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Ethics Committee Proposal: Alarm Fatigue
Alarm fatigue is a serious issue that is faced by nurses and other medical staff on a daily basis. It is not just a concern for the staff, but also for the patients. There is a possibility that they will not get the proper care in a timely manner if the medical personnel are not responding quickly and accurately to the alarms that go off in patient rooms (Blum & Tremper, 2010). If that is the case, then the issue also becomes one of ethics, as it impacts whether patients are being mistreated or whether their outcomes may be different (McNeer, et al., 2007). That has to be carefully addressed, and solutions need to be found, in order to make sure alarm fatigue does not result in patient injury or death due to missed cues by medical personnel.
There are two proposal…
Blum, J.M., & Tremper, K.K. (2010). Alarms in the intensive care unit: Too much of a good thing is dangerous: Is it time to add some intelligence to alarms? Critical Care Medicine, 38(2): 702 -- 703.
Bustamante, E.A., Bliss, J.P., & Anderson, B.L. (2007). Effects of varying the threshold of alarm systems and workload on human performance. Ergonomics, 50(7):1127-1147.
McNeer, R.R., Bohorquez, J., Ozdamar, O., Varon, A.J., & Barach, P. (2007). A new paradigm for the design of audible alarms that convey urgency information. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 21(6):353-363.
When someone is exposed to a frequent number of alarms, no matter what type or in what context, that person can easily become fatigued from the sound of them going off all the time. When that happens, the person becomes completely desensitized to the alarms, and that can lead to not answering the alarms in a timely manner, or even missing some of them completely (Aztema & Schull, 2006). At some point, the person starts to "tune out" the alarms, because he or she hears them so frequently that they cease to have the meaning they should. They become background noise, and that slows reaction time (Mondor & Finley, 2003). There are a number of situations in which this can occur, and there are various industries that see the problem of alarm fatigue occurring among workers. One of these industries is healthcare, where nurses and other healthcare workers…
Atzema, C., & Schull, M.J. (2006). Alarmed: Adverse events in low-risk patients with chest pain receiving electrocardiographic monitoring in the emergency department: A pilot study. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 24(1):62-67.
Bliss, J., Fallon, C.K., & Nica, N. (2007). The role of alarm signal duration as a cure for alarm validity. Applied Ergonomics, 38(2):191-199.
Blum, J.M., & Tremper, K.K. (2010). Alarms in the intensive care unit: Too much of a good thing is dangerous: Is it time to add some intelligence to alarms? Critical Care Medicine, 38(2): 702 -- 703.
Borowski, M., Gorges, M., Fried, R., Such, O., Wrede, C., & Imhoff, M. (2011). Medical device alarms. Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical engineering, 56(2): 73 -- 83.
Theories in nursing generally center on the relationship of four concepts -- nursing, environment, person and health. These concepts are interrelated and impact one another in diverse ways, often seen in issues of nursing when problems arise that require analysis. The issue of alarm fatigue is one problem in nursing that touches on each of these four concepts. Alarm fatigue can be defined as exhaustion that occurs for nurses when they are exposed to many alarms throughout their shift, which causes "sensory overload" and the nurses to develop a "non-existent response to alarms" (Horkan, 2014, p. 83). Complacency and dissension can follow in the nursing workplace as too many alarms for nurses can render them unresponsive.
Alarms are needed in nursing because they alert nurses and care providers to emergency situations that require immediate action and intervention, especially in the intensive care unit. However, nurses and staff work…
Despins, L., Scott-Cawiezell, J., Rouder, J. (2010). Detection of patient risk by nurses:
a theoretical framework. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(2): 465-474.
Horkan, A. M. (2014). Alarm fatigue and patient safety. Nephrology Nursing Journal,
Interdisciplinary Consideration -- Alarm Fatigue
Interdisciplinary Consideration: Alarm Fatigue
Alarm fatigue is a very real problem for a number of people in various disciplines. It occurs when alarms go off so much that people begin to tune them out. That could mean ignoring something that would be very important to note, and could end up putting patients at risk of serious injury and even death. Two of the disciplines where alarm fatigue is a serious problem include nursing and surgery. In both areas there are many alarms going off, alerting medical personnel of various conditions. However, "alarms" may not really be the right word for these sounds. A number of the noises that occur are more closely based on notifying people of something, as opposed to an actual alarm that is set to indicate a true emergency. Clearly, changes need to be made that can help both nurses and surgeons…
Evaluation Plan: Alarm Fatigue
In order to determine the effectiveness of the plan to combat alarm fatigue, which involves changing the sounds that the alarms use in order to make them more audible and less likely to be "tuned out" by medical personnel, specific criteria are needed. These criteria will be used in order to decide whether the plan is effective, or whether it is necessary to consider and address other changes that will be used in place of the new plan or in addition to it. As nurses and other medical personnel work through the new plan and get used to the new alarms, there may be changes that have to be made. The goal of the objective criteria and examination of them is to determine whether these changes are needed and if they are changes that can be implemented. These objective criteria are:
Nurses and other…
Alarm fatigue reduces quality of care and adversely affects the quality of the workplace environment for healthcare staff. Therefore, comprehensive alarm management strategies should become a cornerstone of healthcare administration. Using diffusion of innovation theory, this paper has shown how administrators can develop effective alarm management strategies.
Alarm management strategies may vary depending on the nursing context, but generally there are several components to alarm management including helping nurses recognize patient risk signals, psychological sifting, reducing unnecessary alarms, and improving the audible quality of alarms by working with technology manufacturers. Different types of alarms can and should be handled by dedicated staff. For example, technical alarms that indicate equipment malfunctions could be directly channeled into equipment technician receivers rather than being broadcast throughout the nursing department. Nursing staff also needs to be trained regularly when new equipment is installed, so that the different sounds of alarms can be distinguished from…
.....clinician responses to alarms? For example: Physical barriers, physical layout of the unit, RN-pt ratio.
The observed influences include the type of alarm, such as whether it was a bed or bathroom alarm versus a technology alarm coming from something like the IV pump.
2. How, as a student, are you educated about alarms and your response to them? How might education regarding the various patient alarms be an issue associated with alarm response?
I have done some research on the clinical implications of alarms and alarm fatigue. For example, Cyach, et al. (n.d.) found that too many alarms causes alarm fatigue, and also creates a "false sense of security," (p. 5). The researchers also found that staff is sometimes not educated about the different types of alarms and what they mean.
