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In fact, some people can recover from alcoholism with no formal treatment whatsoever, and others may "…cycle in and out of dependence" during their entire lifetime, Huebner continues (296).
One relatively new idea in terms of treating alcoholics is to use the powerful hallucinogenic drug, LSD, according to an article in Medline Plus (Preidt, 2012). A study using 536 patients who were alcohol dependent showed that "a single dose of LSD" helped serious alcoholics quit drinking and moreover, it reduced their "risk" of getting back into the alcohol, Preidt writes (p. 1). hy would LSD work on alcoholics? The author reports that LSD may stimulate for formation of "new connections and patterns" in the brain, and may well open up a new perspective and awareness within the mind of the alcoholic, providing "opportunities for action" (Preidt, p. 1).
In conclusion, for those who are addicted to alcohol that are sincerely…
Foroud, Tatiana, Edenberg, Howard J. And Crabbe, John C. "Genetic Research: Who Is at
Risk for Alcoholism?" Alcohol Research & Health, 33.1&2 (2010): 64-74.
Huebner, Robert B., and Kantor, Lori Wolfgang. "Advances in Alcoholism Treatment,"
Alcohol Research & Health. 33.4 (2011): 295-299.
As he become more successful, the confidence in himself grew well beyond any rational proportion. This term is often called Hubris, which is excessive overconfidence in ones own abilities. This hubris was a catalyst in Bills eventual collapse. He was overconfident in his abilities in overcoming alcoholism which led to his demise and deteriorating health. He believed he could easily overcome his addiction which proved to be only temporary. Furthermore, Bill thought that a small drink would not influence his behavior. As apparent in our discussion, even a small drink can have a profound effect on an alcoholic. This was insight I didn't think about prior to talking with Bill. A small influence can have a lasting effect on ones behavior (Hoffman, 1996).
In regards with the personal conflict, alcoholics and family interactions vary. For the must part, these interactions are destructive in nature. An initial attempt by one party…
1) Boyt, Richard. "The Online Journal of Health Ethics." The Online Journal of Health Ethics. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .
2) Hoffman, PL.; Tabakoff, B. (Jul 1996). "Alcohol dependence: a commentary on mechanisms." Alcohol 31 (4): 333 -- 40
3) Dunn, N; Cook (March 1999). "Psychiatric aspects of alcohol misuse." Hospital medicine (London, England: 1998) 60 (3): 151 -- 72
Alcoholism in Adolescence
Significance of the health issue of alcoholism
Everything is good in moderation, and, indeed, studies show that low-levels of alcohol consumption (such as 1-2 drinks per day (Sellman et al., 2009) may prove beneficial to drinkers. Chronic alcohol abuse (i.e. consistent and persistent consumption of alcohol) has an undoubted negative long-term impact. It is ironic that whilst low drinking can consequent in decreased risks of osteoporosis, cardiovascular condition, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes, high levels of alcoholism aggravate and bring on the onset of these conditions, oftentimes also resulting in mortality.
High levels of alcoholism show significant positive association to conditions that include the following: cancer, alcoholic liver disease, malabsorption, chronic pancreatic, and cardiovascular disease aside from long-term damage to both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system (Caan & Belleroche, 2002). isks extend to vulnerability to injuries, fetal damage, hypertension, coronary heart disease, ischemic…
Adolescents Substance Abuse Knowledge Base
Brower, K.J., Blow, F.C., & Beresford, T.P. (1989). Treatment Implications of Chemical Dependency Models: An Integrative Approach, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 6, 147-157.
Caan, W. & Belleroche, J.de, eds (2002). Drink, Drugs and Dependence: From Science to Clinical Practice (1st ed.). Routledge.
Alcoholism: Children of Alcoholic Parents
Alcoholism is a serious problem that affects millions of American families in unthinkable ways. More importantly is the effect on the children of problem drinkers, who often suffer from emotional and psychological problems as a result of parental alcohol abuse. Research on this topic has often revealed that children of alcoholic parents stand a greater chance of becoming alcoholics themselves. The manner in which a young person responds to a parent's drinking depends on such factors as the young person's personality, external support systems and family environment. The national Family and Parenting Institute Chief Executive, Mary McLeod, states "For most families where parents misuse alcohol, the drinking and its devastating effects are a secret, putting help out of reach. (Alcohol Concern, 2004)."
Alcohol Concern reports an estimated 920,000 children are currently living in a home where one or both parents misuse alcohol, with and 6.2%…
"Alcohol Concern." The National Agency on Alcohol Abuse. 2004. Alcohol
Concern. 29 Jan. 2005 < http://www.alcoholconcern.org.uk/servlets/doc/442 >.
Balding, J. "Young People in 2002: The Health Related Behavior Questionnaire
Results for 37,150 Young People Between the Ages of 10 and 15." Schools
This destructive pattern continues and you become a regular gambler before you have had a chance to reflect on the destructive nature of this activity.
A gambler doesn't or should we say cannot stop when he should. He keeps going back to those casinos and those poker games even though the activity fails to generate the same initially feeling of ecstasy. The question arises: why does he keep returning to this activity when it is clearly not generating any positive feelings anymore. The answer lies in the fact that it is a behavioral problem which is not easy to let go of just like lying or stealing for example. People who are habitual liars cannot stop lying simply by setting their mind to it. It becomes a habit which can only be helped by proper therapy. Alcoholism similarly affects a person's behavior and when a person repeatedly does the same…
hen Terri asks Mel is he is drunk, he becomes defensive because he realizes that something about his personality must be changing. In other words, he is getting drunk and behaving drunk but does not want to admit it and continues to drink to cover his emotions.
Perhaps the most compelling aspect of the story in relation to drinking is the fact that the characters are drinking as if it were second nature to them. They are drinking gin and it as if this is something they do every day. The gin and the water "kept going around" (Carver 170) the table and the coupes drink freely, conversing as if everything is normal. They are pouring gin into their glasses as if it is iced tea. hen Terri finishes the last of the first bottle of gin, she shakes the bottle and Mel simply gets up from the table, gets…
Brent, Liz. "Critical Essay on 'What We Talk About When We Talk About Love.'" Short Stories
for Students. 2001. GALE Resource Database. www.infotrac.galegroup.com Information
Retrieved April 20, 2009.
Carver, Raymond. "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love." Where I'm Calling
" In addition, many anthropologists have agreed that "cultural expectations define the ways in which drinking, both normal and abnormal, is done in a society" (Mandelbaum 1965: 288) (Wilcox, 1998). Comparisons of drinking behavior patterns across cultures suggest that, "like all other behaviors in any given cultural system, were based on cultural expectations. Who drank and when and how much they drank was determined by custom" (Wilcox, 1998). For example, in Ireland, where alcoholism is a major problem, alcohol use is frowned upon yet considered "a good man's failing." As in America, use is prohibited until age 21; most drinking occurs in bars rather than the home. In contrast, there is very little alcoholism in Italy. In that country, drinking with meals is ubiquitous and common even among children; however, intoxication is viewed negatively. (Vaillant, Hiller-Sturmhofel, & Susanne, 1996) One might argue that Italian children view alcohol no differently than…
Begleiter, H., Reich, T., Hesselbrock, V., & Porjesz, B. (1995). The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Alcohol Health and Research World, 228+.
Berkow, R., & al, e. (1997). The Merck Manual of Medical Information. West Point, PA: Merck and Co.
Chafetz, M., & Demone, H. (1962). Alcoholism and Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fals-Stewart, W., O'Farrell, T., Birchler, G., Cordova, J., & Kelley, M. (2005). Behavioral Couples Therapy for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse: Where We've Been, Where We Are, and Where We're Going. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 229+.
This negative imagery causes the reader to ask, after such an effective start -- what is the purpose of this essay? Is the idea that adult children of alcoholics suffer really such a radical claim? The tone of the essay, beginning in a scene of bleakness, gests darker as it seems to foster a sense of despair rather than hope, without real evidence for such bleakness beyond the anecdotal and poetic evidence provided by the essay.
