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Describe how best to filter out the pandering and proselytizing that some politicians and even some public officials engage in (TSA, 2013).
Find the best methods of getting the best feedback from the people that know the tactics and technologies the best. Sources of great information can range from current and former TSA employees, airline staff and crew members, baggage handlers, vendors and corporations that provide the scanners and other equipment for the airports and airlines to use, and so forth. Elicit feedback regarding recent news items and initiatives such as whether to allow small knives and other usually innocuous but potentially dangerous items onto airplanes (TSA, 2013).
Program Outcomes that will be Addressed by This Question
Students will be able to apply the fundamentals of air transportation as part of a global, multimodal transportation system, including the technological, social, environmental, and political aspects of the system to…
TSA. (2013, April 9). Transportation Security Administration. Transportation Security
Administration. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://www.tsa.gov/
Air Traffic Control Free Flight System
Free flight represents a positive change in airline traffic management system. It promises efficiency and profitability to the industry, which is going through a rough period.
The 1978 deregulation of airlines was perceived as a revolutionary change in the airline industry. Similarly, in the field of air traffic control, the 'free flight' system promises to be the most important change ever since the introduction of radars in communication and aviation management. The rapid advancements in satellite technology have given a tremendous impetus to the field of communication and Satellite-based navigation equipments promise to be the future trend in aviation control. The phenomenal growth in air traffic and the difficulties in regulating it have highlighted the shortcomings of the present air traffic control system. The American airline industry is incurring a loss of around U.S.$3.5 billion annually due to the inefficiencies in the present centralized…
1) Ken Kaye, "About Free Flight: History," Accessed on April 22nd 2004, http://ffp1.faa.gov/about/about_article1.asp
2) Mica R. Endsley, "Situation Awareness, Automation & Free Flight," Accessed on April 22nd 2004, http://atm-seminar-97.eurocontrol.fr/endsley.htm
3) CAASD, "CAPSTONE," Accessed on April 23rd 2004, http://www.mitrecaasd.org/proj/capstone/overview.cfm
4) Mario S.V. Valenti Clari et.al, "Cost Benefit Study of Free Flight With Airborne Separation Assurance," Accessed on April 23rd 2004, http://www.nlr.nl/public/hosted-sites/freeflight/downloads/aiaa2000.doc
The significance of exact transport actions and infrastructure can therefore be assessed for each division of the economy (odrigue, 2011).
Transportation connects together the aspects of production in a multifaceted web of associations between producers and consumers. The result is usually a more competent division of production by a utilization of geographical relative advantages, as well as the means to develop financial systems of degree and range. The output of space, capital and labor is consequently improved with the competence of distribution and personal mobility. It is accepted that economic growth is more and more connected with transport expansions, namely infrastructures but in addition managerial knowledge is crucial for logistics (odrigue, 2011).
Transportation growths that have taken place since the beginning of the industrial revolution have been associated with mounting economic opportunities. At each phase of human societal development, a meticulous transport mode has been developed or modified. On the…
Aboard Transportation. (2006).Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:
Chavis, Jason. (2011). Different Types of Air Transportation. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site: http://www.ehow.com/about_4813389_different-types-air-transportation.html
Importance of Transportation to Society. (2009). Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
In this regard, Osorio adds that, "The strike put deregulation on hold, giving the airlines a respite from intense competition and more time to plan for the post-deregulation era" (2000, p. 114). The PATCO strike also severely hampered further governmental employee unionizing activities for decades (Osorio, 2000).
The research showed that in 1981, the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization engaged in an illegal strike for more money, better working conditions and updated equipment that violated Title VII of the Civil Service eform Act of 1978. Notwithstanding the legitimacy of the union's demands, the manner in which they pursued them was violative of the law of the land and the President of the United States took matters into his own hands as chief executive officer and fired the lot of them in response, replacing them with supervisors, military air traffic controllers and newly hired controllers. The PATCO strike also had…
Grimes, P.W. (1999). The decline of strike activity and the post-PATCO era. Atlantic Economic
Journal, 32(2), 37.
Manheim, J.B. (2001). The death of a thousand cuts: Corporate campaigns and the tttack on the corporation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Minchin, T.J. (2000, Spring). Torn apart: Permanent replacements and the Crossett Strike of
The NAAP structural integrity program includes three tests including Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD), Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) and DTA based airframe repair assessment. The supplemental inspection programs of the FAA ensure that commercial airlines fulfill the structural safety requirements. Any structural defects that are observed during the normal operation of an airplane or those that are revealed after an accident are issued as Airworthiness Directives (AD). The FAA periodically conducts certification reviews and aircrafts that report recurrent problems due to design issues will require compulsory design modifications. [FAA]
6. What is the purpose of flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders? How are they be used for accident-prevention purposes?
Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders are very useful tools that can be used to understand the events that lead to the accident. Familiarly known as the 'black boxes' these units are helpful for aircraft investigators in reconstructing the disaster.…
1) Alexander T. wells, Clarence C. Rodriguez, (2003) 'Commercial Aviation Safety', Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill.
2) NASA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System', retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/overview/summary.html
3) NBAA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)' retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://www.nbaa.org/ops/safety/asrs/
4) NTSB (2002) 'National Transportation Safety Board: Aviation investigation manual Major team investigations', retrieved Apr 6th 2010 from, http://www.ntsb.gov/Aviation/Manuals/MajorInvestigationsManual.pdf
Michael Bishop is that most passengers do not prefer to fly backwards; they are actually more frightened of flying backwards than of flying forwards, even though it has been explained to them that it is infinitely safer to fly backwards rather than the opposite. (UK Kegworth, ten years on)
It was in the year 1991 that the Transport Committee produced a eport on the Aircraft Cabin Safety, in which it was stated that cabin improvements would still not save about 64% of the fatalities that are caused by air crashes, and in about 22% of the accidents, such improvements would not make any difference at all, and that it was only in about 14% of such fatalities that the survival rates would be improved by the implementation of improvements and safety measures. The eport also analyzed the recommendations for rearward facing seats, and stated that it was because of this…
Aircraft Cabin Safety. The United Kingdom Parliament. Retrieved at http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm199899/cmselect/cmenvtra/275/27510.htm. Accessed on 12 January, 2005
Kegworth Air Disaster. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 3 Aug 2004 Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kegworth_Air_DisasterAccessed on 12 January, 2005
UK Kegworth, ten years on. BBC News. January 8, 1999. Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/250959.stm . Accessed on 12 January, 2005
Air Cargo Security
Since the events of 911, airport security has been an important issue. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)" is responsible for ensuring the security of all modes of transportation, including cargo placed aboard airplaines and particularly focuses on passenger-carrying planes" (TSA). The TSA is part of the Department of Homeland Security. According to the latest information available, the TSA employs 620 Cargo Transportation Security Inspectors who are exclusively dedicated to the oversight of air cargo. One hundred twenty of these are canine teams. The numbers of security inspectors and canine teams has increased significantly since 2006 (TSA).
Obviously, no one wants to see another tragedy. Terrorism continues to be a threat and security measures must try to keep pace with ever-changing strategies that terrorists try to employ. There has been much in the news about passenger screening, x-ray technology, and rights to privacy. Passengers do not present the…
Beesley, A. (2010). Call for tighter security on air cargo worldwide. Irish Times 11/6/2010.
Dutton, G. (2010). Industry braces for 100% air cargo screening. World Trade 23(5), pp.
Harris, D. (2010). Air cargo security. Good Morning America (ABC), 10/31/2010.
