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What crime existed in the colonies? How was this different or the same as in the lands from where colonists came?
Although the early colonists clearly brought with them vestiges of their previous culture and country, living in the New World produced new social and economic factors that gave rise to new worldviews and also new forms of crime. But initially, there was relatively little crime. For many early colonists, religious cohesion, the lack of diversity within their society, and above all a desire for survival meant that crimes such as murder and robbery were scarce, particularly in Puritan New England (p. 39). The most common crimes were so-called vice crimes, or violations of the very strict standards which governed colonial society. Gambling had been very popular in England and existed within the colonies, as did heavy drinking. But while this was tolerated in the Southern colonies, in the Northern…
Principal intellectual movements Anglo-American colonies eighteenth century: Great Awakening Enlightenment." You sources relevant paper. Use Reich's Colonial America reference research report if draw material source assigned, footnotes book, article,
The Great Awakening and the Enlightenment:
Wrestling for the souls and the minds of colonial settlers in the Americas
The colonial period in the Americas was a time of intense intellectual ferment. Two seemingly contradictory intellectual movements arose: that of the Great Awakening and the American Enlightenment. The Great Awakening was a period of religious revivalism that arose within the New England and Mid-Atlantic colonies. The American version of the Enlightenment, a movement which began in Europe, was characterized by intellectual curiosity and a belief in the need for rationalism over superstition when governing human affairs. oth of these conceptions of the 'human' shaped the future, evolving history of America.
While many of the American colonies were founded by people fleeing…
"The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. December 17, 2010
Hooker, Richard. "The American Enlightenment." World Civilizations. Updated June 6, 1999.
December 17, 2010
religion in the Anglo-American colonies between 1607 and 1763. By the time America was on the brink of revolution, religion had altered in American society.
When the first settlers came to America, most of them were strict and pious Puritans who fled England because of their religious beliefs. One writer says of the earliest settlers in New England thought that, "a strong church was the handmaiden and bulwark of a stable state" (Bonomi 13). However, by 1763, there were many more settlers in America than just Puritans, and religious beliefs had changed radically in many areas. The Puritans no longer dominated religion, and there was already a melting pot of cultures, ideals, and religious beliefs. What led to this change? Mostly it was a relaxing of strict Puritanical beliefs blended with an influx of settlers from other countries who brought along their own religions and beliefs.
When America was first…
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Lippy, Charles H., Robert Choquette, and Stafford Poole. Christianity Comes to the Americas, 1492-1776. 1st ed. New York: Paragon House, 1992.
Niebuhr, H. Richard. "The Protestant Movement and Democracy in the United States." The Shaping of American Religion. Eds. Smith, James Ward and A. Leland Jamison. Vol. 1. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961. 20-71.
Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. 1st ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.
American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase
American territorial expansion was the top priority of ashington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil ar years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.
The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…
1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase (American Memory from the Library of Congress)." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"The Louisiana Purchase -- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Therefore, for instance, the Stamp Act was justified through "granting and applying (of) certain stamp duties, and other duties, in the British colonies and plantations in America, towards further defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same; and for amending such parts of the several acts of parliament relating to the trade and revenues of the said colonies and plantations, as direct the manner of determining and recovering the penalties and forfeitures therein mentioned"(the Stamp Act, 1765).
Taking these legislative manners into consideration, the opponents of the Loyalists considered that the issue of trade as a reason for maintaining the British rule was by no means a viable solution. More precisely, they argued that the lack of representation in the British Parliament should not allow the British to impose taxes they do not agree or vote upon. From this perspective, it can be said that the Loyalists had…
Borden, Morton, and Penn Borden. The American Tory. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1972.
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
The New World. An ocean away...Trade in the American colonies. N.d. 5 May 2008. http://courses.wcupa.edu/wanko/LIT400/NewWorld/trade_in_the_american_colonies.htm
The Stamp Act, Great Britain: Parliament, 1765. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. 2005. 5 May 2008 http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerrev/parliament/stamp_act_1765.htm
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
As a result, the 1764 Currency Act was signed. The Act forbade colonies from issuing paper currency. The colonists found it extremely difficult paying their debts and taxes.
After the Currency Act had been passed, the then British Prime Minister proposed a stamp tax that obligated colonists to purchase government issued stamps for legal documents and other paper goods. When the bill was brought before the floor of the house it sailed through. The Parliament therefore had a duty to tax the colonies. The Stamp Act did not go down well with the colonies. In fact, the Virginia House of Burgesses passed a resolution that sought to deny the British Parliament the authority to tax the British colonies. ioters visited destruction on the house of stamp distributer in Boston. There were protests all over America.