3. Who is responsible for alarm response?
The delegation of authority for responses will vary from case to…
Comair Flight 5191: Case Study in Fatigue
Aviation Safety: Fatigue
Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue
Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue
Comair Flight 5191 came to a disastrous end in 2006 when the flight crew attempted to take off from a runway much shorter than required for the aircraft they were piloting, resulting in the deaths of 49 of the 50 people on board (Pruchnicki, Wu, and Belenky, 2011). The Comair Captain, First Officer, and air traffic controller failed to perform the necessary checks to ensure the plane was lined up on the proper runway before takeoff. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated the accident and could not definitively determine the cause. Years later at a sleep conference, the NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman mentioned the Comair Flight 5191 tragedy and noted that establishing fatigue as a significant contributing factor is often so difficult that…
Caldwell, John A. (2012). Crew schedules, sleep deprivation, and aviation performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 85-89.
Hersman, Deborah A.P. (2010). Remarks of the Honorable Deborah A.P. Hersman, Chairman National Transportation Safety Board before the National Sleep Foundation in Washington, D.C. NTSB.gov. Retrieved 14 Feb. 2013 from http://www.ntsb.gov/news / speeches/hersman/daph100305.html.
Jackson, Craig A. And Earl, Laurie. (2006). Prevalence of fatigue among commercial pilots. Occupational Medicine, 56, 263-268.
Pruchnicki, Shawn A., Wu, Lora J., and Belenky, Gregory. (2011). An exploration of the utility of mathematical modeling predicting fatigue from sleep/wake history and circadian phase applied in accident analysis and prevention: The crash of Comair Flight 5191. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1056-1061.
Alarm Fatigue esolution
Project Timeline from Implementation to Evaluation
Alarm fatigue resolution project is a critical project in the health care department and needs cautious implementation with minimal or no disruption of the daily activities in the care of patients. The approximate period for the implementation of this project and an evaluation thereafter will be three months. Four sequential processes will characterize project within the three months as follows:
Stage 1: Planning, ordering and putting up the implementation material and gathering the project implementation team (both technical and supportive) -- This will be done in the first three weeks. It is the first phase of this project and is vital for the realization of the entire implementation. Planning and gathering the project team together will allow sufficient time for consultation and discussion for this project and the way the implementation will continue as planned (Huber, 2010).
Stage 2: Identification of…
Cleland, D.I. (1999). Project management: strategic design and implementation (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed.). Maryland Heights, Mo.: Saunders.
Kerzner, H. (2004). Advanced project management: best practices on implementation (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Question, "What time do you need to get up each morning?"
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Statement, "Describe how you sleep. (Assume you need to wake up at a certain time each morning.): How I fall asleep"
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Statement, "Describe how you sleep. (Assume you need to wake up at a certain time each morning.): My ability to stay asleep at night."
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Statement, "How my body naturally wakes up."
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Question, "What time of year do you notice sleep, energy or mood problems?"
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Question, "What time of year do you notice sleep, energy or mood problems? Ends"
Educate pilots concerning the need for regular healthy meals when operating conditions allow; carriers can help…
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
The mechanic must have adequate knowledge, training, data for assigned task, tools and equipment, be mentally and physically prepared, take safety precautions, have adequate resources, and have researched FAR, Federal Aviation Regulations, to ensure compliance. The task must be performed with a committed attitude, in accordance with appropriate data and acceptable methods, techniques, and practices that are industry acceptable. The mechanic must perform without pressures, stresses, and distractions, re-inspect work, properly record work performed, and perform operational checks. The mechanic must also be willing to sign for work performed and be willing to fly in the aircraft upon approval for return to service.
In spite of having measures in place to mitigate human error in aviation, there is still a major amount of incidents that involve human error. A Quantas plane flew from Darwin to risbane with a rag over a power generator, left on the generator during a…
Administration, F.A. (2009). Aircraft Inspection and Repair: Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
Airline worker killed at N.C. airport. (Aug, 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Vol III Issue 28, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/...n%20HF%20News/AVIATION%20...
Aviation operators cut corners at espense of safety. (Oct. 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/Aviation%20HF%20News%203707%20.pdf .
Higgins, C. & . (n.d.). Human factors in improving aviation safety. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human.pdf
Use sound reasoning to explain to Bradley how the situation will get better if he allows the hostages to go free. Perhaps the negotiator can call in a favor on Bradley's behalf if Bradley shows a sign of good faith and allows the hostages to go free.
Providing Bradley alcohol would be against protocol, but the food and the promise of aiding Bradley is getting the help he needs rather than going to jail may be of help. Bradley is looking for help right now and not to get drunk. He also may be looking to make a demand that the negotiator will say no to in order reiterate the fact that Bradley does not trust the police.
If the alcohol is a necessity to Bradley, the negotiator may try to pull some strings and allow it. Against protocol or not, if lives are in danger, providing the alcohol to…
ZAITSU, W. (2009). Bomb Threats and Offender Characteristics in Japan. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profi ling, 1(7). Retrieved November 17, 2010, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jip.106/pdf
James, R.K., & Gilliland, B.E. (2001). Crisis intervention strategies (4th ed.). Belmont, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning.
Noesner, G. (1999, January 1). Negotiation concepts for commanders | FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, the | Find Articles at BNET. Find Articles at BNET | News Articles, Magazine Back Issues & Reference Articles on All Topics. Retrieved November 18, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_1_68/ai_54036504/
Nokes and Nwakeze (2007) was to test the effectiveness of health outcomes on health outcomes of HIV and people aged 50+ and older. This was a quasi-experimental designs and random sampling was used. The study setting was a community-based organization that served resource-challenged people living with HIV / AIDS and many of these were black with minimal education. There were potentially 639 eligible clients, but despite repeated attempts many could not be reached. In the end, 43 people participated in the research.
Identify the reliability and validity of the data collection instrument.
If the data collection instrument has been newly developed, has the appropriate pretesting for reliability and validity been conducted?
If that data collection instrument is an established one, has sufficient evidence been provided from prior studies to allow evaluation of the instrument's reliability and validity?
No data collection instrument was used in this case. Rather the premise of…
nurses play a very important role in the emotional, spiritual, and physical care of the patient with different illness. When it comes to nursing homes, nurses are responsible for the well-being of the individuals there. Even though majority of the persons there are not critically there, they still depend on nurses for their care both medically and emotionally.