Shifting to the register of logos once again, the essay, to educate the reader beyond the information provided by the author's own experience gives a textbook, generic definition of alcoholism, which the author says lacks even an educational function because it is so broad and does not take into consideration the consequences of alcoholism. "Denial," is part of the illness, and alcoholism has "genetic, social, and environmental" causes (53). The author criticizes the definition…
Who are the real victims of alcoholism?" From Reading Literature and Writing
Argument. 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall, 2007.
Alcoholism and the DSM-IV-T
Alcoholism is a serious problem in our society. Alcoholism is a "disabling addictive disorder" (Wikipedia, 2011). It is a compulsive behavior by the individual, where he/she is unable to control their consumption of alcohol despite the negative effects of drinking. Alcoholism affects the drinker's health, social and work relationships, which in much case can impact their financial standings and judgment. The abuse of alcohol is a common problem, and one that should be taken seriously because it affects the victims in significant ways. The abuse of alcohol can impact the lives of those that are abusing alcohol as well as families and friends. People's behaviors, attitudes and priorities often change when they are addicted to alcohol.
As a Psychologist or Social Worker, we utilize the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) to make decisions about the patient's health. The DSM-IV has specific standards for diagnosing a person…
Alcoholism Facts, Initials. (2011). Treatment alcoholism. Retrieved from http://www.about-alcoholism-facts.com/Treating_Alcoholism.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Initials. (2010, October 22). Alcohol use. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/alcohol.htm
Dell, E.Y. (2006). Detoxification: Not Just for Addicts Anymore. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet. 10 (3) 105-109.
Emmite, D. & Swiezewski, S.J. (2001). Alcohol Abuse Diagnosis. Health and Wellness Remedy Life. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealthchannel.net/alcohol/diagnosis.shtml
Alcoholism is considered as a family disease wherein a person consuming alcohol can completely upset a household and create damaging consequences which can be a lifelong problem. (Alcoholism and Its Effect on the Family) In excess of 28 million Americans are children of alcoholics and about 11 million are below 18 years of age. (Children of Addicted Parents: Important Facts) Children of Alcoholics -- COA's are four times more susceptible to develop alcoholism compared to non-COAs. Genetic causes contribute a significant part in the development of alcoholism. The perceptions of children with regard to the parental drinking amount and situations seem to impact their own drinking rate. The alcohol expectancies among children echo recognition of alcohol-linked norms and a cognizance of drinking model of parents from very initial ages. Alcohol consumption by the parents put an influence upon children's early learning regarding alcohol and other drugs. (Children of Alcoholics: Important…
Children of Addicted Parents: Important Facts. National Association for Children of Alcoholics. Retrieved from http://www.nacoa.net/pdfs/addicted.pdf Accessed on 16 April, 2005
Children of Alcoholics: Important Facts. Retrieved from http://www.health.org/nongovpubs/coafacts / Accessed on 16 April, 2005
Parsons, Tetyana. Alcoholism and Its Effect on the Family. AllPsych Journal. December 14, 2003. Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/journal/alcoholism.html Accessed on 16 April, 2005
35). but, as Brown and Lewis (1999) note even when alcoholics begin the recovery process, it is not a quick fix, continuing tension may remain for years, continuing to negatively affect the individual's family and work life. Despite the fact that there have been important advances in the integration of biological and neurocognitive findings (Leonard & Howard, 1999), there is still much to learn about the disease and how best to treat it. Too often the case alcoholism is fought, but not won (alsh, 2004).
Brown, S., & Lewis, V. (1999). The alcoholic family in recovery. New York: Giliford Press.
Chafetz, M., & Harold, D. (1962). Alcoholism and society. New York: Guiliford Press.
Denzin, N. (1987). The alcoholic self. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Kolata, G. (1988).Alcoholic Genes or Misbehavior? Psychology Today. 22, 34-38.
Leonard, K., & Howard, B. (1999). Psychological Theories of Drinking and Alcoholism. New York: Guiliford…
Walsh, P. (2004, 4, 25). Walshy: tipping the balance in fight against alcoholism. The people, p. 28.
Wilcox, D.M. (1998). Alcoholic thinking language, culture, and belief in alcoholics anonymous. Westport, CT.: Praeger Publishers.
Alcohol addiction is a disease that cannot be solved without proper treatment. Children of alcoholic parents have certain specific attitudes in common about alcoholism in the family. In a healthy family, there is a strong emotional bond between mother and child, however if the mother is an alcoholic, that bond is often dysfunctional or nonexistent. Similarly, if the dad is alcoholic, the bond becomes one of anxiety and risk for the kids. When both parents in the family are alcoholic, the challenges are intensified. There may be evidence of neglect, both emotional and physical, which may lead to a greater possibility that the children will end up in foster care.
The parents who are addicted to drinking often feel pressured with the demands of their kids. They do not like to play or talk with their kids and remain isolated from their activities. This kind of neglect from alcoholic…
Joshi P. Kaschak D. Exposure to violence and trauma: questionnaire for adolescents. International Review of Psychiatry 10, 1998, 208 -- 215
Kashubeck, S. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Psychological Distress.
Journal Of Counseling And Development., May, 1994, 538-43.
Sexias, J. And Youcha, G. Children of Alcoholism: A Survivor's Manual. New York: Harper and Row, 1989.
e. unbiased -- in its reach. They are very careful to examine the ramifications and implications of each facet of their conclusions. As an example, they note that the shift to outpatient treatment has been generally more effective for many patients with alcoholism, but at the same time this has reduced the number of beds available (and institutions, though the authors do not come to this direct conclusion) for inpatient treatment, which is still necessary and/or recommended in some cases. This ability and willingness to examine all sides of the issue is the greatest proof of the logic of these author's conclusions.
The findings presented in this article also have a high degree of utility for social workers and social work in general. Alcoholism has been and largely still is considered a life sentence. It has been viewed as a disease that the patient must spend the rest of their…
From the perspective of Cunningham, Sobell, & Sobell, et al. (1993), as well as
Hajema, Knobbed, & Drop, (1999), the fact that Glenn has not yet experienced any significantly negative consequences attributable to his alcohol consumption operates as a specific risk factor in it continuation. Similarly, because adverse consequences of addiction is ordinarily the primary motivation for patients' acknowledgment of the problem or their seeking any treatment independently, the absence of specific consequences (Hajema, Knobbed, & Drop, 1999) and the positive reinforcement of his peers (Begun, 1993) both contribute to Glenn's failure to recognize his increasing alcoholism.
Furthermore, the fact that alcohol is available in Glenn's home presents an additional risk factor, because it facilitates his drinking at home in the setting where
Glenn specifically resorts to alcohol as a coping mechanism. Drinking precipitated by such use for this purpose is associated with greater risk in terms of developing alcoholism…
Begun, AL. "Human behavior and the social environment: the vulnerability, risk, and resilience model." Journal of Social Work Education 1993; 29(1): 26-36.
Retrieved April 9, 2009, from www.epnet.com.
Cunningham, JA; Sobell, LC; Sobell, MB; Agrawal, S; Toneatte, T. "Barriers to treatment: Why alcohol and drug abusers delay or never seek treatment"
Addictive Behaviors 1993; 18(3):347 -- 353. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from www.CengageResearch.com.
The level of accountability of the parents plays a huge role in influencing the drinking habit of the students. In a study that was conducted by Brigham Young University, it was found that when the youth feel their parents are directly accountable for them and that they receive warmth from their parents, they become least prone to drinking. For parents who are permissive or indulgent in the lives of their children, they triple the risk of their children being binge drinkers are a result of their low accountability but high warmth. Strict or authoritarian parents also double the risk of their children becoming alcoholics as a result of being high on accountability but low on warmth (Changalwa, Ndurumo, Barasa, & Poipoi, 2012).