The Stamp Act acted as a common cause that united at least 13 colonies against…
Age, M. (2010). From Revolution to Reconstruction. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/E/7yearswar/fiw03.htm
Department of State Office of the Historian. (2012). Milestones 1750-1775. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/ParliamentaryTaxation
Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. eb. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"Laws on Indentured Servants." Virtual Jamestown. Web. 14 Oct. 2011.
American Economic Thought in the Seventeenth Century by Edgar AJ. Johnson. (New York: Russell & Russell, 1961). 202 p., (HB119.A2J6).
This book is a global look at what motivated colonization economically in the New World, and how American thought began to diverge from English commerce and economic thought. In the book, the author outlines several common economic and political concepts of pre-Revolutionary philosophy. Mainly, Johnson states political and personal beliefs were not inevitably separate things, but rather social structures dictated by one's political ties and perceptions. In other words, during these times, the most elevated position a person could hold was that of a politician. The basic concepts of the book include that the political structure reflected fundamental social structures, and the people were still largely under the influence of parliamentary representation, and the British Crown consistently oppressed them. Unfortunately, the end of the Revolution did not help matters. In…
In 1775, Patrick Henry gave his famous speech ("give me liberty or give me death") to lawmakers in Virginia; he urges a citizens' army to defeat the British. The first shots of the Revolutionary ar are fired after Paul Revere rode his horse through Concord and Lexington to warn colonists that the British soldiers are coming. Also in 1775, George ashington is given command of the Continental army, and John Hancock is appointed president of the Second Continental Congress. In August of 1775, King George III makes a declaration that the colonies are in open rebellion against the British.
The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, by the Continental Congress. "e hold these truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal..." is the beginning of the declaration. Thomas Jefferson is given credit for most of the writing of the declaration, along with John…
Library of Congress. "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic." Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel03.html .
Public Broadcast Service. "Liberty! The American Revolution / Chronicle of the Revolution."
2005). Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/index.html .
Public Broadcast Service. "Timeline of the Revolution." Retrieved 10 Nov. 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/chronicle_timeline.html .
American Government Politics. Discussed is the fourth amendment and the current policies of searches and seizures. Four sources used. Footnotes.
Americans hold very dear the Bill of Rights. Among the ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights is the Fourth, one many refer to as the most ambiguous of the all the amendments. Search and seizure law is drawn from the Fourth and over the years the Supreme Court has come to view that its main purpose is the protection of a citizen's property and privacy. However, according to the conclusion of the Court, the Fourth Amendment does not "protect all property interests or apply to all situations where people might wish to protect their privacy." Perhaps, never has this amendment felt more threatened than today. The attacks on the orld Trade Center on September 11th, spurred the hite House Administration to create the office of…
Civil Rights Reduced." Denver Rocky Mountain News. April 28, 2001.
McWhirter, Darien A. Search, Seizure, and Privacy: Exploring the Constitution.
Greenwood Publishing Group. October 1994.
Rosen, Jeffrey. " Liberty Wins - So Far; Bush Runs Into Checks and Balances in Demanding New Powers." The Washington Post. September 15, 2002.
American Indians struggled against the oppression of the White Man for nearly another seventy years but Chief Black Hawk's 1832 surrender speech epitomizes the frustration felt by the various tribes that once dominated the American landscape. From text of this speech, Kent State history professor, Phillip Weeks, drew the title for his book, Farewell, My Nation (Weeks, 2000). To his fellow Sac and Fox tribesmen, Chief Black Hawk stated, in part, "The white men do not scalp the head; but they do worse - they poison the heart....Farewell, my nation!"
Black Hawk's speech occurs fairly early in the process but it characterizes how the White Man broke the spirit of the American Indians as they continuously displaced the Indians from the land that they had occupied for thousands of years. In his book, Weeks chronicles how the United States government progressively enforced its policy of expansion while completely disregarding the…
Weeks, P. (2000). Farewell, My Nation: The American Indian and the United States in the Nineteenth Century (2nd Edition). Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson.
Farewell, My Nation
witchcraft scares in the Chesapeake colonies and no uprising like Bacon's Rebellion in New England. Consider the possible social, economic, and religious causes of both phenomena.
The colonies of New England were based on patriarchal religious social orders that were fundamentally misogynistic. The Protestant systems in New England fomented the fear of witchcraft, a parallel for a fear of feminist power. On the other hand, New England lacked the cash-crop ready system that had been emerging in the Chesapeake region. Bacon's rebellion was a labor issue related to economic power, whereas witch hunts were related to gender issues and social power.
What made Native American peoples vulnerable to conquest by European adventurers?
Native American peoples did not have the same disease resistances that Europeans had developed over several generations. They did not develop the types of sophisticated weapons using gunpowder that he Europeans had, and also, Native Americans were used…
In J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur's letter "hat is an American?," the author attempts to familiarize the reader with the general lifestyle and character of a settler inhabiting the British North American colonies in an effort to demonstrate the concept of a uniquely American identity, formed out of the disparate influences which informed the culture of the time and region. De Crevecoeur describes the terrain, climate, religious attitudes, and occupations found on the newly colonized continent, and in doing so he illustrates the set of conditions which had helped transform the colonies' diverse European population into a unique, new culture known as American.