GP will significantly improve the accuracy of air traffic control, and also provide a platform for the efficient increase of aircraft traffic. It is however somewhat unclear why it has taken so long to implement a technology that has such obvious advantages and that has been in existence for such a long time. Perhaps the time and cost involved was a determining factor. From the current viewpoint, it has become essential to upgrade ATC technology.
Like the ground-based ATC system, the current separations system for aircraft is becoming unviable in terms of the anticipated and current increase in aircraft using airspace. Alternative ways have therefore been investigated to safely handle the increase in aircraft, and also to address the increasing delays that have plagued American airports. The Free Flight concept is one such possible alternative.
According to J.M. Hoekstra (2002), commercial aircraft to date have been operating under the…
ADS-B Technologies LLC. Automatic Dependent Surveillance -- Broadcast. (2009). http://www.ads-b.com/home.htm
Freudenrich, Craig (2009). How Air Traffic Control Works. http://science.howstuffworks.com/air-traffic-control.htm
Hoekstra, J.M. (2002, June). Free Flight with Airborne Separation Assurance. http://www.nlr.nl/smartsite.dws?id=2942
Knorr, Dave & Bennet, Mike. (2003, Nov 4). Lessons Learned from FAA Free Flight's En Route Modeling Workshop. http://www.tc.faa.gov/acb300/ap5_workshops/documents/Modeling%20CPDLC%20Benefits.pdf
Given that the profitability rate is already very low and that other costs have already been cut, the only practical response to rising fuel costs (assuming that they do not fall drastically very quickly) is to raise fares.
This will be problematic for the company, of course, since it has established as its major selling point the fact that it offers the lowest fares possible. However, having to raise fares is something that will no doubt happen at other companies as well since all companies will be affected. Thus it is entirely possible that the company will be able to raise fares and yet remain the lowest priced company in its market (Creaton, 2007, p. 48).
While rising fuel costs are the most significant costs that are beyond the control of the company, other external factors can have important impacts as well. Among potential issues in terms of overall costs…
Bamber, G.J., Gittell, J.H., Kochan, T.A. & von Nordenflytch, a. (2009). Up in the Air: How Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging their Employees. New York: Cornell University Press.
Creaton, S. (2007). Ryanair: The Full Story of the Controversial Low-Cost Airline. Dublin: Aurum.
Davies, R. (2011, March 7.) Soaring Fuel Costs Spark New Airline Fees: Sky-High Fuel Costs Are Behind Recent Fee Hikes. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Travel/soaring-fuel-costs-spark-airline-fees/story?id=13077127 .
All of the streets in elmar begin at the Ocean and ends at Shark River. The open trolley cars in summer ran the streets with people hanging from the cars clustered like grapes.
VI. The Train Station in elmar
The train station in elmar was the hub of the entire world one believes after having fully researched the history of elmar's square mile and the surrounding area on the Jersey Coast. Although the railways of New Jersey may not have survived for long in the humanity packed area that comprises New Jersey and the adjacent New York area the "complex social foci" Roper (1978) contained in the element of the railway station is one worth giving consideration to. During the 1920's the average individuals abandoned use of the railway for intercity transportation and this was after dependency on the railways for service for more than 75 years. Pictured below is…
Roper, Grace Trott (1978) "Belmar in Retrospect" [Online} available at http://www.belmar.com/history/begin.,html
Wall Township History [Online] available at http://www.wallnj.com/history1.htm
Project Diana Site 1946 - Marconi Road, Wall, New Jersey [Online] available at http://www.infoage.org/diana.html
Monmouth County and 40 Towns Embark on Smart Growth Regional Planning: Commissioner Levin Announces Smart Future Initiative Support for the Monmouth County Shore Regional Strategic Plan [Online] available at http://www.state.nj.us/dca/news/2003/pr042503.shtml
DISASTER RECOVERY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONTINUITY
The governments of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States all have some form of transportation safety board for disaster response. Their duties are sometimes gathered under one agency and sometimes divided among more than one agency. However, their missions are all focused on transportation security and not on assigning blame to people or groups for accident.
Transportation Safety Boards
Australia has the Australian Transportation Safety Bureau (ATSB), which is an independent statutory agency run by a Commission and kept apart from regulators, policy makers and service providers for transportation. It is designed to increase safety and public confidence transportation by: autonomous examination -- both in Australia and abroad - of accidents and safety incidents; recording, examining and researching safety information; and encouraging safety consciousness, information and behavior (Australian Government, 2016). The ATSB investigates aviation accidents, events and insufficiencies.…
Australian Government. (2016). About ATSB. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/about_atsb/overview/
Australian Government. (2016). Aviation. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/aviation/aviation-safety/
Australian Government. (2016). Marine. Retrieved from www.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/marine/marine-safety/
Australian Government. (2016). Rail. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/rail/rail-safety/
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…
April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.
Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,
From http://europeanhistory.about.com .
It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.
Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.
The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.
Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…
Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002
IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm
Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
September 11th and Transportation Law
On the morning of September 11th, 2011, the United States of America felt the full fury of an enemy which had been lying in wait for decades, planning an attack of spectacularly tragic proportions that would shake the nation to its core. The weapons of choice for Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda terrorist network were not bullets or bombs, but airplanes which were ruthlessly hijacked and flown as missiles into New York's World Trade Center, the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and fatefully, an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. With the collapse of both of the Twin Towers and the immediate loss of over 3,000 lives, the American aviation industry was suddenly transformed from a once proud symbol of our national strength into a scapegoat for society's shattered complacency. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, with images of smoldering rubble streaming live on television…
H.R. 3110 -- 107th Congress: Transportation Security Enhancement Act of 2001. (2001). In GovTrack.us (database of federal legislation). Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/107/hr3110
107th United States Congress, (2001). Public law 107 -- 71 -- nov. 19, 2001: The aviation and transportation security act. Retrieved June 25 from U.S. Government Printing Office website: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ71/pdf/PLAW-107publ71.pdf
Design errors in assuming simple linear scalability of engineered systems as the transition is made from the current to the new technology and to more aircraft flying with closer separations. (Sheridan, nd)
Sheridan states that 'human-in-the-loop simulation' is both a "well-known and obvious need for any large system development involving people and technology interacting." (nd) These 'HITL' simulations are believed to be very expensive due to their requirement of "full-scale hardware and software setups that have face validity but are quite expensive to construct and operate." (Sheridan, nd) However, Sheridan does state that models of system processes and human observation which are "sufficiently good" make fast-time computer simulation an option as well.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
Simulation technology such as the a-SMGCS plays an important role in preparing today's air traffic controller personnel for coping with increasing air traffic in the airports which has been predicted for the future. At present,…
Hesselink, HH and Maycroft, H (2001) a Full Visual a-SMGCS Simulation Platform. NLR-TP-2001-612. report based on a presentation held at the JISSA (International Conference on Airport Surveillance Sensors), Paris, 11-12 December 2001 and was published in the REE
Magazine "Les Senseurs en Zones Aeroportuaires" in April 2002.
Dubuisson, Stephane (2007) Integrated a-SMGCS User Interface. 30 Oct 2007. EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre.
Sheridan, Thomas B. (nd) Next Generation Air Transportation Systems: Human-Automation Interaction and Organizational Risks. Volpe National Transportations Systems Center, U.S. Department of transportation, Cambridge, MA.
