Age Of Enlightenment Essays (Examples)

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Dawn of American Enlightenment Started

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89104035



Benjamin ranklin termed himself a pragmatic deist. He believes "there is one Supreme must perfect being," however that this being is distant, and that it is not necessary to build a personal relationship with such a supreme God. He concluded that it was useful and correct to believe that a faith in God should inform our daily actions. However, he did not believe in sectarian dogma, burning spirituality or deep soul searching as a part of religion (Lopez, 87). ranklin's religious views are important in the shaping of his Enlightenment philosophy. His approach to religion drew from reason and careful reflection, he did not believe in the "frivolity" of emotional thought and connectivity, but instead focused on the pragmatic understanding of the divine. His conclusion after careful reason formulates a "Supreme Being that can be manifest in various ways, depending on the needs of different worshipers" (Lopez, 88). In contrast…… [Read More]

Fiering, Norman. 1981. Jonathan Edwards's Moral Thought and Its British Context. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Buxbaum, M.H., Critical Essays on Benjamin Franklin (1987)

Lopez, Claude-Anne, and Herbert, E.W., the Private Franklin (1975)
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Intellectual-Led Enlightenment

Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24937155

Path to the Enlightenment

What with the ideological turmoil occurring prior to most of 18th century Western Europe, the Age of Enlightenment was but an inevitable outcome. eligious and political thoughts littered Europe by the spades, and with the foreign revolutions and tensions that led up to questioning both divine right and religious authority. The eformation, along with the discordant feelings toward the monarchy, became important turning points in history. Instead of blind faith, the Enlightened man turned to reason and science and believed in the utopian harmonic ideal. But exactly how did this Enlightenment come about?

Enlightenment was a movement that "strove scientifically to uncover religious truths rising above individual sectarian disputes" (Zhivov). Also simultaneously known as the "Age of eason," the Enlightenment culminated in a set of values that sought to question the traditions, customs, and moral beliefs of the cultural environment. While the schools of thought differ…… [Read More]

Resources

Brnardi?, Teodora Shek. "Exchange and commerce: intercultural communication in the age of Enlightenment." European Review of History 16.1 (2009): 79-99. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 9 Mar. 2011.

Brnardi?, Teodora Shek. "The Enlightenment in Eastern Europe: Between Regional Typology and Particular Micro-history." European Review of History 13.3 (2006): 411-435. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 9 Mar. 2011.

Gordon, Aleksandr V. "The Russian Enlightenment: The Meaning of National Archetypes of Power." Russian Studies in History 48.3 (2009): 30-49. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 9 Mar. 2011.

Rao, Anna Maria. "Enlightenment and reform: an overview of culture and politics in Enlightenment Italy." Journal of Modern Italian Studies 10.2 (2005): 142-167. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 9 Mar. 2011.
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Gender Age Educational Level &

Words: 7940 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12858550



A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.

In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.

Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…… [Read More]

Taking from Maharishi Vedic Science, the Unified Field chart described above asserts that because pure consciousness, the home of all the Laws of Nature, is the most fundamental level of all material creation, including human psychology development, the integration of pure consciousness into all aspects of the individual should maintain the moral development. This phenomenon is confirmed in previous research studies on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. This section describes another chart, called a Richo Akshare chart, which provides further illumination of this phenomenon.

In Maharishi Vedic Science, Richo Akshare charts show how the essence of all the disciplines of modern science are located within the structure of the Richo Akshare verse of Rk Veda. Maharishi (1995) explains that the fundamental Laws of Nature comming from the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness are accountable for the whole material creation.

According to Maharishi (1997), the Richo Akshare verse explains that all knowledge exists in Transcendental Consciousness, the Unified Field of all the Laws of Nature, responsible for everything in the universe. Individuals who lack access to Transcendental Consciousness do not get support from the Laws of Nature. Those who can practice Transcendental Consciousness gain enlightenment and full supported by Nature Law.
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Enlightenment

Words: 942 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70781686

17th century and our contemporary world began with an early, optimistic outlook of hope and promise of a better future, exemplified by movements like the Enlightenment, the Scientific and Industrial Revolutions, culminating in the Information Age, environmental awareness and globalisation. It is during this period that a paradigm shift from faith (religion) to reason as the principal source of legitimacy and authority occurred (Badger). The shift occurred against the backdrop of ideals such as science, tolerance, liberty, democracy, secularism, free will and humanism. However, the period is also scared with false starts and failures, violent schisms, world wars, imperialism, terrorism, irrational nationalism, extreme religious war, information overload, pollution and the threat of nuclear annihilation that indicate failure of the rational model promised by the Enlightenment. On the premise of this dichotomy of hope and failure, this essay critically demonstrates the failure of the Enlightenment project, especially from a social and…… [Read More]

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Enlightenment Issues

Words: 1746 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71268155

Gulliver's Travels" by Jonathan Swift, and "Frankenstein: Or the Modern Prometheus" by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelly. Specifically, it will discuss family ties -- Gulliver's neglect of his family compared to Victor's neglect of his. During the Enlightenment, many issues of life and society were considered important to the very necessity and enjoyment of life. Both authors create characters that are far from normal and neglect their families in chaotic and unbelievable worlds. They abandon their families for their own selfish pleasures and wants. The authors view family as important to society, and so, they create characters that are opposite to point to their beliefs about man, society, and what is natural in relationships.

Both of these works use family ties, and the lack of them, to perpetuate their own distinct views on the Enlightenment movement, an intellectual movement prevalent in the 18th century, when both of these writers were working and…… [Read More]

References

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein Or, the Modern Prometheus. New York: Collier Books, 1961.

