The change following the American revolution was not only a political one, but it brought along a series of changes like a domino in all aspects of life. "In many areas, the evolution witnessed the overthrow of the old order politically, socially, economically, and religiously" (Morton, 2003, pg. 3).
Paine's pamphlet appealed to the people's common sense. The fact that its author spoke the language of the masses and knew their spirit as he knew himself, accompanied by his intelligence and keen sense of observation gave him the opportunity to write a work that gave the final push to those who were still in doubt about starting a revolution that seemed partly a civil war.
Berger H., Spoerer M. (2001). Economic Crises and the European evolutions of 1848. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 61, No. 2 (Jun., 2001), pp. 293-326
Morton, J.C. (2003). The American evolution. Westport, CT:…… [Read More]
Irrationalists and the Enlightenment
Thomas Carlyle and his friend Mazzini were a couple of the "irrationalists" who opposed the Enlightenment developments and believed men needed a "new religion" (Stromberg 50) in order to guide them towards future progress. The Napoleonic ars had upset the order that the Age of Enlightenment had cultivated -- essentially a Protestant takeover throughout Europe in which the Protestant ethos sat at the heart. The backlash against this Puritanism, however, was the Romantic Era, which pushed the opposite direction from the "science" of the Enlightened Protestants. It elevated passion, intuition, spirit, nationalism, history, the arts, the past, nostalgia, poetry, the humanities, etc. As Stromberg notes, the "irrationalists" and their followers "made art the chief avenue to truth" (Stromberg 148). Like Shakespeare's Hamlet, they believed that art held the mirror up to nature and told man who and what he really was. The men of Enlightenment science…… [Read More]
Benjamin ranklin termed himself a pragmatic deist. He believes "there is one Supreme must perfect being," however that this being is distant, and that it is not necessary to build a personal relationship with such a supreme God. He concluded that it was useful and correct to believe that a faith in God should inform our daily actions. However, he did not believe in sectarian dogma, burning spirituality or deep soul searching as a part of religion (Lopez, 87). ranklin's religious views are important in the shaping of his Enlightenment philosophy. His approach to religion drew from reason and careful reflection, he did not believe in the "frivolity" of emotional thought and connectivity, but instead focused on the pragmatic understanding of the divine. His conclusion after careful reason formulates a "Supreme Being that can be manifest in various ways, depending on the needs of different worshipers" (Lopez, 88). In contrast…… [Read More]
Path to the Enlightenment
What with the ideological turmoil occurring prior to most of 18th century Western Europe, the Age of Enlightenment was but an inevitable outcome. eligious and political thoughts littered Europe by the spades, and with the foreign revolutions and tensions that led up to questioning both divine right and religious authority. The eformation, along with the discordant feelings toward the monarchy, became important turning points in history. Instead of blind faith, the Enlightened man turned to reason and science and believed in the utopian harmonic ideal. But exactly how did this Enlightenment come about?
Enlightenment was a movement that "strove scientifically to uncover religious truths rising above individual sectarian disputes" (Zhivov). Also simultaneously known as the "Age of eason," the Enlightenment culminated in a set of values that sought to question the traditions, customs, and moral beliefs of the cultural environment. While the schools of thought differ…… [Read More]
A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.
In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.
Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…… [Read More]
17th century and our contemporary world began with an early, optimistic outlook of hope and promise of a better future, exemplified by movements like the Enlightenment, the Scientific and Industrial Revolutions, culminating in the Information Age, environmental awareness and globalisation. It is during this period that a paradigm shift from faith (religion) to reason as the principal source of legitimacy and authority occurred (Badger). The shift occurred against the backdrop of ideals such as science, tolerance, liberty, democracy, secularism, free will and humanism. However, the period is also scared with false starts and failures, violent schisms, world wars, imperialism, terrorism, irrational nationalism, extreme religious war, information overload, pollution and the threat of nuclear annihilation that indicate failure of the rational model promised by the Enlightenment. On the premise of this dichotomy of hope and failure, this essay critically demonstrates the failure of the Enlightenment project, especially from a social and…… [Read More]
Gulliver's Travels" by Jonathan Swift, and "Frankenstein: Or the Modern Prometheus" by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelly. Specifically, it will discuss family ties -- Gulliver's neglect of his family compared to Victor's neglect of his. During the Enlightenment, many issues of life and society were considered important to the very necessity and enjoyment of life. Both authors create characters that are far from normal and neglect their families in chaotic and unbelievable worlds. They abandon their families for their own selfish pleasures and wants. The authors view family as important to society, and so, they create characters that are opposite to point to their beliefs about man, society, and what is natural in relationships.