Describe the Impact of the FAA's National Airspace System Plan (NASP)
The impact of the FAA's National Airspace System Plan is that it is creating a standard procedure that can be used to: provide guidance and support for the air traffic control system in a specific region. This is important, because this plan serves as the basic foundation for: establishing the proper operating procedures and how to adjust to changes that are taking place in the industry (such as how to implement new technology / regulations in the plan). Where, the strategy will identify specific areas that need to be addressed (at a host of different airports around the country) including: systems planning, trends, the different problems facing capacity / delays, the effective use of technology, funding, forecasting / trends and policy considerations. These different elements are important, because they are establishing a strategy that can be used by airports…
Airport System Development. (1984). FAS. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/ota/reports/8403.pdf
IFR Operations. (n.d.). FAA. Retrieved from: http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/instrument_procedures_handbook/media/CH%2001a.pdf
46). To date, though, these reforms have not materialized and the air traffic control system remains mired in the FAA bureaucracy (McDougall & oberts, 2008). In this regard, Poole (2008) emphasizes that, "[the air traffic control system] is managed by an unwieldy government bureaucracy, micromanaged by Congress, and subjected to the ups and downs of the federal budget process. And as air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system is less and less able to keep pace" (p. 11).
Based on the importance of sound air traffic control systems, there have been a number of studies conducted to determine the primary causes of existing air traffic control system deficiencies. The research to date has identified five main causes as follows:
1. Procurement: cumbersome federal procurement processes end up taking five to seven years to acquire new radar and computer systems -- at a time when a new generation…
Deitz, S.R. & Thoms, W.E. (1999). Pilots, personality, and performance:
Human behavior and stress in the skies. New York: Quorum Books Jacko, J.A. & Sears, a. (2003). The human-computer interaction handbook:
Fundamentals, evolving technologies, and emerging applications.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Transportation and Sustainability in Los Angeles
Increase utilization of green technology for vehicles
The horrific traffic situation in Los Angeles is not only detrimental to society in the sense that its immense levels of congestion cost commuters millions of dollars in lost time daily, but also because it can cause physical harm. One study has identified several risk factors that are significantly increased by freeway pollution levels such as cardiovascular problems, respiratory disease, cancer, heart attacks and flat-out premature death (Cronan). It further finds that some brain cells in mice showed inflammation consistent with Alzheimer's disease when exposed to these pollutants.
It would be one thing if the levels of pollutants in the city were consistent with the levels found in other cities; however the levels of air pollution found in Los Angeles are among the highest in the country. In fact, Forbes…
Therefore, Trains are best for freight traveling long distances where loading and unloading efficiency and times are less of a concern. For shorter distances, rail travel is less efficient unless it is incorporated into the transportation network that serves passengers in gridlocked parts of town. In these instances, people can efficiently use light rail as a form of mass transit, and this mode of transport makes sense.
Each mode of transport has its pros and cons, and there is often much overlap between these pros and cons for each mode. The situation in New Jersey calls for a very definitive answer in transport management, and for a high level of understanding relative to cargo and passenger demands and the supply of transport vehicles.
This is a written paper APA style
Provide a two-page response for each of the following questions. Defend your answers with the appropriate citations. (Note: You may…
Rodrigue, Jean-Paull; Comtois, Claude; and Brian Slack. (2009). The Geography of Transport Systems, Second Edition. New York: Routledge.
World Port Source. (2010). "The Port of Callao." World Port Source Homepage.
Accessed via internet on August 11, 2010. .
911 tragedy, many politicians and airline industry representatives began to search for improvements to the Airline Traffic Control system, or ATC. These improvements were deigned to increase security and safety for all flight personnel, as well as for all passengers. This paper will outline some of the changes made to the ATC systems, and will discuss the benefits of each new policy or procedure.
One of the most significant changes to ATC has been the implementation of key technology, deployed at the headquarters of NOAD, located in Colorado Springs. This technology, known as Explorer, enables the NOAD team to monitor all commercial aircraft flying across the country at any given time. Previously, the technology had been used solely to monitor for incoming missiles, or military planes (Carr and Cone, 2002). The FAA also added a staff of air traffic controllers to the NOAD base, as well as in many busy…
Belger, M. (2004, June). Written testimony to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Retrieved online April 29, 2005 from Global Security. Web site: http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/congress/9-11_commission/040617-belger.pdf .
Carr, D. And Cone, E. (2002, April). When air traffic control became national defense. Baseline, 3, 163.
FAA. (2002). Part 6: air traffic services. 2002 Security Updates. Retrieved online April 29, 2005 from FAA.website. Web site: http://www.faa.gov/asd/2002Update/PDF/AT_services.pdf .
Griffith, J. (2004, June). Written testimony to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Retrieved online April 29, 2005 from Global Security. Web site: http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/congress/9-11_commission/040617-griffith.pdf .
Air We Breath
Contrary to the popular phrase "I'll go out for some fresh air," one might ask is the present air that we are breathing is still fresh? Or, has this phrase become irrelevant the present day world. Air pollution has been very evident ever since history entered industrial revolution. By the time we step our foot on our doorstep, the moment we open the doors of our car, the very first instance that we pull up the drapes and open our window, we are experiencing air pollution at its finest ....so to speak. Smoke billowing from a factory chimney, fly-ash generated by thermal power plants, and speeding cars causing dust to rise from the roads, smokes from cigarettes, and the list would go on and on. If there is a drawback when we speak of modern day technology it is the pollution it emits into the very air…
K12 Science (2004);Air Pollution (2004), Extracted Oct23,2005
Website; www.k12science.org/curriculum/airproj / - 7k
Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia (2005), Air Pollution, Extracted Oct 24, 2005 Website; www.wikipedia.org
Nova.Net (2005), Local Air Pollution-BHP (2005) Extracted Oct 24, 2005 Website; http://www.science.org.au/nova/015/015key.htm
There are a number of different modes of transportation, and each mode has different safety considerations. This paper will look at road, rail, sea and air freight in particular. Obviously, there will be some safety issues that can affect any mode of transport -- human error or mechanical breakdown can happen to anything, anytime. But within each mode there will be unique risks, and it is important to understand what those risks are, in order that they be addressed effectively.
ail transport is generally considered to be one of the safer modes, but rail accidents are surprisingly common. The particular issues relating to rail tend to be issues with track maintenance, and trains taking corners too fast, both resulting in derailment. The Federal ailroad Administration provides oversight on railroad safety issues, in order to minimize the number of accidents that occur on the rails. However, derailments still occur,…
FRA (2015). Safety fact sheet. Federal Railroad Administration. Retrieved June 25, 2015 from https://www.fra.dot.gov/Page/P0680
Kristiansen, S. (2013) Maritime transportation: Safety management and risk analysis. Elsevier: Burlington, MA
TANSPOTATION & LOGISTICS FIELD --
Challenges Issues, and Trends in the Logistics and Transportation Field
The complexity of logistics in terms of the split channels, a higher variance in products and demand for customer focused solutions has been on the rise. There have been several trends that indicate that there are many challenges down the line as global trade becomes even more interactive and complex (Editorial Staff, 2013).
Studies point to the following trends.
Emergence of New Technology: Most companies have realized that there is need to make use of new technology. esearch shows that 60% of major companies plan to invest heavily in data analysis tools in the coming five-year period. The tools are meant to enhance a holistic handling and precise and proactive connection of data so as to boost control and planning outcomes (Editorial Staff, 2013).
