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African Art is perhaps one of the most original forms of art in the world, mainly because of two important reasons. The first reason is the fact that the generic term "African Art" represents, in fact, the coagulation of regional art forms from people across a vast and diversified continent. From that point-of-view, the art of the continent, or the "African Art," will bear and contain all these different representations at a continental level.
The second reason is that African Art is also a combination of "visual imagery, spiritual beliefs and social purpose" (Gluckman, 2007). From this perspective, African Art is functionally diversified, which means that each of these approaches (the religious, the spiritual or the social ones) will have, as final result, a different output, each valuable in itself, especially if one adds the fact that many of the art objects also had an utilitarian value.
Despite this diversity,…
1. Monica Blackmun Visona et al. History of Art in Africa. Prentice Hall, New York. (2001)
2. Gluckman, Jason "Ancient African Art." Ancient African Art. 7 Jan. 2007 EzineArticles.com. 4 Dec. 2009 .
3. Blier, Suzanne. Africa, Art, and History: An Introduction. In A History of Art in Africa. Pearson. 2001.
It is true that African art seems to show greater respect for cultural tradition than Western art. In the West, if someone wants to say that they are not an artist, often they say 'I'm not creative.' Innovation rather than replication is valued. But in Africa, if someone was frustrated with a work of art they were attempting to create, the African would likely be upset at the work's lack of resemblance to previous pieces of art. African art is about perfecting a craft and a technique to make something with a societal purpose, like the Ngady Mwaash mask, which is used in a religious ritual, not as an object to be admired in a museum. African art makes no distinction between art and crafts, as is common in Western culture. Arts and crafts are synonymous. In Africa, a practical craft like a piece of pottery designed to…
Traditional African Art
Africa as a continent houses many varieties of different tribes and traditions. These entail a variety of different styles in art and culture. Art and culture for African tribes are closely intertwined. The most prominent art forms emanating from Africa include sculptures and masks. These relics vary in materials and form according to the tradition and purpose for which they are made.
The most prominent sculpted works are from the Niger and Congo River basins. culptures from these areas are made primarily from wood. North African works are strongly influenced by the Islamic tradition of the Middle East, whereas south of the ahara, styles are more African in a localized sense. Like African masks, sculptures are influenced by socio-political, racial, linguistic, ecological and geographical factors. The Ibomari used sculpture mainly for home decorations, while Congo sculptures had a deeper meaning. Congo people used sculptures to commemorate, honor,…
Rebirth. "African Mask History." 2000. http://www.rebirth.co.za/African_mask_history_and_meaning.htm
Traditional African Art." 2004. http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Metro/5252/african.htm
Exhibit 2 - One of the more surprising and, frankly, awe inspiring portions of the collection focused on the paintings done in Ethiopia in the 15th-17th centuries. Much of Ethiopia had become Christian by that time, holding a long tradition of Coptic Christianity from the Egyptian areas in the very early Middle Ages. The colors presented, as well as the serene nature of the characters are as poignant and emotional as any Baroque European artist. One wonders, though, if there isn't some disassociation between the indigenous cultures and the subject matter in that all the holy characters are clearly Caucasian in a land in which most worshipers are dark skinned.
Exhibit 3 -- According to the museum, textiles are one of the most vivid and expressive means of artistry in Africa. The complexity and color of the garmet often reflects the person's status, and in many cases the designs on…
REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
"National Museum of Afrian Art," (2010). Smithsonian Institution. Cited in:
Visona, M., et.al. (2007). History of Art in Africa, 2nd Edition. New York:
As with water methods of visually perceiving patterns, divination serves as a literal mirror for the cosmos. The visual cues of divination such as cowry shells or the patterns made by mice sometimes serves as a pictorial language spoken between nonhuman and human participants. That language is not one used in human communications, even though it may inform human social order and modes of cognition.
The language of divination represents communication between human and super-human forces. A diviner acts much like a translator would, communicating the perceived patterns of cosmic order to an individual or to the community. Divination is integral to all traditional African religions as well as to the religions of most other cultures. The function of divination is artistic, epistemological, and expressive. Divination also creates, maintains, and interprets social and spiritual order.
Bourgeois, Arthur P. "Insight and Artistry in African Divination - Book Review." African…
Bourgeois, Arthur P. "Insight and Artistry in African Divination - Book Review." African Arts. Summer 2002. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0438/is_2_35/ai_94010411/?tag=content;col1
"Exploring Africa." African Studies Center. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m14/activity2.php
Peek, Phillip M. African Divination Systems. Indiana University Press, 1991.
Pemberton, John III. "Divination in Sub-Saharan Africa." Art and Oracle: African Art and Rituals of Divination. 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/oracle/essayPemberton.html
Artist Zwelethu Mthethwa
Zwelethu Mithethwa says, "I chose color because it provides a greater emotional range. My aim is to show the pride of the people I photograph" (National pp). Born in 1960 in Durban, Kwa-Zulu Natal, Mithethwa holds diplomas from the Michaelis School of Fine Art from the University of Cape Town (National pp). As a recipient of a Fullbright Scholarship, he studied at the Rochester Institute of Technology and in 1989 received a master's degree in imaging arts (National pp). Mthethwa left teaching in 1999 to devote himself fulltime to his artwork (National pp). He has received national and international recognition and has had over thirty-five solo exhibition in galleries and museums in the United States, Italy, Germany, Spain, France, Switzerland and South Africa (National pp). Residing in Cape Town, Mthethwa is best known for his large-format color photography, however he also works in pastel and paint (National…
Jamal, Ashraf. "Zwelethu Mthethwa. http://www.artthrob.co.za/99apr/artbio.htm
Culture Base. http://www.culturebase.net/artist.php?939
National Museum of African Art. http://www.nmafa.si.edu/exhibits/insights/index2.html
Van Dyke, Kristina. "The Short Century: Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa, 1945-1994." African Arts. September 22, 2002; Pp.