Sanghine (2013) reported that two nursing home nurses managed to turn off the alarms of nineteen patients at night so they would not be disturbed during their sleep. They were caught when the care home manager checked up on them in the middle of the night. IT was reported that elderly patients in ages 75 to 100 were not able to call for help. Not only that, they also reported ill treatment to the persons only because they preferred their own comfort and sleep before their duty at the nursing home.
Baldwin, P., Dodd, M., & Wrate, R. (1997). Young doctors' health -- I. How do working conditions affect attitudes, health and performance?. Social Science & Medicine, 45(1), 35 -- 40.
Bates, D., Boyle, D., V, er Vliet, M., Schneider, J., & Leape, L. (1995). Relationship between medication errors and adverse drug events. Journal Of General Internal Medicine, 10(4), 199 -- 205.
Chaudhury, H., Mahmood, A., & Valente, M. (2009). The effect of environmental design on reducing nursing errors and increasing efficiency in acute care settings a review and analysis of the literature. Environment And Behavior, 41(6), 755 -- 786.
Hughes, R., & Rogers, A. (2008). The effects of fatigue and sleepiness on nurse performance and patient safety. Agency For Healthcare Research And Quality (U.S.).
Off-duty time does not extend the 14-hour period.
15-Hour on-Duty Limit
May not drive after having been on duty for 15 hours, following 8 consecutive hours off duty. Off-duty time is not included in the 15-hour period.
60/70-Hour on-Duty Limit
May not drive after 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 consecutive days. A driver may restart a 7/8 consecutive day period after taking 34 or more consecutive hours off duty.
60/70-Hour on-Duty Limit
May not drive after 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 consecutive days.
Sleeper Berth Provision
Drivers using the sleeper berth provision must take at least 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, plus a separate 2 consecutive hours either in the sleeper berth, off duty, or any combination of the two.
Sleeper Berth Provision
Drivers using a sleeper berth must take at least 8 hours in the sleeper berth, and may split the sleeper-berth time into two…
About DOT. (2012). U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved from http://www.dot.gov/ .
Ashmore, R.B. & Staff, W.C. (1994). Teaching ethics: An interdisciplinary approach.
Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.
Belz, S.M., Robinson, G.S. & Casali, J.G. (2004). Temporal separation and self-rating of alertness as indicators of driver fatigue in commercial motor vehicle operators. Human Factors, 46(1), 154-156.
Our findings show that social and psychological aspects of work situations are indeed significant risk factors for coronary heart disease, but not in the manner that might initially be supposed. While the psychological demands of work, along with time pressures and conflicts, are found to be significant sources of risk in many of our studies, work that is demanding (within limits) is not the major source of risk. The primary work-related risk factor appears to be lack of control over how one meets the job's demands and how one uses one's skills. In many cases, elevation of risk with a demanding job appears only when these demands occur in interaction with low control on the job. Other research has shown that regular physical exertion has positive effects on cardiovascular health in many situations (although physical hazards can of course pose major health threats beyond our stress perspective). Thus, in our…
Black, S. (2001, October). CORRECTIONAL EMPLOYEE Stress & Strain. Corrections Today, 63, 83.
Black's work demonstrates a great introduction to stress in general, as it applies to the individual and community as well as specific information about stress in the field of corrections. This article is an excellent introduction to the material of this research as well as to a better understanding of how stress is playing out all over the field of corrections.
Devito, P.L. (1994, July). The Immune System vs. Stress. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 123, 27.
Devito offers a great description of the history of stress, its definitions and the fundamental and seminal research and ideology that applies to stress. The mind/body connection is traced through this work to give the reader and researcher a good idea of the holistic expression of unresolved stress in one's health and well-being.
Some of the more common treatments that are attempted by parents with or without the guidance of a professional include distraction, education, positive reinforcement, and avoidance therapy. If the child is sucking his or her thumb out of boredom or the need for comfort, a parent can help the child find another activity to distract from the sucking, or offer emotional comfort so that the child does not need to suck in order to feel loved. Many children who are old enough that thumbsucking is a concern are able to understand the reasoning behind why they should stop sucking, and teaching them about the dangers associated with it physically and socially can help them to quit. Positive reinforcement programs can include praise and rewards when children go without sucking for a certain amount of time.
Avoidance therapy can include using a bad-tasting topical application such as Stop-Zit on the thumb…
Allen, K.D. & Watson, T.S. (1993, July) Elimination of thumb-sucking as a treatment for severe trichotillomania. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32.4, 830 (5).
Franklin, D. (2002, April) Don't just say no to thumb-sucking behavior. Pediatric news, 36.4, 32 (1).
Garlinghouse, M.; Miltenberger, R.; Stricker, J.; & Tulloch, H. (2003, February) Augmenting stimulus intensity with an awareness enhancement device in the treatment of finger sucking. Education & Treatment of Children, 26.1, 22(8).
Leung, a.K.C. (1991, November) Thumb sucking. American Family Physician. Retrieved November 19, 2004 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_n5_v44/ai_11666506/print .
Communication is one of the most important aspects of nursing, as the case study of the student and the instructor indicates. The student nurse failed to communicate to the instructor the patient's abnormal oxygen saturation reading -- a reading that could have had very serious consequences for the patient. An entire week going by before this information is relayed to another nurse is highly unacceptable, considering how much emphasis is placed upon preventing medical errors from occurring (Cimiotti, Aiken, Sloane, Wu, 2012). Thus, it is imperative that student nurses appreciate the ramifications of failures in communication -- ramifications that could be potentially fatal for patients and, by extension, legally adverse for the health care facility. Stressing the crucial importance of nurse to nurse communication is vital to the well-being both of the health care organization and the well-being of the patient.
Importance of Nurse to Nurse Communication
Cimiotti, J., Aiken, L., Sloane, D., Wu, E. (2012). Nurse staffing, burnout, and health care -- associated infection. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(6): 486-490.
Dall'Ora, C., Griffiths, P., Ball, J. (2016). 12-hour shifts: burnout or job satisfaction?
Nursing Times, 112(12/13): 1-2.
Dall'Ora, C., Griffiths, P., Ball, J., Simon, M., Aiken, L. (2015). Association of 12 h shifts and nurses' job satisfaction, burnout and intention to leave: findings from a cross-sectional study of 12 European countries. BMJ Open, 5(9): e008331.