Swift, Jonathan. Turner, Paul, ed. Gulliver's Travels. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Williams, Kathleen. Jonathan Swift and the Age of Compromise. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1958.
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Plato a Platypus and the Enlightenment

Words: 1482 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47560104

Plato and the Platypus

Philosophers in the Enlightenment era would come up with various new means to popularize ideas. Denis Diderot conceived the first encyclopedia in this period, which was an attempt to systematize all world knowledge in an accessible way. But also, in another innovation, Voltaire would offer as a refutation of the optimistic philosophy of Leibniz -- which held that "this is the best of all possible worlds" -- a new form of philosophical argument: the extended comedy (Cathcart and Klein, 17). Voltaire's short book Candide is essentially an extended refutation of Leibniz's view of God (or perhaps any view of God), but it makes its points through satirical humor. In some sense, Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein are following in the footsteps of Voltaire by attempting to shed light on philosophical ideas through the medium of humor in their work Plato and a Platypus alk Into A…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cathcart, Thomas and Klein, Daniel. Plato and a Platypus Walk Into A Bar: Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes. New York: Penguin Books, 2008. Print.
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Idea of Progress During the Enlightenment

Words: 1440 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77994012

Progress During the Enlightenment

The notion of progress is as evolving as the modern society we deem progressive. While some view progress in terms of science and technology, others view progress in terms of government, social equality, economic stability, spirituality and moral sensitivity. In terms of technology, our current society is more technologically advanced than ever before. We can pick up a telephone and speak to loved ones in other cities, states, and even countries; we can compose, mail, and deliver a letter within minutes via the world-wide-web; we can flip a switch and create light where there was darkness; we can turn a key and travel hundreds of miles within a few hours. Meanwhile, our governments no longer treat minorities as second-class citizens, the world wide poverty level and corresponding mortality rates have dramatically decreased, and our views of religion and spirituality are decidedly more eclectic than in times…… [Read More]

References

Annabel Chaffer. (2010). The Museum of London's "Cheapside Hoard" Jewelry Collection. Retrieved March 13, 2011 from http://www.annabelchaffer.co.uk/products/designer_jewellery/museum_london_cheapside_jewellery_collection_page01.htm

Economist. (2011). The Idea of Progress: Onwards and Upwards. Retrieved March 13, 2011 from  http://www.economist.com/node/15108593 

Nisbet, R. (1979). On Progress. Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought, 2(1).

Weiner, P. (ed). (1968). Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Studies of Pivitol Ideas. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
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Middle Ages to the French

Words: 1489 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52273969

Philosophers such as John Locke and the Founding Fathers of the American Revolution demanded that the rights of the individual be acknowledged by the leading social governing body. But even today, the balance between the rights of the individual and the state is an imperfect one: to what degree do individuals have a right to critique the government, to set their own moral terms of the private behavior, and what ethical as well as legal obligations does the individual have to the community? America's intense individualism tends to deemphasize the obligations of citizens to others.

A third controversial development during this period was the development of capitalism. Before capitalism, the self-sustaining farm or fiefdom was the predominant economic mode. However, mechanized and specialized labor that took the form of wage labor where "humans work for wages rather than for product" became more common (Hooker, 1996, capitalism). Arguably, in a Marxist…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hooker, Richard. (1996). Capitalism. European Enlightenment Glossary.

Retrieved August 3, 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GLOSSARY/CAPITAL.htm

Hooker, Richard. (1996). The divine right of kings. European Enlightenment Glossary.

Retrieved August 3, 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GLOSSARY/DIVRIGHT.htm
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Dark Age and the Archaic Age

Words: 1920 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36563837

Dark Age and the Archaic Age

Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…… [Read More]

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Media the Age of Typography Began With

Words: 1456 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80560545

Media

The age of typography began with the Enlightenment and flourished in the New World, and coincided with significant social, political, and economic changes. As Postman (2005) points out in Amusing Ourselves to Death, Protestants with a predilection toward intellectualism made books and reading integral to American life. "The influence of the printed word in every arena of public discourse was insistent and powerful not merely because of the quantity of printed matter but because of its monopoly," (Postman, 2005, p. 41). In other words, print had a monopoly on information, communication, and the exchange of ideas. Print became endowed with a level of political and social significance that it does not have in the digital age, as there are now multiple modes of information exchange. When printed matter was all there was, the very ideals of democracy depended on it.

During the typographic age, content was meaningful as well…… [Read More]

References

Dewey, C. (2014). What makes some internet memes immortal. The Washington Post. 10 Nov, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2014/11/10/what-makes-some-internet-memes-immortal/

Postman, N. (2005). Amusing Ourselves to Death. New York: Penguin.

Sternberg, J. (2013). Technology today: What would Neil Postman think? Retrieved online: http://www.spinedu.com/technology-today-neil-postman-think/#.VGGC9_Q49oA
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The American Revolution and Enlightenment Thought

Words: 2273 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21176211

Revolution, Constitution and Enlightenment
The American Revolution and the ensuing U.S. Constitution put forward by the Federalists were both products of and directly informed by the European Enlightenment. The Founding Fathers were considerably influenced by thinkers like Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu (whose separation of powers served as the model of the three-branched government of the U.S.). This paper will explain how the European Enlightenment set the stage for the American Revolution and U.S. Constitution by putting out the ideas that the Americans would use as the basis of the political and social foundation.
The Enlightenment aka the Age of Reason was an Age in which natural philosophy assumed the vaulted position of guiding light over the preceding Age of Faith, which had served as the socio-political basis in Europe for centuries. The Reformation had upended the Age of Faith and introduced secularization into the political realm (Laux), particularly via…… [Read More]

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The Effects of the Enlightenment

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12275918

Enlightenment worldview and how it impacted society and human relations

The Enlightenment's emphasis on a rational understanding of the human condition marked a fundamental break with the previous worldview of the Middle Ages which preceded it. Rather than faith, the Enlightenment placed a new emphasis on scientific observation and rationalism as the best way to understand the world. It also stressed the value of human beings and the world of the here and now versus the hereafter. This disdain for tradition and celebration of reason led to a political revolution in both philosophy and government. More and more people questioned the divine right of kings and demanded a voice for the people in the way their government was legislated.

The scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth century "undermines not only the ancient geocentric conception of the cosmos, but, with it, the entire set of presuppositions that had served to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bristow, William. "Enlightenment." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2011.

http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/enlightenment (accessed December 29, 2015)
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Women After the Middle Ages

Words: 2796 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2125633

It also widened her female audience much further than the small group of upper-class women with whom she was acquainted (ibid).