Asia and Africa in estern European Art
Globalization is generally associated as a modern phenomenon, however, it is a global movement that began with the Greeks and did not accelerate until the renaissance era. The est, going back to Alexander the Great, has a long history of interactions with Asia and Africa. Ideas and goods were consistently traded. This trend of globalization accelerated with the age of exploration in the 16th century when Europeans came into further contact with Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Driven by the quest for gold and natural resources estern European traders navigated the world. This had a profound effect back home, as Europeans developed an interest in the exotic. The interest blossomed during the 18th and 19th century, during the height of estern power and colonialism. Curiosity into the foreign permeated all levels of society. Artists incorporated Asian and African artistic styles into their…
Soltes, Ori. "They All Came to Paris." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
Soltes, Ori. "Asia and Africa in the Western Mind." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art
Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.
The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the…
Art movement DADA
The phenomenon Dada is notoriously difficult to describe; some critics hesitate even to use the term "movement." Focusing on Dadaists' reflections about the phenomenon itself, we will try to delineate a general image of the Dada in the context of the European avant-gardes of the 20-th century. e will also try to analyze the historical and political context inside which the dada phenomenon occurred. Our main focus will be on two main tenets of Dadaism: the "self-critical" feature of Dada's self-image as it emerges during the main phases of its history, especially during its early phase, and the political commitment of Dada during its last phases of development.
Dada "artworks" were usually conceived as all-in-one theatrical performances, art happenings, counting music, dance, poems, theory, costumes, as well as paintings. Jangling keys, gymnastic exercises called noir cacadou, and screaming presentations of sound poetry or other texts accompanied these…
Benjamin, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproductibility and Other Writings on Media. Eds. M. Jennings, B. Doherty, T.Y. Levin. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008: pp.34-45
Caws, Mary Ann. The Poetry of Dada and Surrealism: Aragon, Breton, Tzara, Eluard and Desnos. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000: pp.12-34.
Dachy, Marc. The Dada Movement, 1915 -- 1923. New York: Rizzoli, 1990: pp.56-78
Hugnet, Georges. Dada. In: The Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art. vol. 4, no. 2/3, 2006: pp. 3-18.
Splashes of color like red and several shades of blue are added to the collage in a "dragonfly, wing-like" formation. A cutout photograph of a boy is pasted on the "wing" of a lighter shade of blue, perhaps to note a sense of calm to his surroundings.
The Hawkins' exhibit will consist of 80 objects, a retrospective of his nearly a quarter of a century career. The work is described as "at its core, about the pleasure of intense looking." Third mind is described as referring to another piece of Hawkins' work, "ichard Hawkins: Of two minds simultaneously," which means to be undecided, uncertain or unsure, the description states. Hawkins is aware of the duplicity that this body of work creates, which is stated to be intentional.
The Art Institute of Chicago was founded in 1879 as a school and museum. The museum holds art from African-American artists to silk…
1. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010 the Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
2. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010. The Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
3. George Eastman House. "Current Exhibitions • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
4. George Eastman House. "Photographs by Jessica Lange • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
e learn that art can indeed reflect life but it can also inspire it beyond what the human mind can dream.
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
Richard Powell. African-American Art. 2005 Oxford University Press. http://www.aawc.com
Rodriguez, Junius P.. "African-American Experience: Art." African-American Experience. 12 September, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, (1990). 278.
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, (1994). 69.
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a…
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
The traditional estern woman would not wear the mark of the warrior, the war paint, or other decorative markings. but, in the idealized world of the advertisement, a woman can as well be a warrior for a cause, as man a soldier for that in which he believes. As well, gender is used to contrast the softness and over-refinement of a highly technological and industrial world with the rigors of everyday life in the African environment. Here also, the message is that traditional gender roles must be abandoned if we are to become one; if we are to recognize our genuine and universal heritage. This heritage is symbolized by the naked purity of the African tope.
An Ideological Description:
Beyond its gendered and Eurocentric vs. Afrocentric text, the advertisement carries a very powerful subtext about the need for all of us to recognize our "Africanness." Gwyneth Paltrow is a estern…
Boehm, Christopher. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
From the Tour: Titian and the Late Renaissance in Venice." The Collection, National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2006. URL: http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg23/gg23-1226.0.html .
African estaurant evival
New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies descend on food courts in subterranean malls in Queens, ussian bakeries in Brooklyn, and ethnic food trucks pretty much anywhere throughout the five boroughs. For being a cosmopolitan city with such cosmopolitan tastes, surprisingly little attention is paid to the diversity of African food. The continent of Africa is rich in food tradition and, increasingly, we are seeing these traditions manifest throughout New York. This trend is occurring in many places, in particular Manhattan and Brooklyn. In fact, several openings over the past few years have dramatically altered the African dining scene, and this development is very much worthy of coverage. This citywide exposure to the African food trend makes it an excellent topic heading into the summer eating season.
Kugel, S. (2007, March 18). Sampling a Continent at Home. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/18/travel/18weekend.1.html?_r=0
Laing, N. (2013, October). New York's First African Restaurant Week Offers New Flavors and a Dash of Culture. Retrieved from fo2w.org: http://fi2w.org/2013/10/14/new-yorks-first-african-restaurant-week-offers-new-flavors-and-a-dash-of-culture/
Pearlman, E. (2014). Ponty Bistro. Retrieved from blacboardeats.com: http://www.blackboardeats.com/sp/ponty-bistro-gramercy-new-york-3
Spiropoulos, R. (2014, June 28). Dining African: 3 Restaurant Biz Success Stories Savor N.Y. African Restaurant Week. Retrieved from blackenterprise.com: http://www.blackenterprise.com/lifestyle/new-york-african-restaurant-week-wraps-in-style/
African-American in the Media
The comedy Barbershop, starring Ice Cube juxtaposes the harshness of city life with the resiliency of the people living in the city. The movie with its black cast has an impressive standing in the movie industry for the year 2002. I'm not sure that I agree that this specific film means a breakthrough for African-Americans in the industry. The Black person has after all been part of the industry for a long time, and there are many African-American stars, not featured in this movie, who have made a great success of their movie careers.