Parents who teach their children in the religious ways also greatly reduce the outcome of the children as alcoholics since they are high on accountability and warmth (Jacob…
However, an important thing to note is that the parents and their parenting style do not influence whether the children try alcohol. What they influence is the outcome of the children as binge drinkers or alcoholics. The important issue is that the parents need to understand that they are not controlling the behavior of their children rather they need to combine warmth, accountability and love in order to make a balanced parenting style that is able to effectively prevent them from becoming alcoholics (Kusmierski, Nichols, & McDonnell).
Authoritative parents monitor their kids closely and they give a lot of support and warmth to their children. They are essentially very hands-on parents and loving which creates an environment that is conducive for the children to make the right decision and to be able to avoid alcoholism at all costs. For the authoritarian parents, they are strict but not necessarily warm. This makes the children have a sense of rebellion against the parents which may lead them to fall to peer pressure and become binge drinkers. For the indulgent parenting style, the parent is loving but is unlikely to punish the child for any wrong doing. This makes the child feel that even though they may do something wrong, there is no repercussion and thus may lead them to become binge drinkers. The last style which is the neglectful style is embodied by lack of warmth and accountability from the parents which may make the child become a binge drinker in order to compensate for the lack of the feeling of warmth and love from the parents (Hanson, Venturelli, & Fleckenstein, 2011).
The academy of pediatrics as well as other children's health organizations have found that children who have authoritative parents become independent, successful in social circles and have respect for authority which is part of what leads them astray from binge drinking. The academy has also emphasized on the importance of early drug
So, for example, if marijuana had become legalized during the course of the study, drug use might have gone up regardless of the mental health status of the subjects. he most effective way in which to guard against threats to internal validity while honoring the necessity in some cases for the use of a longitudinal studies is to assess events that have occurred in the environment. he study could also be supplemented with one-time interviews with individuals who had recently lost their spouses and those who had not, matching the two groups as closely as possible in other ways.
hreats to external validity are less important in quasi-experimental than in experimental design; this said, the primary threat to experimental validity in this case is the small sample size.
Deskovitz, M., Key, D.Hill, E.M., & Franklin, J.. (2004). A long-term family-oriented treatment for adolescents with substance-related disorders: An outcome study. Child…
Threats to external validity are less important in quasi-experimental than in experimental design; this said, the primary threat to experimental validity in this case is the small sample size.
Deskovitz, M., Key, D.Hill, E.M., & Franklin, J.T. (2004). A long-term family-oriented treatment for adolescents with substance-related disorders: An outcome study. Child and adolescent social work journal 21(3): 265-284.
The above study surveyed individuals who had completed a long-term day treatment facility for substance abuse over a five-year period. It utilized an experimental technique by including all of the graduates in the subject pool. The authors examined the series of survey results to derive what factors pushed some subjects into abstinence while others relapsed. They concluded that those who felt that they had "hit bottom" were the ones who could maintain sobriety.
alcoholism and disorders in the human genes. A lot of diseases have been linked to human gene disorders and research is on-going. The article has five references.
Alcoholism has been recognized as a disease in which there is a desire to consume alcohol. The symptoms of alcoholism include a craving for alcohol, not being able to stop when drinking and consuming large amounts of the substance, exhibition of withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating, shakiness and anxiety when not being able to consume alcohol. The disease is also characterized by development of a tolerance of alcohol so that large quantity of alcohol needs to be consumed in order to get high. [NIAAA. 2002].
It has been recognized that there is a tendency for children to inherit the drinking problems of their parents and therefore alcoholism is a genetically influenced disorder. [NCBI. 2003].
This essay looks at the genetic connection of…
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA). "FAQ's on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism." May 14, 2002 at http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/faq/faq.htm
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). "#103780 Alcoholism." August 15, 2003 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Omim/dispmim?103780
The Nemours Foundation. "The Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders." May 2002 at http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/health_basics/genes_genetic_disorders_p3.html
Centre for Genetic Education. "Gene Therapy." May 2002 at http://www.genetics.com.au/Genetics2003/FactSheets/14.asp
Considerable neurological evidence indicates that the prefrontal cortex mediates complex "executive" functions including behavioral autonomy and self-control. Given that impairments of self-control are characteristic of alcoholism and other drug addictions, frontal lobe dysfunction may play a significant role in such compulsive behaviors." (Lyvers 2000-page 232)
ith so many various and widely divergent types of studies concentrating on the same medical area in regards to alcoholism as an addiction rather than as a disease, it would seem that contrary evidence would be forthcoming from those who wish to see alcoholism remain as a disease rather than the addiction that it is. These people can normally be found in governmental roles of authority, which roles behoove the individuals to act in a certain way. This way of acting is in itself another finger of evidence that shows alcoholism is the addiction this paper espouses it is. If these authoritative individuals were more…
Herz, A.,(1997) Endogenous Opioid Systems and Alcohol Addiction, Psychopharmacology, Vol. 129, Issue 2 pp. 99 -111
Lyvers, M., (2000) Loss of Control in Alcoholism and Drug Addiction: a Neuroscientific Interpretation, Exp Clin Psychopharmacol, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp 225-249
Volkow, N.D., Fowler, J.S., (2000) Addiction, a Disease of Compulsion and Drive: Involvement of the Orbitofrontal Cortex, Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 10, Issue 3, pp 318-325
I also began to realize that due to the fact that any family is a complex and often unique entity in itself, that there are many subtle and underlying aspects to alcoholism in the family that are often not visible at first sight. Many of the interviewees when describing their feelings as children noted a sense of guilt and a sense that in some way, through bad behavior or poor school performance, they were to blame for the actions of the alcoholic parent. This made me even more aware of the severe impact that alcoholism in the family can have on children. Many of the interviewees who described this feeling of guilt were elderly and it became obvious that in some cases this feeling of guilt had not been dealt with or eradicated and still persisted to a certain extent. The parents in the interviews who had children who had…
Alcoholism F.A.Q. Retrieved 13 December, 2006, at http://www.narcononstonehawk.com/rehab-faq-alcoholism.php
Arentzen WP. Impact of alcohol misuse on family life. Retrieved 13 December, 2006, at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=367203&dopt=Abstract www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001368966
Baer, J.S., Barr, H.M., Bookstein, F.L., Sampson, P.D., & Streissguth, A.P. (1998). Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Family History of Alcoholism in the Etiology of Adolescent Alcohol Problems. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(5), 533+. Retrieved December 14, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001368966 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53351833
Chafetz, M.E., & Demone, H.W. (1962). Alcoholism and Society. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 14, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53351833 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000283771
Case studies provide the opportunity to gather and categorize data in a variety of methods and settings so that it can be extracted for use in later studies as well. The allow the participant to feel less of a participant and more of a casual conversation team member which in turn may open the lines of communication and provide a more thorough examination of the issue being studied. For the purpose of this study the researcher believes that a case study method is the most valuable tool to use.
The sampling of participants will be derived from Native Americans between the ages of 16 and 45. The participants will be located through their entrance and admittance to local health care facilities with alcohol being listed as an issue in their lives or health needs.
The population will be Native Americans entering health care facilities while the participant group will…
This type is more prone to binge drinking, where a great amount of alcohol is consumed in a short period of time, resulting in alcohol poisoning and even death. This type also drinks less frequently, perhaps one or twice a week. The second type is the young antisocial drinker, generally between 25 and 30 years of age. These types are usually seen as having an antisocial personality and began drinking in their early teen years. They also tend to use illegal drugs more often, especially marijuana.
The third type is the functional drinker who is generally between 35 and 45 years of age and holds down a good job and provides for his/her family. They also tend to be better educated than the first two types and are employed in high-paying positions, such as bankers, stockbrokers, lawyers and even physicians. This type does not generally consume alcohol on a daily…
exist between alcoholism as a learned behavior (rather than as a condition arising from any genetic predisposition) and self-esteem. This research is based upon the assumption that there is a direct connection between self-esteem and learned behaviors: While a person's self-esteem may of course be affected by inherited conditions (such as a birth defect) it is much more likely to be affected by conditions that the person believes that he or she has control over. Thus, to the extent that alcoholism is a learned behavior and to the extent that alcoholics believe that their condition is a learned behavior they are likely to suffer from lowered self-esteem for as long as they continue to drink.