Overall, this work represented Lanyer as a complex writer who possessed significant artistic ambition and "who like other women of the age wrote not insincerely on devotional themes to sanction more controversial explorations of gender and social relations" (Miller 360).

In her work, Lanyer issued a call to political action by noting several Old Testament women who changed the course of ancient Jewish history through their bravery, humor and valor, and she recalled the favor Christ demonstrated to women in a variety of actions and by electing them as custodians of his salvational message (ibid 362). The story covered Christ's betrayal by male apostles, the arraignment before male authorities to whom Lanyer addressed complaints, and the account of Christ's procession to Calvary, the crucifixion and the drama of the…… [Read More]

References

Barish, Jonas. Ben Jonson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963.

Braun, Lily, and Meyer, Alfred. Selected Writings on Feminism and Socialism. Gary: Indiana University Press, 1987.

Castiglione, Baldassare. "The Courtier." In Three Renaissance Classics. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953, 242-624

De Vroom, Theresia. Female Heroism in Thomas Heywood's Tragic Farce of Adultery. NY: Palgrave, 2002.
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Noble Savage in Age of Atlantic Revolutions

Words: 4909 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93388118

noble savage..." etc.

The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution

When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/index.html#ToC]

Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/FF.txt]
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From the Baroque Period Through the Romantic Age

Words: 1110 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82076000

art is changed by the changes that occur in political culture. The writer presents examples and contrasts two of the following areas Baroque, ococo, Neoclassicism, and omanticism and argues the point of how the eras drive changes in artwork. In addition the writer devotes two pages to comparing three works of famous artists.

Art has always been influenced by the masses. Political culture, and change have been driving forces behind the changes in art that history has witnessed. When political and cultural changes occur it is generally because of changing attitudes of those who live in the era and drive those changes. This extrapolates to changes in many things including taste in artwork. Two periods in history provide classic examples of such change occurring and being directly related to political and cultural changes that were taking place in society during the time.

The Neoclassical period and the omantic era are…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Grainstack 1891

http://www.oceansbridge.com/art/customer/product.php?productid=38385& cat=4037& page=19& maincat=M

Pierre Bonnard The Terrace

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/scpa/hob_68.1.htm
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Sister Callista Roy Theory at the Age

Words: 2329 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42469924

Sister Callista oy Theory

At the age of 14 years old, Callista oy had already started working in large general hospital where she moved from being a pantry, to maid to the nurse's maid. After considerations, Callista decided to join the Sisters of Saint Joseph Carondelet where she became a member for more that 40 years of her entire life. She joined college and pursued liberal arts program where she successfully completed a program in Bachelor of Arts majoring in nursing at Mount St. Mary's College in Los Angeles (The Trustees of Boston College, 2013).

She further pursed successfully her masters in Sociology and a doctorate in sociology as well both at University of California (Jones & Barlett, 2013). It was at this point that oy wanted to fuse both sociological approach and nursing approach to the nursing care of the patients. She is accredited for coming up with and…… [Read More]

References

Current Nursing, (2012). Application of Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM). Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Roy%27s_adaptation_model.html

Gonzalo, (2011). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from  http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/sister-callista-roy.html 

Jones & Barlett, (2013). Nursing Theories: A Framework for Professional Practice. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from  http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449626013/72376_CH10_Masters.pdf 

The Trustees of Boston College, (2013). Sr. Callista Roy, Ph.D., RN, FAAN Retrieved September 11, 2013 from  http://www.bc.edu/schools/son/faculty/featured/theorist.html
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Modern Age Cinema and Pluralism in the Arts

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 411744

Whitney collection, what qualities do the art works seem to have in common?

When you look at the Whitney collection from the year 2000, it is clear that that all of the artists are reflection of a sense of realism in the various works. As, they are taking everyday events and are depicting them in such a way, that they are giving the audience a sense of appreciation for what many people see regularly.

A good example of this can be seen by comparing the works of Doug Aitken with John Coplans. In the Doug Aitken's photograph, he is illustrating an everyday event by highlighting a single shopping cart sitting in a parking lot. As, everyone has: went home and Aitken is showing how this is part of everyday life in America. This is giving the viewer a sense of appreciation for the kinds of images that we see everyday,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Doug Aitken." Whitney Collection, 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2011

"John Coplans." Whitney Collection, 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2011.

"Whitney Collection." Whitney Collection, 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2011

http://whitney.org/Collection/PatSteir/200122
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Western History Looking Into the

Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76697361

The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.

King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.

One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…… [Read More]

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Evening in the Palace of Reason Bach

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45069138

Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment (Harper Perennial, James Gaines), 2006.

Gaines' book discusses two of history's greatest men, each of whom became great for a different reason. One was a political leader and statesman the other a musician. he biography of each could not have been more different. Both had tough lives and both fought against enormous stakes but one lived in a palace and the other travelled from place to place living in some at most only 3 years. One sampled jail and the other saw his partner killed and was saved by being sent to the military. One was homosexual and the other happily married in love. Bach's love in contradistinction to that of Frederick was more serene and meaningful. His music absorbed him and made him happy. He was focused; his life purely devoted to cantatas…… [Read More]

Two great men who met at the end of one's life and the pinnacle of the energy of another. Their lives could not have been more different but both can inspire us in different ways.

Source

Gaines, J "Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment." Harper Perennial, 2006."
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17th and 18th Century Europe

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49770450

Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.

The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…… [Read More]

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Art the Renaissance Heralded in

Words: 2995 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58827633



French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.

Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…… [Read More]

References

Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.

Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992

Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.

Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
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Religion Judaism and Christianity European

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95099784

ased on the gospels of the New Testament, Jews acted as the murderers of Jesus Christ who in Jewish history is claiming to be the Son of God. Criticizing today's Christian practices such as idolatry which is purely against time old philosophy of the scripture continually arouses negative notion on the true authority of Jesus on his teachings.

Most of the parables of Jesus written in the gospels of the New Testament have survived and prospered in the heart and mind of all Christians. The parable of the Prodigal Son and the parable of the lost sheep are some of the parables that depict the importance given by God towards mankind.