The "integration period" for example is determined to be around the years 1949-1969. During this period there is an integration of Black people into the societies depicted in films. Thus the African-American is portrayed in a more positive way. Also, "black" themes and issues of conflict among races and peers are depicted…
Slavery has existed since the beginning history, and references can be found throughout the Old Testament and other ancient writings from around the globe. Slaves were often the spoils of wars and battles for the victors, and usually were a different ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from those who enslaved them (Slavery pp). In the majority of cases, intermarriage, granting of liberty, and the right to buy one's own freedom have caused slave and slave-owning populations to merge throughout the world (Slavery pp). Slavery is almost always practiced for the purpose of securing labor and in the strictest sense, slaves have no rights (Slavery pp). The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised," thus, a slave is someone who cannot leave an owner, master, overseer, controller,…
Niger: IRIN -- Focus on Slavery.
http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=17957& ; SelectRegion=West_Africa
Obadina, Tunde. "Slave trade: a root of contemporary African Crisis."
S. news magazines between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1998. They concluded that the images of the poor in these news magazines "do not capture the reality of poverty, but instead provide a stereotypical and inaccurate picture of poverty that results in a misconception of beliefs about the poor, antipathy toward blacks and lack of support for welfare programs.
Similarly, Dixon and Linz (2000) researched the content of a random sample of local TV news programming in Los Angeles and Orange counties to determine representations of blacks, Latinos, and whites as lawbreakers and law defenders. "Intergroup" comparisons of perpetrators found that blacks and Latinos are significantly more apt than whites to be shown as lawbreakers. "Interrole" comparisons, lawbreakers vs. law defenders, similarly found that blacks and Latinos are more likely to be shown as lawbreakers than as defenders, whereas whites are significantly more apt to be portrayed as defenders…
Chavous, T.M., Green, L., Harris, a, Lumas, H., and Rivas, D. (2004). Racial Stereotypes and Gender in Context: African-Americans at Predominantly Black and Predominantly White Sex Roles. A Journal of Research. 51(1-2), 1.
Clawson, R.T., (2000) Poverty as we know it; Media portrayals of the poor. Public Opinion Quarterly 64(1) 53-65
Dixon, T., and Linz, D.(2000) Overrepresentation and Under representation of African-Americans and Latinos as Lawbreakers on Television. Journal of Communication. 50 (2), 131
Fogel, R.W. (1989).Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery New York W.W. Norton.
Racial Passing in the Oxheding Tale
This pape discusses efeences to the topic of acial passing in the novel Oxheding Tale by Chales Johnson. The discussion ties to answe the questions of why, how, and with what effects Chales Johnson mentions this theme in the novel.
The main chaacte in the novel is Andew. He had his mothe's hai. She was the wife of a plantation owne in South Caolina. His fathe was a slave who seved as his maste's butle. The conception of Andew was an "accident." On a night in which the maste and the butle, Geoge, had gotten dunk, the maste asked Geoge to switch beds with him, supposedly to avoid thei wives' ecimination fo thei dinking. Anna, the maste's wife, mistakenly thought that Geoge was he husband in the dakness of the bedoom and pusued intecouse. Geoge was a man who liked to finish his…
references to the theme of racial passing but in a context that brings in philosophical explorations about freedom, human nature, racism and good and evil. The novel ends in an optimistic note. The achievement of relative happiness, but a success nonetheless, by the main character in the midst of a world characterized by death, injustice and hopelessness for his people.
Johnson, Charles. The Oxherding Tale. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1982.
Art of the Invisible: Listening Responses
Radio as Storytelling
Like all artistic media, there are subtle and unique elements to radio which distinguish it from other forms such as the written word, TV or film. Nowhere must the radio producer be more cognizant of the uniqueness of radio than in the radio documentary. The most intriguing of this week's listening was Rudolph Arnheim's piece "In Praise of Blindness." He disputes the idea that radio should help the mind to form visual images. Instead, the entire appeal of radio is that despite a common listening experience each listener creates an entirely independent experience in their mind's eye. This is a unique feature of radio that some forms such as writing have to a lesser extent and which contemporary forms such as TV and film entirely lack. Television instead compels all its consumers to experience both the same audio and visual experience…
A cannot live on tomorrow's bread." (Langston Hughs)
The poem of Hughs ends by expressing that freedom comes to be needed by those who are deprived the most of freedom.
CULLEN: UNCLE JIM
In the work of Cullen entitled "Uncle Jim" the entirety of understanding this poem is in the first line which states:
White folks is white," says Uncle Jim" (Countree Cullen)
In just the first line of this poem it is expressed how all the blacks were not ready at the time of this poem for feeling or accepting that they were, just as the white people, Americans.
ROWN: "ITTER FRUIT OF THE TREE"
Many of Sterling rowns first works have been called "...lighthearted narratives...' To be followed by "itter Fruit of the Tree" which has been termed to be a "...spiteful vendetta..." In which he speaks of the suffering of his family, specifically his grandmother and grandfather…
Claude McCay (1919) Review of "If We Must Die" Online available at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/mckay.html
Langston Hughs - "Democracy" Online available at http://www.poemhunter.com/p/m/poem.asp?poet=6691&poem=32573
Countree Cullen - "Uncle Jim" http://www.ragistan.com/cgi-bin/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=next_topic&f=7&t=002198&go=newer
The Poets: Sterling Brown (1901-1989) Online available at http://education.yahoo.com/homework_help/cliffsnotes/american_poets_of_the_20th_century/56.html
Annibale Carracci, "Flight into Egypt" 1603-1604
This painting is a lunette, or a half-moon shape. However, the composition within the painting is triangular in nature, with the point of the triangle facing down at the precise point of Mary's feet. The center point of the composition is a waterfall leading from a castle into the estuary. The eye follows the flow of the water down, to settle on the figure of Mary carrying infant Jesus. The color palette also draws the eye toward Mary, who is bathed in white aural light that corresponds with the white tones in the rushing waterfall. In the foreground are three figures. The horizontal planes of the foreground and background terrain are complemented by the verticality of the trees, but the upper third of the painting is taken up by the sky. The content of Carracci's painting depicts the long journey Mary is undertaking…
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
is an African post-colonial piece of jewelry that is both post-colonial and also possesses gender and class implications.