Our attitudes about alcoholism have changed dramatically over the last fifty years as our conception of the condition - which causes so much harm and so much grief to so many people, including both the…
Bergin, A.E. & Garfield, S.L. (1994). Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change, 4th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Clark, D.M. & Fairburn, C.G. (eds.) (1997). Science and practice of cognitive-behavior therapy. New York: Oxford University.
Dalgliesh, T. etal. (eds.) (1999). Handbook of cognition and emotion. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Eich, E. (ed.) (2000). Cognition and emotion. Oxford: Oxford University.
The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.
In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.
Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
Organization, World Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 June 2011.
"Survey: people still unsure whether alcoholism is disease or moral weakness." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly 17.40 (2005): 1-5. Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
Genetic Link of Alcoholism
Introduction great deal of attention and research has recently been concentrated on the genetic link of alcoholism and on the possibility of accounting genetically for drunken behavior. Early studies found reliable genetic transmission of alcoholism. Much of this research focused on the offspring of alcoholics and on the biochemical or neurological abnormalities they inherit that possibly lead to pathological drinking. Other studies focused on a gestalt of personality traits (concentrating on impulsiveness and antisocial activity) that can end in alcoholism.
According to Holden (1985, p. 38), "A decade ago such a theory (of inherited antisocial personality and alcoholism) would have been dismissed as out of hand." Today, this viewpoint has gained broad acceptance amongst psychologists. New research has created more detailed deterministic models of alcoholism based on biological concepts models, which have had a significant impact on the thinking of both public and clinical workers.
Goodwin, D (1991). The genetics of alcoholism. In McHugh, PR & McKusick, VA (Eds.) Genes, Brain and Behavior. New York: Raven Press Ltd.
Holden, C. (1985), Genes, personality and alcoholism. Psychol. Today 19 (No. 1): 38-39, 42-44.
Murray, Robin M. And Stabenau, James R. (1982). Genetic Factors in Alcoholism Predisposition. Encyclopedic Handbook of Aloholism. New York: Gardner Press Inc.: 135-143.
O'Connor, Sean. (2002). Self-reported subjective perception of intoxication reflects family history of alcoholism when breath alcohol levels are constant. Alcohol Clinic Review.
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test
It is assessed that at least 20 out of a hundred of adults who visit a physician have had an alcohol issue at one time. Also, in a survey of patients self-proclaimed to an inpatient service, 15 to 30 out of a hundred screened definitely for alcoholism. However, numerous recent studies designate that physicians in numerous health care settings often do not identify and treat alcoholism (Drake, 2013). These answers underline the need for effective and correct events that will allow clinicians to screen for alcoholism. One of these test are used to do this are the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Established in 1971, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) is one of the most accurate and oldest alcohol screening tests accessible, effective in classifying dependent drinkers with up to 98% accuracy.
Purpose for the instrument
It is evident the MAST is considered to be one…
Ball, J.D. (201). Time requirements of psychological testing: A survey of practitioners. Journal of Personality Assessment, 17(6), 34.
Butcher, J.N. (203). Clinical personality assessment. Annual Review of Psychology (12), 385-401.
Clark, H.W. (2012). Residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and postpartum women and their children:Treatmen. Child Welfare, 45(8), 80.
De-Micheli, D. & . (2012). Screen of drug use in a teenage Brazilian sample using the drug use screening inventory. Addictive Behavior, 25(5), 683-691.
Correlation of Alcoholism to Parenting Styles
Correlation of Parenting Styles to Alcohol Drinking Frequency in the Brooklyn Modern Orthodox Jewish Community.
Do the parenting styles in the Modern Orthodox Jewish community differentially correlate with self-reported alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males within the Orthodox Brooklyn Borough Park community (18-26)?
In general, the four parenting styles have a significant correlation on the behavior and attitudes of youngsters in college (Beck et al., 2004). Further investigation is required to demonstrate how these parenting styles correlate with the population in the Borough Park Jewish community. It has been demonstrated that college freshmen from different universities can be indulged in alcoholic habits given different parenting styles (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008).
The freshmen are increasingly using internet thus they preferred to be surveyed online too, rather than being handed questionnaires on paper (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008). The…
Yang et al. (2010) suggested that parents can play an effective role in controlling the behavior of freshmen to avoid alcohol use. Hence, there should be friendly and effective communication between parents and children in the growing ages of youth, since the children can seek advice from the parents in the process (Yang et al., 2010). Bowlby & Ainsworth (1982), discussed that the attachment and relationship between parents and children improved when they communicated more often and thus a good parenting style can make it easier for the children to overcome problem barriers later (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The child personality visibly gets affected by any of the parenting styles (i.e. Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved) (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The level of influence however may vary.
Unreasonably high interference during the years of college or very low involvements is not productive factors in avoiding frequency of alcohol use (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The freshmen that have stressed (strained) relationships with parents are found to easily fall prey to alcohol use as well as abuse (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). Since to them, relationships are not very important, they are less worried about their personal health too (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007).
In severe cases, where the children are the victims of psychological stress at home based on a
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction
Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview
PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma
Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD
Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion
Genetic and Environmental Influences
Models of Assessment/Conclusions
Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"
This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.
A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…
References" f C l "1":
Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90
Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135
Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).
'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
(Potter-Efron, 2007). Both alcoholics and domestic violence offenders seem to be out of control at times, especially to their victims. (Potter-Efron, 2007). Finally, both family violence and alcoholism create tension in families, which can lead to an increase in assaultive behavior or alcoholic binges, making both problems very self-perpetuating. (Potter-Efron, 2007).
In addition, the drinking behavior can be a catalyst for family assaults. This is rarely due to the fact that non-violent people become violent when drunk. However, alcohol use lowers inhibitions, making it more likely that an abusive person will resort to violence. Furthermore, many abusers may actively seek to become intoxicated prior to abusing, knowing that their victims, and the rest of society, are less likely to hold them accountable for their abusive behavior when they are intoxicated. Therefore, it is quite likely that drinking patterns will establish abuse patterns in a household. For example, children may "keep…
Dryden-Edwards, R. (2008). Domestic violence. Retrieved August 3, 2008, from MedicineNet.com
Web site: http://www.medicinenet.com/domestic_violence/article.htm
Jordan, C., Nietzel, M., Walker, R., & Logan, T.K. (2004). Intimate partner violence. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Potter-Efron, R. (2007). Anger, aggression, domestic violence, and substance abuse. In Hamel, J. & T. Nicholls. Family interventions in domestic violence: a handbook of gender-inclusive theory and treatment. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Moreover, even content-based restriction would be irrelevant to the competitive strength of market competitors, since they would apply across the board and to all equally. The only likely negative effect on manufacturers of alcohol products is precisely the objective that increased regulation of the content of alcohol product advertising would hope to achieve: namely, reducing the instances of new users responding to advertising and reducing the ability of manufacturers to drive consumer behavior through deliberate psychological manipulation.
In principle, the most appropriate distinction would be between content that presents specific objective attributes of the product (i.e. taste, quality, versatility, company reputation, etc.) and content that is expressly designed to exploit known psychological and social tendencies conducive to increasing alcohol consumption. In practice, alcohol product advertising copy that promoted flavor and quality, (for example), would be permitted; conversely, advertising copy that exploited the psychological influence of sex appeal, social popularity, or…
Dershowitz A. (2006). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Fisher G.L. (2006). Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social
Workers, Therapists and Counselors. New Jersey: Allyn & Bacon.