Both of these works use family ties, and the lack of them, to perpetuate their own distinct views on the Enlightenment movement, an intellectual movement prevalent in the 18th century, when both of these writers were working and…… [Read More]
Plato and the Platypus
Philosophers in the Enlightenment era would come up with various new means to popularize ideas. Denis Diderot conceived the first encyclopedia in this period, which was an attempt to systematize all world knowledge in an accessible way. But also, in another innovation, Voltaire would offer as a refutation of the optimistic philosophy of Leibniz -- which held that "this is the best of all possible worlds" -- a new form of philosophical argument: the extended comedy (Cathcart and Klein, 17). Voltaire's short book Candide is essentially an extended refutation of Leibniz's view of God (or perhaps any view of God), but it makes its points through satirical humor. In some sense, Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein are following in the footsteps of Voltaire by attempting to shed light on philosophical ideas through the medium of humor in their work Plato and a Platypus alk Into A…… [Read More]
Progress During the Enlightenment
The notion of progress is as evolving as the modern society we deem progressive. While some view progress in terms of science and technology, others view progress in terms of government, social equality, economic stability, spirituality and moral sensitivity. In terms of technology, our current society is more technologically advanced than ever before. We can pick up a telephone and speak to loved ones in other cities, states, and even countries; we can compose, mail, and deliver a letter within minutes via the world-wide-web; we can flip a switch and create light where there was darkness; we can turn a key and travel hundreds of miles within a few hours. Meanwhile, our governments no longer treat minorities as second-class citizens, the world wide poverty level and corresponding mortality rates have dramatically decreased, and our views of religion and spirituality are decidedly more eclectic than in times…… [Read More]
Dark Age and the Archaic Age
Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…… [Read More]
The age of typography began with the Enlightenment and flourished in the New World, and coincided with significant social, political, and economic changes. As Postman (2005) points out in Amusing Ourselves to Death, Protestants with a predilection toward intellectualism made books and reading integral to American life. "The influence of the printed word in every arena of public discourse was insistent and powerful not merely because of the quantity of printed matter but because of its monopoly," (Postman, 2005, p. 41). In other words, print had a monopoly on information, communication, and the exchange of ideas. Print became endowed with a level of political and social significance that it does not have in the digital age, as there are now multiple modes of information exchange. When printed matter was all there was, the very ideals of democracy depended on it.
During the typographic age, content was meaningful as well…… [Read More]
Revolution, Constitution and Enlightenment
The American Revolution and the ensuing U.S. Constitution put forward by the Federalists were both products of and directly informed by the European Enlightenment. The Founding Fathers were considerably influenced by thinkers like Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu (whose separation of powers served as the model of the three-branched government of the U.S.). This paper will explain how the European Enlightenment set the stage for the American Revolution and U.S. Constitution by putting out the ideas that the Americans would use as the basis of the political and social foundation.
The Enlightenment aka the Age of Reason was an Age in which natural philosophy assumed the vaulted position of guiding light over the preceding Age of Faith, which had served as the socio-political basis in Europe for centuries. The Reformation had upended the Age of Faith and introduced secularization into the political realm (Laux), particularly via…… [Read More]
Enlightenment worldview and how it impacted society and human relations
The Enlightenment's emphasis on a rational understanding of the human condition marked a fundamental break with the previous worldview of the Middle Ages which preceded it. Rather than faith, the Enlightenment placed a new emphasis on scientific observation and rationalism as the best way to understand the world. It also stressed the value of human beings and the world of the here and now versus the hereafter. This disdain for tradition and celebration of reason led to a political revolution in both philosophy and government. More and more people questioned the divine right of kings and demanded a voice for the people in the way their government was legislated.
The scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth century "undermines not only the ancient geocentric conception of the cosmos, but, with it, the entire set of presuppositions that had served to…… [Read More]
It also widened her female audience much further than the small group of upper-class women with whom she was acquainted (ibid).
Overall, this work represented Lanyer as a complex writer who possessed significant artistic ambition and "who like other women of the age wrote not insincerely on devotional themes to sanction more controversial explorations of gender and social relations" (Miller 360).
In her work, Lanyer issued a call to political action by noting several Old Testament women who changed the course of ancient Jewish history through their bravery, humor and valor, and she recalled the favor Christ demonstrated to women in a variety of actions and by electing them as custodians of his salvational message (ibid 362). The story covered Christ's betrayal by male apostles, the arraignment before male authorities to whom Lanyer addressed complaints, and the account of Christ's procession to Calvary, the crucifixion and the drama of the…… [Read More]
noble savage..." etc.
The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution
When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…… [Read More]
art is changed by the changes that occur in political culture. The writer presents examples and contrasts two of the following areas Baroque, ococo, Neoclassicism, and omanticism and argues the point of how the eras drive changes in artwork. In addition the writer devotes two pages to comparing three works of famous artists.
Art has always been influenced by the masses. Political culture, and change have been driving forces behind the changes in art that history has witnessed. When political and cultural changes occur it is generally because of changing attitudes of those who live in the era and drive those changes. This extrapolates to changes in many things including taste in artwork. Two periods in history provide classic examples of such change occurring and being directly related to political and cultural changes that were taking place in society during the time.
The Neoclassical period and the omantic era are…… [Read More]
Sister Callista oy Theory
At the age of 14 years old, Callista oy had already started working in large general hospital where she moved from being a pantry, to maid to the nurse's maid. After considerations, Callista decided to join the Sisters of Saint Joseph Carondelet where she became a member for more that 40 years of her entire life. She joined college and pursued liberal arts program where she successfully completed a program in Bachelor of Arts majoring in nursing at Mount St. Mary's College in Los Angeles (The Trustees of Boston College, 2013).
She further pursed successfully her masters in Sociology and a doctorate in sociology as well both at University of California (Jones & Barlett, 2013). It was at this point that oy wanted to fuse both sociological approach and nursing approach to the nursing care of the patients. She is accredited for coming up with and…… [Read More]
Whitney collection, what qualities do the art works seem to have in common?
When you look at the Whitney collection from the year 2000, it is clear that that all of the artists are reflection of a sense of realism in the various works. As, they are taking everyday events and are depicting them in such a way, that they are giving the audience a sense of appreciation for what many people see regularly.
A good example of this can be seen by comparing the works of Doug Aitken with John Coplans. In the Doug Aitken's photograph, he is illustrating an everyday event by highlighting a single shopping cart sitting in a parking lot. As, everyone has: went home and Aitken is showing how this is part of everyday life in America. This is giving the viewer a sense of appreciation for the kinds of images that we see everyday,…… [Read More]
The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.
King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.
One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…… [Read More]
Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment (Harper Perennial, James Gaines), 2006.
Gaines' book discusses two of history's greatest men, each of whom became great for a different reason. One was a political leader and statesman the other a musician. he biography of each could not have been more different. Both had tough lives and both fought against enormous stakes but one lived in a palace and the other travelled from place to place living in some at most only 3 years. One sampled jail and the other saw his partner killed and was saved by being sent to the military. One was homosexual and the other happily married in love. Bach's love in contradistinction to that of Frederick was more serene and meaningful. His music absorbed him and made him happy. He was focused; his life purely devoted to cantatas…… [Read More]
Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.