One can see this piece of jewelry as being either Mother-Earth, Mother-Universe or Female Guardian Orisha. It has definite gender -- based connotations with a maternal warmth and sympathy emanating form the image. At the same time is authentic primitive African art and is also class-based since its origins are tribal and would expect a certain lower class of Africans to more likely wear this piece than the upper class. Its connotations, too -- since this is a fertility goddess -- are of people who desire to have children or who have suffered loss in childbirth. This has often been the case of the 'regular African folk -- the lower class -- who due to hardships of regular life have often lost children during or after birth as well as in…
Eeden, JV (2006) Land Rover and colonial style adventure. Int. Fem. Journal of Polictis, 8, 343-369
Etsy African Primitive Ethnic Jewelry, Beautiful, Spiritual Copper or Bronze Pendant
Mbembe, A. (nd) Afropolitanism
This entertainment is the ceremonial or festive taking of alcoholic drinks at events called "beer parties." Researchers noted the significance of the festive element of work among the laborers but showed beer as an essential aspect of work. The rule in these beer work parties are adjusted to the particular workers involved. It invokes the overall value and morality of helpfulness and reciprocity, which are part of beer-drinking events. It is an expression of a general interdependence between homesteads. Ordinary beer parties emphasize the general principle of mutual helpfulness and mutual relationships in homesteads. ut beer parties for harvest give thanks to ancestors for the homestead's harvest. These parties give recognition to those who plow the homestead's garden (McAllister).
A recent analyzed the relation between cooperative work and beer drinking. It found that beer drinks served as a contact point of everyday activity and ideas in the Xhosa society in…
CESA. The Xhosa. People Profile. Central Eastern Southern Africa, 2008. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 at http://cesa.imb.org/peoplegroups/xhosa.htm
Christian Action. The National Suicide of the Xhosa. Vol 2. The Christian Action
Cornwell, Jane. Sweet Sounds of Freedom. The (London) Independent: Independent
Myth, Literature, and the African World
The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…
Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1976.
. Wole Soyinka, Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), ix.
, in 1963 brought him worldwide attention. He spearheaded the Aug., 1963, March on Washington, which brought together more than 200,000 people. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize." (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2003)
However, King's leadership in the civil-rights movement was challenged in the mid-1960s as others such as Malcolm X grew more militant. Indeed, his life paralleled the life of his hero Mahatma Gandhi. The originator of the nonviolent protest, Gandhi too took criticism as more militant colleagues pushed against non-violence in his later years.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s interests, however, broadened from civil rights to subsume criticism of the Vietnam War and a deeper concern over poverty. His plans for a Poor People's March to Washington were interrupted (1968) for a trip to Memphis, Tenn., in support of striking sanitation workers. On Apr. 4, 1968, he was shot and killed as he stood on the balcony of…
Adams, Russell. (1963) Great Negroes Past and Present, pp. 106-107. Chicago, Afro-Am Publishing Co.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. (1964) What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Chicago, Johnson.
Have a Dream: The Story of Martin Luther King in Text and Pictures. New York, Time Life Books, 1968.
African-American Desk Reference. (2005). Thomas W. Burton. New York: Schaumberg.
Touki Bouki & Black Girl are experimental films from the late 20th century. The paper aims to offer a comparative analysis of the films in regards to many aspects, including the politics within each film and the aesthetics of each film. The films were released within ten years of each other and illustrate two distinct yet related styles of filmmaking and narrative structure. Both films pursue issues of freedom and bondage; the urban vs. The rural; and differences among gender roles. The paper describes and explores the content of the narratives as well as filmmaking aspects such as editing, cinematography, soundtrack, and message(s) to the viewer.
There exists a primary dichotomy in both films where Africa is on one end of a spectrum and France, specifically Paris, is on the opposite end of the spectrum, serving as a dreamland or wonderland. Both films explore the dreams of young…
Internet Movie Database. (2012) Touki Bouki & Black Girl. Available from www.imdb.com. 2012 March 26.
All of these examples show that there is no linear narrative of art, rather the construction of even so-called periods between different nations and periods lies in the mind of the beholding academic, not in some universal truth of what is art's history. Critics also have their own abysses, and their own sands of what seems familiar and unfamiliar. Even art periodization is subjective as art, it is not a science, and thus periods should not be taught as absolute standards and markers of art history.
Furthermore, other nations such as China have had different histories and different conceptions of what constitutes making art altogether, as well as different forms of periodization as a result. Western art's periods have been much more dynamic, and more characterized by seismic revolutions in aesthetics, as opposed to other nations. There is more blurring between what art is, and what has a practical religious…
To me, art is a concept that is impossible to define, because any definition of art necessarily limits art, and art should be limitless. I would say that art is what separates humans from other animals, because I feel like the ability to create and appreciate art is one of the defining elements of humanity, but I have seen examples of animals creating artwork, so I do not know that it is a uniquely human concept. However, whether art is unique to humans or is something shared by other highly intelligent animals, I know that art is essential to the human experience. I agree with Dr. Cornell est that, "You can't talk about the struggle for human freedom unless you talk about the different dimensions of what it means to be human" (est). Therefore, to me, art is about, not only being human, but also about creating the social…
Hegel, George. "Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics. Volume 1." Marxists.org. N.p. Unk. Web.
17 Oct. 2013.
Hooks, Bell. "Beauty Laid Bare: Aesthetics in the Ordinary." Feminish.com. 157-165. 1995.
Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
Impressions of the Ohr-O'Keefe Museum of Art
The non-profit Ohr-O'Keefe Museum of Art -- located in Biloxi, Mississippi -- was recently commissioned and constructed to honor the legacy of ceramic artist George E. Ohr. According to the museum's website, "the self-proclaimed 'Mad Potter of Biloxi' created a body of ceramic work which defied the aesthetic conventions of 19th century America & #8230;while today Ohr is considered an early leader in the modernist movement and it is his creative spirit which informs the mission of the Ohr-O'Keefe Museum." Among the exhibits on display during my recent visit were a gallery of African-American art by Carl Joe illiams titled "Shades of Perception," a historical pottery exhibit sponsored by the Mississippi Sound elcome Center, which featured the work of Biloxi transplant and Master Potter Joseph Fortune Meyer, and a gallery of clay and bronze sculptures by Rod Moorhead titled "Entropy." The diverse nature…
Getlein, Mark. Living with art. McGraw Hill, 2008.
Africans had poor health care in the 1950s
There is much that still remains swept under the proverbial carpet about America's treatment to its African immigrants. One of the chapters, little known and often left untold has only recently started to emerge and concerns American health care system and its using Blacks as guinea pigs.