The Needs for Improved Technologies in the Operations of the United States Fire Administration for More Efficient Performances
February 25, 2019
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a division under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Created on the 1st April 1979 by the US former president, Jimmy Carter and was brought under DHS in 2003. For almost four decades of its creation, FEMA has been relentlessly committed to helping people before, during, and after disasters, which are its obligations as stated in its statutory mission statement. The agency has been helping US residents to prevent and avert impending dangers, and also providing succor to some in the event of natural and human-made disasters in the country. One of the responsibilities the agency is saddled with is the prevention and management of fire incidents in the country, which is managed by the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA). In carrying…
working of operating room nurses as a result of the nursing shortage and the general strain and intensity of the health care arena in general. Nurses in general fulfill a truly crucial role within the arena of patient care, these are the individuals who engage with patients and their relatives for the longest amounts of time, and are the ones who detect and evaluate all changes in their health status: this means that nurses are generally the ones who are the first to react to such changes and the first to initiate dialogue with other medical team members on the necessary intervention that needs to be made. The nurses are the ones who are capable of delivering the bulk of the pharmacological, physical and emotional interventions: thus, if they're fatigued or unable to work at the highest level of their abilities because of exhaustion, in the integrity of the healthcare…
McMillan, D. (2011, November). Benefits of napping . Retrieved from nursingtimes.net:
Rogers, A. (2008). Chapter 40 The Effects of Fatigue and Sleepiness on Nurse Performance and Patient Safety. Retrieved from nih.gov: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2645/
Technological transformations have brought widespread use of machines and tools to the work setting. Owing to this, such concepts as human-machine/equipment interfaces have become increasingly prominent. In its simplest form, human-machine interface (HMI) refers to the point or extent of interaction between a machine and its operator; taken literally, it is the area of the machine and that of the human that interact during the execution of a task. As the use of machines at the workplace increases, the HMI concept becomes more relevant. This is particularly because machines and equipment keep getting rather complicated and advanced, and as users make more and more use of them, the risk of error increases. In this regard, manufactures are under pressure to continually develop tools and machines that align with human anatomy, limitations, and skills to make the user-machine interface safer for users (Flasporer, et al., 2002).
Human-Equipment Interfaces in…
FDA. (2015). White Paper: Infusion Pump Improvement Initiative. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 17 February 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/GeneralHospitalDevicesandSupplies/InfusionPumps/ucm205424.htm
Flaspoler, E., Hauke, A., Pappachan, P., Reinert, D., Bleyer, T., Henke, N.,…Beeck R. (2002). The Human-Machine Interface as an Emerging Risk. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Retrieved 17 February 2015 from https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/literature_reviews/HMI_emerging_risk
Sawyer, D. (2014). Do it by Design: An Introduction to Human Factors in Medical Devices. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 18 February 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm094957.htm
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
An alarm was set each night signaling the self-agreed upon time for bed. I explained to friends and family that this was an important behavioral change in my life, as well as an academic exercise, and asked for their support. The process of self-change by using consciousness raising and reevaluation of goals and behavior were also an important part of the motivation for this study. I followed the prescribed agreement for a three-week period, realizing that I would need a few days at several levels in order to be successful (See Appendix B). At the end of three weeks my quality sleep averaged above 7.5 hours, thus increasing the basal measurement by 50% (from 5.0 hours to 7.5 hours).
Discussion- the intervention was a success and there was a clear set of lifestyle and behavioral changes that were made. General feelings of self-worth, sense of direction, and contentment/happiness with the…
During stage two, if the stress continues, the body adapts to the stressors that it is exposed to. There are changes at different levels take place in order to reduce the effect of the stressor, which indicates they are starving. At this point, thee person might experienced a reduced desire for physical activity to conserve energy, and the absorption of nutrients from food might be maximized (General adaptation syndrome).
The second stage is the body's response to long-term protection. It secretes further hormones that increase blood sugar levels to sustain energy and raise blood pressure. The adrenal cortex produces hormones called corticosteroids for this resistance reaction. Overuse by the body's defense mechanism in this phase eventually leads to disease. If this adaptation phase continues for a prolonged period of time without periods of relaxation and rest to counterbalance the stress response, sufferers become prone to fatigue, concentration lapses, irritability and…
dehydration impacts on human metabolism. In this sense, a short introduction in the issue of deficient water input is followed by delimitating the notions of metabolism and dehydration in terms of definition and classification. Afterwards, focus falls on the possible degrees of dehydration and body mass loss, and their implications for a human body.
According to usan Kleiner, Ph.D., "water is the one essential element to life as we know it" (Rabkin, 2000). It makes up approximately 60% of an individual's body mass. Each human cell, tissue and organ needs it in specific amounts in order to function properly, and nearly every life-sustaining body process requires it, too. Water is present in human muscles, fat cells, blood and even bones, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, helping to discard waste products, moistening skin tissues, mouth, eyes and nose, and most importantly, keeping body temperature in check.
Thus, water is unspeakably…
Several physiologic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle factors associated with old age can interfere in homeostasis and bring a significant contribution to dehydration. Illness, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, infection, dementia, chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and use of diuretics and laxatives altogether increase the risk for dehydration in elders, and may lead to chronic dehydration in many geriatric individuals. Furthermore, potential complications of dehydration in elders include hypotension, constipation, nausea, vomiting, mucosal dryness, decreased urinary output, elevated body temperature, and mental confusion (Bernstein & Schmidt Luggen, 2011). Moreover, some forms of medication frequently employed by older adults may favor dehydration or require adequate body water for proper metabolism, hence emphasizing the need for a balanced fluid consumption.
In conclusion, it can be asserted that, in the instance where one of the many types and degrees of dehydration affect an individual, his/her metabolism will slow down and begin a chain process meant to gradually depress many of the body's functions, starting with thermoregulation and continuing with heart rate, kidneys, muscles and joints. Finally, pediatric patients have a faster and more sensitive reaction to dehydration than adult individuals due to their fast metabolism and proportionately large body surface area, whereas geriatric patients are similarly vulnerable to the phenomenon through their medication routine and overall complicated health spectrum.
Duration and the related health and safety issues, advantages and disadvantages. The reference page appends three sources.