A Structural Change Freight by Air to Freight by Sea:…
Ciemny, W., Closs, D. J., Costa, O., Davidson, J., Harrington, J., Lafrance, S., Law, A., Neel, W., Norek, C. D., Ravi, P., & Seiersen, N. (2005). Global Transportation Trends. Logistics Quarterly, Vol II, Issue 5, 1-29. Retrieved from www.logisticsquarterly.com
Editorial Staff. (2013, August 9). New Study Reveals Nine Key Trends of Global Logistics. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from Supply and Demand Chain Executive: http://www.sdcexec.com
Nevhagen, P. (2014, June 10). 5 global logistics trends. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from GreenCarrier: www.greencarrier.com
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
" (1999) eported as being potential dimensions for disaggregation are those of "market, season, month, week, section of week, segment, and itinerary." (McGill and yzin, 1999)
American Airlines experienced dramatic growth when other airlines were going bankrupt through increasing its capacity. American Airlines is reported as a prime example of an airline that grew successfully during the years that TWA and other failed. United Airlines held a strong financial position as well that assisted the airlines in weathering the reduction of flights and a steep decline in travel while other airlines failed miserably winding up in bankruptcy. American Airlines managed to bring about a reduction in costs while other airlines including TWA simply could not find a way to reduce costs, which was further stressed by the airlines lack of a solid financial base. In the airlines industry, just as in other industries the ability to profit on a higher…
Dempsey, Paul Stephen (2008) the Financial Performance of the Airline Industry Post-Regulation. Symposium 2008. No. 2 Vol. 45. Retrieved from: http://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/sites/mcgill.ca.iasl/files/ASPL614_Industry_PostDeregulation-Houston.pdf
McGill, JI and Van Ryzin, GJ (1999) Transportation Science. Vol. 23, No.2. Retrieved from: http://ben-israel.rutgers.edu/711/McGill-VanRyzin.pdf
Tolkin, J. (2010) Airline Bankruptcy: The Determining Factors Leading to an Airline's Decline Claremont Colleges Scholarship @ Claremont. Fall 2010. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1088&context=cmc_theses
Commuting for Clean Air
Commuter choice programs are noble efforts to reduce air pollution and they will certainly help to improve air quality. For example, one study of fifty-eight pilot projects in southern California concluded that financial incentives/disincentives are the most consistently effective and cost effective group of projects (Commuter Choice Primer). And, according to the Commuter Choice Primer, the Transit Cooperative Research oard studied fifty employers throughout the United States and found that employers that combined both enhanced alternatives such as vanpool provision with incentives or disincentives such as vanpool subsidies realized an average trip reduction of 24.5%. However, it's naive to believe that commuter choice programs are a total solution for curbing automobile use. Non-work travel, the ubiquity of automobiles in the United States, and the total amount of the problem that commuter choice programs can reasonably address are issues that require additional measures.
Focusing on work travel…
Commuter Choice Primer. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from U.S. Department of Transportation Highway Administration Web site: http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_PR/ccp/section08.htm
Pisarski, A.E. Life in the not-so-fast lane. Blueprint Magazine. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from Sacramento Transportation and Air Quality Collaborative Web site: http://www.sactaqc.org/resources/literature/transportation/Not_So_Fast_Lane.htm
Wald, M. (2003, August 29). One vehicle on the road, two others in the garage. New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/30/business/30TRAF.html?th
There might be a tendency for social interactions to center around traveling between locations in a convoy, much like groups of motorcycle riders do today. Neighborhood airstrips might strengthen communities by giving many residents reason to come to a common area. There might also be a harmful effect due to people being less inclined to spend time in their own neighborhoods.
My personal life would not be greatly affected by the availability of a $50,000 aircraft. I do not have $50,000 to spend on a vehicle, nor do most people I know. The people I do know who could afford such an aircraft have little use for one, so I would probably have little more interaction with personal aircraft than I currently do with small planes. Assuming I did own a personal aircraft, it would make it practical for me to seek out business opportunities in towns that are currently…
Airscooter. "Airscooter II: Back to the Future of Rotor Craft Design" http://www.airscooter.com/pages/airscooter_main.htm
Boyle, Alan. "Seven flights of fancy that fizled." MSNBC, 17, Nov. 2003. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3475918/
Cessna 150-152 Club "Safety FAQ's. http://www.cessna150-152.com/faqs/safety.htm
Ericg. "Cessna 172." Wikipedia, 18, Apr 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cessna_172
Arumemi-Ikhide believes that Arik can succeed due to a combination of the opportunity -- helped by economic and air transport reforms in Nigeria -- and the capability to deliver a high quality product." (Dunn, 2009) Also stated by Arumemi-Ikhide is that this "will be a key in differentiating it in the international market and providing feeder traffic. That will be the lifeline for the international network. That's what sets up apart from our rivals." (Dunn, 2009)
Martin Russell states in the report entitled: "Arik Air: The Future of African Aviation" that both the "internal opinion of African air travel and that of onlookers overseas was bleak before the arrival of Nigeria's newest treasure, Arik Air." (2008) Russell states that the aviation industry is African is "hampered by somewhat less predictable weather and frequent storms" resulting in aviation in African being "far from predictable with temperamental skies that readily…
Nigeria's air traffic grows by 31% during 2008; defies global slump (2009) TradeInvest Nigeria Thu, 05 Mar 2009. Online available at: http://www.tradeinvestnigeria.com/news/957188.htm
Lawal, Lateef (2009)FG Invests Over N7b In Air Navigation, Safety, Search & Rescue - Nigeria Masterweb Daily News. Online available at: http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/
More Frequencies to Foreign Airlines Put Nigerian Carriers at Risk (2009) The Guardian -- Travels 17 Jul 2009. Online available at: http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/travels/article01//indexn2_html?pdate=170709&ptitle=More%20frequencies%20to%20foreign%20airlines%20put%20Nigerian%20carriers%20at%20risk
Dunn, Graham (2009) Arik Air: Pressing Ahead with International Plans. 3 June 2009. Airline Business. Online available at: http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/03/06/323508/arik-air-pressing-ahead-with-international-plans.html
Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on December 12, 1985. Thesis: "The crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on 12 December 1985 was caused by terrorists." (Gander, Newfoundland) Research concludes that this flight carrying soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division actually crashed due to terrorists act. Five sources are used. MLA.
The Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 Flight December 12, 1985
It had been nearly two decades since an Arrow Airs DC-8 jet crashed just after taking off from a refueling stop in Gander, Newfoundland on December 12, 1985. The plane rose less than 1,000 ft., then crashed, tail first, into a small hill, disintegrating in flames about a half-mile from the end of the runway (Magnuson 22). It has been listed as the worst military air disaster, killing 248 American soldiers along with eight crew members. There is still much speculation as to the cause for the crash, although…
Cox, Matthew. "Decade Later, Crash Debated." Newsday. August 25, 1996; pp A16.
http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Newsday&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.newsday.com&[email protected]:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Matthew+Cox&title=Decade+Later%2C+Crash+Debated++&date=08%2D25%2D1996&query=The+Crash+of+Arrow+Airs+DC%2D8+Flight+December+12%2C+1985&maxdoc=6&idx=5. (accessed 09-26-2002).
Magnuson, Ed. "NATION: THE FALL OF THE SCREAMING EAGLES A charter-jet crash kills 248 members of a famed Airborne unit." Time. December 23, 1985; pp 22.
http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Time&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~pathfinder.com~S~time&[email protected]:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Ed+Magnuson%2E+Reported+by+Peter+Stoler%2FGander%2C+with+other+bureaus&title=NATION%3A+THE+FALL+OF+THE+SCREAMING+EAGLES+A+charter%2Djet+crash+kills+248+members+of+a+famed+Airborne+unit++&date=12%2D23%2D1985&query=gander+crash&maxdoc=8&idx=6. (accessed 09-26-2002).