According to de Crevecoeur, the essence of the American identity is its multicultural heritage, or more specifically, its diverse European background. Because of the intermarriage of many European settlers since the early days of colonization, the American "is either an European, or the descendant of…
Crevecoeur, J.H.S.J. (1904). Letters from an american farmer. New York, NY: Fox, Duffield & Company.
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
American Colonial experience and the Articles of the Confederation influence the content of our Constitution?
he American colonies existed as separate political entities. he only attempt to consolidate any of the colonies under one united government was that of the ill-fated "Dominion of New England," an attempt to reign in the independent colonies by a monarchy (that of James II) that was thought by many to want to 'catholicize' the Anglican church in the late 1680's. Administration had to be done at a local level because of the inferior condition of the roads. he advent of newspapers and printing presses in the mid-1700's was really the first non-commercial link between colonies; often colonies had been openly hostile to one another. For instance, dissenters that disapproved of the government of Massachusetts founded Conneticut, New Haven, and Rhode Island. he consolidation or division of colonies, when it occurred, happened by skillful diplomacy…
THE SUPREMACY DOCTRINE basically states that national laws have supremacy to state laws. This is why the Bush administration can tell California to 'reign in' their medical marijuana laws. Because national law is predicated on the dogmatic belief that marijuana has no medical uses, it is what is considered a 'schedule one' drug such as heroin or LSD.
c. In this context, JUDICIAL REVIEW is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a State for the violation of basic principles of justice. If DEA agents or federal marshals were to arrest a pharmacist for selling marijuana, the case would ultimately represent the interests of California vs. those of the federal government and be taken to the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land. (no pun intended)
D. FEDERALISM is the idea that the national government should have jurisdiction over state or local governments. Whereas originally the central government derived its power from the States (people after the revolution would say 'the United States are,') currently administrative law is the law of the land; for instance, executive orders take precedence over even Constitutional law. In the context of the medical marijuana debate, California would not be able to maintain policies that violated federal law. In extreme examples such as that of school integration in the 1950's, the federal government has even sent federal marshals to uphold federal laws.
In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:
dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of governing...in a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)
As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road…
Black, E. (1988). Our Constitution: The Myth That Binds Us. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Brooks, C.K. (1996). Controlling the Metaphor: Language and Self-Definition in Revolutionary America. CLIO, 25(3), 233+.
American evolution was a political turmoil that occurred in the United States between 1765 and 1783 through which rebels in Thirteen American Colonies defeated Britain's authority and led to the formation of the United States of America. The rebels achieved this goal through their rejection of monarchy and aristocracy that was characterized by initiatives that were geared towards a revolution. This important event in the history of the United States was also brought by a series of political, intellectual, and social changes that took place in government, thought processes, and the American society.
The commencement of the American evolution can be traced back to 1763 when leaders from Britain started to stiffen imperial reins ("Overview of the American evolution," n.d.). The tightening up of imperial reins by British leaders was characterized by the enforcement of punitive and coercive laws on various colonies. One of the major reasons for the actions…
Magnet, M. (2012, April 22). The Americanness of the American Revolution. City Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.city-journal.org/2012/22_4_urb-american-revolution.html
"Overview of the American Revolution." (n.d.). Digital History. Retrieved from University of Houston website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu /era.cfm?eraID=3
"The American Revolution." (n.d.). U.S. History - Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium.
American Revolution after 1763
There are several factors leading to the American Revolution. During the 18th century, the ritish colonists in North America established themselves as a new nation. Increasingly, they had begun to see themselves as American rather than ritish. This new consciousness contributed to increasing resentment of any ritish attempts at control and influence in America. ritish action deemed unfair by American colonies, such as taxes on tea and sugar, contributed significantly to this problem.
Exacerbated American Grievances after 1763
The Stamp Act is one of the greatest ritish thorns in the American side when 1766 arrived (enjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act, p. 3). The problem was that this tax had to be paid by order of a Parliament where the colonials were not specifically represented. Franklin in fact threatens the ritish with a loss of respect and "affection" from the colonials if this Act were…
"History 205 - Documents for Chapters 5&6.
Garraty, John A. & McCaughey, Robert A. The American Nation: A history of the United States. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
1776: Adam Smith opposes Mercantilism (1776), p. 1
American evolutionary War
The objective of this study is to write on the causes and major outcomes of the American evolutionary War.