The growth of the early Christian Catholic Church have sporadically developed worldwide since its founding after the death of Jesus Christ with Apostle Peter as the first Pope. The church traces its origin from the 12 Apostles in their…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Judaism; Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2005) Extracted July 22, 2006; Website;

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Judaism

Why the Jews Rejected Jesus: The Turning Point in Western History; David Klinghoffer (March 2006) Extracted July 22, 2006
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Wollstonecraft & J J Rousseau the Influence of

Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89020339

Wollstonecraft & J.J. Rousseau

The influence of humanity and reason in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau on education and women

The age of Enlightenment put forth the importance of humanism and reason, concepts that creates a balance between humanity's innate tendency to experience emotions while at the same time, cultivating a rational view of experiencing sensations and interactions around him/her. Indeed, discourses that were created and published in the 18th century reflected the use of reason in order to elucidate the nature of human beings. 'Enlightenment discourses,' in effect, provide an important insight into the humanism and reason that dwells inside the human mind.

These important concepts of the Enlightenment were shown in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau. oth being proponents and believers of the principles reflective of the Enlightenment, they expressed their views of how humanism and reason influenced their position…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Rousseau, J.J. (1762). E-text of "Emile." Available at: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/pedagogies/rousseau/em_eng_preface2.html.

Wollstonecraft, M. (1792). E-text of "Vindication of the rights of women." Available at: http://www.bartleby.com/144/.
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Government Has a Perfect Right

Words: 1525 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48657994

eber and Spencer took this further and say the need for government control over some aspects of society, but not those that removed decisions and rights from the individual. Thus, as adults and citizens the government should offer structure and guidance in a manner that is consistent with the social goals of the Enlightenment; namely allowing actualization without overly reducing individual decisions and actualization.

orks Cited

Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.

Barry, B. hy Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.

Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. eb. April 2013. .

Gay, P. The Enlightenment - the Science of Freedom. New York: .. Norton, 1996.

Porter, R. The Enlightenment. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2001.

Sharma, C. "Beyond Gaps and Imbalances." Public Administration…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.

Barry, B. Why Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.

Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. Web. April 2013. .
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Dangerous Liaisons Film Research Paper

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95927806

Europe witnessed a flowering period in the 18th century that historians call the Age of Enlightenment. A period filled with experimentation as well as intellectual curiosity, people relied on the power of human reason in order to understand society and nature. One specific manifestation of the Enlightenment was a steadfast faith in the stable progression of civilization via scientific development. Because of this religious judgment went to the wayside. Instead, people wanted improvement through freedom, equality, and tolerance. French writers/thinkers expressed these sentiments and notions through their work. These philosophers devoted their passion to useful thought and not speculation. Towards the latter half of the 18th century (1782), such thinking took the form of a highly scandalous story, Dangerous Liaisons.

ritten by Pierre Ambroise Choderlos de Laclos, a member of minor nobility and a French intelligence officer within the army, Dangerous Liaisons describes French nobility and the search for sex…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burns, William E. The Enlightenment. ABC-CLIO, 2015. Print.

Duchovnay, Gerald. Film Voices. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2004. Print.

McAlpin, Mary. Sexuality And Cultural Degeneration In Enlightenment France. Routledge, 2016. Print.
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Western Civ V The Philosophes

Words: 1913 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57432668

) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.

c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?

There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source

Documents, History 100.

Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.

Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
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Cultural Events From the Past

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79790261



Why did the airing of HG Well's novel "War of the Worlds" on the radio cause so much panic? What would it take to cause that type of panic from a Hoax like "War of the Worlds" in this day and age? First and foremost, the 1.2 million U.S. radio listeners who panicked on Halloween night, 1938, were part of a new technology that had not yet developed to the point in which the majority could critically analyze what came over the airwaves. To those early listeners, espcecially those who tuned in after the caveat about entertainment, the realism and stage-play of Orson Welles' broadcast sounded so real, and so plausible, that they could not help but believe it -- after all, it sounded like a news broadcast (Radio: Anatomy of a Panic, 1940). People have become far more cynical, and with the advent of the fantastic special effects that…… [Read More]

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18th Century What Makes the 18th Century

Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70777844

18th Century

What makes the 18th century such a vast plethora of diverse opinions, creations and philosophies is the fact that the world was changing in a variety of ways. The Industrial Revolution and rationalism were having profound effects upon previously held religious and esthetic ideals. While some passionately pursued new directions of thought, science and art, others held desperately to old philosophies. Furthermore the different countries of the globe expressed their views and philosophies in different ways in reaction to the changes occurring within their borders.

Philosophers such as the German, Immanuel Kant for example applied universal, reasonable rules to all science, morality and art. According to Kant, these rules were to be followed by all rational beings (rehier 67). John Locke followed the same philosophy, finding that all understanding needs to be based upon the use of the senses. In a more esthetic sense, this English philosopher also…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barbour, Brian M. American Transcendentalism: An Anthology of Criticism. London: Notre Dame, 1973

Brehier, Emile. The Eighteenth Century. Chicago University Press, 1967.

Burke, Peter. The Renaissance. London: Longmans, 1964.
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True Are Claims That the Medical Profession

Words: 2593 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58457062

True Are Claims that the Medical Profession Exercises Undue Dominance Over Health Professionals and Patients?

The objective of this study is to answer the question of how true the claims are that the Medical Profession exercises undue dominance over health professionals and patients? Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of literature in this area of inquiry. ) According to the work of Willis, et al. (2008) the rationale that doctors use for the maintenance of autonomy and control over their working conditions is derived in part from "the importance our society attributes to the relationship between the doctor and their patient. This is referred to as the patient-practitioner relationships." (Willis, et al., 2008) Stated to be an important part of the role of the doctor is the "obligation to provide the best available evidence-based care for patients." (Willis, et al., 2008) This has been termed as 'personalized…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bahnisch, M. (2012) Medical Dominance and the Continuing Robustness of Professional Cultures in Healthcare. CMEDRS/DME Research Rap. 7 Aug 2012. Retrieved from:  http://www.slideshare.net/mbahnisch/bahnisch-research-rap-070812 

Crinson (2008) Concepts of Health and Illness: Section 2: Sociological Conceptualization of Medical Knowledge and Power. Health Knowledge. Retrieved from:  http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-concepts-health-illness/section2 

D. Armstrong, 'The Decline of the Medical Hegemony: A Review of Movement Reports During the NHS', Social Science, and Medicine, vol. 10, nos 3-4 (March-April 1976), pp. 157-63.