Attorney and author Vernellia . Tandall tells the story in her book 'Dying While Black' showing how America's health care system was built on the bodies of African-American individuals from the 19th century continuing to present days. Some f the information is unbelievable at best shocking at worst such as her allegations that AIDS was created by a government-sanctioned health care for the purposes of medical advancement.
Countless stories from Black residents of both North and South tell about how they were unwillingly and unknowingly abducted and exploited for medical experiments. There were the 'night…
Brooking Institute (2008) "Meeting the Dilemma of Health Care Access" (PDF). Opportunity 08: A Project of the Brookings Institution. Retrieved on 2/19/2011
Orlando Sentinel. (Dec., 04. 1993). Clinic On Wheels To Take Health Care To Elderly Poor . retreived 11/7/2011 from http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1993-12-04/news/9312040190_1_clinic-project-care-seniors
Skloot, H. (2010) The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks NY. Random House.
Masquerades are found in virtually all African civilizations, particularly those that are indigenous to this region of the world. Not surprisingly, these masquerades have different forms of significance for different cultures. Nonetheless, there are some basic cultural similarities pertaining to these rituals that transcend individual cultures and pertain to African deployment of this concept as a whole. Firstly, the definition of the very term masquerade can include "a masking performance, a masked performer, or the character embodied by the mask itself" (Uzo, 1997). Moreover, there is an element of spirituality that is strongly associated with this tenet of the masquerade. It is very rare for participants to be unmasked once they have donned a masque and are partaking in a particular ritual or dance. The actual masques themselves are typically emblematic of animals or people, and have a transcendent spirituality. As such, the very participants who don masques…
Thus, his speech was not simply a complaint about what was wrong with the current system, but a stirring look at how to fix the problem as soon as possible.
Perhaps the most important part of King's speech is his cry for peace and understanding between both groups. He did not urge blacks to take their rights by force, but advocated peace and mutual respect for each other. This part of the speech follows Pratt's essay regarding the critique portion, where King first assesses what is wrong with the treatment of blacks in the country, and then offers ways to fix the problem. He advocates collaboration for reform, and always advocates understanding between blacks and whites in the country. He was a man of peace who used radical reform to help solve a pressing problem.
King's speech represents the contact zone in another important way, and that is because it…
King, Martin Luther. "I Have a Dream." University of Groningen. 21 Nov. 2004. 6 Nov. 2006. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/D/1951-1975/mlk/dream.htm
Pratt, Mary Louise. "Arts of the Contact Zone." University of Florida. 1999. 6 Nov. 2006. http://www.nwe.ufl.edu/~stripp/2504/pratt.html
Myrna Colley-Lee was a collector of art who traveled the world to enhance her collection. She was a pioneer of Black Theater and Costume design and established the SonEdna organization that promotes literary arts. Reflections is a personal story of her discovery of African-American life and community; including 50 works of art including painting, paper, photography and fabric. The works are on tour from 2013 to 2015 (International Arts and Artists, 2013).
One of the more interesting works in this collection was Barefoot Prophet by James Van Der Zee. This is a silver gelatin print from 1929, an older style of photography. Van Der Zee (1886=1983) was an African-American photographer best known from his portraits of New Yorkers. He was active in the Harlem Renaissance, the resurgence of Black artistry during the 1920s-1940s in New York City. He was known for experimenting with double exposures, retouching negatives and the manipulation…
International Arts and Artists. (2013, January). Reflections: African-American Life from the Myrna Colley-Lee Collection. Retrieved from artsandartists.org: http://www.artsandartists.org/exhibitions-reflections.php
Jackson, R. (2011, July). James Van Der Zee -Great Photographs. Retrieved from twitpic.com: http://twitpic.com/40rz2j
McCollum, S. (2012, June). Photographer James Van Der Zee. Retrieved from Scholastic.com: http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/photographer-james-van-der-zee
The impact of slavery on the sexuality of African-American women has been largely overlooked for many years. In addition, the negative manner in which African-American Women are portrayed in the media has been a topic of debate in recent years.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore how the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem. In addition, we will examine how the larger American public views and portrays black women in the media.
How the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem
How slavery impacted the Family Unit
The Slavery in America is one of the most heinous events in history.
What many fail to realize is that the experience of slavery has fashioned the way that African-American women view their sexuality and body image. efore we can fully understand the impact that slavery had…
Bay, Mia. The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Davis, Olga Idriss. "A Black Woman as Rhetorical Critic: Validating Self and Violating the Space of Otherness." Women's Studies in Communication 21.1 (1998): 77+.
Art to Tanzania people
Art and Culture of Tanzania
Every country has its special features and certain interesting facts about its history and legacy. This paper discusses the unique country of Tanzania in the continent of Africa and describes its culture and history. Certain doctrine point out that the mainland of Tanzania was named by a ritish civil servant in the year 1920 and its name was derived from the words in Swahili language, tanga, meaning sail and nyika, meaning bright and plain. This place had a very intriguing and unique culture of people, who had a long history of existence and had preserved their identity. This place came to be known as a Tanganyika Territory, which was formerly a German East African area. Later in 1964, Tanganyika was joined with Zanzibar, which was an archipelago of islands off the coast of eastern Africa1.
This was a very interesting development…
1. Countries and their culture. n.d. http://www.everyculture.com/Sa-Th/Tanzania.html (accessed January 17, 2015).
2. Jahn, Reuster Uta, and Gabriel Hacke. The Bongo Flava industry in Tanzania and artists' strategies for success. Germany: Johannes Gutenberg University, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.ifeas.uni-mainz.de/Dateien/AP127.pdf
3. Caves, Richard E., Creative Industries. Contracts between Art and Commerce. Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard University Press, 2000.
4. Vavrus, F. (2004). The referential web: Externalization beyond education in Tanzania. In G. Steiner-Khamsi (Ed.), The Global Politics of Educational Borrowing and Lending, New York: Teachers College Press
This fact and the preceding quotation proves that Maggie views heritage as an interactive process, unlike the viewpoint of her sister. The fact that Maggie's mother ultimately gives her the quilts alludes to the fact that she shares this belief as well.