Work Assignment Duration
In search of augmented productivity, decreased employee or labor turnover and improved quality of work and product, extensive research and surveys coupled with thoroughly analyzed studies have been conducted by some of the best experts in the related field. On the same account, for employee work-related satisfaction and high morale, much emphasis has been placed on the significance of work assignment schedules or work assignment duration or WAD. e it any field of work or any kind of work condition or environment, work assignment schedules play a vital role and interconnect all the factors that either increase or result in an alarming decrease in employee job satisfaction, morale and productivity as well as staff turnover. This is because, both flexible and inflexible work schedules assigned to employees working at various…
Vega A. & Gilbert, Michael J., Longer days, shorter weeks: compressed work weeks in policing. Vol. 26, Public Personnel Management, 09-22-1997, pp. 391(12).
The Work Practices of Marine Pilots: A Review. Retrieved May 29, 2003 from: http://www.amsa.gov.au/SP/Review/intro.html
It is argued that teacher are exposed to role conflict, role ambiguity, lack of autonomy, social isolation and lack of self-fulfillment resulting from the special position in the schools bureaucratic system. Coupled with this is the general tendency for the teaching profession to be the least rewarded in the hierarchy of jobs.
The physical education teacher and burnout intersect at two different but related points. Firstly the notion that the teacher's reward is in heaven as some writers argue positions the teaching job as sacrificial for which adequate compensation is not given. The situation among physical education teacher has been exhausted in a lot of research because of specific peculiarities. Parsons (1968) has already discovered that the physical education teacher and the teaching profession's professionalism are highly questionable under the functional theory. Parsons who is the originator of this theory has been one of the forthright analysts of teachers and…
Akers RL. (1985) Adolescent marijuana use: A test of three theories of deviant behavior. Deviant Behavior, 6(4):323-346
Akers RL. (1989) Social learning theory and alcohol behavior among the elderly. Sociological Quarterly, 30(4):625-638
Akers RL. (1996) A longitudinal test of social learning theory: Adolescent smoking. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(2):317-343
Akers RL, Krohn MD, Lanza-Kaduce Lonn, and Rodosevich M. (1979) Social learning and deviant behavior: A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44:636-655.
As a result, children and adolescents are at risk of delays and impairments in cognitive development" (Levy 2009). Such delays are far from inevitable, but they do underline the need to assure that Sarah 'keeps up' with her studies and that reasonable peer-appropriate learning goals may need to be met with the assistance of additional support in some instances.
Although not directly applicable to Sarah, immunizations with live viruses, including chickenpox, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), and oral polio vaccines are not advised for children with lupus (Lupus, 2009, Children's Hospital of Boston). Sarah's parents may need to watch for is the possibility of symptoms in her sibling: "a form of lupus may occur at some point in about one out of twenty people whose siblings have lupus" and they may need to take this into consideration when contemplating a vaccination program if they ever have another child (Lehman 2002). Sarah's…
Lehman, Thomas J.A. (2002, Fall). Early diagnosis of SLE in childhood. Lupus News.
22.3. Retrieved June 29, 2009 at http://www.lupus.org/education/topics/early.html
Levy, Deborah, Stacy P. Ardoin, Laura E. Schanberg (2009). Neurocognitive
impairment in children and adolescents with SLE: Cognitive development in healthy children and adolescents. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol CME. 5(2)
Medical Conditions -- There are a number of factors that can increase the likelyhood of type-2 diabetes: hypertension, eleveted cholesterol, and a condition called Symdrome X, or metabolic syndrome (combination of obesity, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and poor diet). Cushing's syndrome, cortisol excess and testosterone deficiency are also associated with the disease. Often, it is a number of co-dependent conditions that seem to give rise to diabetes (Jack & Boseman, 2004).
Genetics -- There is ample evidence that there is a strong inheritable genetic condition in type-2 diabetes. In addition, there is a genetic mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in early onset diabetes (Lee & Hasim, 2001). There is a stronger inheritance pattern for type-2 diabetes with a significant association between family members. Typically, this is excacerbated by cultural and lifestyle factors that, while not inherited, are culturally shared. Gene expression promoted by a diet…
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
mily-Rose had just turned 36 and was in her first semester at university when her world began to crumble. This could not have come at a worse time as she has always looked forward to doing a Health Studies degree. Her friends and family were alarmed at the sudden moodiness, insomnia, fatigue, headaches, confusion, joint and muscle pain, nausea & #8230;and above all, the enduring feeling of tiredness she complained of.
mily-Rose has suddenly changed from a happy woman to someone who battled daily episodes of what she calls extreme tiredness and anxiety. In the first three weeks of starting university, her husband Harry and sons, Brian and Bob have put this down to overwork at university and firmly told her to "slacken up a bit." Although she tried a new relaxation regime suggested by her friend Anita, she still complained of daily episodes of overwhelming tiredness and general malaise.…
Even in the west we have a relatively new field, psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) that suggests a connection between mind and body. In 1964, psychiatrist George Solomon noticed that patients with rheumatoid arthritis got worse with depression. His reasoning was that the mind has an impact on inflammation and on the general immune system.
Another physician, Herbert Benson, later showed how medication could affect blood pressure and he coined the term "relaxation response." Mind -- body connection was becoming increasingly popular and reached further publicity when Robert Ader in 1975 showed the impact that the mind (and cognitions as well as mental state) had on the immune system.
Today, the mind has achieved a larger place in Western medical practice, although conventional medicine still battles with its principals and, in many places, denies its exclusive veracity. There are some areas that are still in doubt
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
Home Visit With Sallie Mae Fisher
Good morning, Sallie Mae, my name is Alexis Jorgenson and I will be your nurse today. I understand you are not feeling well today?
Sallie: Hello Nurse, I am feeling a little better than last time but still finding it hard to cope.
I understand you are having problems with chronic congestive heart failure.
Sallie: This disease is giving me a lot of problems that range from frequent hospitalizations to excessive medications. I just feel sick when I think about the medication and usually feel like avoiding them.
That's sad to hear. I am here to help identify why you are not feeling very well today.
Sallie: Thank you, I really appreciate your help and hope that I'll be feeling much better very soon.