This chemical is called orexin, which is involved in the pleasure experienced after taking alcohol or drugs. Experiments with rats showed that they stopped drinking freely available alcohol when a drug stopped orexin's euphoric effects. Furthermore, rats taken off alcohol and then given the drug did not relapse when they were placed in an alcohol-associated environment. One of the researchers, Andrew Lawrence, surmised that a drug could be developed to block the orexin system in human beings to stop the craving for alcohol. It could also prevent relapse among recovering alcoholics (Chemistry and Industry).
In an addiction forum in Park City, a reformed drunk, Jack Trimpey, criticized alcohol recovery programs as ineffective (Thalman, 2003). He explained that most of these programs are premised on the belief that alcoholics or addicts are powerless against that urge to drink or get high. Yet, according to him, addicts do not need to run…
Armeli, S., et al. (2008). A serotonin transporter-gene polymorphism, drinking-to-cope motivation and negative life evens among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol: CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on January 31,2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6378/is_6_69/ai_n31027520?tag=content;col1
Chemistry and Industry (2008). Treatment for alcoholism. Society and Chemical Industry: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved on January31, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5255/is_24/ai_n29315566?tag=content;col1
Deseret Editor (2008). Fight stereotype and alcohol. Deseret News: Deseret News Publishing. Retrieved on January 31, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20080904/ai_n28065126?tag=content;col1
Homish, G.G. And Leonard, K.F. (2008). The social network and alcohol use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol: CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on January 31, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6378/is_6_69/ai_n31027529?tag-content;col1
As mentioned, both Antonio and amon described that their need for alcohol increased significantly during times of increased stress. Both related a self-medicating process whereby they utilized alcohol as a means of escape from their worries and troubles. With the accuracy of sober 20/20 hindsight, both men explained how they can now see how this process merely set into motion a vicious cycle. Drinking beget problems and stress, which beget more drinking, and more problems and stress.
In addition, both men indicated that drinking had interrupted their sleep patterns significantly. Staying up until all hours of the night drinking was not an uncommon lifestyle facet, for both men. This often led to passing out in the wee hours of the morning and not awakening until early afternoon or later. Excessive drinking often also led to spontaneous 'naps' in the middle of the day, which would lead to being unable to…
Etiology of Campus Binge Drinking
Drinking and Alcoholism
A Failed Experiment in Social Control
The consumption of alcohol has always been a focus of government efforts to limits its use, due to the potential for abuse, the financial burden imposed upon social programs, and its association with criminal activity. Between 1920 and 1934 the consumption of alcohol was outlawed in the United States, with the intention of addressing these social problems. During the first year following the enactment of Prohibition, alcohol-related deaths, psychosis, and arrests all declined by 20-40%, but between 1921 and 1927 these measures reveal a sharp increase to near pre-Prohibition levels (Miron and Zwiebel, 1991). By the end of Prohibition, which correlates with the start of the Great Depression, alcohol consumption leveled out at around 60-70% of pre-Prohibition levels despite costing three times as much for a drink. Given the infamous criminal activity that emerged around the…
Amethyst Initiative. (2008). Amethyst Initiative: Rethinking the drinking age. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from http://www.amethystinitiative.org/statement/
Beseler, Cheryl L., Taylor, Laura A., Leeman, Robert F. (2010). Alcohol-Use Disorder criteria and "binge" drinking in undergraduates. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 418-423.
Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., and Beirut, Laura J. (2009). Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 692-702.
Leppel, Karen. (2006). College binge drinking: Deviant vs. mainstream behavior. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32, 519-525.
McKella, J., Stewat, E., & Humpheys, K. (Apil, 2003). Alcoholics Anonymous: Involvement and Positive Alcohol-Related Outcomes: Cause, Consequence, o Just a Coelate? A Pospective 2-Yea Study of 2,319 Alcohol-Dependent Men. Jounal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology; 71 (2): 302-308.
McKella, Stewat, and Humpheys study the causality between A.A. involvement and positive alcohol elated outcomes in 2319 male subjects (p. 304). Thei model included involvement afte 1 yea of sobiety in elation to a 2-yea follow-up, examining the levels of alcohol elated poblems (p. 305). Thei findings include that the paticipation in the A.A. pogam can have a positive effect of alcohol-elated poblems, independent fom motivation factos o psychopathology (p. 306-308).
This souce is impotant because the study was done in a scientific manne, with a contol goup and sound methodology (p. 303-305). The study involves analysis of pevious woks, using the same hypothesis (p. 302-303), and comes to the same…
references so that the research can be reviewed by the reader (p. 560-561, p. 566). Also the journal in which the study was published is a reputable journal, so the results and study can be trusted for validity.
Call Number: AN 6582532, EBSCO Host
Vick, R. (Fall, 2002). Questioning the Use of Alcoholics Anonymous With College Students: Is an Old Concept the Only Alternative for a New Generation? Journal of College Counseling, 3 (2): 158-168.
Vick examines the effectiveness of A.A. within the college student subset of the population (p.160-161), and includes research in the area of A.A. related treatment (p. 160). In addition, Vick focuses on the reasons why A.A. may not be the best solution for college students (p. 160-161). Research of the prevalence of drinking in college students is also provided (p. 185-159). Alternative approaches which may be more effective than A.A. are also evaluated (p. 161-164). Vick concludes that, for many college students, alternative treatment methods are more successful than A.A for college students (p. 164-165).
This article is important because it shows that A.A. may not be the best treatment solution for all areas of the population (p. 164). In addition, relevant research is evaluated (p. 160-197), and appropriate citation is given at the end of the article (p. 168). Alternate methods are evaluated, providing a counter point to other studies (p. 161-165). In addition, the journal in which the article is published is a well-known, credible source of information.
Treating Alcoholism presents therapists with multi-dimensional issues -- multicultural understanding and contextual setting of the client (profession, family, history, work conditions and exposure to extraordinary conditions, in the case of those serving in the military), dominates these settings within which psychotherapists are required to work. Lack of adequate and healthy outlet for feelings; absence of recreation, often lead to excessive, and harmful drinking. Yet, each case is an independent experience requiring the therapist to be flexible, yet focused on creating value at all times. As such, a therapist's work with each client may be termed aptly as a 'discovery'.
A psychologist deals with interpersonal exchanges using a worldview (i.e., group of attitudes) that aids in shaping their opinion of other people. Their worldview is partly governed by cultural experiences. In fact, multicultural and cross-cultural literature constantly highlight the following facts (Duncan, 2010):
1) Man is a multicultural being (Duncan, 2010);…
American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist. 58(5), 377-402
Ames, G., & Cunradi, C. (2012). Alcohol Use and Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Among Young Adults in the Military. NIAAA.
Duncan, B. (2010). On becoming a better therapist. American Psychological Society. American Psychological Association, 152.
Furuya, S., (2015). ASAP Triage (brief screen case note) for Confidential treatment program.
Negative Impact of Alcohol on Exotic Dancers
Exotic dancing and the women who engage in this exercise can be negatively impacted by the effects of alcohol in a number of ways. As Wesely (2003) notes, alcohol can become a big problem for exotic dancers as they attempt to navigate the body-identity/body-boundaries of the world in which they seek to earn a living. By making themselves "fluid" from one customer to the next, they adopt a chameleon-like existence and the use of alcohol becomes a major factor in the facilitation of this character-bending. It is almost like participating in an altered state, and the use of alcohol can turn into a dependency for exotic dancers as they struggle to cope with "effects on identity" that their "fluidity" imposes upon them (Wesely, 2003, p. 483).
Maticka-Tyndale, Lewis, Clark, Zubick and Young (2000) show that the problem of alcohol as it relates to…
Maticka-Tyndale, E., Lewis, J., Clark, J., Zubick, J., Young, S. (2000). Exotic dancing and health. Women and Health, 31(1): 87-108.
Ross, C., Durkin, V. (2005). Childhood trauma, dissociation and alcohol/other drug abuse among lesbian women. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 23(1): 99-105.