The conclusion of this story in which Maggie's mother gives her the valued quilts appears to suggest that the author believes that the more interactive application of heritage, as opposed to the passive reverence of heritage as art, is more valid. Walker does not seem to pose the notion that these two views of heritage are incompatible with one another, however. Instead, she indicates that Dee is simply not able to understand the value in the form of heritage that her mother and sisters represent and practice. The following quotation which ends the story and precedes Dee's departure, alludes to this fact.
"You just don't understand," she said,…
The dance style known as breakdancing has other names including "b-boying" and "breaking." The latter are the preferred terms used by those who are purists and originators of the form with breakdancing becoming the more popular term as popularized by the media (Schloss). This originated as part of the emerging hip-hop culture of the late 1970s and early 1980s. It became quickly popular, first in urban communities and then spread. In the current historical moment, breakdancing can be found in all social, ethnic, and gender groups and has been developed from a style of popular dance into an art form. hat began as a street dance to impress peers has transcended the culture and become a part of the dance world, giving as much respect and dignity as ballet or waltz. Breakdancing mastery requires a great deal of control, coordination, and practice. Those who attempt it without understanding the…
Bloom, Julie. "Street Moves in the TV Room." The New York Times. 2008. Print.
Chang, Jeff. Total Chaos: the Art and Aesthetics of Hip-Hop. New York City, NY: Basic Civitas,
Cook, Dave. "Crazy Legs Speaks." 18. Dec. 2012. Web.
Detroit Institute of Arts is located on Woodward Avenue, at 5200, in Detroit Michigan. The Institute is open to the public from 9am to 4 pm, on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, from 9am to 10 pm, on ridays, and from 10 am to 5 pm, on Sundays. According to the museum's website, tickets for the general admission cost 8$ / person for adults, 6$ / person for seniors, 4$ / person for youth (6-17) and 5$/person for college students. Admission is free for those under 5. ree general admission is also provided for residents of the city of Detroit, each riday, and for everyone, on the second Sunday of each month. The museum's original building, designed by the architect Philippe Cret at the beginning of the 1920s and opened to the public in 1926, has suffered transformations throughout the years, through additions and alterations, but its Italian-Renaissance is still impressive…
For food and beverages there are CafeDIA and Cresge Court Coffe Shop that are available for those who want to take a break, find a meeting place or rest and enjoy a cup of coffee and a bite before immersing in the world of art again.
A visit at the Detroit Institute of Arts is overall a pleasant way of spending some time in the world of art, be it in the company of ancient, classical, modern or contemporary art or in pursuit of learning more about techniques, artists and their works of art or about how to become an artist. The stuff is helpful and knowledgeable and someone will always help you find your way around.
Detroit Institute of Arts, http://www.dia.org /, ©2013 Detroit Institute of Arts
The Maori are a group of people who inhabit New Zealand and have heritage in the Pacific and Polynesian regions. The culture was an extremely rich one which has survived appropriation and colonization from Great Britain and other cultures. One of the ways that the Maori people were able to sustain its ancient culture was through the creation of works of arts. Of particular importance to the continuation of the culture was the unbelievable ability of the Maori culture to create artistic carvings. So important was the ability to carve in the culture that generations would literally carry the artistic talent with them on their faces, carving images and icons into their skin as representations of their heritage.
There are two concepts which were important topics to the Maori people. These are called the tapu and the noa. Tapu was a religious idea which encompassed everything that would…
Archey, Gilbert. "Evolution of Certain Maori Carving Patterns." The Journal of the Polynesian
Society. 42:3(167). Print.
Firth, R.W. "The Maori Carver." The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 34:4. 136. 1925. Print.
Gathercole, Peter. "Context of Maroi Moko." 171-177. Print.
The "Better Homes, Better Gardens" banner evokes the popular American magazine Better Homes and Gardens, which established an ideal suburban domesticity that many American Americans were excluded from. I don't need to know what Wentworth Gardens is to know that its residents, like the couple in the painting, did not have access to the white picket fence ideal set by Better Homes and Gardens. The artist makes sure that race is integral to the painting, by depicting the African-American couple as unequivocally black. All around them, bright colors swirl. The sky and water are rich blue, the building is orange, and there are trees and grass. The bright colors suggest hope. Similarly, a fountain spouts up and imparts an uplifting mood. The upward motion of the water complements the smoke rising from a fire pit on the left side of the canvas. The image is balanced and symmetrical. However, the…
Prehistoric cave art is considered to be man's original form of art, although its date of origin is still unknown. The art displays the effects of the cultures and surroundings that created them. Cave art found in Europe and Africa depicts the prehistoric conception of animals, humans, symbols and weapons. There are many differences and commonalities between the art found in both areas.
The bulk of the world's cave paintings were discovered in Europe. The humidity and temperature of the European climate are perfect for preserving the art. Cave paintings, along with additional indications of human life, are entirely preserved. Even the footprints of humans and animals are embossed on the floors of several caves.
Examples of European prehistoric cave art are present in the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardeche, France and in Les Trois Freres, France. "We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet…
Adams, P.J., et al. The Concise Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Ed. Cottrell, Leonard. 1st ed. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1960.
Bandi, Hans-Georg, et al. The Art of the Stone Age; Forty Thousand Years of Rock Art. New York: Crown Publishers, 1961.
Burnham spent most of his life in the early, expanding est in Detroit, Michigan. He worked as sign painter as well as a popular artist of portraits, landscapes, and genre scenes like the Young Artist. Burnham did the Lewis and Clark Expedition from his imagination, and many of his works are stylized and idealized types of Americana. The charm of the young boy drawing on a beer barrel to delight his friends, an old woman, and an African-American child (perhaps a servant or a slave, it remains slightly unclear) suggests that this is what true American art is -- and should resemble (Thomas Mickell Burnham, 2009, Ask Art). Burnham was also fond of popular seascapes of ships and sailors, evidently culled from his memory growing up in Boston.