Nurse: Your medical history shows that you have been hospitalized four times in the past 6 months for exacerbation of…
Adams, M. (n.d.). How to Find Help Treating a Grief Management Problem. Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://www.psychguides.com/guides/how-to-find-help-treating-a-grief-management-problem/
Haiken, M. (n.d.). Blood Pressure: 90/50. Retrieved December 15, 2015, from https://www.caring.com/charts/blood-pressure-90-50
Orenstein, B.W. & Bass, P.F. (2011, March 30). Bowel Movements: What's Considered Normal? Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://www.everydayhealth.com/hs/guide-to-constipation-relief/bowel-movements-whats-normal/
Stress is delineated as demand that is made on a being for adaptation, coping, or adjusting. There is stress that is healthy and is referred to as eustress. Prolonged stress impacts moods, ruins capacity to have pleasure and is also harmful to the body. Some of the aspects that generate a great deal of stress include everyday hassles, changes in life and also health problems. According to a survey undertaken by the American Psychological Association, the two biggest sources of stress are money and work and this causes people to become irritable, angry and fatigued. There are four kinds of conflict. Approach-approach conflict is the least stressful, having two objectives that can be attained whereas avoidance-avoidance conflict has more stress as one is enthused to evade two adverse objectives. Approach-avoidance encompasses objectives that generate mixed intentions and lastly multiple approach-avoidance conflict include numerous alternative actions that have upsides and downsides.…
Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)
Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."
Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…
Inspiration! Sleep Study Results & Analysis (2006) Q&a with Ron Richard, senior vice president of strategic marketing initiatives at ResMed HME Business April 2006. Online at http://www.hme-business.com/articles/55305/
Johnson, Duane, PhD (2008) Are you Really Managing Your Sleep Lab? The Business of Sleep. Focus Journal May/June 2008. Online at http://www.foocus.com/pdfs/Articles/MayJune08/Duane.pdf
Kay DC, Pickworth WB, Neider GL. Morphine-like insomnia from heroin in nondependent human addicts. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 1981;11(2):159-169
MacFarlene, James (2009) the Painful Pursuit of Sleep. Sleep Review Journal Jan/Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.sleepreviewmag.com/issues/articles/2009-01_07.asp
" (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2000 P. 3). In the United States, the average bridge deck in a snow-belt state generally shows the spalling shortly after 7 to 10 years of construction, and requires rehabilitation after 20 years of construction. Typically, the repair of the damaged caused by corrosion is invariably expensive. A crack is one of the major damage caused by corrosion. Although structural cracks could be attributed to pure tension, torsion, pure bending, bond failure, and concentrated load, however, non-structural crack is attributed to the chemical process that occurs within the concrete or steel structure, and the damage include shrinkage, expansion process, and thermal movement.
Mackechnie & Alexande, (2001) argue that corrosion could lead to a distress in a concrete capable of causing spanning and cracking to the surrounding concrete. The expansion associated to hydrated oxides is that the steel may swell ten times of its original position…
Arya, C. & Wood, L.A. (1997). Relevance of Cracking in Concrete to Corrosion of Reinforcement. The Concrete Society. Technical Report, No 44.
Atkins, C. Brueckner, R. & MacDonald, M. (2013).Corrosion Monitoring. Technical Note No: 14. Corrosion Prevention Association.
Koch, G. H, Brongers, M.P.H. Thompson, N.G. et al. (2001). Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States. FHWA-RD-01-156. 2001. Springfield, VA, National Technical Information Service.
Lambert, P. & MacDonald, M (2013). Reinforced Concrete-History, Properties, & Durability. Technical Notes No: 1. Corrosion Prevention Association.
Radio Altimeter effectiveness and CFIT
How can technology be used to effectively diminish CFIT and ALA incidents?
Air travel is one of the safest means of traveling from one location to another in the world. Without air traffic, the business world would come to a screeching halt. Although businesses can transfer mass amounts of digital communications DATA, thus eliminating much of the demand on mail and fax transmissions of just a decade ago, businesses organizations can still not transfer products, mail, personnel, and other hard goods through electronic blips on the internet. Travel still relies on airliners and cargo air-busses which fill the skies around the world and around the clock. The experts are agreed that global commercial air traffic will grow at an average 5% per year over the next 20 years. This means that traffic will double in 15 years and will practically triple by the end of…
Jensen, D. (2000, November) EGPWS: look what it can do now. Retrieved 14 November, 2003. from Avaition Today, Website: http://www.aviationtoday.com/cgi/av/show_mag.cgi?pub=av&mon=1100&file=coverstory.htm
Matteo, Luccio. (2001, 1 Oct.) GPS and Aviation Safety. GPS World.
Unraveling the Mystery of General Aviation Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents Using HFACS. (2002) Retrieved 14 Nov. 2003 from Institute of Aviation. Website: http://www.aviation.uiuc.edu/new/html/ARL/conference/shappellwiegavpsy01.pdf
Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.
2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.
3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.
4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.
The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…
Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.
Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.
Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.
Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.
" (Worden and arton, 2003) Assessment is a method that provides an estimate of the extent of the damage and prediction is the method that offers information concerning the structural safety and that provides estimation of the residual life.
It is reported that many modern approaches to damage identification are "based on the idea of pattern recognition (PR)." (Worden and arton, 2003) A PR algorithm is stated to be one that assigns to a sample of measured data a class label, usually from a finite set. In the case of damage identification, the measured data could be vibration modeshapes, full-field thermoelastic data, scattered wave profiles etc. The appropriate class labels would encode damage type, location etc. In order to carry out the higher levels of identification using PR, it will almost certainly be necessary to construct examples of data corresponding to each class." (Worden and arton, 2003, p.3) It is…
Dale, A.K. (1984) The Analysis of Gear Noise Excitation. Journal of the Society of Environmental Engineers.
Dempsey, P.J., Afjeh, A.A. (2003) Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Gear Damage Detection Technologies Using Fuzzy Logic." International 58th Annual Forum and Technology Display, Quebec (Canada) June 11 -- 13, 2002.
Farrar, Charles R. And Lieven, Nick A. (2007) Damage Prognosis: The Future of Structural Health Monitoring. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A. 12 Dec 2007. Online available at: http://institutes.lanl.gov/ei/shm/pubs/PTRS%20Prognosis%2006.pdf
Hauser, G. (1985) A New Analysis Procedure for Noise and Vibration Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery. Paper presented at the INgenieurburo fur Technische Adkustik, West Germany.
203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."
This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic
Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume II / Separation / Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John. (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume III / Loss / Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.
esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.
Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…
References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.ericdigests.org
Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org
Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.
Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.
Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
e. fat storage. These physiological concerns are significant in that programming that was designed to maintain a nurturing position for young children the physiological environment interprets crisis as anything that creates a stressful physical demeanor. The stress and psychology of abandonment is a constant, once the abandonment by the father has occurred. The body does not distinguish between a fasting period associated with unavailable food, or drought and psychological long-term emotional stress. The human body also does not distinguish between a self imposed diet and a period of famine. It reduces its basal metabolic rate, or the rate of metabolism needed to perform its base functions, and then the recovery period would seem to be longer than expected. This is the diet conundrum, though it has also been proven that prolonged periods of psychological stress and/or depression that could be associated with abandonment by the father will also cause a…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19.