Henly and S. Harrison, 'Lines of Accountability', Health and Social Services Journal 22 April 1982), pp. 506-8.
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Analyzing Early Modern Europe

Words: 2287 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83932329

Pleasure Garden

In the eighteenth century, the concept of pleasure gardens flourished in Britain, a trend that could be traced partly to the relatively stable democratic government coupled with the international trade that thrived at that time in London. Vauxhall Gardens was perhaps the most famous pleasure garden according to the lectures. Founded in 1661, it reached the peak of popularity during the early years of the nineteenth century. It became a model for several other pleasure gardens in Europe, like the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. Historians believed it was arguably the first modern amusement park. Some of the most popular entertainments offered in Vauxhall were firework displays, theatre shows, theatrical entertainments as well as dancing floors and drinking booths. Both Vauxhall and Tivoli Gardens were so popular that they became generic names for all pleasure gardens in both Europe and the United States (UoS 2015). According to the course,…… [Read More]

References

Aelarsen. A Royal Affair: Enlightenment and Adultery in 18th Century Denmark. June 2014. https://aelarsen.wordpress.com/2014/06/30/a-royal-affair-enlightenment-and-adultery-in-18th-century-denmark / (accessed December 13, 2015).

"Age of Enlightenment." Pedia Press, 2011.

Curtius, Quintus. Speaking Out Against Injustice: The Case Of Jean Calas. October 12, 2015. http://www.returnofkings.com/72129/speaking-out-against-injustice-the-case-of-jean-calas (accessed December 12, 2015).

Halsall, Paul. Medieval Sourcebook: Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527): Republics and Monarchies, Excerpt from Discourses I, 55. October 1998. (accessed December 14, 2015).
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Gothic Literature in 18th Century England

Words: 2747 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83808044

Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction

The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…… [Read More]

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Revolutionary French Peasants Thinking

Words: 2251 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73111961

French Revolution

The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Acemoglu, Daaron, Cantoni, Davide, Johnson, Simon, Robinson, James. "The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution." NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 4/3/2016. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jrobinson/files/jr_consequeces_frenchrev.pdf

Davies, Norman. The History of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1990.

Langer, William. The Encyclopedia of World History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.
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Moll Flanders the Eighteenth Century Is Often

Words: 3113 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47252681

Moll Flanders

The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Backscheider, Paula R. Moll Flanders: The Making of a Criminal Mind. (Twayne's

Masterwork Studies). Twayne Publishers, 1990.

Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Oxford University Press, 2009.

Dupre, Louis K. The Enlightenment and the Intellectual of Modern Culture. Yale University Press, 2005.
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History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17c 18c

Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13465288

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C

This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.

Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…… [Read More]

References

Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners

Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.

Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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Fall of Christendom in Modern Era

Words: 1859 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14331401

Christianity in Europe

The Decline of European Christianity, 1675-Present

The demise of Christianity in Europe coincides with the rise of the Age of Enlightenment at the end of the 17th century.

Up to that moment, Europe had been relatively one in religious belief. True, religious wars had been raging for more than a century, with the fracturing of nations in the wake of the "Protestant Reformation." ut even then, Europe had acknowledged a single Savior -- wherein lay His Church was the major point of contention. ut today Europe exists in a post-Christian state. Its Christian identity has collapsed under the weight of Romantic-Enlightenment ideals, expressed dramatically in the French Revolution at the end of the 18th century and adopted politically throughout the continent as a result of a more man-centered, rather than God-centered, vision of life. This paper will trace the decline of European Christianity and provide three reasons…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Israel, Jonathan. Radical Enlightenment Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-

1750. UK: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Jones, E. Michael. Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. IN: St.

Augustine Press, 2000.
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Jean Baudrillard

Words: 1439 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90045982

Jean Baudrillard

The dominance of globalization and terrorism: Jean Baudrillard's argument on 'unequal returns'

In the essay "The Violence of the Global," social scientist Jean Baudrillard argued and analyzed about the emergence of terrorism and its gradual prevalence in the period of globalization. In analyzing the current state of socio-political affairs among nations of the world, he came to the conclusion that the prevalence of terrorism was directly linked with globalization. Globalization, meanwhile, was also linked to the universalization of virtues and norms that have prevailed in modern society, specifically American society, for centuries. Universalization, globalization, and terrorism were thus linked together through Baudrillard's theory on 'unequal returns,' an occurrence throughout the human history that eventually led to a violent response, thereby resulting to wars and in the case of the present period, terrorism.

Baudrillard's discourse posits two important generalizations relating the three concepts enumerated earlier (universalization, globalization, and terrorism).…… [Read More]

Work cited

Baudrillard, J. E-text of "The Violence of the Global." Available at:  http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1318140/posts .
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18th C Decorative Botanical Art

Words: 3104 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77815266



In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.

Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.

Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp

Eighteenth century textiles, http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm

Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+.  http://www.questia.com/ .
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Samuel Johnson Marks Himself as a Man

Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6087925

Samuel Johnson marks himself as a man of keen sensitivity when he acknowledges in his review of Shakespeare's King Lear that he was "so shocked by Cordelia's death, that I know not whether I ever endured to read again the last scenes of the play till I undertook to revise them as an editor" (1765). This may seem like a fair assessment from the man who gave the English language of the first and greatest and wittiest dictionaries of all time; but upon a second examination, it may perhaps reveal something about Johnson and his age that is so foreign to the ideas which Shakespeare presented in King Lear that he could do nothing but recoil in horror. Johnson was, after all, an Anglican -- of the Church that persecuted Campion (Jesuit priest) and Lyne (the woman martyred for harboring Catholic priests during the Protestant takeover and memorialized in Shakespeare's…… [Read More]

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Emanuel Kant's the Work of

Words: 1687 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75871700

And the freedom in question is the most harmless of all-namely, to make public use of one's reason in all matters" (Clarke 1997, 53). This added to classical liberalism's support of the freedom of speech and of the press. This all played a part in Kant's desire to apply reason to practical life. In The Conflict of the Faculties, he wrote in defense of the openness of the university as "an institution that exists to serve governments…and [bring about] enlightening ends" (Clarke 1997, 53-54). Thus once knowledge was separated from values, it could be harnessed to serve the human project. One area where Kant had an impact beyond philosophy has been in international relations theory. "According to the classical view of international politics, the international sphere is composed of sovereign states and characterized by anarchy" (Bartelson 1995, 257). People have order in their native land but see the rest of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ames, Edward Scribner. "The Religion of Immanuel Kant." The Journal of Religion 5:2

(1925): 172-177.