Until the finalization of the Seven Years' War, there were only very few British North America colonists that had objections to their situation in the British Empire and British American Colonists had realized a great many benefits reported from the system of the British imperialists and furthermore paid little in the way of costs for those reported benefits. In fact, the British did not bother the American colonies until the earlier part of the 1760s. However, the 'Seven Years' War" brought about changes with Britain realizing victory over France and their allies at a great cost.
The Seven-Year's War also known as the French and Indian War brought many changes. According to reports "A staggering war debt influenced many British policies over the next decade. Attempts…
The American Revolution (2014) Library of Congress. Retrieved from: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/amrev/
The American Revolution (2014) Library of Congress. Retrieved from:
Defining the American Dream
People have talked about a concept called the American Dream for many years, but the definition is difficult to pin down. The reason for this is that as the situations in the country change, so does the view people have of what the American Dream represents. The purpose of this paper is to define what the American Dream is from history, the generally accepted meaning of the term, and how that definition may have changed over the past couple of years.
History shows that the concept of the American Dream began with the "discovery" of the Americas. hether the explorer was Leif Erickson or Christopher Columbus, all of the people who have come to these shores have dreamed of something better. As a matter of fact;
"The idea of an American Dream is older than the United States, dating back to the 1600s, when…
Abowitz, Deborah A. "Social Mobility and the American Dream: What do College Students Believe?" College Student Journal 39.4 (2005): 716-728. Print.
McManus, John F. "Understanding America Today: Immigrants have Long Come to America to Live the "American Dream." The New American 23.21-15 Oct. 2007. 4-6. Print.
Tyson, Lois. Psychological Politics of the American Dream: The Commodification of Subjectivity in Twentieth-Century American Literature. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1994. Print.
wiseGeek. "What is the American Dream?," 2009. Web. 13 Dec. 2011.
As Margaret Atwood points out, Americans have as much to be ashamed of as to be proud of.
When Barbara Kingsolver claims "The values we fought for and won there are best understood, I think, by oil companies," she refers to the way the American flag has been distorted. The issues the flag symbolizes, such as freedom and liberty, are myths for many people. As Kingsolver points out, the American flag has been used to justify many evils including wars like Vietnam and Iraq. Instead of delivering true freedom, liberty, and democracy, the American flag really brought economic dependence. Instead of associating the American flag with negativity, death, and intimidation, Kingsolver suggests that Americans reclaim it. The red stripes do not need to symbolize war. They can also symbolize "blood donated to the ed Cross."
The American flag is a flexible symbol that is often used in ways that manipulate…
Atwood, Margaret. "A Letter to America." Published on Friday, April 4, 2003 by the International Herald Tribune. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0404-07.htm
Kingsolver, Barbara. "And Our Flag Was Still There." Published on Tuesday, September 25, 2001 in the San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 29, 2008 from Common Dreams at http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0925-08.htm
Streufert, Duane. "Evolution of the United States Flag." Evolution of the United States Flag. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.usflag.org/history/flagevolution.html
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
American Independence, National Unity
rief thematic history of the U.S. from 1760 to 1815
In describing U.S. history from 1760 to 1815, I would have to title it as "The United States: The Formative Years." From the ritish indifference to her New World colonies, and the War for Independence; to the events before the Civil War, the United States formative years were ones of triumph, struggle and unity.
During 1763, up until 1775, the United States and ritain feuded over 'taxation without representation'. Like a child, the colonies had to break free from the mother country and find themselves and their independence, which they did in 1776 (U.S. History Timeline).
Thomas Payne said in his political pamphlet 'Common Sense' that "There is something exceedingly ridiculous in the composition of monarchy; it first excludes a man from the means of information, yet empowers him to act in cases where the highest…
Payne, Thomas. Common Sense. Online. www.earlyamerica.com.8 December 2002.
US History Timeline.
Online. www.csuchico.edu/AmericanHistory.8 December 2002.
Many colonists had come to the new world in search of a lifestyle infused with greater freedom. The colonists' ideas about government differed greatly from their English counterparts. hile the English still focused on the power of the monarchy, the colonists had been holding popular assemblies since 1763 ("The American Revolution: First Phase"). They began to believe in rights that they saw the English and their stationed guards as there to violate. In addition, they believed that they, not a country across the ocean, should have the right to control or at least have a say in the political decisions that would affect their lives.
In addition to these highly popularized economic and ideological causes of the revolution, social causes also added fuel to the fire of revolution. As the 1700s wore on, More and more Americans came from European countries other than England. As these people began to immigrate…
American Revolution," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
The American Revolution: The First Phase." 2005. 9 December 2008. The American
One of his major works was a long poem written in three cantos about the horrors he experienced while being held prisoner on a ritish prison. ship. There we see a much edgier, angry Freneau who is willing to write about real life in real terms:
Here, generous ritain, generous, as you say,
To my parch'd tongue one cooling drop convey;
Hell has no mischief like a thirsty throat,
Nor one tormentor like your David Sproat."