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F., & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Bifulco, a. (1998). Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experience of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.
Caprio, Sonia. (2006) "Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions." The Future of Children 16 (1), 209.
69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.
Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).
Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).
A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to…
Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.
Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.
Gunter, B. And Furnham, a. (1999). Are pets good for our physical well-being? In Pets and People: The Psychology of Pet Ownership, Chapter 5, 6. London: Wherr Publishing, 66-81/
Hooker, S.D., Freeman, L.H., and Stewart, P. (2002). Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16 (5), 17-23.
Likewise, there is evidence to suggest that Patton's disconnect with his organizational leaders was the very thing that ultimately led to him being relegated to a mostly administrative capacity, effectively putting him out to pasture as far as authority and responsibility are concerned.
Did I Ever Question the Motives of Patton
Frankly, the motives of Patton are something that I questioned, but upon fully considering the situation, I reached the conclusion that Patton's motives are worthy of questioning, but ultimately, are not completely questionable. Agreed, Patton did tend to be extreme in his methods and thinking from an organizational management perspective, but in fairness, his motives were far from being totally self-centered. Given the fact that Patton was an egomaniac to put it mildly, his ultimate motive, at least in his military career, aside from the obvious self advancement angle, was quite literally to save the world from tyranny, and…
1997). The Fighting Pattons (B. M. Sobel, Ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Pierce, J., & Newstrom, J. (2000). Leaders and the Leadership Process (4th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Ryan, L. (2004). Leadership -- the Army Way. Business Week online. Retrieved December 5, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.businessweek.com/careers/content/mar2006/ca20060314_273725.htm?chan=search
Patton the Leader
A biopsy of the bone marrow is the only way to be sure that it is leukemia.
Treatments for leukemia can vary depending on the stage, the age of the patient, the type of leukemia, and the advanced or infant stages that it is in, but most leukemia patients do go through a host of treatments that include chemotherapy.
Treatment also depends on the stage that the disease is placed in. Staging is simply a method by which the cancer is categorized for the purpose of developing a treatment plan and for research purposes with regards to cure rates and treatment successes or failures (Leukemia (http://www.emedicinehealth.com/leukemia/article_em.htm).
In most cases of the disease, including Kate's case the treatment of choice is chemotherapy. There is a scene in the novel in which Anna, Kate and their mother are dancing around the kitchen together after shaving their heads so Kate would not…
Leukemia (Accessed 11-11-06)
Signs and Symptoms (accessed 11-12-06)
" Another strongly associated physical symptom is the persistence of migraine. Wieland observes that 40% of severe IAD youth take medication for migraine. The physical detriment of migraine develops into lifelong problems that are many times hard to cure or incurable.
The physical health of youth internet addicts are hard to dissect, partly this is because physical health often results from psychological addiction, and as a result, are attributed to traditional addict like symptoms and affects. The negligence of addicts in relations to their health causes indirect health problems, that may not be directly linked to IAD, but internet use lies at the heart of how such problems will occur and are dissected.
The problem of internet addiction among youth has been carefully dissected through both social and scientific constructs. However, prevailing research into the actual physical and mental health of youth as a direct result of internet…
Young, K.S. (1998). Caught in the net. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Simon, M. (1997). How internet has an effect on the social skills of children. The Vocal Point [Online]. Available: http://bvsd.k12.co.us/cent/Newspaper/dec97/p7/stories/simon.html
Suler, J. (1996). Review of the internet aggression by Norman Holland. The Psychology of Cyberspace [Online]. Available: l
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.
As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…
Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm Accessed on October 22, 2011.
Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).
Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024 / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Prevention and Treatment
HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…
Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004 http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html
Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004. http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html
Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004. http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html
Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
Counseling is described by Kobeisy as the professional form of guidance that is aimed at addressing concerns as well as aid individuals in improving their attitude, coping skills as well as behavior (Kobeisy 1).Counseling can help people, families as well as groups in achieving optimal growth and development for the stages of life in which they go through. Counseling as a profession has many specialties like marriage, grief, and pastoral as well as career. It is worth noting that apart from pastoral counseling, the field of counseling is meant to be a free.This is to imply that the counselor should be open minded while approaching their clients with an attitude that is non-judgmental. They are also not allowed to impose or even direct their clients. The counseling process should therefore help the clients to clearly see their choices, appropriately set their objectives while making the necessary changes in order to…
Caldwell, Benjamin E, Woolley, Scott R, Caldwell, Casey J. Preliminary estimates of costeffectiveness for marital therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33:392 -- 405, 2007
Carr, Alan. Family Therapy: Concepts Process and Practice (2nd edn). Chichester:
Cohl, D'Vera "At Long Last, Divorce." Pew Research Center < http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1617/long-duration-marriage-end-divorce-gore
Tourette Syndrome in Children
hat is Tourette Syndrome?
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is an inherited neurological disorder generally associated with tics. Tics are defined as either involuntary body movements, or involuntary vocal sounds that are usually repetitive. The occurrence of TS in children is about 1 of every 2000 children, with an increased occurrence in boys as opposed to girls. The syndrome itself is named for the French neurologist Dr. George Gilles de la Tourette, who diagnosed the first patient with the illness in 1885.
How do you know if you have it? (Symptoms and Diagnosis)
Diagnosis specifics vary from one source of information to the next. Some publications, such as the website for the Jim Eisenreich Foundation for Children, suggest waiting until the tics are present for at least one year, and that multiple tics must be shown - vocal and physical (though not at the same time). Other sites…
Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome http://www.tourette-syndrome.com/tourette-syndrome-facts.htm3Apr 2002
Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tourette-syndrome.com/tourette-syndrome-facts.htm3Apr 2002
Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. "Tourette Syndrome's Frequently Asked Questions" 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tsa-usa.org/wrapper.php.3/00/Faqs.html
Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tourette-syndrome.com/tourette-syndrome-facts.htm
Indigenous Australians and Diabetes
In Adelaide the first case of diabetes in Indigenous people was noted in 1923. The records clearly show that Indigenous people didn't diagnose diabetes at the time as they were fit, lean and in good shape. Apart from that, they didn't have any metabolic ailment at the time. Till the 1960's, the estimates of diabetes in Indigenous people weren't taken and no investigation done until then. Then a connection was found between indigenous population and westernized living in the population as type-2 diabetes was slowly starting to materialize. Since then, type 2 diabetes has been deemed as the most worrying health problems in Australia as the probability of it being in the population is four times (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2007a).