Bartelson, Kens. "The Trial of Judgment: A note on Kant and the Paradoxes of Internationalism." International Studies Quarterly 39:2 (1995): 255-279.

Clark, Michael. "Kant's Rhetoric of Enlightenment." The Review of Politics 59:1 (1997):
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Artificial Intelligence and Eternal Life Essay

Words: 2149 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Essay Prompt
This need to be structured in MLA format.
Prompt for Transcendent Man

I first became aware of Ray Kurzweil many years ago, but was introduced to this documentary about him by a student a few semesters ago. I knew his book, The Age of the Spiritual Machines, but hadn't, up until that time, been aware of his theories concerning "the singularity."

Unquestionably, Kurzweil is a brilliant inventor and a man of vision. His work has helped millions of people - not only those of us who use flatbed scanners, but the millions of those who can now "read" due to his work with technology for the blind. Furthermore, no one can argue the fact that technology has been experiencing exponential growth for decades. What is in question, however, is just exactly where this growth is leading us. ??

While some of those interviewed in the documentary agree that…… [Read More]

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Jesus' Teachings Prayer & Christian Life He

Words: 35411 Length: 109 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95862373

Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life

"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]

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Michael Foucault's Birth of a Clinic

Words: 2784 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4829969

Foucault's Birth of the Clinic

Initially, in order to provide a stable framework on this study, we would try to clearly define, identify and learn both the visible and literary meaning on the work of Michel Foucault's work, The Birth of the Clinic. We will intend to scrutinize each of the underlying detail of this literary masterpiece and retrieve its modern influences in the field of medical and health studies.

In the modern era of rational thinking and ideas, the concept of which Michel Foucault is trying to convey in his literary work, The Birth of the Clinic is the postmodern influence of medical attribute to the social and political structure of our society. The concept of which Foucault considers as a myth of which he notes:

"...the first task of the doctor is ... political: the struggle against disease must begin with a war against bad government." Man will…… [Read More]

References

Shawver, L. (1998). Notes on reading the Birth of the Clinic. Retrieved 10/03/05 from the World Wide Web: http://www.california.com/~rathbone/foucbc.htm

SHU, United Kingdom (2005), Birth of the Clinic, commentary (2000)

Retrieved 10/02/05 from World Wide Web:

http://www.shu.ac.uk/schools/hcs/learning/soct/bofc1.htm
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Ethical Theory

Words: 3027 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85977253

Deontology and Consequentialism

An Analysis of "Rightness" from Deontological and Teleological Perspectives

Deontological ethics stems from the notion that one is obliged by duty to behave in a "moral" manner. There are a number of theories that range from moral absolutism to Divine Command theory that may be described as deontological, but each differs in its approach to "morality" even though each recognizes an "obligation" to attend to a set of rules. In contrast to deontological ethics are teleological ethics, which gauge the morality of one's actions by their consequences. A number of theories may be classified as teleological, such as utilitarianism, pragmatism and consequentialism. This paper will explore the ideas behind deontological and teleological ethics and show how an approach to "morality" must observe at least some objective standard, and that it is the objective standard that makes an action "right," and not the dutiful adherence to the standard…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dreier, Jamie. "In defense of consequentializing."

Horgan, Terrry; Timmons, Mark. "Untying a Knot from the Inside Out: Reflections on the 'Paradox' of Supererogation."

Locke, John. "Essay Concerning Human Understanding." Bartleby. Web. 27 Nov

2012.
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Jekyll and Hyde A Gothic

Words: 1256 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7262482

evil" paradigm. However, unlike in earlier gothic works, there is no allusion to priests or monks as players on the side of "evil." In fact, the absence of religion and religious restraints appears to be an element of Stevenson's theme: Jekyll, acting on the doctrine of Rousseau, which is to follow one's "nature," unmoors himself from the restraints traditionally made available by religious conviction. Jekyll, being a man of science, rather than of theology, puts to test the doctrine that divorced the old world from the new, and what he finds is that the doctrine is not good. hile the earlier works of gothic horror (like The Monk) pointed out corruption within the clergy, Stevenson's gothic work appears to do the opposite: it points out the corruption in Naturalism: "I not only recognised my natural body from the mere aura and effulgence of certain of the powers that made up…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Stevenson, R.L. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. NY: Barnes and Noble

Books, 2003.
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Kung and Edwards an Analysis

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47708074

Kung has no regard for Church doctrine -- only the doctrine of men and the "rights of man."

Use of Scripture

Likewise, Kung has no use for authoritative scripture -- it is outdated and too much a part of the past, which Kung wishes to displace in favor of "the future." The future must not be informed by the old prejudices of the past -- it must branch out, like Edwards' ecological theology, encompassing as many faiths and traditions as possible, uniting them all under the roof of the religion of the global ethic. What Kung aims to do, therefore, is reduce the importance of Scripture even more than Edwards does -- to an anthill amongst other anthills, while he himself provides the new doctrine: his doctrine is filled with a list of "we must's" -- the commandments of Kung -- the voice of the new revolution.

eligious Symbol

Neither…… [Read More]

Reference List

Edwards, D. (2001). Ecology at the Heart of Faith. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

Faris, W.B. (2004). Ordinary Enchantments: Magical Realism and the Remystification

of Narrative. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Kung, H., Kuschel, K. [ed]. (1993). A Global Ethic. New York, NY: Continuum.
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Influence if China on the West