The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…… [Read More]
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…… [Read More]
ased on the gospels of the New Testament, Jews acted as the murderers of Jesus Christ who in Jewish history is claiming to be the Son of God. Criticizing today's Christian practices such as idolatry which is purely against time old philosophy of the scripture continually arouses negative notion on the true authority of Jesus on his teachings.
Most of the parables of Jesus written in the gospels of the New Testament have survived and prospered in the heart and mind of all Christians. The parable of the Prodigal Son and the parable of the lost sheep are some of the parables that depict the importance given by God towards mankind.
The growth of the early Christian Catholic Church have sporadically developed worldwide since its founding after the death of Jesus Christ with Apostle Peter as the first Pope. The church traces its origin from the 12 Apostles in their…… [Read More]
Wollstonecraft & J.J. Rousseau
The influence of humanity and reason in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau on education and women
The age of Enlightenment put forth the importance of humanism and reason, concepts that creates a balance between humanity's innate tendency to experience emotions while at the same time, cultivating a rational view of experiencing sensations and interactions around him/her. Indeed, discourses that were created and published in the 18th century reflected the use of reason in order to elucidate the nature of human beings. 'Enlightenment discourses,' in effect, provide an important insight into the humanism and reason that dwells inside the human mind.
These important concepts of the Enlightenment were shown in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau. oth being proponents and believers of the principles reflective of the Enlightenment, they expressed their views of how humanism and reason influenced their position…… [Read More]
eber and Spencer took this further and say the need for government control over some aspects of society, but not those that removed decisions and rights from the individual. Thus, as adults and citizens the government should offer structure and guidance in a manner that is consistent with the social goals of the Enlightenment; namely allowing actualization without overly reducing individual decisions and actualization.
Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.
Barry, B. hy Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.
Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. eb. April 2013. .
Gay, P. The Enlightenment - the Science of Freedom. New York: .. Norton, 1996.
Porter, R. The Enlightenment. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2001.
Sharma, C. "Beyond Gaps and Imbalances." Public Administration…… [Read More]
Europe witnessed a flowering period in the 18th century that historians call the Age of Enlightenment. A period filled with experimentation as well as intellectual curiosity, people relied on the power of human reason in order to understand society and nature. One specific manifestation of the Enlightenment was a steadfast faith in the stable progression of civilization via scientific development. Because of this religious judgment went to the wayside. Instead, people wanted improvement through freedom, equality, and tolerance. French writers/thinkers expressed these sentiments and notions through their work. These philosophers devoted their passion to useful thought and not speculation. Towards the latter half of the 18th century (1782), such thinking took the form of a highly scandalous story, Dangerous Liaisons.
ritten by Pierre Ambroise Choderlos de Laclos, a member of minor nobility and a French intelligence officer within the army, Dangerous Liaisons describes French nobility and the search for sex…… [Read More]
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]
Why did the airing of HG Well's novel "War of the Worlds" on the radio cause so much panic? What would it take to cause that type of panic from a Hoax like "War of the Worlds" in this day and age? First and foremost, the 1.2 million U.S. radio listeners who panicked on Halloween night, 1938, were part of a new technology that had not yet developed to the point in which the majority could critically analyze what came over the airwaves. To those early listeners, espcecially those who tuned in after the caveat about entertainment, the realism and stage-play of Orson Welles' broadcast sounded so real, and so plausible, that they could not help but believe it -- after all, it sounded like a news broadcast (Radio: Anatomy of a Panic, 1940). People have become far more cynical, and with the advent of the fantastic special effects that…… [Read More]
What makes the 18th century such a vast plethora of diverse opinions, creations and philosophies is the fact that the world was changing in a variety of ways. The Industrial Revolution and rationalism were having profound effects upon previously held religious and esthetic ideals. While some passionately pursued new directions of thought, science and art, others held desperately to old philosophies. Furthermore the different countries of the globe expressed their views and philosophies in different ways in reaction to the changes occurring within their borders.