All of these influences eventually came together, resulting later in the 19th century in Transcendentalism. This time when American writers reached to the past, they combined the best higher ideals of both the Puritans and the Enlightenment, and the love of nature from neoclassicism, and produced bodies of work that transcended all its previous influences. The roots for the literary movement that would bring us "Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry…
Boynton, Percy H., ed.:"On a Honey Bee," by Philip Freneau, in American Poetry. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1918. Accessed via the Internet 12/23/04. http://www.mith2.umd.edu:8080/eada/html/display.jsp?docs=freneau_honeybee.xml&action=show.Site copyright 2002.
Cesarini, J. Patrick. 2003. "The ambivalent uses of Roger Williams's: A Key Into the Language of America." Early American Literature, Sept. 22.
Lossing, Benson J. 1877. "Jersey, the British Prison Ship," in Our Country. A Household History for All Readers, Vol. 2. Accessed via the Internet 12/23/04. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Our_Country_vol_2/jerseybri_jc.html
VanSpanckeren, Karen. 1998. "Outline of American Literature." U.S. Department of State, November. Accessed via the Internet 12/23/04. http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/oaltoc.htm
British reactions to the colonies wavered throughout the colonial era, from the policy of salutary neglect to the tightened controls of King George III. The Crown faced a dilemma: to allow the colonies to develop thriving commercial enterprises in the hopes of a trickle-down benefit for Great Britain; or to tighten the leash on the colonial governments to demand more regular tax revenues. In light of the thriving colonial economies in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Maryland, King George III opted for the latter, imposing tariffs on the colonies. Britain's policies toward the New World colonies remained, therefore, primarily economic: the Stamp and Sugar Acts exemplify the Crown's interest not so much in the development of colonial culture as in the colonial economy.
Friction between English settlers and Native Americans also impacted the development of colonial life and of Crown policies. Infiltration into lands inhabited by the indigenous Americans led to numerous…
An Outline of American History." Embassy of the United States, Stockholm. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://stockholm.usembassy.gov/usis/history/chapter2.html
Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763." The Library of Congress. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/indians/indians.html
From Revolution to Reconstruction." Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/H/1994/ch1_p9.htm
The development of the American automobile industry is one of the best examples of this interplay: "Unlike European manufacturers, who concentrated on expensive motorcars for the rich, American entrepreneurs early turned to economical vehicles that could be mass-produced," (Jackson 159). The fact that so many Americans then became capable of purchasing a car both fed the notion of the American dream, and also served to expand American cities and suburbs; people who could afford to commute were not forced to live in the stifling and often impoverished inner-city. This trend tended to make inner cities in America decreasingly desirable places to live. Yet, in places like New York, with the creation of central park, wealthy neighborhoods came to crowd around such desirable locations and push the impoverished sects of society away: "By the time the park's founding generation passed away, the political, aesthetic, and cultural unity they valued had already…
Cronon, William. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the great West. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Kenneth M. Jackson. 1985. Crabgrass Frontier: The suburbanization of the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rosenzweig, Roy and Elizabeth Blackmar. 1992. The park and the people: A history of Central Park. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's oyal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,
Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.
Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…
Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.
Furlong, P., Margaret, S., Sharkey, D. (1966) America Yesterday: A New Nation (Revised). Sadlier: New York.
Nevins, a., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States 9th Ed.
Northwest Passage- 1492-1600 when Europeans encountered the new world
After the Portuguese and Spanish took control of the South's sea pathways, the English and French began seeking a northwestern route to Asia. However, by the 17th century, they lost hope of ever making their way across North America's northern part after many generations of sailors failed to find a way. Nevertheless, early 15th and 16th century explorations and colonization increased knowledge regarding the world by a significant amount. Cornelius Wytfliet, the cartographer from Flanders created a world map that continued to depict the mythical "Straits of Anian" -- a province in China connecting the Atlantic and the legendary Northwest Passage, which finds mention in the edition of traveler, Marco Polo's work dated 1559. European powers' endeavors to make their homes in the Americas succeeded, ultimately, in the 17th century, when the English and the French successfully contested the…
Concepcion Saenz-Cambra. (2012). The Atlantic World, 1492 -- 1600. Concepcion.
David W. Galenson. (1984). The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis. Economic History Association, 1-26.
weli, R. v. (2008). Slave Trading and Slavery in the Dutch Colonial Empi. In Rik van weli. New West Indian Guide.
Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.
Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.
Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.
Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Slavery in the United Stated lasted as an endorsed organization until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants.