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87025525

China on the West

UNPRECEDENTED, CHALLENGING

Risen Power

Freed at last from 150 years of humiliation as a worthless Soviet-style command economy and nation, China first became a "rising power" and then as an actual "risen power (rookes 2005). Unprecedented economic reforms two decades ago led to its amazing economic growth and expansion. Achieving an almost double-digit growth in the last two decades, China has clearly restored its old grandeurs as the "Middle Kingdom." Chinese analysts believe this immense growth will continue and challenge traditional world powers, including the United States, in dominion and control of international mechanisms. At present, it has the largest population in the world and the second largest defense budget and ranks as the second largest economy. These capabilities allow China to play big roles in global politics. It is not only a permanent member of the UN Security Council. It is also a nuclear weapons…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bodde, D. (2005). Chinese ideas in the West. Committee on Asian Studies in American

Education: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on November 14, 2011 from http://www.learn.columbia.edu/nauxuntu/html/state/ideas.pdf

- (2005). China's gifts to the West. Retrieved on November 15, 2011 from http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/song/readings/inventions_gifts.htm#conclusion

Brookes, P. (2005). China's influence in the Western Hemisphere. Asian Studies Center:
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Man vs God in Frankenstein

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90238754

Introduction

Victor and his creature are opposing forces that struggle because of their conflicts throughout Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein. Conflict is the dominant theme of the novel—one that Mary Shelley herself experienced in her own life, being married to the romantic poet Percy Byshe Shelley, who struggled with his own romantic ideas just as Victor Frankenstein struggles with his vain desire to be a Creator in Frankenstein. While Victor Frankenstein does become a Creator, he accomplishes his task ironically because he is a creator of the monster (which becomes of a monster because of Victor’s own incapacity to love him). True, the monster comes into life looking hideous—but that is because he had an uncaring creator; the monster is actually very thoughtful and desires to love and be loved. He attempts to make friends but finds that he is rebuked for his ugliness and driven away into isolation. He then…… [Read More]

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Death in Spanish Literature While

Words: 3683 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7150930

In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.

In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Academy of American Poets" Poets.org. 1997-2007. http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/348.

Cole, Toby, (ed.). "Garc'a Lorca" in Playwrights on Playwrighting, 1961.

Hills, Elijah Clarence and Morley, S. Griswold, Modern Spanish Lyrics, New York: H. Holt, 1913.

Jehle, Fred F. Anthology of Spanish Poetry: A Collection of Spanish Poems, 1999. http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/poetry.htm.
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Does the Fisher Ury Model Work

Words: 29882 Length: 120 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38724917

Negotiation Skills

A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations

This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]

References

Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.

Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.

Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.

Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).
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Faith and Reason an Analysis

Words: 2122 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79858429

If he had love, he had no pot in which to plant it. And so it stayed trapped in his mind, separate from any object -- for Kant insisted on the gulf between faith and reason. If one had to accept certain truths on the authority of the one revealing them -- Kant wanted no part in it. According to Kant, one should accept only that which can be reasoned. According to Aquinas, it is not unreasonable to accept that which is revealed.

In a sense, many of us today are Kantian rather than Thomistic. We are Hamlet figures, forever trapped in doubt. What Aquinas allows us to do is put away doubt. He allows us -- in fact, implores us, to act. He is now to us like the ghost of Hamlet's father -- reappearing to urge his son to action. Still, Hamlet delays. What happens to Hamlet --…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Contra Gentiles. London: Burns and Oates, 1905.

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. UK: Fathers of the English Dominican

Province, 1920.

McInerny, Ralph, ed. Thomas Aquinas: Selected Writings. England: Penguin, 1998.
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Romantic Era Began in the Late Eighteenth

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71207753

omantic era began in the late eighteenth century as a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment and was a period of great change and emancipation. The movement started as an artistic and intellectual reaction against aristocratic social and political norms of the Enlightenment and against the scientific rationalization of nature. During the Enlightenment literature and art were primarily created for the elite, upper classes and educated, and the language incorporated in these works was highly poetic, completely different from that spoken by the masses. Artists of the omantic era accessed the ballads and folklore that was familiar to commoners, rather than from the literary works popular with the aristocracy. This shift in emphasis was most strongly manifested in the visual arts, music, and literature. This was the beginning of a period of artistic freedom, experimentation, and creativity. The movement stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms,…… [Read More]

References

Constable, J. (1821). The hay wain. [Painting] The national gallery. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/john-constable-the-hay-wain

Kartha, Deepa. (2010). Romanticism: Chariteristics of romanticism. Buzzle.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/romanticism-characteristics-of-romanticism.html

Nourrit, A. (1832). La Sylphide. Ballet encyclopedia. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from  http://www.the-ballet.com/sylphide.php 

Shelley, P.B. (1820). The Question. About. Com A Today. USATODAY.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/pshelley/bl-pshel-question.htm
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Why the Blank Slate Thesis Is Incorrect

Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30175957

humans are born with a blank slate upon which is written, as they grow, the ideas and modes of acting that they will follow as they mature. Their environment, essentially, is responsible for informing their behavior and the idea of human nature having some sort of "behavioral code" already established in the human soul or something of that sort is rejected in the concept of the blank slate thesis.

Essentially the blank slate thesis states that all knowledge is acquired through the senses, which is an argument made by many philosophers throughout the centuries (and which does not exactly speak to the idea of whether there is such a thing as "human nature" per se). However, what the blank slate thesis actually consists of is an underlying principle which states that there is such a thing as human nature (it is this which accounts for the fact that human beings…… [Read More]

References

Pinker, S. (2003). Human nature and the blank slate. TED. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/steven_pinker_chalks_it_up_to_the_blank_slate
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Reformation and Renaissance Thinkers' Criticism

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8003963

Luther's thought incited anti-Roman sentiment and thought initially in his native Germany. He strongly influenced sympathetic local princes to confiscate church lands and property and to redistribute these. He urged for the end of the practice of granting indulgences. Through his work, 95 Theses, he questioned the worth and truthfulness of indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church "granted" indulgences to absolve one's sin from a "treasury of merits" of the Church. Luther could not accept the clergy's ability to absolve sin and that it was something, which could be bought. He held that there was no biblical basis for indulgences and that the ible should be the sole basis and center of Christian theology. Outside of the ible, the clergy had no sure and valid foundation for their interpretations (Hermansen).