1920s transportation changes. Specifically it will discuss how the growth of the automobile industry in the 1920's changed the world and what positive and negative influences it had on society. By the 1920s, automobiles were much more common, and American society was becoming more accepting of them. They changed the way Americans viewed transportation, and really altered society in many different ways.
The automobile was firmly established by the 1920s. More people could afford them due to mass production and competition between manufacturers, and that meant people had greater freedom and mobility. Previously, the only methods of transportation where horse and buggy or carriage, train, or public transportation like streetcars. However, by the 1920s, this was not the case. Editors at the Smithsonian Institution note, "By the time this photo was taken in the 1920s, automobiles had changed the city streetscape, and the carriage was becoming a rarity" ("America on…
Drowne, Kathleen Morgan and Huber, Patrick The 1920's. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.
Editors. "1920s Automobiles." 1920-30.com. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.
Editors. "America on the Move." Smithsonian Institution.edu. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.
This can be seen as a deep-rooted linguistic and psychological phenomenon, and simple fixes for it that do not require new nomenclature are not forth coming.
Another key to effective communication even giving the added time it takes in crisis situations, is acknowledgement of the receipt of communication (Krieger, 2005). This is most effective when information is repeated back to demonstrate full understanding and acceptance of the communication, "otherwise, the information [is] "put out there" but remained unrecognized as input by both parties" (Krieger, 2005). Though this step complicates communication in the short run, it is enormously beneficial in making communication more effective in the long run, and can help save lives because of this fact. Though communication is key to success in most ventures, it is absolutely essential in the…
Communication is key in any industry, but in the airline industry -- especially during emergency situations -- aircraft pilots and air traffic controllers must act and respond to each other in a completely error-free manner to ensure the safety of passengers and people on the ground (Krieger, 2005). The communication between these two operators is vital even in the best of situations; the air traffic controller is much more able to focus on a wide array of data and information, while the pilot must focus on the practical realities of flying a plane. Up to date communication between the two is the only way to ensure safety, yet such communication does not always occur.
A large part of the issue regarding miscommunication comes down to personal bias in the appraisal of information (Krieger, 2005). For instance, when situations are viewed as carrying different levels fo risk, communication might be affected in a way that leads to misunderstandings; the tendency to downplay risk can lead to an incomprehension of the physical details of a given situation (Krieger, 2005). This can be seen as a deep-rooted linguistic and psychological phenomenon, and simple fixes for it that do not require new nomenclature are not forth coming.
Another key to effective communication even giving the added time it takes in crisis situations, is acknowledgement of the receipt of communication (Krieger, 2005). This is most effective when information is repeated back to demonstrate full understanding and acceptance of the communication, "otherwise, the information [is] "put out there" but remained unrecognized as input by both parties" (Krieger, 2005). Though this step complicates communication in the short run, it is enormously beneficial in making communication more effective in the long run, and can help save lives because of this fact. Though communication is key to success in most ventures, it is absolutely essential in the realm of aircraft communications.
Car travel may also pose a threat if gas prices continue to 'idle' or decline as the economy worsens.
Do its customers have special requirements?
In response to consumer demand and a shifting political climate, Bombardier has tried to incorporate sustainability into its business model to a greater degree. Providing rail travel in a way to reduce the planet's and the company's carbon footprint has become a core part of its mission ("Corporate responsibility," Bombardier, 2009)
Bombardier is organized into two separate sections, rail and aerospace, both of which have a presence worldwide.
Current financial analysis
The company's financial performance is strong. On January 31, 2009 Bombardier "showed improvements in revenues, profitability and a robust cash position. Revenues increased by 13% to reach $19.7 billion" and Bombardier Transportation specifically "Bombardier Transportation's revenues totaled $9.8 billion, an increase of 25% over last fiscal year" ("Bombardier, Marketwire, 2009).…
"About us: History." Bombardier. May 16, 2009.
"Bombardier Announces Extended Range Option for Learjet 40 XR Aircraft." Webwire.
May 13, 2009
Evolution of Transportation
Transportation is one of the tools obligatory by civilized man to get order out of disorder. It arrives into each segment and facet of our continuation. Considered as of every point-of-view, economic, political and military, it is indisputably the most significant industry in the world.
You can no more function a grocery store or a brewery than you can win a war devoid of transportation. The more multifaceted life turns out to be, the more essential are the effects that make up our transportation systems (Moulton, 1949).
History Of Transportations
In the sixty years as of the 1790s to the 1840s, the United States acknowledged what has been appropriately phrased a 'transportation revolution'. Revolutionary it in fact was, for the social, economic, as well as political consequences of the alterations in transportation were extensive and transformative.
More often than not historians recognize actions such as the enlargement…
H.G. Moulton, Controlling Factors in Economic Development. The Brookings Institution, 1949, esp. Chapter VIII.
Stanley I. Fischler, Moving Millions. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
William D. Middleton. The Time of the Trolley. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Press, 1967.
Solomon et al. History of Transit and Innovative Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1971.
Key to the concept of intermodal transportation is that this is related to logistics. Firms must be able to move goods around the world. They need to get supplies to production facilities, finished goods to warehouses and then to retail outlets or the end customer. This need for transportation has resulted in the development of a number of different transportation solutions. It is necessary to understand that transportation solutions emerge to solve problems and to take advantage of opportunities. When the railway was built, it was primarily to serve as a means of getting goods across long distances, compared with the alternatives. The same can be said about other forms of transportation that are typically used in cargo shipping.
A mode of transportation is any means of getting a good from one place to another. Over the decades, several modes of transportation have emerged, because each one has specific…
No author (2014). What is intermodal? LoadMatch.com. Retrieved March 19, 2014 from http://www.loadmatch.com/what_is_intermodal.htm
Investopedia. (2014). Definition of intermodal freight. Investopedia. Retrieved March 19, 2014 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/intermodal-freight.asp
air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…
"Bilateral and Regulatory Issues Facing the Air Cargo Industry." (n.d.). Chapter 6. Retrieved
April 17, 2015, from http://www.aci-na.org/sites/default/files/chapter_6_-_bilateral_and_regulatory_issues.pdf
Elias, B. (2010, December 2). Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved April 17, 2015, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41515.pdf
"Evaluation of Screening of Air Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft." (2010, September).
In short, providing transit using the current paradigms and strategies is unsustainble. Transit's success depends on the ability of planners to make the lives of travelers worse off by making it harder to get around, restricting housing choice and type, and subjecting people to all manner of externalities and lifestyles they routinely choose to avoid in the current housing market place (e.g., small homes, urban noise, and air pollution" (Stanley 2007).
Facts and figures publication of the Road Information Program, a Mobility omparison of Investments in Highways and Mass Transit, notes that Despite a 148.8% increase in operating subsidies between 1980 and 1990, mass transit was unable to increase its share of the nation's PMT. In fact, between 1980 and 1990, mass transit's share of the nation's passenger miles of non-marine, surface transportation decreased from 1.43% to 1.27%...total PMT provided by mass transit exceeded 1% of total transportation in only…
From the evidence in this paper, mass transit is important for long-run economic growth and less traffic. This can be shown in many cities where the economic cost of the commuting time is huge. By eliminating issue, it would bring a significant improvement in the economy's efficiency and modern day continence. The economic and military power of a nation has been closely tied to efficient methods of transportation since it provides access to natural resources and promotes trade. A nation can gain wealth and power by increasing the use of mass transit since it allows the movement of soldiers, equipment, and supplies so that a nation can wage war. "Metra ridership grew by about 15% between 1985 and 1995.... Generally, all Metra zones have been experiencing steady growth since 1985.... Ridership in zones a and B (combined) increased by about 800,000 annual riders between 1990 and 1994. These are the zones closest to the CBD. This 14% increase may be due to switching of CTA (Heavy Rail) passengers to Metra to benefit from better fares and a better passenger environment." (Weyrich and Lind). Furthermore, it has become apparent that reliable transportation allows a population to expand throughout a country's territory without being traffic congested.