This would be the first of many visits up and down the American eastern seaboard. At this time, most slaves were being purchased by white men, though some Native Americans and free blacks were also detained. Slavery was spread to the areas where there was a high-quality soil for large plantations of important crops, such as cotton, sugar, coffee and most prominently tobacco. Even though the endorsed practice of enslaving blacks occurred in all of the original thirteen colonies, more than half of all African-Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland. The three highest-ranking North American zones of importation throughout most of the…
Criticisms against and praise for colonialism in America: A comparative analysis of "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine and "Origin and Progress of the American Rebellion" by Peter Oliver
The declaration of King George III of the United Kingdom that America is in an active state of rebellion in August 23, 1775, marked the opportunity for Britain's 13 colonies in the country to be liberated from British colonialism. The path towards rebellion in America is an arduous process, where there had been a series of economic and political pressures that Britain had imposed in order to maintain control over the gradually rebelling members of the colonies.
What made the study of the history of the American Revolution interesting is that there are numerous literatures illustrating the political and economic climate between the Americans and British at the time where rebellious ideologies and propaganda are gradually increasing. There had been…
Marx's interpretation of Twentieth-Century Capitalism, as described by Miller, describes the changes in the American dream. The American dream was initially one linked to the idea of land ownership. Immigrants came from Europe, where land ownership had been a privilege of the wealthy. However, when America was relatively unsettled, almost anyone could theoretically come to America and claim land, and many people did just that. Of course, some of these early Americans did so in a grand way, traveling westward from the cities and establishing homesteads in the wilderness. The idea of home ownership, however, was not limited to those frontiersmen. Instead, only 100 years ago, someone could come to America and, because of the cheap price of land, afford to build his own home if he worked hard enough to do so. However, the nature of the home, itself, was different. Those homes were centers of production: at the…
Medaille, John. The Vocation of Business: Social Justice in the Marketplace. New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007
Miller, Vincent Jude. Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture.
New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
Another drawback of the book is that it didn't have much perspective of what it has meant to be pluralistic or worldly in the context of the rest of the world. During the American Revolution, a country with no official religion was an odd idea. It was a general concept that the world had always been governed by a King by Grace of God, and in return protected God's true religion from heretics and blasphemers (esterlund, 2006).
In addition, the author did not discuss the major difference between the "divisive arguments about God and politics" in the late eighteenth century and today. Thus, without state support, religion flourished in the United States, and now as today is the most religious nation in the estern world. The strength of Americans' religious faith enlightens the determination of a "public religion" that even now continue to worry unbelievers and secular thinkers (esterlund, 2006).…
1. Pauline Maier. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." Washington Post.
A www.washingtonpost.com.May 7, 2006
2. Deirdre Donahue. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." USA TODAY.
McElroy's thesis serves to isolate America from Europe, intellectually, in its development, and affirms America's sense of being a special nation in relation to the rest of the world. The vastness of the American wilderness, and its wide-open spaces that gave rise to the need for self-reliance also helps explain why modern European social welfare state institutions, like socialized medicine and generous pension plans, often meet with resistance in an America that is still in love with the ideal of individualism and hard work. Even in today's discussion regarding the status of illegal immigrants, on both sides of the debate, the willingness of desperate people to work for a mere pittance at jobs that Americans find too hard or poorly paying is often seen as admirable, rather than tragic, because hard work is so valued in American society.
McElroy's focus on the colonial period on of American history, however, neglects…
" Indeed, in the "marriage bed of the beautiful Bertrande things now went well," presumably in sexual cohesion, but also, in reproduction as two daughters were born to them." key part of the Davis story was the trial, in which Arnaud was accused of being the imposter that indeed he was. This is in effect a sidebar to the story, and a sidebar to the issue of "different historians...using different types of evidence..." talk about the same things. On page 67, some 150 people had come to testify, but "forty-five people or more said that the prisoner was Arnaud...[and] about thirty to forty people said that the defendant was surely Martin Guerre." So, people who had seen history (the real Martin) had different views of whether this man on trial was him or not. Time casts shadows on the truth, just as it does on how the history of the…
Davis, Natalie Zemon. (1983). The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge: Harvard
Finlay, Robert. (1988). The Refashioning of Martin Guerre. The American Historical
Review, 93, 553-603.
Wood, Gordon S. (1991). The Radicalization of the American Revolution. New York:
This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.
Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…
Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007. http://www.jsfmusic.com/Uncle_Tom/Tom_Article6.html
Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-pop
Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-pop
Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Jinhui
American History -- Thomas Paine
Modern examination of the roots that birthed this nation illuminates with steadfast clarity the manner, importance, and weight of the movements of the past. Bernard Bailyn knows this firsthand; in his analysis of Common Sense, he not only studies the historiography of Thomas Paine's revolutionary pamphlet, but by placing himself in retro-active historical context, he is able to find age-old movement in the piece to share with the political historian today. Inside the Englishman's pamphlet on logic and politics, he finds not just a call for revolution, but instead a greater amass of the smaller pleas for transition that, when united under the banner of intellectual outreach and historical debate, reaffirms the common sense Pain purported two hundred and thirty years ago.