Philosophers such as the German, Immanuel Kant for example applied universal, reasonable rules to all science, morality and art. According to Kant, these rules were to be followed by all rational beings (rehier 67). John Locke followed the same philosophy, finding that all understanding needs to be based upon the use of the senses. In a more esthetic sense, this English philosopher also…… [Read More]
In the eighteenth century, the concept of pleasure gardens flourished in Britain, a trend that could be traced partly to the relatively stable democratic government coupled with the international trade that thrived at that time in London. Vauxhall Gardens was perhaps the most famous pleasure garden according to the lectures. Founded in 1661, it reached the peak of popularity during the early years of the nineteenth century. It became a model for several other pleasure gardens in Europe, like the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. Historians believed it was arguably the first modern amusement park. Some of the most popular entertainments offered in Vauxhall were firework displays, theatre shows, theatrical entertainments as well as dancing floors and drinking booths. Both Vauxhall and Tivoli Gardens were so popular that they became generic names for all pleasure gardens in both Europe and the United States (UoS 2015). According to the course,…… [Read More]
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…… [Read More]
The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…… [Read More]
The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…… [Read More]
History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C
This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.
Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…… [Read More]
Christianity in Europe
The Decline of European Christianity, 1675-Present
The demise of Christianity in Europe coincides with the rise of the Age of Enlightenment at the end of the 17th century.
Up to that moment, Europe had been relatively one in religious belief. True, religious wars had been raging for more than a century, with the fracturing of nations in the wake of the "Protestant Reformation." ut even then, Europe had acknowledged a single Savior -- wherein lay His Church was the major point of contention. ut today Europe exists in a post-Christian state. Its Christian identity has collapsed under the weight of Romantic-Enlightenment ideals, expressed dramatically in the French Revolution at the end of the 18th century and adopted politically throughout the continent as a result of a more man-centered, rather than God-centered, vision of life. This paper will trace the decline of European Christianity and provide three reasons…… [Read More]
The dominance of globalization and terrorism: Jean Baudrillard's argument on 'unequal returns'
In the essay "The Violence of the Global," social scientist Jean Baudrillard argued and analyzed about the emergence of terrorism and its gradual prevalence in the period of globalization. In analyzing the current state of socio-political affairs among nations of the world, he came to the conclusion that the prevalence of terrorism was directly linked with globalization. Globalization, meanwhile, was also linked to the universalization of virtues and norms that have prevailed in modern society, specifically American society, for centuries. Universalization, globalization, and terrorism were thus linked together through Baudrillard's theory on 'unequal returns,' an occurrence throughout the human history that eventually led to a violent response, thereby resulting to wars and in the case of the present period, terrorism.
Baudrillard's discourse posits two important generalizations relating the three concepts enumerated earlier (universalization, globalization, and terrorism).…… [Read More]
In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.
Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…… [Read More]
Samuel Johnson marks himself as a man of keen sensitivity when he acknowledges in his review of Shakespeare's King Lear that he was "so shocked by Cordelia's death, that I know not whether I ever endured to read again the last scenes of the play till I undertook to revise them as an editor" (1765). This may seem like a fair assessment from the man who gave the English language of the first and greatest and wittiest dictionaries of all time; but upon a second examination, it may perhaps reveal something about Johnson and his age that is so foreign to the ideas which Shakespeare presented in King Lear that he could do nothing but recoil in horror. Johnson was, after all, an Anglican -- of the Church that persecuted Campion (Jesuit priest) and Lyne (the woman martyred for harboring Catholic priests during the Protestant takeover and memorialized in Shakespeare's…… [Read More]
And the freedom in question is the most harmless of all-namely, to make public use of one's reason in all matters" (Clarke 1997, 53). This added to classical liberalism's support of the freedom of speech and of the press. This all played a part in Kant's desire to apply reason to practical life. In The Conflict of the Faculties, he wrote in defense of the openness of the university as "an institution that exists to serve governments…and [bring about] enlightening ends" (Clarke 1997, 53-54). Thus once knowledge was separated from values, it could be harnessed to serve the human project. One area where Kant had an impact beyond philosophy has been in international relations theory. "According to the classical view of international politics, the international sphere is composed of sovereign states and characterized by anarchy" (Bartelson 1995, 257). People have order in their native land but see the rest of…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
This need to be structured in MLA format.