Wahab, S., Baker, L., Smith, J., Cooper, K., Lerum, K. (2011). Exotic dance research:
A review of the literature from 1970 to 2008. Sexuality and Culture, 15(1): 56-79.
vignette pertaining to addiction. Ethical and legal factors will be considered. Also discussed will be cross cultural matters related to the topic. Possible solutions to the issue at hand will also be considered.
Middle-aged couple, Anna and James, drops in for an appointment as Kevin, their son aged 16 years, faces suspension from school because of 'drug paraphernalia' found in his school bag. While James is Native-American, Anna is Japanese-American. James goes on to say that it is all Anna's fault, stating that she has smoked pot on a daily basis for the most part of their married life. Anna is of the view that she at least isn't a slobbering drunk like James, further elucidating that James over-indulges in drinking alcohol on weekends. It is discovered, in the course of assessment that James as well as Anna come from alcoholic homes.
Much is to be taken into…
(n.d.).CASAColumbia - Addiction Science, Prevention & Treatment Research. Designing an Addiction Treatment Plan | CASAColumbia. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.casacolumbia.org/addiction-treatment/treatment-plan
(n.d.). Internet Archive: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music & Wayback Machine. DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror).Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n637/mode/2up
(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4 Integrated Models for Treating Family Members - Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy - NCBI Bookshelf.Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64266/
(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4: Screening and Assessment - Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women - NCBI Bookshelf. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83253/
How can the trend toward increased alcohol consumption in teenagers be reduced? The answer to this critical societal question is being addressed by a number of researchers. It is believed that advertising offers a potential explanation for the rise.
In 1999, the .S. Federal Trade Commission called for the alcohol industry to modify its practices in order to limit underage exposure to alcohol advertising (Federal Trade Commission [FTC], 1999). According to a report by the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY, 2002), however, the industry may not have responded. According to guidelines announced in September 2003 by the Beer Institute and the Distilled Spirits Council of the nited States, underage youth should not constitute more than 30% of the audience for alcohol advertisements. The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) at Georgetown niversity recently found that more than 25% of the radio commercials that aired for…
U.S. Federal Trade Commission (1999). FTC Reports on Industry Efforts to Avoid Promoting Alcohol to Underage Consumers (FTC Press Release). Available: http://www.ftc.gov/opa / 1999/9909/alcoholrep.htm. Retrieved: November 20, 2002
US Newswire (2003) " African-American Youth Overexposed to Alcohol Advertising, According to Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth." 1066.
US Newswire ( 2003) "Hispanic Youth Exposed to More Alcohol Advertising Than Non-Hispanic Youth, Report Finds." 1008.
The author of this report has been asked to assess the situation of a single mother of three kids. The mother is very paranoid about losing her children but there are some very real concerns in terms of what the mother is apparently doing and how some of the children are acting. The author is asked to answer a number of questions. These include how the professionals could and should collaborate so as to best serve both the mother and the children involved in the situation, from an ethical and legal standpoint of course. The role of each professional in the situation will be discussed in detail. The function that each professional would serve will be discussed. The author is also going to place one's self as the "lead" person on the team and will then describe what could and should happen in relation to this situation and…
Fabia-czyk, K. (2011). Decision making on ambiguous stimuli such as prosody by subjects suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and without psychiatric diagnosis. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 64(1), 53-68.
Lo, C. C., Monge, A. N., Howell, R. J., & Cheng, T. C. (2013). The Role of Mental Illness in Alcohol Abuse and Prescription Drug Misuse: Gender-Specific Analysis of College
Students. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(1), 39-47.
Alcoholism and Upbringing
James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles
Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy
Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child
The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile
An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem
Personality and sociological theory
An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks
Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…
Plant, M.A., Peck, D.F., Samuel, E., & Stuart, R. (2000). Alcohol, drugs, and school-leavers.
London: Tavistock Publications.
Thorburn, D. (2005). Alcoholism myths and realities: Removing the stigma of society's most destructive disease. Northridge, Calif: Galt Pub.
Floyd, M.R., & Seale, J.P. (2002). Substance abuse: A patient-centered approach. Abingdon,
There has been an ever increasing trend of young people getting to the habit of too much drinking. This is rampant at the point where these youth become of legal age and to majority, that acts as the go ahead to binge drinking and absolute abuse of alcohol. There are various issues that are related to excessive drinking especially among the youth. These risks are emanated as one moves from one category to another as of these categories formed by the HNS (2010);
Lower-risk drinkers -- who are the teenagers drinking between 2-3 units and are at a lower risk of causing themselves health risks in the future. However they may be exposed to injury if operating machinery, dangerous driving, risk or drowning if planning to go swimming alone without peers, babies may be affected in the womb for teenagers who get pregnant these among other minor risks.
HNS (2010). The risks of drinking too much. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/alcohol/Pages/Effectsofalcohol.aspx
Men's health (2012). 4 Strange Reasons You Drink Too Much. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://news.menshealth.com/reasons-for-binge-drinking/2012/01/21/
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, (2012). Underage Drinking: Why Do Adolescents Drink, What Are the Risks, and How Can Underage Drinking Be Prevented? Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm
Psyco-Social Dynamics of Alcoholic Addiction Family
Alcoholism is a disease.
It affects the entire family and creates an environment of dysfunction and disorganization.
ithin the family, the social and psychological ramifications of alcoholism affect the alcoholic, his or her spouse, and the children.
Children Supporting Paragraph
Children must cope with the effects of an alcoholic on the family (disorganization).
There are five roles which serve as coping mechanisms.
The mascot, placater, acting out child, lost child, responsible child.
Child Roles Supporting Paragraph
Roles either make things better or worse.
The responsible child excels
The mascot and placater child intermediate.
The former does so from foolery, the second from caring.
The lost child disassociates.
The acting out child gets in trouble.
Spouse Supporting Paragraph
A. Spouses are more of a determinant of an alcoholic's behavior than children.
B. Spouses have three perspectives on actions of the alcoholic.
1. They like alcoholism…
Devine, Cindy and Valerie Braithwaite. "The Survival Roles of Children and Alcoholics: Their Measurement and Validity." Addiction 88.1: 69-78. 1993. Print.
Glover, Geraldine. "The Hero Child in the Alcoholic Home: Recommendations for Counselors." School Counselor 41: 185-191. 1994. Print.
Janzen, Curtis. "Family Treatment for Alcoholism: A Review." Social Work 23.2: 135-144. 1978. Print.
Johnson, Patrick. "Dimensions of Functioning in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Families." Journal of Mental Counseling 23 (2001): 127-136
Scientists need to do much more research in the area of female alcohol abuse, and sounder methods of treating this debilitating disease need to be developed. Society treats women alcoholics differently from men - there is still a stigma that alcoholic women are weak, unfit for work or family, and even more sexually active. Until this stigma is removed, many women will not seek out treatment, and who knows how many will die as a result. Women alcoholics still need research, but they also need understanding and support to treat and conquer their disease.
Carter, C.S. (1997). Ladies don't: A historical perspective on attitudes toward alcoholic women. Affilia; 12; 471-485.
Editors. (1995). Diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism No. 30 PH 359.
Grant, B.F.; Dawson, D.A.; Stinson, F.S.; Chou, S.P.; Dufour, M.C.; and Pickering, .P. (2004). The 12-month prevalence and trends…
Carter, C.S. (1997). Ladies don't: A historical perspective on attitudes toward alcoholic women. Affilia; 12; 471-485.
Editors. (1995). Diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism No. 30 PH 359.
Grant, B.F.; Dawson, D.A.; Stinson, F.S.; Chou, S.P.; Dufour, M.C.; and Pickering, R.P. (2004). The 12-month prevalence and trends in DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: United States, 1991-1992 and 2001-2002. Drug Alcohol Depend, 74(3):223-34.
Hanson, D.J. (2007). Puritans to prohibition. Retrieved from the State University of New York Web site: http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/FunFacts/PuritansToProhibition.html16 June 2007.
Alcoholic effects are more pronounced in adolescents and prenatal alcohol intake may create serious cognitive problems for the unborn child.
