [Read More]
Thematic Comparison: Divine Intervention in Homer & Virgil
Both works decently portray the horrors of warfare, and (albeit it in a reverent fashion) place the blame for this horror soundly at the feet of the gods. However while in Homer this intervention is largely capricious and relatively unmotivated, in Virgil's work it takes on a more motivated and historical turn in which the gods may actually be seen as working to some form of higher end.
Part of the difference between these two takes on divine interference relates to the purpose of the two works. Homer's epic, so far as can be told, was designed to educate and amuse and perhaps to make a statement about the meaning of warfare and deity. However, it was not designed so much to create a national myth of identity. The Greeks and the Trojans they faced were more or less of the same…… [Read More]
Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…… [Read More]
In order to answer the question of what 'love' means to Plato/Socrates in the Symposium, the most important aspect is to explain how the other participants define it before Socrates weighs in with his more philosophical and spiritual explanation. All of these participants are wealthy, privileged young men from the aristocratic class, except of course for Socrates who comes from the artisan class. They are arrogant, shallow, and narcissistic, and mainly in love with themselves, and also define love as Eros or erotic, physical and sexual experiences, and of course love of money, fame and physical beauty. Sometimes they also realize that philos or friendship can also be a form of love, with which Socrates certainly agrees, although he then carries it to the higher level of agape or universal and God-like benevolence, understanding and virtue. Instead of democracy, they would prefer Athens to be governed by an…… [Read More]
classic story A&P, John Updike pays tribute to two Greek motifs, the heroic epiphany leading to the emergence of the classical hero and the power of beauty. In this work, Sammy is the hero, trapped in the work-a-day world, who because of beauty's inspiration is motivated to seize the opportunity to act in grand and noble fashion. Like many heroes, especially Paris, in Homer's Iliad, Sammy is inspired to his realization by the appearance and attention of a goddess. In Paris' case, depending on the storyteller, the goddess was Venus or Eros or Aphrodite -- the goddess of love and beauty. In Sammy's case it was a teenage girl in a swimsuit. Updike's portrayal of Venus is actually an echo of an echo, as he gives us a vision of Venus as she is realized in Botticelli's 15th century painting.
As is the case with Venus and Paris, the goddess…… [Read More]
Invocation and Prologue
Hearken, O Muse, to this tale I do tell
Of an era on earth reminiscent of Hell
While great strides in technology, science, and art
Were made, so did evil steal over the hearts
Of leaders and men who assumed power, control
And wreaked havoc with their malicious goals.
A new era dawned on the children of man
One steeped in darkness and deepening a plan
Of Evil and Hatred, Corruption and Greed
But through this thick mire arose a new creed.
For the Monkey King, our hero tonight
Muse, fell victim to a vicious plight
The scourge of delusion, self-righteousness, fear
Seduced by the voices whispered in his ear
By ill-meaning forces of failure and fate
To these he fell pray, our hero of late.
So help me, O Muse, in telling this tale
Inspire my pen, my mind to set sail.
For the sons and…… [Read More]