The value of this work is primarily to get a glimpse of what American popular art resembled, and how America saw itself…
Burnham, Thomas. (1840). The Young Artist. Orlando Museum. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at: http://www.omart.org/collections/american-art/thomas-mickell-burnham-young
Thomas Mickell Burnham. (2009). Ask Art. Retrieved February 26, 2009 http://www.askart.com/askart/b/thomas_mickell_burnham/thomas_mickell_burnham.aspx
Thomas Mickell Burnham. (2009). Art Net. Retrieved February 26, 2009 http://www.artnet.com/artist/3364/thomas-mickell-burnham.html
Her works emerged from dreams and visions she had since childhood, as her hands were being guided by the wonders of God to show divine presence in the world. Giant birds, biblical figures, complex flowers, mysterious faces, and other spiritual images adorned her pages. Once she began drawing, nothing stopped her, not poverty, or the claim by family members and friends that she was "crazy," or her lack of training as an artist (Farrington 203).
Similarly, J.B. Murray lived nearly all his life in a rural, remote Georgia town. In the late 1970s, the devoutly religious Murray seriously believed that God was sending him messages. Although he was illiterate, Murray thus began writing with any available instruments in undecipherable script and crosses. Despite the fact that he was later incarcerated and briefly institutionalized for his odd behavior, after he was freed he continued writing throughout his home's interior and sending…
Cardinal, Roger. Toward an Outsider Aesthetic in the Artist Outsider: Creativity and the Boundaries of Culture. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 1994.
Dubuffet, Jean. "Make way for Incivism." Art and Text. 27 (Dec 1987/January 1988), 36
Cerny, Charlene, and Suzanne Seriff. Recycled. Re-seen. New York: Harry Abrams, 1996.
Farrington, Lisa. Creating their Own Image. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in…
History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.
Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora
Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.
Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)
"Lecture on Haiti," Retrieved March 3, 2012, from the Webster University Website: http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/1844-1915/douglass.htm
The Liberator, 27 March 1846; Reprinted in Philip Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1950), p. 138.
It had started in the present-day Sahel region of south-eastern Mauritania and western Mali. (The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa) The evidence for this is again not in written records, but archeological evidence, and this also makes it clear that the history of Ghana has been influenced a lot by geographical changes. A similar situation exists with Egypt. There was a discovery by archeologists in the late 20th century that there was human habitation before 8000 BC in an area in the southwestern corner of Egypt, which is near the border with Sudan. Who are these people? They are likely to have been nomads attracted to this area of Egypt because of the hospitable climate and environment. Now it is exceptionally dry, but once that area had grassy plains and temporary lakes which were caused by seasonal rains. (Encyclopedia: History of…
Brass, Mickey. The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa. Retrieved at http://www.antiquityofman.com/Complex_WA_EA.html. Accessed 14 September, 2005
Encyclopedia: History of Africa. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Africa . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Encyclopedia: History of Ancient Egypt. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Ancient-Egypt . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Encyclopedia: Sahara. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Sahara#History . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Designed by Rebecca Thompson and completed in 2007, the La Puerta is located in Curtis Park (2110 West Curtis Road). It is part of the public art collection of Pima County, Arizona. The La Puerta was funded by the Department of Natural Resources Parks and Recreation of Pima County to a commission amounting to $19,548. The piece of art is made up of rammed earth, bronze and measures 14? height x 8? width x 3.5? depth (Thompson).
Selection of the artist
As per regulations laid down by the Public Art and Community Design Committee, the artists’ selection procedure starts with a ‘call to artists’ published by the Public Arts Coordinator for Pima County. The call is made regionally and nationally and artists are requested to send their resume, statement of interest, and their previous work. The Public Arts Committee then proceed to make a selection of the artists to…
The Asian art section is so vast it is impossible to view the entire collection in one visit, and that holds for the European collection, too. There are many famous European artists represented, from the childlike, crayon-colored Edvard Munch work "Girls on a Bridge" to the dark, brooding portrait "Bust of a Jew" by embrandt. There are many impressionist works in the collection, including Camille Pissarro's pastoral "Near Sydenham Hill." This dreamy work has a calming effect on the viewer, and represents a bucolic country scene with large, bare trees in the foreground and green pastures in the distance. It is a beautiful rendition of the English countryside, and the blues and greens of the work are muted, as if the viewer is looking at the painting through a soft, gentle mist.
There is also quite a remarkable collection of enaissance Art, mostly from Italy, which includes sculpture and other…
Classical Art at the Met
The large octagon at the center of the Lod Mosaic contains:
A Tiger (lower left of the octagon)
An Elephant (center right of the octagon)
A Giraffe (backing nervously away from the elephant)
OBJECT # 1 ROOM 150
ACCESSION NUMBER 1997.145.1
TITLE Bronze Rod Tripod Stand
DATE Early 6th Century BCE
The sculpted figures on the top of the tripod are uncanny -- they alternate abstract horse's heads which might have come from a sleek twentieth-century chess set, rearing high, alongside strange, much shorter sphinxes with disproportionately huge heads, seemingly braided hair, and giant bug eyes. The facial features look robotic and abstracted, the bodies of the sphinxes are recognizably leonine but remarkably small with features not clearly defined. As representational art it is abstract in a way that I'm much more accustomed to from early 20th century primitivism -- the…
Du Sable Museum
A Reflection of African-American History
The DuSable Museum of African-American History is the oldest major museum related to African-American legacy. Founded by Margaret Taylor in 1961, the museum runs on a self-governing model with focus on collection, interpretation and achievement of African-American history. Its location in Chicago provides it an edge over other museums entailing artifacts related to this subject as Chicago was one of the prime cities where the major migration of African-American migration took place. Therefore, the city has African-American blood and heritage in its roots. This is the reason why the organization receives donations from local communities which ranges from single artifact to entire collection. The Diaspora of black people and the regions that black communities were related to, is well-reflected by the collection of Artifacts provided by local African-American communities. Its extensive collection of African-American heritage gives it a status of connoisseurship in…
Wade, B.(1991). "Practical traveler; tracing the trail of black history." The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEFDC173DF937A25754C0A967958260 .
Williams, L. (1988). "Black memorabilia: the pride and the pain." The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEFDC1338F93BA35751C1A96E948260 .
DuSable Museum Page 2
e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing exposure to education, albeit mostly segregated, many began to develop what is known as the Harlem enaissance.