Other effects of Alcohol upon the Body.
It is noted that Alcoholics generally suffer from malnutrition since the changes in metabolism brought about by alcohol consumption, prevent proper digestion and absorption of food. Thus alcoholics are often found deficient in proteins and vitamins, particularly vitamin A, accounting to susceptibility for liver disease and other serious alcohol-related disorders in the body. Alcohol breakdown in the liver generates toxins such as acetaldehyde and some highly reactive molecules containing oxygen that can cause serious damages to the liver. These toxins interfere with the metabolism of lipids resulting in the damage of liver cells. Moreover Alcohol interferes with the formation and activity of lysosomes that contain specific enzymes which break down proteins and thus may contribute to protein accumulation in the liver, which can…
Kathryn Magruder-Habib, A. Mark Durand and Keith A. Frey, April 1991, Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in primary healthcare settings, Journal of family practice.
Nutrition Health Review, Winter 2003.
Dean F. Wong, Atul Maini, Olivier G. Rousset, James Robert Brasic, Spring 2003 Positron emission tomography: a tool for identifying the effects of alcohol dependence on the brain, Alcohol Research and Health.
Charles S. Leiber, Fall 2003, Relationship between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease, Alcohol Research and Health.
Any substance or behavior that is not done in some sort of balance or harmonic alliance with nature is sure to cause problems within any group or groups of people. The introduction of alcohol into the Australian indigenous populations has caused many health problems and issues that warrant further discussion. The purpose of this essay is to discuss alcoholism as it relates to the aboriginal people of Australia. This essay will examine the disease process and its symptoms and outcomes. The essay will then look at how the contributing factors of this disease are affecting this group of people. The essay will conclude with ideas on the implications of alcoholism on that community and the healthcare providers that work with this group.
Alcohol is a staple in the culture and social practices of many humans around the world. The inebriation rituals that were prominent during the…
Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council (nd). Alcohol and health in Australis. Viewed 10 Oct 2014. Retrieved from https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/your-health/alcohol-guidelines/alcohol-and-health-australia
Australian Indigenous Alcohol and Other Drugs Knowledge Centre (2014). Review of the harmful use of alcohol amongst Indigenous Australians. Retrieved from http://www.aodknowledgecentre.net.au/aodkc/alcohol/plain-language/alcohol-plain-language-review
Brady M (1986) A social analysis of drinking and its aftermath in a remote Aboriginal community. In: Bush RA, ed. Exploring the Alcohol and Drug Crime link: society's response. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology:
Woods, I. (2011). Battle To Curb Aborigines' Drink Problem. Sky News 19 June 2011. Retrieved from http://news.sky.com/story/862854/battle-to-curb-aborigines-drink-problem
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Alcoholism a Disease?
There is little doubt that alcoholism is a chronic condition, which in 1956 was classified by the American medical Association as an illness, elevating the status to disease in 1966 (Baldwin esearch Institute, 2015). However, despite this announcement, there still appears to be a significant level of dispute within the medical community, where the concept of alcoholism as a disease has remained unproven (Hanson, 2013), however many of the characteristics of the condition appear to be aligned with a disease diagnosis (Borelli, 1989). The aim of this paper is to consider the concept of alcoholism as a disease, considering the evidence for and against this hypothesis.
The Association of alcohol disease began during the 1800s, proposed by Dr. Benjamin ush, who argues those who drank too much alcohol were diseased, and utilised this argument to promote his revisionist ideas (Baldwin esearch Institute, 2015). However, simply calling it…
Baldwin Research Institute, (2015), Alcoholism Is Not a Disease, retrieved 12 December 2015 from http://www.baldwinresearch.com/alcoholism.cfm
Borelli, N, (1989), Is Alcoholism Disease, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 262 (1), 343
Fingarette, H, (1990), "Why We Should Reject the Disease Concept of Alcoholism," in Endings, or (Ed), Controversies in the Addictions Field, Dubque, Kendall-Hunt
Hansen, D, (2013), Is Alcoholism a Disease? Retrieved 12 December 2015 from https://archive.is/Vj5lu
hile each of these studies has reported a cardioprotective effect of alcohol, they differ over which type of alcoholic beverage provides the greatest benefit" (634).
Overlooked in many of these studies, though, is the fact that some people who categorize themselves as being one type of drinker compared to another may engage in other activities that are unhealthy from the outset (for instance, beer drinkers may be more likely to also be tobacco users) while others may engage in a wide range of healthy behaviors (for example, wine drinkers may not be smokers and may job or exercise regularly). As McGregor and his colleagues emphasize, "One inherent difficulty within these studies is that in the general population, drinkers distinguished as primarily wine, beer or spirits drinkers tend to differ in other important aspects. If, for example, wine drinkers are found to be healthier, it may be the result of a…
"Alcohol." 2009, Partnership for a Drug-Free America. [Online]. Available: http://www.drug free.org/Portal/drug_guide/Alcohol.
Booth, Brenda M., Joann, Kirchner, John Fortney, Robin Ross and Kathryn Rost, 2000, "Rural
At-Risk Drinkers: Correlates and One-Year Use of Alcoholism Treatment Services."
Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61(2): 267.
"All I needed was someone to tell say, 'Yeah, I've been there, too,'" Susan said, "and that's what I found here." This attitude was typical of many of the older members present at the meeting; he almost total experience of isolation, difference and strangeness, and total helplessness could jus as well have come from a depression support group. Though these people had a specific real-world reason for their mental distress, their symptoms were no less chronic or clinically viable than those suffering from depression in more commonly recognized situations.
Doug, too, is an example of depression at work in the family of alcoholics. The real-world manipulation that his ex-wife practiced with the couple's children and money would be enough to drive most people to the brink of sever depression, if not right into it. This was not seemed to get Doug down the most, however. With some encouragement, he shared…
Al-Anon Official Website. (2006). Accessed 6 March 2009. http://www.al-anon.alateen.org/english.html
Janssen Pharmaceuticals. (2007). "Alcohol related disorders." Accessed 6 March 2009. http://www.psychiatry24x7.com/bgdisplay.jhtml?itemname=substance_alcohol
RightHealth. (2008). "Depression guide." Accessed 6 March 2009. http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Depression/overview/adam20?fdid=adam_b593fc53774e94d72ec3432ed3972154§ion=Summary
Speech on Alcoholism and Addiction
Main Points: I. Alcoholism is an addiction, not a character flaw.
Treating alcoholism requires modern rehabilitation methods.
The "Twelve-Step" program advocated by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
represents an extremely effective route to recovery.
Central Idea: For centuries, society has viewed addiction to alcohol and other substances as a defect in one's moral fiber, rather than a medical affliction. Modern scientific exploration into the subject of addiction has revealed that alcoholism is actually the result of neurotransmitters in the brain becoming activated, chemical responses throughout the body, genetic influences, and even environmental factors. By revising the widespread belief that addiction to alcohol is one's own "fault," and recognizing the litany of variables which determine whether somebody will be prone to addictive tendencies, the stigma placed on alcoholism may eventually be lifted.
A. For as long as mankind been aware that the actions of an individual are…
Dodes, L. (2002). The heart of addiction: A new approach to understanding and managing alcoholism and other addictive behaviors. New York, NY: Harper-Collins
Narcotics Anonymous Fellowship. (1991). An introductory guide to narcotics anonymous, revised. Narcotics Anonymous World Services, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.na.org/admin/include/spaw2/uploads/pdf/litfiles/us_english/Booklet/Intro Guide to NA.pdf
Etiology of Theories on Addiction
There are different sorts of addictions and substance abuse methods that plague the world today. However, in order to cure an addiction, one needs to go down to its root cause, and eliminate it, after which the damages caused can be mitigated and prevented. There are several theories and approaches to tackle an addiction problem. Most trained professionals use these theories in their treatment plan to get a better understanding of when and how the addiction came into being. After which, along with therapy, counseling and medication, the road to recovery can begin.