In The Most Uncommon Pamphlet of the Revolution: Common Sense, Bailyn supports the widely held belief that Thomas Paine's pamphlet that urged America…
American evolution Was Modeled After evolutions in France and England
The American quest for freedom, modeled after reform movements in England and France, has resulted in the most revered democratic society in the world. We are free of the religious and political tyranny that plagued Europe in the 18th Century and early colonialists would approve of our government in 2002.
While the American evolution and the quest for freedom was modeled after revolutions in France and England, the United States has done something that its European relatives admire - it achieved a stable democracy free of aristocratic and religious tyranny - and this was accomplished in a relatively bloodless fashion.
Our success would meet with accolades from European philosophers and historians including Jean-Jacques ousseau, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine and Francois Furet. However, our success has also many developing nations and Middle East nations to regard us as arrogant…
1. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
2. F. Furet, paraphrased from Interpreting The French Revolution, 1970
3. F. Bastiat "What is Seen and What is Not Seen," in Selected Essays, pp. 1-50.
4. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
This strategy also permitted the more speedy management of local dealings. Basically the purpose of this strategy was to centralize of colonial affairs; however, it simply solidified the idea that the colonies needed a system of self-governance that was not inclusive of the British government. Because of the behavior of the British government, the English colonies that revolted in 1776 had in common: "representative assemblies and this institutional affinity laid the foundations for the concerted resistance without which the American evolution would have been impossible."
It was under the auspices of the English government's attempt to control the colonists that the idea of American independence began to be viewed as necessary. The colonist felt that they had the right and the wisdom to rule and to develop a governmental structure that would be conducive with meeting the needs and the goals of those living within the colonies. The structure of…
Becker, Carl Lotus Schlesinger, Arthur M. The History of Political Parties in the Province of New York, 1760-1776. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, WI. 1960.
Declaration of Independence. Online Available at http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/declaration_transcript.html
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Priest, Claire. "Currency Policies and Legal Development in Colonial New England." Yale Law Journal 110, no. 8 (2001): 1303.
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…
f they had managed to do great damage to the French forces, the British could have cut off those French troops from helping the Americans, and the war would have gone to the British. He writes, "The failure of the British to attack, and possibly fatally wound, the French at Newport was calamitous in the long run" (Ketchum 36). Thus, the author gives the reader insight into both sides of the battle, including his own analysis of what went wrong and what went right for both sides, making it easier for the reader to understand the background and inner workings of the battle.
n addition, Ketchum clearly understands the inner workings of many of the "cast of characters" of this book. He clearly admires Washington, but he is also very familiar with many other participants, such as Lafayette, Benjamin Franklin, and many others. He introduces them clearly and effectively, and…
In conclusion, Ketchum's book is a detailed and interesting account of a pivotal time in U.S. history. Anyone interested in American history would appreciate this book, and anyone interested in the Revolutionary War should certainly read and/or own it. The book is not so scholarly that it is difficult to understand, and Ketchum's writing style makes it much easier to comprehend and enjoy. In addition, his research is thorough and detailed. This book should be used in classrooms so students can grasp more underlying information about the Revolutionary War and those who participated in it.
Ketchum, Richard M. Victory at Yorktown: The Campaign That Won the Revolution. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2004.
Shaping of the Colonies in 1763
There have been few eras in human history possessed with more of the expectant optimism, and the grim pragmatism, than the century following first contact with the new world of North America. With an expansive landmass, the size of which more than doubled that known to citizens of any European country at the time, brimming with natural resources and lying open for exploration and settlement, many thinkers of the age shared Benjamin Franklin's fateful estimation, made in his tract America as a Land of Opportunity, which claimed "so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully." Penned and published in 1751, Franklin's treatise on the seemingly infinite riches to be reaped by the American colonies failed to fully anticipate man's overwhelming compulsion to compete for the control of land. While America's preeminent philosopher was prescient in…
revolutionary the American evolution was in reality. This is one issue that has been debated on by many experts in the past and in the present too. The contents of this paper serve to justify this though-provoking issue.
American evolution-how revolutionary was it?
When we try to comprehend why the American evolution was fought, we come to know that the residents of the American colonies did so to retain their hard-earned economic, political and social order when the British had stated to neglect them. However, before we began to understand what The American evolution was all about, it is necessary for us to look at conditions of the colonies preceding the war. The economy of Colonial America were divided into three separate parts: New England, where the economy was commerce; the South, where cash crops were the major source of earning; and the middle colonies, a combination of both. [Account…
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1967).
Kurtz and Hutson (eds), Essays on the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1973).