Diabetes and the afflicted person
Diabetes can affect a person in many ways as shown below:
Physically (Shaw, 2012)
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2006) The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2006. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2007a) Review of diabetes among Indigenous peoples. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/chronic-conditions/diabetes/reviews/our-review
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2007b) Background information on Diabetes. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/chronic-conditions/diabetes/reviews/background-information
Bhattacharyya et al. (2002). Inpatient management of diabetes mellitus and patient satisfaction. Diabetic medicine: A journal of the British Diabetic Association, 19 (5), 412-416.
There has been a dearth of literature on the training and development of deaf and hard of hearing employees. This research attempts to highlight gaps in the research and suggest methods of improving deaf awareness in the fields of human resources and organizational development. The Americans With Disabilities Act requires all organizations to make reasonable accommodations to the workplace environment, policy, and procedure for deaf and hard of hearing employees. This applies to employee training and development as well as daily functionality on the job. Because six to nine percent of the population identifies as deaf or hard of hearing, it is critical for organizations to adapt their training and employee development programs to attract and retain deaf employees (Hersh, 2012).
To create effective training and development programs, it is important that human resources managers and staff understand best practices in adapting the workplace and making accommodations. The adaptation…
Haynes, S. & Linden, M. (2012). Workplace accommodations and unmet needs specific to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Disability and Rehabilitation 7(5), 408-415.
Hersh, M. (2012). Deaf people in the workplace. Chapter 10 in Lessons on Profiting from Diversity. Moss, G. (Ed.). Palgrave MacMillan.
National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers (2009). The case for deaf self-advocacy training. Retrieved online: http://www.interpretereducation.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/TheCaseforDeafSelf-AdvocacyTraining-2.pdf
National Association of the Deaf Law and Advocacy Center (n.d.). Reasonable Accommodations for Deaf Employees Under the Americans With Disabilities Act. Retrieved online: https://www.wvdhhr.org/wvcdhh/directories/07TOC/ReasonAccomDeafEmp.pdf
performed by a group of professionals that included: Dr. Xiao-Mei Li (Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing, egistered Nurse), dean and associate professor of the nursing department of Chinese university, Jiao tong University's College of Medicine; Kai-Na Zhou (Master of Science in Nursing, N), assistant researcher in the same department; Professor Dr. Hong Yan (PhD), public health department of same university's College of Medicine; Yin-Ping Zhang (PhD N), Associate Professor at the same department; and Professor Dr. Duo-Lao Wang (PhD) from Medical Statistics department, Faculty of Population Health and Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. The randomized clinical study was titled "Effects of music therapy on anxiety of patients with breast cancer after radical mastectomy." The Care, Cure and Core model of Hall was used. A clinical trial of 120 women suffering from breast cancer was conducted between March and November 2009, using randomized controlled research design. Half…
Avci, I. A., & Gozum, S. (2009). Comparison of two different educational methods on teachers' knowledge, beliefs and behaviors regarding breast cancer screening. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 13(2), 94-101.
Bruscia, K., Dileo, C., Shultis, C., & Dennery, K. (2009). Expectations of hospitalized cancer and cardiac patients regarding the medical and psychotherapeutic benefits of music therapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 36(4), 239-244.
Chen, Y. X., Yang, X. M., Kuang, J. Y., & Han, B. X. (2009). Anxiety and depression status of patients with breast cancer and analysis of the related factors. Journal of Bengbu Medical College, 34(9), 840-842.
Clark, M., Isaacks-Downton, G., Wells, N., Redlin-Frazier, S., Eck, C., Hepworth, J. T., & Chakravarthy, B. (2006). Use of preferred music to reduce emotional distress and symptom activity during radiation therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 43(3), 247-265.
Speaking Truth to Health Policy: Helping Veterans eadjust
Every day, at least 20 combat veterans commit suicide in the United States, or one veteran every 65 seconds (Shane & Kime, 2016). This alarming trend is attributable in large part to the symptoms that many people suffer from after experiencing traumatic episodes in their lives. Drawing on the sources of power enumerated by Mason, Gardner, Hopkins Outlaw and O'Grady (2016).This paper provides a current description concerning the health policy adopted by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in response to this nation-wide problem to determine how the situation could benefit from having nurses speak truth to power. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue are presented in the conclusion.
The condition currently known as posttraumatic stress disorder is certainly not a new construct. In World War I, the condition was termed "shell shock" and in World…
Bare, S. (2015, June 2). The truth about 22 veterans suicides a day. Task & Purpose. Retrieved from http://taskandpurpose.com/truth-22-veteran-suicides-day/ .
List of nursing organizations. (2016). Nurse.org. Retrieved from http://nurse.org/orgs.shtml .
Miller, J. (2013, May-June). Veterans on trial: The coming court battles over PTSD. Military Review, 93(3), 92-94.
Shane, L. & Kime, P. (2016, July 7). New VA study finds 20 veterans commit suicide each day. Military Times. Retrieved from http://www.militarytimes.com/story/veterans/2016/07/07/ va-suicide-20-daily-research/86788332/.
Each standardized nursing language is designed for use in a number of clinical settings, including home care, ambulatory care, and inpatient treatment, with certain languages providing decided advantages within particular circumstances. Although it is true that "improved communication with other nurses, health care professionals, and administrators of the institutions in which nurses work is a key benefit of using a standardized nursing language" (utherford, 2008), the proliferation of several nursing languages throughout the years has inevitably resulted in discrepancies, wherein the personal preferences of nurses, the policy of a hospital's corporate ownership, or other factors determine when, where, and why a specific language is used.
To address the growing concern over the inability of nurse's to communicate through a single standardized language system, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) commissioned a comprehensive study which resulted in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) being selected as the most advantageous option.…
Cho, I., & Park, H. (2006). Evaluation of the expressiveness of an ICNP-based nursing data dictionary in a computerized nursing record system. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 13(4), 456-464. Retrieved from http://126.96.36.199/content/13/4/456.full
Rutherford, M. (2008). Standardized nursing language: What does it mean for nursing practice?. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13(1), 57-69. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/H ealth-it/StandardizedNursingLanguage.html