Medical etiology is the study of causes of an illness or any psychological condition. When a diseases is uncovered which the doctors are unable to explain and understand, an etiologist is responsible for determining the reason for its origin and being (Alcoholism, 2005). In this manner, the etiologist and the doctors are…
Alcoholism, N.I. (2005). Module 2: Etiology and Natural History of Alcoholism. National Institute of on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
O' Farrell, T., & Fals-Stewart, W. (1999). Treatment models and methods: Family models. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sheehan, T., & Owen, P. (1999). Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook. New York: Oxford University Press.
Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the release of neurochemicals that inhibit certain behaviors. The subjective feelings associated with alcohol intoxication are due to its effects on the brain and central nervous system but that system also controls our behaviors. The depression of certain neurotransmitters often reduces reflex time and reduces general inhibitions.
The digestive system is also strongly affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol is absorbed almost entirely by the small intestine, from where the alcohol seeps into the blood. The liver is strongly affected by the absorption of alcohol and is in fact the main organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol. hen too much alcohol is consumed, the liver becomes overtaxed and cannot filter the toxins from the body as fast as it normally can. Over the long-term, the liver can become permanently damaged from too much alcohol consumption.
The heart and circulatory system are also…
Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination." California DUI Help. Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.californiaduihelp.com/dui_investigation/alcohol.asp
Boggan, Bill. "Alcohol Chemistry and You." Kennesaw State University, 2003.
group meets downstairs in a church. There are "tables" where the members sit and discuss their issues. In this group there are two tables, nearly filled with about 20 people at each table. There are mostly middle-aged to older adults here (40 years old and up), but a few that are under 30 years of age. There is a pretty even distribution of males and females at the two tables. The general interaction between the members is causal and quite friendly. After sitting at one table I wait for the meeting to get started. Once it is started there are a lot of formalities: an introduction by the leader (I am later told that this person is referred to as the chairperson and this position is a volunteer that changes weekly), the reading the stipulations of the group, a prayer, asking if there are any first time attendees (I remained…
Kelly, J.F., Magill, M., & Stout, R.L. (2009). How do people recover from alcohol dependence? A systematic review of the research on mechanisms of behavior change in Alcoholics Anonymous. Addiction Research and Theory, 17, 236-259.
Rosenberg, H. (1993). Prediction of controlled drinking by alcoholics and problem drinkers.
Psychological Bulletin, 113, 129-139.
Vaillant, G.E. (2005). Alcoholics Anonymous: Cult or cure? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(6), 431-436.
Journey into Night
It is an irony of Eugene O'Neill's career that his large-scale expressionist dramas of the 1920s and 1930s -- which earned Pulitzers for works like Strange Interlude and ultimately the Nobel Prize in Literature for O'Neill himself -- seem to have fallen entirely out of the repertory, and O'Neill is remembered chiefly for his least characteristic plays: Long Day's Journey Into Night and The Iceman Cometh. O'Neill's biographers Arthur and Barbara Gelb note that not only do these plays share an obsessive central concern with alcohol, O'Neill also "set both in 1912" and to some extent Long Day's Journey "can be regarded as its sequel" (Gelb and Gelb 506). The posthumous publication and staging of this autobiographical domestic drama Eugene O'Neill's classic American domestic drama Long Day's Journey Into Night has raised the question of why O'Neill apparently withheld the play during his lifetime. To some extent…
Geagua County, OH
Planning -- The most effective strategy within a community for any public health issue is two-fold: education and focus. To accomplish this at the community level, there needs to be a broad level of focus and support from all levels of the government: local, State and Federal, in order for there to be a consistent and proactive message. Education should begin at the elementary school level, with teaching talking about substances, abuse and alternatives; and move through the school system as appropriate for the cognitive abilities of various age groups. In this way, the community can collaborate with schools to provide initiatives and programs that address the problem prior to it becoming as endemic, and offer proposed solutions in a way that almost everyone involved knows they can receive help if necessary. The educational process must also be pervasive and accessible -- people need a number to…
Bangeret-Drowns, R. (1988). The Effects of School-Based Substance Abuse Education. Journal of Drug Education, 18(3), 243-64.
Berkowitz, M., et al. (1991). Sociomoral Development and Drug and Alcohol Abuse. In W. Kurtines (Ed.), Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development (Vol. 3). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.
Blondell, R. (2005). Ambulatory detoxification of patients with alchohol dependence. American Family Physician, 71(3), 495-502.
Cook, P., & Moore, M. (2002). The Economics of Alchohol Abuse. Health Affairs, 21(2), 120-33.
This dance was very powerful as it did scare the European people. They did not fully understand the reason behind the dance and the religion, but they were very clear as to what the apocalypse was and they wondered if the Indians were somehow summoning the end of the world. Not soon after this Ghost dance caused such a commotion, an Indian by the name of Handsome Lake who was a leader for the Seneca tribe brought a new message to the Iroquois people. His message was to end the drinking. The Iroquois people had began to drink a lot of alcohol that was often offered to them from the European people during the fur trade. Handsome Lake believed that many of the problems that the Iroquois people faced was related to the alcohol. Many of the Indian people were drunk when they were trying to handle problems of poverty…
Kehoe, Alice Beck. North American Indian Tribes, Chapter 5. 1992 Prentice Hall.
Biolsi, Thomas and Zimmerman, Larry. Indians and Anthropologists, Chapter 9. 1997 Prentice Hall.
Iroquois Website. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from http://www.iroquois.net/.
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
Economics of Alchohol Abuse
Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).
In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…
Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. (2011). Ensuring Solutions. Retrieved from: http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/
Profit-Maximization in the Long Run. (2010). Welker'sWikinomics. Retrieved from: http://welkerswikinomics.wetpaint.com/page/Profit-Maximization+in+the+Long-run
Tobacco, Alcohol Industries Reject New Sin Tax Bill. (February 22, 2012). ABS/CBN News. Com. Retrieved from: http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/business/02/22/12/tobacco-alcohol-industries-reject-new-sin-tax-bill
Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. New York: Random House.
America is a diverse country with a diverse past, and therefore it myths are as diverse as the nation. One of the most prevalent types of myths in American history has been the western, and in a western setting, the most complicated personal, emotional, and social issues can be explored. One example of such a case is Lasse Hallstrom's An Unfinished Life, which looks at a number of different issues involved in a number of different types of characters lives all while taking place in a western location. Set on a ranch just outside a small western town, this western has a twist: the story takes place in the present. It is not the typical "old west" style of western, but still retains much of the western's character and themes while also incorporating modern issues and problems. This film tackles age old issues such as the loss of…
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
Addictive Virus" -- later to become the thirteenth chapter of their bestselling book Affluenza -- John De Graaf, David ann, and Thomas H. Naylor engage in a highly rhetorical comparison of addictive shopping to physical addictions such as alcoholism and drug addiction and behavioral addictions like compulsive gambling. It becomes clear shortly into their paper that their purpose is largely alarmist and moralistic, rather than medically or therapeutically intended: none of the authors has any medical or psychiatric credentials. I hope by addressing three aspects of their paper -- their rhetorical strategy, their shifts in focus, and in particular their examples presented as evidence, particularly their closing example -- that I may show the ways in which their thoughts actually confuse rather than clarify issues of behavioral addiction.
The title alone of the essay gives, in miniature, a fair taste of De Graaf et al.'s rhetorical strategy: the phrase "the…
Boyer, Peter J. "The Deliverer: A Pizza Mogul Funds a Moral Crusade." The New Yorker Feb 19, 2007. Accessed 10 Feb 2011 at: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/02/19/070219fa_fact_boyer#ixzz1DejZemmm
De Graaf John, Wann, David, and Naylor, Thomas H. "The Addictive Virus." In Maasik, Sonia and Solomon, Jack, Signs of Life in the U.S.A.: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. Sixth Edition. New York: Beford St. Martin's, 2008. 71-5.