On the hand, some plans may be slow to respond to the pilot's commands; complicating the piloting process, much like a sports car, for example, that under steers or a truck that over steers (Personal Communication, 2010). Bay contends that training on more than one plane of a particular model would prove to be a positive practice for airlines to implement.
Bay asserts that the following questions need to be answered regarding the cause of the crash of Flight 3407.
How much training and experience did the pilot/s have with this particular aircraft?
How many hours experience did the pilot/s have flying this particular craft?
Did a matter of pilot fatigue play a part in the incident?
Could alcohol have been a factor in the pilot's inability to "do the right thing"?
Were there any known defects with the plane?
Did any type mechanical malfunction occur?
On what date was…
Alcohol and Flying. (N.d.). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved February 13, 2010
Baron, R. (2005). The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology. Airline Safety.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from http://airlinesafety.com/editorials/CockpitCabinPsychology.htm
Black, H.C.(1990). Discovery. Black's Law Dictionary West Publishing: St. Paul, MN.
Airports, Airspace, And Air Traffic Control
A Manager's Perspective from an Aeronautical Point-of-View on Airports, Airspace, and Air Traffic control
Team resource management defines the efficient and effective use of resources that are available including people, information, and equipment. It always targets security enhancement and efficient management of air traffic control (Hikmat, 2013). The principles that guide the management of the team in air traffic control include the following aspects.
Developing human factors
Linking the human factors with constantly occurring events
Using the best practices to manage the crew
These principles are effective to counter human error having an optimum use of all the available resources, thereby improving services and operations of an air traffic controller (Wiene, Kanki, & Helmreich, 1993). Human factors in air traffic control have an enormous contribution in the management of air traffic. The constantly increasing delays in air traffic and accidents all arise from instructional…
Boeing. (2013). Air Traffic Management: Revolutionary Concepts that Enable Air Traffic Growth while cutting Delays. New York: Boeing.
Garland, D.J., Wise, J., & Hopkin, D. (1998). A Human Factors Perspective. In R. Amalberti, Automation in Aviation (pp. 173-192). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate Inc. Publishers.
Hikmat, M.K. (2013). Collaborative Decision Making in Aviation. Center of Excellence Aviation.
McDougall, G., & Roberts, A.S. (2009). Commercializing Air Traffic Control: Have the Reforms Worked? Ottawa: Suffolk University Law School of Research.
Future Air Traffic Timetable Estimator
As Wall Street and the media make us very well aware, profits within the airline industry have been steadily declining due to the fact that passenger travel miles have been regularly plummeting. One major problem was the infamous hijackings and attacks on September 11, 2001. These terroristic events single-handedly ruined a major level of trust on commercial aviation carriers and since these carriers have been on the brink of either shutting their doors forever or experiencing their worst financial difficulties in their corporate histories. Although some smaller and more technologically advanced airlines have been showing that success can be had in the airline industry, it is vital for companies, the industry and the federal overseers to conduct detailed research and analysis of scenarios and phenomenon such as new predicating the airport and airspace traffic patterns and settings. In regard to these industry needs, this report…
Bhadra, Dipasis, Wells, Michael, Gentry, Jennifer, & Hogan, Brendan. (2005). Future Air Traffic Timetable Estimator. Journal Of Aircraft. Vol. 42, No. 2, March -- April.
Promoting the Use of Public Transportation
Public transportation serves numerous purposes: first, it helps to ease congestion in urban areas by decreasing the number of cars on the road at any given time but especially during busy traffic hours; second, it helps people who may not otherwise have means of getting to work obtain these means; third, it can reduce pollution and fuel emissions that can harm the environment. All of these are good reasons for using and promoting public transportation. The problem of how to promote public transportation, however, is one that needs to be solved. In order to solve it, a variety of factors have to be considered: a) who is most likely to use public transportation—i.e., who is the audience to whom the message needs to be communicated; b) where are these individuals most likely to need to go; c) how can the benefits of public…
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…
Air Resources Board. 2007 Annual Enforcement Report. 2008.
Bellenger, Gail. What is the Clean Water Act? 2002.
Emissions from a new car purchased today are 90% less polluting than a new vehicle purchased in 1970. The Act has been reformed to include a provision that in 2004, all new passenger vehicles, including SUVs, minivans, vans and pick-up trucks, must meet even more stringent tailpipe emission standards. "This marks the first time that light-duty trucks, including SUVs, pickups, and minivans are subject to the same national pollution standards as cars." A common criticism of the Act was that because it had different standards for larger vehicles, a critical component of vehicle-related pollution was being ignored.
One of EPA's earliest accomplishments was the elimination of lead from gasoline. The use of lead-based gasoline had effects beyond that of air quality. "Elevated levels of lead can damage organs and the brain and nervous system, and affect the heart and blood. Adverse health effects range from behavior disorders and anemia…
Reduction of air pollution (PM 2.5) in Beijing, China
The environmental challenge of pollution has been at the top of the agenda in any conferences where the environmental conservation is the theme. There are various categories of pollution that are experienced and one of the major one, and sadly the fasted growing and dangerous, is air pollution. There are various cities that are considered worse off in terms of air pollution and Beijing, China happens to be one of the leading cities in air pollution.
Over the years, there has been a serious problem of air pollution within Beijing, with some levels going so high that the reach the 151-200 air quality index (AQI) such that the residents of these areas have to use masks (U.S. Department of State, 2014 Mission China: Beijing). The main sources of pollution within this city have been noted over time to be exhaust from…
Skies 2003, etc.
Clear Skies 2003/Clean Air Act of 1990
The issue of clean air has been around probably since the first caveman objected to the smoke from a neighbor's fire. During the Industrial Revolution in England, numerous contemporary novels make reference to the condition of the air in major cities, fouled by the new growth of smokestacks. So, despite having been an issue for public discussion and legislative activity -- followed by the usual rounds of legal tests in the courts -- the issue of clean air officially floated into view in the U.S. only during the term of Richard Nixon. During the administrations of both Jimmy Carter and George Bush, clean air legislation was strengthened, and in 1990, the inclusive Clean Air Act (CAA) became law. (Browner 1997)
At times, the CAA has been touted as the embodiment of a bipartisan desire to protect all Americans form the…
Air Pollution Battle Heats Up," 15 September 2003. CBS Broadcasting Inc. 10 November 2003. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/27/politics/main570442.shtml
American Trucking Associations Web site: http://www.truckline.com/infocenter/econ/econ_about.html
Bush Pushes 'Clear Skies,'" 16 September 2003. CBS Broadcasting Inc. 10 November 2003. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/09/23/politics/main574704.shtml
Browner, Carol and Inhofe, James M., " Q: are more rigorous clean-air standards really necessary?" Insight on the News, 18 April 1997, Vol. 13.
Despite the fact that the Clean Air Act has obviously evolved over the years to allow more government intervention and increased technological innovation, however, improvements can still be made. For example, the Clean Air Act of 1990 does not make mention of the contribution homes make to the problem. The World Wide Fund for Nature, however, suggests that simple daily living changes can greatly benefit the environment. Indoor air pollution, and smoking, which are harmful to the environment and others' health, is also not addressed.