Prompt for Transcendent Man
I first became aware of Ray Kurzweil many years ago, but was introduced to this documentary about him by a student a few semesters ago. I knew his book, The Age of the Spiritual Machines, but hadn't, up until that time, been aware of his theories concerning "the singularity."
Unquestionably, Kurzweil is a brilliant inventor and a man of vision. His work has helped millions of people - not only those of us who use flatbed scanners, but the millions of those who can now "read" due to his work with technology for the blind. Furthermore, no one can argue the fact that technology has been experiencing exponential growth for decades. What is in question, however, is just exactly where this growth is leading us. ??
While some of those interviewed in the documentary agree that…… [Read More]
Foucault's Birth of the Clinic
Initially, in order to provide a stable framework on this study, we would try to clearly define, identify and learn both the visible and literary meaning on the work of Michel Foucault's work, The Birth of the Clinic. We will intend to scrutinize each of the underlying detail of this literary masterpiece and retrieve its modern influences in the field of medical and health studies.
In the modern era of rational thinking and ideas, the concept of which Michel Foucault is trying to convey in his literary work, The Birth of the Clinic is the postmodern influence of medical attribute to the social and political structure of our society. The concept of which Foucault considers as a myth of which he notes:
"...the first task of the doctor is ... political: the struggle against disease must begin with a war against bad government." Man will…… [Read More]
Deontology and Consequentialism
An Analysis of "Rightness" from Deontological and Teleological Perspectives
Deontological ethics stems from the notion that one is obliged by duty to behave in a "moral" manner. There are a number of theories that range from moral absolutism to Divine Command theory that may be described as deontological, but each differs in its approach to "morality" even though each recognizes an "obligation" to attend to a set of rules. In contrast to deontological ethics are teleological ethics, which gauge the morality of one's actions by their consequences. A number of theories may be classified as teleological, such as utilitarianism, pragmatism and consequentialism. This paper will explore the ideas behind deontological and teleological ethics and show how an approach to "morality" must observe at least some objective standard, and that it is the objective standard that makes an action "right," and not the dutiful adherence to the standard…… [Read More]
evil" paradigm. However, unlike in earlier gothic works, there is no allusion to priests or monks as players on the side of "evil." In fact, the absence of religion and religious restraints appears to be an element of Stevenson's theme: Jekyll, acting on the doctrine of Rousseau, which is to follow one's "nature," unmoors himself from the restraints traditionally made available by religious conviction. Jekyll, being a man of science, rather than of theology, puts to test the doctrine that divorced the old world from the new, and what he finds is that the doctrine is not good. hile the earlier works of gothic horror (like The Monk) pointed out corruption within the clergy, Stevenson's gothic work appears to do the opposite: it points out the corruption in Naturalism: "I not only recognised my natural body from the mere aura and effulgence of certain of the powers that made up…… [Read More]
Kung has no regard for Church doctrine -- only the doctrine of men and the "rights of man."
Use of Scripture
Likewise, Kung has no use for authoritative scripture -- it is outdated and too much a part of the past, which Kung wishes to displace in favor of "the future." The future must not be informed by the old prejudices of the past -- it must branch out, like Edwards' ecological theology, encompassing as many faiths and traditions as possible, uniting them all under the roof of the religion of the global ethic. What Kung aims to do, therefore, is reduce the importance of Scripture even more than Edwards does -- to an anthill amongst other anthills, while he himself provides the new doctrine: his doctrine is filled with a list of "we must's" -- the commandments of Kung -- the voice of the new revolution.