The foremost Reformation figure after Luther and Huldreich Zwingli, a Swiss pastor, was John Calvin, a French Protestant theologian (Microsoft Encarta…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hermansen, Joel. The European Renaissance and Reformation. AP World History:

Appleton Area School District, 2009. Retrieved on June 5, 2009 from http://www.aasd.k12.wi.us/staff/hermansenjoel/Notes/The%20European%20Renaissance%20and

Microsoft Encarta. Reformation. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia: Microsoft

Corporation, 2009. Retrieved on June 5, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761562628/Reformation.html
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Romantic and Modern Design Styles Comparing the

Words: 1568 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95732441

Romantic and Modern Design Styles

Comparing the Ornate and the Natural: A Study of Two Theories of Design

History often dictates societal mentality more so than current climate, yet in times of peace, it seems that the beautiful and the artful flourish. This very concept is debatable, especially in interior design, where the fashions of the time very often have a much-felt impact upon design theories and the way in which they are carried out. Yet it is in history that one finds inspiration, or the contradiction thereof. For instance, during the mid to late 19th century, it was against history that romanticism was born. Yet in the early 20th century, immediately following this period of romanticism, it was out of a societal need for simplicity prior to the two Great ars that a more natural aesthetic was born, expressed so perfectly by the architect Frank Lloyd right. The following…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books

2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290278/interior-design/74226/The-Romantic-movement-and-the-battle-of-the-styles-1835-1925

3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from, http://www.franklloydwright.org/web/Home.html

4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design. McGraw-Hill: New York.
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Cultural Cues of Eastern and Western Schools in Today's World

Words: 1756 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14860448

Education in the East and West

The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.

Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.

Western…… [Read More]

Li, Jin. Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West. UK: Cambridge, 2012.

Print.

Li's book is very helpful in understanding the differences between Eastern and Western education: it highlights cultural influences in the West, from the Greeks, and in the East, from Confucius and Buddha, etc. It looks at how religion and science have both played a part in where East and West are educationally speaking.
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Declaration of Rights of Man 1789 and

Words: 706 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36338789

Declaration of Rights of Man" (1789) and the "Declaration of Independence" (1776)

The Declaration of Independence" by 13 ritish North American colonies in 1776 and the "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens" passed by the National Assembly of France in 1789 are two of the most important documents ever written in the history of Western Civilization. oth the documents were greatly influenced by the Age of Enlightenment and the thoughts of philosophers such as the 17th century Englishman John Locke and the leading French philosopher of the time, Jean Jacques Rousseau. This essay is a comparison of the two documents.

Although The Declaration of Independence (1776) was basically a proclamation of freedom by American colonists from ritish rule, it was also a statement of principle about the natural and inalienable rights of men and contained a list of grievances against the ritish monarch of the time, King George III.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen" Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002

Roberts, Dan "A Moment in Time: The Declaration of Rights of Man" ehistory. [available online] retrieved on December 20, 2002 at http://www.ehistory.com/world/amit/display.cfm?amit_id=2129

Moment in Time: The Declaration of Rights of Man [available online]

http://www.ehistory.com/world/amit/display.cfm?amit_id=2129
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The Declaration of Independence and Freedom

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30402785

The Nature of Freedom in the 18th and 19th Centuries
1
The evidence shows that the nature of freedom in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was considered a natural right in some cases and a divine right in others. For example, when it was useful, people appealed to the idea of a Creator endowing people with certain “unalienable rights” and when nature was viewed as the source of life, the rights of man were considered something that just was.
Three passages from the different primary source texts that provide evidence for my claim are:
1. “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights… hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights”—from the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
2. “We hold these truths to…… [Read More]

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Fantasy Mark Chadbourn's 2008 Assessment

Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71008756

limate change, income disparity, terminal illnesses and continued wars all plague our world. The means by which we typically understand such phenomenon is through science. We have created vast canons of academic texts in fields like psychology, sociology, and other social sciences. Even politics is now "political science." Anything that cannot be codified or empirically researched is not deemed worthy of discussion. It is this over-emphasis on science that creates a boom in fantasy literature.

Fantasy writing is also a "special skill," according to hadbourn (2008). "Being able to see beyond the boundaries of the world around us" requires a different approach to writing than other genres (hadbourn 2008). Many reluctant readers find that fantasy liberates them from the tyranny of science. As the new religion of the world, science demystifies. Many readers find reading mundane because it too closely resembles the predictable world of science.

Of course, not all…… [Read More]

Chadbourn is absolutely correct about the role fantasy plays in the modern world. The reason why fantasy has surpassed all other genres, including science fiction, in sales is partly related to the nature of the world we live in today. Climate change, income disparity, terminal illnesses and continued wars all plague our world. The means by which we typically understand such phenomenon is through science. We have created vast canons of academic texts in fields like psychology, sociology, and other social sciences. Even politics is now "political science." Anything that cannot be codified or empirically researched is not deemed worthy of discussion. It is this over-emphasis on science that creates a boom in fantasy literature.

Fantasy writing is also a "special skill," according to Chadbourn (2008). "Being able to see beyond the boundaries of the world around us" requires a different approach to writing than other genres (Chadbourn 2008). Many reluctant readers find that fantasy liberates them from the tyranny of science. As the new religion of the world, science demystifies. Many readers find reading mundane because it too closely resembles the predictable world of science.

Of course, not all readers enjoy fantasy and science fiction. The otherworldly aspect of these genres may be too detached from daily life for some readers to understand. Some readers might also not relate to the symbols and codes used by fantasy and science fiction writers. I have always devoured works of historical fiction because they re-create the world of the past and make that universe relevant. Although I appreciate historical fiction more than fantasy, the two genres are not totally dissimilar. When I read a work of historical fiction, I encounter names, places, imagery, and motifs that are not present in any work that is set in the 21st century. While the author does not stretch the boundaries of physics to convey the central themes of the novel, the author does appeal to my sense of imagination. This is what all good fiction should share in common.