In conclusion, the environment and air pollution are vital parts of an industrialized society. The clean Air Act attempted to address these problems through several versions. The earlier versions of the act suggest an attempt to solve the problem of air pollution, although the Clean Air Act of 1990 suggests a definite improvement, allowing for alternative fuels and technology. Still, more can be done to…
Coonan, Clifford. "China catches up with U.S. In greenhouse gas emissions." Irish Times
Ireland] 30 October 2008. n.pag. Online Edition. 5 November 2008. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/world/2008/1030/1225303611534.html
History of the Clean Air Act Epa.gov. 15 October 2008. United States Environmental
Protection Agency. 5 November 2008. http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/caa_history.html
Dierct Air - Management & Marketing Mistakes
The following case study employs the array of industry metrics discussed above to determine major factors that contributed to Direct Airways filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy during the time period from 2007-212. This time period was chosen because SEC filings at that time available, providing valuable insight into the stark differences between the two airlines. Direct Airways was a major U.S. carrier that was founded in 2001 and operated for 7 years until it fell into bankruptcy in 2001. This terminated an unrestrained years for Direct Airways, which filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy last year of 2012 (Jayanti).
I understood that already the subject of a federal investigation by transportation regulators, the outdated charter service Direct Air long ago would soon may be facing a far-reaching investigation of its finances by the bankruptcy trustee (Bomkamp). The lawyer governing Direct Air's bankruptcy went ahead…
Barla, P., & Koo, B. (1999). Bankruptcy protection and pricing strategies in the U.S. airline industry. Transportation Research.Part E, Logistics & Transportation Review, 35, 101-120.
Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (1995). Bankruptcy and pricing behavior in U.S. airline markets. The American Economic Review, 85(2), 397-397.
Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (2003). The impact of bankruptcy on airline service levels. The American Economic Review, 93(2), 415-415.
Baran, Michelle. Uncertainty over refunds surrounds Direct Air's bankruptcy. 2 April 2012. http://www.travelweekly.com/Travel-News/Tour-Operators/Uncertainty-over-refunds-surrounds-Direct-Airs-bankruptcy/ . 29 November 2012.
Expeditionary Air ase
Tallil airbase in Iraq
Paper I.D.: 46255
Story of an Expeditionary Airbase
Tallil, Iraq Airbase
The purpose of this work is to research Tallil Air ase in Iraq providing a brief history of the base from the time of Operation Desert Storm to the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The question of how Tallil was built into OIF planning and when it was decided that Tallil would be a desired location for a base will be answered as well as why it was considered a key location and who initially took the base as to the military unit and whether it was a forcible entry. The questions of who secured the base, whether there was inter-service coordination, what was there when the U.S. military arrived to start building and how the base was then built will be answered as well. Finally the issues of whether there was…
Dobbins, John Col. (2004) Airpower 101: An Expeditionary Air Base Model Air & Space Power Journal September 2004.
Menon, Parvathi (2003) World Affairs: A Past in Peril Frontline Vol.20, Issue 7, 29 Mar - 11 Apr 2003 [Online at: http://www.flonnet.com/fl2007/stories/200304110 0020 6500 .html]
U.S. Department of State: International Information Programs (2003) Washington 05 April 2003 [Online at: http://www.iwar.org.uk/news-archive/2003/04-05.htm ]
Budiansky, Stephen (2003) Air War: Striking In Ways We Haven't Seen 2003 April 6 [Online at: http://www.budiansky.com/Washpost0406.html
Transportation Security and Intrusiveness of Security Screenings
America's land, seaways, and air transportation systems are structured in such a manner that enhances efficiency and enables easy access, the two features that also at the same time make these transportation systems susceptible to attacks. The expenses and difficulty of protecting the entire transportation systems from attacks raises a critical issue for legislators and other policymakers in the government: in that how much money and effort should be utilized towards preventing attacks in the country compared to the alternative of pursuing and defeating terrorists wherever they are. While completely proofing the entire transportation sector from attacks is an almost impossible task, strategies can be formulated to significantly reduce the risk of attacks. The emphasis by policymakers should be put in coming up with the resources to build a prevention, protection, and rapid response system that can greatly reduce the likelihood and consequences…
Accardo, J., & Chaudhry, M. A. (2014). Radiation exposure and privacy concerns surrounding full-body scanners in airports. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 198-200.
Alberto, V., & Bogatz, D. (2015, November 10). Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening
System ("Capps Ii"): National Security V. Civil Liberties. Retrieved from maxwell.syr.edu: ww.maxwell.syr.edu/uploadedFiles/campbell/events/AlbertoBogatz.pdf
Bajoria, J. (2010, December 28). The Debate Over Airport Security. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/border-and-port-security/debate-over-airport-security/p23673
ho can join the Cadet Program for CAP aerospace? Candidates must be between 13 to 18 years of age, or have at least finished the sixth grade, no matter what their age is. The cadets in the aerospace program get immersed in leadership programs, educational activities, "moral leadership and physical fitness." Along the way to getting their training, the aerospace cadets can earn advanced ranks (just like the regular military enlistees do), they can get awards and certificates, and they "may become eligible for CAP national or international special activities" and compete for scholarships," the article continues.
hat are the requirements for individuals to become an airborne part of the regular CAP? They have to have a private pilot license, journalist Phillips writes in Aviation eek & Space Technology magazine. They also have to have accumulated 200 hours of flying time, but they can begin training for missions after 175…
About.com. (2005). Air Force Fact Sheets: Civil Air Patrol. Retrieved 2 Dec, 2006, at http://usmilitary.about.com/library/milinfo/affacts/blcivilairpatrol.htm .
Air Force Print News Today. (2005). Air Force Search and Rescue Crews Combing Coast, Civil
Air Patrol Assessing Damage. Retrieved 2 Dec. 2006 at http://www.af.mil/pressreleases/story_print.asp?storyID=123011923 .
Air Force Print News Today (2006). Civil Air Patrol honored for hurricane relief contributions. Retrieved 2 Dec. 2006 at http://www.af.mil/news/story_print.asp?storyID=123027420 .
In some cases, reliability and the quality of service as well as the type of relationship that was involved between companies were of equal or even greater importance than cost. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to conclude that even when an optimum mix of these four supply chain elements is developed, the process is never truly completed but rather requires ongoing oversight from logistics managers to ensure that their supply chains are as efficient as possible.
Boyson, S., Harrington, L.H. & Corsi, T.M. (2004). In real time: Managing the new supply chain. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Carter, J.. & Ferrin, B.G. (1995). The impact of transportation costs on supply chain management. Journal of Business Logistics, 16(1), 189-190.
Chapman, K. & Ellinger, a.E. (2009). Constructing impact factors to measure the influence of supply chain management and logistics journals. Journal of Business Logistics, 30(2),
Mollenkopf, D., Closs, D., Twede,…
Boyson, S., Harrington, L.H. & Corsi, T.M. (2004). In real time: Managing the new supply chain. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Carter, J.R. & Ferrin, B.G. (1995). The impact of transportation costs on supply chain management. Journal of Business Logistics, 16(1), 189-190.