Neither…… [Read More]
China on the West
Freed at last from 150 years of humiliation as a worthless Soviet-style command economy and nation, China first became a "rising power" and then as an actual "risen power (rookes 2005). Unprecedented economic reforms two decades ago led to its amazing economic growth and expansion. Achieving an almost double-digit growth in the last two decades, China has clearly restored its old grandeurs as the "Middle Kingdom." Chinese analysts believe this immense growth will continue and challenge traditional world powers, including the United States, in dominion and control of international mechanisms. At present, it has the largest population in the world and the second largest defense budget and ranks as the second largest economy. These capabilities allow China to play big roles in global politics. It is not only a permanent member of the UN Security Council. It is also a nuclear weapons…… [Read More]
Victor and his creature are opposing forces that struggle because of their conflicts throughout Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein. Conflict is the dominant theme of the novel—one that Mary Shelley herself experienced in her own life, being married to the romantic poet Percy Byshe Shelley, who struggled with his own romantic ideas just as Victor Frankenstein struggles with his vain desire to be a Creator in Frankenstein. While Victor Frankenstein does become a Creator, he accomplishes his task ironically because he is a creator of the monster (which becomes of a monster because of Victor’s own incapacity to love him). True, the monster comes into life looking hideous—but that is because he had an uncaring creator; the monster is actually very thoughtful and desires to love and be loved. He attempts to make friends but finds that he is rebuked for his ugliness and driven away into isolation. He then…… [Read More]
In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.
In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…… [Read More]
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]
If he had love, he had no pot in which to plant it. And so it stayed trapped in his mind, separate from any object -- for Kant insisted on the gulf between faith and reason. If one had to accept certain truths on the authority of the one revealing them -- Kant wanted no part in it. According to Kant, one should accept only that which can be reasoned. According to Aquinas, it is not unreasonable to accept that which is revealed.
In a sense, many of us today are Kantian rather than Thomistic. We are Hamlet figures, forever trapped in doubt. What Aquinas allows us to do is put away doubt. He allows us -- in fact, implores us, to act. He is now to us like the ghost of Hamlet's father -- reappearing to urge his son to action. Still, Hamlet delays. What happens to Hamlet --…… [Read More]
omantic era began in the late eighteenth century as a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment and was a period of great change and emancipation. The movement started as an artistic and intellectual reaction against aristocratic social and political norms of the Enlightenment and against the scientific rationalization of nature. During the Enlightenment literature and art were primarily created for the elite, upper classes and educated, and the language incorporated in these works was highly poetic, completely different from that spoken by the masses. Artists of the omantic era accessed the ballads and folklore that was familiar to commoners, rather than from the literary works popular with the aristocracy. This shift in emphasis was most strongly manifested in the visual arts, music, and literature. This was the beginning of a period of artistic freedom, experimentation, and creativity. The movement stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms,…… [Read More]
humans are born with a blank slate upon which is written, as they grow, the ideas and modes of acting that they will follow as they mature. Their environment, essentially, is responsible for informing their behavior and the idea of human nature having some sort of "behavioral code" already established in the human soul or something of that sort is rejected in the concept of the blank slate thesis.
Essentially the blank slate thesis states that all knowledge is acquired through the senses, which is an argument made by many philosophers throughout the centuries (and which does not exactly speak to the idea of whether there is such a thing as "human nature" per se). However, what the blank slate thesis actually consists of is an underlying principle which states that there is such a thing as human nature (it is this which accounts for the fact that human beings…… [Read More]
Luther's thought incited anti-Roman sentiment and thought initially in his native Germany. He strongly influenced sympathetic local princes to confiscate church lands and property and to redistribute these. He urged for the end of the practice of granting indulgences. Through his work, 95 Theses, he questioned the worth and truthfulness of indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church "granted" indulgences to absolve one's sin from a "treasury of merits" of the Church. Luther could not accept the clergy's ability to absolve sin and that it was something, which could be bought. He held that there was no biblical basis for indulgences and that the ible should be the sole basis and center of Christian theology. Outside of the ible, the clergy had no sure and valid foundation for their interpretations (Hermansen).