The 1920s in American history were marked by a sociocultural awakening among Afro-Americans. More blacks participated in the arts than ever before, and their number increased steadily throughout the decade. This florescence of creative activity extended to many areas -- music, poetry, drama, fiction. In literature, the few Negro novels published between 1905 and 1923 were presented mainly by small firms unable to give their authors a national hearing. However, in the succeeding decade, over two dozen novels by blacks appeared, and most of them were issued by major American publishers. (Singh, 1976, p. 1)
The Harlem enaissance came about for many reasons not…
Golay, M. (1999). A Ruined Land: The End of the Civil War. New York: Wiley
Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. New York: Routledge.
Jim Crow Laws. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia
Kivel, Paul. (1995) Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.
Robert, Calvin, Martha, and illiam Scott and Mila ended up in the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco because its owner, Rev. illiam Anderson Scott, was the minister at Calvary Presbyterian Church there in 1853-61. He was originally from the South and because of his sympathy for the Confederate cause in the Civil ar, including offering public prayers for Jefferson Davis, he "had to leave the city for his safety and that of his family" (Smylie 89-90). His son Robert, depicted on the far left of the painting, became a Union Army officer in 1862, although Rev. Scott regretted that he was "on the wrong side" (Acker 79). Mila was a gift to his wife Ann from her father in 1830, and was in charge of caring for the four children. In the painting, the Scott's wished to be depicted as "relatively well-heeled members of Sothern society" even…
Acker, Emma. "Black, White and Shades of Gray: Picturing Identity in Robert, Calvin, Martha and William Scoot and Mila." Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 2010.
Manigault Plantation Journal. Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina
Smylie, James Hutchinson. A Brief History of the Presbyterians. Geneva Press, 1996.
Gustav Klimt Lesson Plan
"Describe the central focus and purpose for the content you will teach in the learning segment".
Students will learn the art of Gustav Klimt, which will assist in creating the work of art that will resemble Klimt's style. Moreover, students will be introduced to the Gustav Klimt's artwork focusing on his love for cats. (Weidinger, 2007).Students will also learn their artistic style and utilize their patterns and shapes to fill up their works. Moreover, students will continue to build and develop the basic skill sets utilizing art tools such as paint, glue, scissors, and oil pastels. Students will also learn how to utilize the line variation, stylized form, symbol, color, and media variety with the ability to create their "Tree of Life". Moreover, the lesson plan will assist students to learn about cool and warm colors incorporating them into the artistic styles of Gustav…
Visual Arts - Communicate
Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial
A description of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial (VVM) (which features 58,272 names; the letters spelling out the names are 0.53 inches high and are carved 0.015 inches deep into the walls) should include the fact that it is made up of two gabbro walls (gabbro is an igneous rock, chemically the same as plutonic basalt, which is black) that are each 246 feet 9 inches long. The two walls are built into the ground, there is an earthen embankment behind the walls, and the two walls meet at an apex which is 10.1 feet high at the point where the walls join. At the ends of the walls, the height is just eight inches (www.bvvinc.org).
The angle at which the two walls come together is 125° 12' and the walls are built on top of 140 concrete pilings that have been…
Beverly Vietnam Veterans. (2001). Locating a Name (on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial).
Retrieved May 27, 2014, from http://www.bvvinc.org .
Durbin, S. (2007). Gericault's The Raft of the Medusa. Art & Perception. Retrieved May 27, 2014, from http://www.artandperception.com .
Lin, M. (2000). Making the Memorial. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved May 27,
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…
Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS
Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.
Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:
Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…
African-American male unemployment: Robert Carmona. (2007). Congressional Testimony.
Retrieved May 12, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P135839035.html
Algernon Austin. (2008, January 18). What a recession means for black America. EPI Issue Brief
#241. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib241/
Art of Living" by Robert Grudin. Specifically, it will contain a critical, philosophical essay on a major theme or idea from the book. Robert Grudin's book expands on time as a way for us to make our lives more meaningful. e tend to become "impoverished in time" as we run helter skelter through our lives, and Grudin's book encourages the reader to think more about their goals and aspirations, rather than their day-to-day existence.
TIME AND THE ART OF LIVING
The author states his premise early in this book, in the Preface in fact, and he carries it throughout the text. "My premise, which is quite traditional, is that the acceptance and appreciation of nature are the only channels to its elusive bounty, the only valid foundations of boldness and achievement" (Grudin Preface). This is not a book about how to organize your time, or how to make more time…
Grudin, Robert. Time and the Art of Living. New York: Harper & Row, 1982.
Increasingly, the majority of black outh Africans became disillusioned with the political system and those ruling it. In the opinion of many, they had simply traded one form of oppression for another - they are now exploited not only by white rulers, but also by those who are black (Clark, 2007). This is expressed in the current forms of outh African Hip Hop. Artists working against the apartheid of the past are now working against the exploitation of the poor.
In addition to being politically oriented, Hip Hop also focuses on the African enjoyment of dancing. The earliest forms of this, also advertised and accepted via the media, included break dancing. Currently, outh African Hip Hop has evolved to a form of house music called kwaito. This music is very popular among the black youth, whether oppressed or not. As such, it is a well established form of music in…
BBC News (2007, July 25). South African Hip Hop. http://www.theworld.org/?q=node/11662
Clark, Msia Kibona (2007, July 11). South Africa - Hip Hop Revolution. Global Envision
Wright, Steve (1999, June 9). Kwaito: South Africa's Hip-Hop? CNN. http://www.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Music/9906/09/kwaito.wb
Playing in the Dark & Art on my Mind
Toni Morrison's Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination and ell Hooks' Art on My Mind: Visual Politics are both works of nonfiction that center on the idea of cultural identity and its politics related to art and literature. Hooks is, of course, a forerunner in the critique of African-American culture and Art on My Mind closely examines the world of creating art in an environment that is overly concerned with politics having to do with identity. Hooks has long been known as a writer that is deeply interested in what is happening with the black community and what struggles that community faces. She examines in her book how art can be something that is empowering for the black community, however, she is discouraged by the lack of interest by critics to non-white art. Morrison, likewise, wants to empower…
Hooks, Bell. Art on My Mind: Visual Politics. The New Press; First Printing Edition. 1995.
Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Vintage; Reprint