Chapman, K. & Ellinger, a.E. (2009). Constructing impact factors to measure the influence of supply chain management and logistics journals. Journal of Business Logistics, 30(2),
By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…
Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:
At the same time, it will help to identify what issues will shape the future of air passenger transportation in Asia.
he introduction of LCCs in the North American and European markets started a trend that is beginning to unfold in Asia (with the birth of Asian-based LCCs). Part of this is in response to the increases in passenger traffic and the effects of globalization. However, there have been similar airlines in the past, which have tried and failed using the same kinds of business models. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than, Oasis Hong Kong. his was a low cost carrier that attempted to enter the medium to long haul leisure / business travel market between Hong Kong and London Gatwick. he problem was that they were no match for the FSCs, which offered: more flights and greater flexibility. his is…
This information is useful, because it can highlight some of the different challenges facing the industry. Where, these different factors could affect the profitability of many carriers and the fares / services that they are providing to consumers. This can be used in conjunction with the results of the surveys; to see how the overall cost structure is having an impact upon both Thai Asia Air and Thai Airways. Once this takes place, it could provide a more complete picture, as to how these different challenges are affecting the industry and what could be the possible impact in the future.
Moreover, Gluckman (2007) discussed on the impact that Air Asia has had upon the industry. Where, their low costs and no frills have helped the company to be able to redefine the sector. The reason why is because Air Asia has a very low labor cost structure in comparison with the traditional airlines. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the fact that their labor costs typically account for 17% of the total operating expenses for the company. While the industry average is 30% to 40%, of the total operating expenses that normal airlines must pay. At the same time, the company will fly to airports that are less congested (which have lower landing fees) and they fly reconditioned aircraft. The results of these actions were that Air Asia would redefine the industry by showing how low cost structures, could allow an airline to be competitive. The problem is that the labor costs of Air Asia are some of the lowest in the world. When you compare this to other low costs carriers in markets such as North America or Europe, this is just of fraction of what the LCCs are paying. Over the course of time, as incomes continue to increase, the cost of labour will rise towards the industry average. This is significant, because it shows how Air Asia has identified ways that it can compete over the short to medium term. However, over the long-term is when the airline will face the possibility of having it business model go through severe challenges, as it will not be able to maintain these low costs indefinably.
This information is important, because it shows how Air Asia and many of the other LCCs are able to remain competitive. As their overall labour costs, are significantly lower than any
Not everyone is of a like mind when it comes to the potential benefits of magnetic levitation technologies, though. While research into maglev train technologies has been underway in the United States since the mid-1960s following the passage of the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965, but much of the interest was limited to paper studies based on the perceived constraints involved in deploying maglev technologies (Uher, 1999). Based on the successes enjoyed by other countries, most notably Germany and China, maglev technologies for the nation's train system received some new support during the late 1990s. For example, Macdonald points out that, "In 1998, President Bill Clinton signed the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, a $218 billion blueprint for America's transit systems, highways and bridges. It included $60 million from the Highway Trust Fund for the Magnetic Levitation Transportation Technology Deployment Program, and the possibility of…
At least 15 die as maglev crashes. (2006, September 23). The Birmingham Post, 8.
Baard, M. (2006, April/May). Working on the railroad. Plenty, 26-27.
Banutu-Gomez, M. (2007). Production and trade factors between China and U.S.. Journal of Global Business Issues, 1(1), 81-82.
Cavendish, M. (2003). How it works: Science and technology. New York: Marshall Cavendish.
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…
history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.
THE AIR LINE PILOTS ASSOCIATION
ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.
The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.
The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation
The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…
Air Line Pilots Association:
DayJet, on the other hand, plans to sell single seats to frustrated air travelers who no longer fly on trips of 250 to 500 miles - they choose to drive instead. DayJet believes they can identify and market effectively to these travelers, serving "regional route sectors -- starting in Texas and the Southwest, eventually expanding to the New York area south to Florida, and then to the Pacific coast" (Sharkey, 2006). This air taxi service plans to use Eclipse 500 planes, and are awaiting delivery of the planes to begin service.
Neither of these operators has begun regular service because the planes seem to be coming off the assembly lines more slowly than anticipated. DayJet's delivery of Eclipse 500's has been slowed due to delays in production and certification. Therefore, no one knows how these air taxi services will ultimately affect airport traffic and air travel. The public may embrace…
Author not available. (2006). Smaller, faster, cheaper new jets may transform flying. Retrieved from the USAToday.com Web site: http://www.usatoday.com/travel/news/2006-01-19-little-jets_x.htm19 April 2007.
Croft, J. (2006). Very light jets: Boom or blip? Retrieved from the AIAA.org Web site: http://www.aiaa.org/aerospace/images/articleimages/pdf/AA_May06_CRO.pdf19 April 2007. 32-36.
Editors. (2007). NBAA training guidelines for single pilot operations of Very Light Jets and technically advanced aircraft. Retrieved from the NBAA.org Web site: http://web.nbaa.org/public/ops/safety/vlj/19 April 2007.
Robinson, J.L. (2006). Predicted air traffic control impact from VLJ's. Retrived from the Casa.aero Web site: http://www.casa.aero/adminUploads/TheVeryLightJet_ATCA.pdf19 April 2007.
g. Lufthansa); partners with Blackberry and Yahoo for in flight conveniences.
Early aggressive additions to fleet and service did, as analysts predicted, negatively impact the company.
Company will need to carefully evaluate routes, new service, new equipment, and new technology in order to maintain growth potential.
Fairly stable and industry respected; replaced CEO in May 2007.
Needed a new managerial focus after 2004.
Optimistic, keep tight rein on overly aggressive expansion.
Jet Blue University, compensates better than most airlines, rewards loyalty for service
Unsuccessful attempt at unionizing
Ensure mission is translated to consumers; empower local employees to make better decisions so clients are not left sitting on tarmac.
Huge and rapid growth spurt in early 21st century
Became a model for other carriers; major carriers copied model and took away share
Continued energy and fiscal focus on consumers and next generation of airline ideas.
Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act, Public Law 107-42. (2001, September 22). Retrieved October 2010, from Office of Transportation - U.S. Government: http://ostpxweb.ost.dot.gov/aviation/Data/stabilizationact.pdf
Jet Blue Press Release - Names Dave Barger President and CEO. (2007, May 10). Retrieved October 2010, from JetBlue.com: http://investor.jetblue.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=131045&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=998672&highlight=))
Air Travel Report: Dip in Delays, Spike in Complaints. (2010, October 12). Retrieved October 2010, from CNN Travel: http://www.cnn.com/2010/TRAVEL/10/12/air.travel.consumer.report
Jet Blue Shareholder Information. (2010, October 12). Retrieved October 2010, from Jet Blue: http://investor.jetblue.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=131045&p=irol-irhome
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…
Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm
University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html
S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). A third segment of this transcontinental route was established in 1920 and ran from Chicago to Omaha by way of Iowa City, with feeder lines to this primary route being provided from St. Louis and Minneapolis to Chicago (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). The final transcontinental segment was established on September 8, 1920 and ran from Omaha to San Francisco by way of North Platte, Cheyenne, awlins, ock Springs, Salt Lake City, Elko, and eno (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993).
One of the more interesting aspects of this early transcontinental route was the need to remove all of the mail from airplanes at the end of the day and place it on trains for continuation of the service at night by trains since these early aircraft were unable to fly at night; despite this added contrast, though, the transcontinental route was truly a "Pony Express" of the era…
Boston, G. (2005, August 28). Historic site for aircraft; College Park Aviation Museum. The Washington Times, D04.
De Syon, G. (2004). Airlines and air mail: The Post Office and the birth of the commercial aviation industry. Air Power History, 51(1), 56/
Duke, J. & Torres, V. (2005). Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry: productivity increases in the U.S. airline industry -- the nation's primary intercity mass transportation system-have played a significant role in the industry's cost-containment efforts and its ability to accelerate growth. Monthly Labor Review, 128(3), 32-34.
Facts and figures about the Postal Service. (2008). U.S. Postal Service. [Online]. Available: http://www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/postalfacts.htm .