The foremost Reformation figure after Luther and Huldreich Zwingli, a Swiss pastor, was John Calvin, a French Protestant theologian (Microsoft Encarta…… [Read More]
Romantic and Modern Design Styles
Comparing the Ornate and the Natural: A Study of Two Theories of Design
History often dictates societal mentality more so than current climate, yet in times of peace, it seems that the beautiful and the artful flourish. This very concept is debatable, especially in interior design, where the fashions of the time very often have a much-felt impact upon design theories and the way in which they are carried out. Yet it is in history that one finds inspiration, or the contradiction thereof. For instance, during the mid to late 19th century, it was against history that romanticism was born. Yet in the early 20th century, immediately following this period of romanticism, it was out of a societal need for simplicity prior to the two Great ars that a more natural aesthetic was born, expressed so perfectly by the architect Frank Lloyd right. The following…… [Read More]
Education in the East and West
The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.
Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.
Western…… [Read More]
Declaration of Rights of Man" (1789) and the "Declaration of Independence" (1776)
The Declaration of Independence" by 13 ritish North American colonies in 1776 and the "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens" passed by the National Assembly of France in 1789 are two of the most important documents ever written in the history of Western Civilization. oth the documents were greatly influenced by the Age of Enlightenment and the thoughts of philosophers such as the 17th century Englishman John Locke and the leading French philosopher of the time, Jean Jacques Rousseau. This essay is a comparison of the two documents.
Although The Declaration of Independence (1776) was basically a proclamation of freedom by American colonists from ritish rule, it was also a statement of principle about the natural and inalienable rights of men and contained a list of grievances against the ritish monarch of the time, King George III.…… [Read More]
The Nature of Freedom in the 18th and 19th Centuries
The evidence shows that the nature of freedom in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was considered a natural right in some cases and a divine right in others. For example, when it was useful, people appealed to the idea of a Creator endowing people with certain “unalienable rights” and when nature was viewed as the source of life, the rights of man were considered something that just was.
Three passages from the different primary source texts that provide evidence for my claim are:
1. “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights… hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights”—from the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
2. “We hold these truths to…… [Read More]
limate change, income disparity, terminal illnesses and continued wars all plague our world. The means by which we typically understand such phenomenon is through science. We have created vast canons of academic texts in fields like psychology, sociology, and other social sciences. Even politics is now "political science." Anything that cannot be codified or empirically researched is not deemed worthy of discussion. It is this over-emphasis on science that creates a boom in fantasy literature.
Fantasy writing is also a "special skill," according to hadbourn (2008). "Being able to see beyond the boundaries of the world around us" requires a different approach to writing than other genres (hadbourn 2008). Many reluctant readers find that fantasy liberates them from the tyranny of science. As the new religion of the world, science demystifies. Many readers find reading mundane because it too closely resembles the predictable world of science.
Of course, not all…… [Read More]
What I appreciated most about Master and Commander was in fact the nontraditional approach to the war movie. Instead of focusing on battle scenes and commanders' egos, Weir and his fellow filmmakers focus on those commanders' motives and to the prevailing social norms and political values. Those norms and values gave impetus to explore the world and learn about the diversity of culture and species the planet houses.
As outmoded models of government were falling by the wayside, generals like Napoleon were able to fill leadership vacuums easily. Trust in governance and leadership had yet to evolve. Aubrey's death embodies the social and political struggles taking place during the early nineteenth century. The sea bird that dies is a powerful symbol for Aubrey, a literary device that makes the movie more than a simple sensationalist Hollywood production. Master and Commander forces students to think harder about their academic readings. The…… [Read More]
Colonial Culture efore the American Revolution
The Great Awakening and Religious Change
The Impact of Education
When discussing causes of the American Revolution, most historians cite growing taxation, lack of representation in the national government, attempts by the King and Parliament to curb the power of colonial legislatures, and restrictions on trade as some of the primary causes. Often ignored as a cause are the changes in American colonial society that occurred in the decades before the revolution. Americans began to develop a cultural identity separate from that of Great ritain. Attitudes toward religion underwent sweeping modifications as a result of the Great Awakening. Landed aristocracy was unable to dominate society in the same way that it did in England. Education became more prevalent. New ideas concerning the nature and rights of people were debated and gradually accepted. All of these factors played a part in propelling Americans toward independence.…… [Read More]