Account of a Declaration 1, available at: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/account/ , accessed on: February 11, 2004
American Journey, available at:
The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.
The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States…
Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776. Wiley-Blackwell; 3rd
Geiter, Mary K., & Speck, W.A. Colonial America: From Jamestown to Yorktown.
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
African and Native Americans
When discussing the experience of minorities in early America, it is tempting to fall into one of two extremes, either by imagining that the treatment of minorities by European colonizers was equal across the board, or else was so different that one cannot find congruities between experiences. Like most things in history, however, the truth is far more complex, because although the same religious, political, and economic ideologies motivated Europeans' treatment of Native Americans and Africans, the effects were mixed. In some instances Native Americans were treated to the same kind of brutality and disregard as those Africans caught up in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but more frequently, European colonizers attempted to treat Native Americans as something closer to equals in an attempt to manipulate them into favorable actions, such trade alliances or military support. Furthermore, the experiences of Native Americans and Africans in America prior…
Clark, Andrew F. "The Atlantic Slave Trade Revisited." Journal of Third World Studies 22
Maass, John R. "The Frontier War for American Independence/The French and Indian War."
The Journal of Military History 69 (2005): 228-230.
omen's Lives After American Revolution
hereas the American Revolution has had a significant on people living in the thirteenth American colonies in general, it was also responsible for generating change in domains that appeared to have nothing in common with it. Previous to the ar of Independence, most women in the colonies were relatively accustomed with being discriminated on a daily basis. The American Revolution, however, played a major role in changing the way that women in the colonies behaved, as it presented them with the concept of freedom as being one of the most important values that one could uphold. Thus, ever since the American Revolutionary ar women in the U.S. took on new ideas and engaged in a process that was meant to gradually improve their social status. The American Civil ar was also essential in assisting women in experiencing progress, as, similar to African-Americans, they acknowledged the…
Cherniavsky, Eva Sentimental Discourses and the Imitation of Motherhood in 19th-Century America Sentimental Discourses and the Imitation of Motherhood in 19th-Century America (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995)
Cogliano, Francis D. Revolutionary America, 1763-1815: A Political History (London: Routledge, 2000)
Martin, Wendy "Women and the American Revolution," Early American Literature11.3 (1976): 322
Glorious Cause: The American Revolution
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Robert Middlekauff, born in 1927 in Washington state, holds a B.A. from the University of Washington and a Ph.D. from Yale. He saw active duty as a lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps in Korea from 1952-54. For most of his long career he has been a professor of history at the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to The Glorious Cause (1982), his published books include Ancients and Axioms (1963), The Mathers (1971), and Benjamin Franklin and His Enemies (1996). Dr. Middlekauff received the Bancroft Prize in 1972 and the Commonwealth Gold Medal in 1983. He is listed as a historical educator in Who's Who in America where this biographical information was obtained.
This work, a narrative historical study of the American Revolution, and the first volume to…
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
Merchants and Traders of the American Revolution
The American Revolution occurred during the 1700's as the early settlers underwent a period of change. During this time, settlers in the Americas gained religious freedom, became prosperous merchants, and established a more democratic government. However, during this time, the settlers were also controlled and taken advantage of by England.
The American War was fought from 1776 to 1778 yet the American Revolution started much before the war. John Adams summed up the sentiment of the American Revolution when he stated, "ut what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was affected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people...This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution."
The American Revolution was fought by the colonists, many of whom…
American Revolution. World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago:World Book Inc. 1997, pp. 270-274.
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967.
Goldfield, David etal. The American Journey: A History of the Untied States. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998, pp. 130-153.
Gorn, Elliot J., Roberts, Randy and Blizhar, Terryt. Constructing the American Past: A Source Book of a People's History - Volume I. 3rd ed. New York: Longman, 1999.
One of the most important events in the history of the United States is the American Revolution, which is regarded as more important in the country development that ideas, trends, and actions. The significance of the American Revolution in the nation's history and development is highlighted in the fact that it was one of the seminal instances of the Enlightenment. During this period, the political philosophy of the Enlightenment was established and utilized in creating an entirely new country that has developed to become the world's super power. However, the American Revolution was fueled by a series of several major events and incidents brought by various factors including rebellion by the American colonies and Declaration of Independence.
Overview of the American Revolution
As previously mentioned, the American Revolution is one of the most important and remarkable events in the country's history given its role in the birth of…
American Revolution History. A & E Television Networks, LLC. accessed November 30, 2015.
Hubley, Benrard. The History of the American Revolution, Including the Most Important Events
and Resolutions of the Honorable Continental Congress During that Period and also the Most Interesting Letters and Orders of His Excellency General George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. New York, NY: The New York Public Library Reference Department, 1805.
Conflict and Cooperation: Native Americans and European Settlers in Early America
The early history of the settlement of what would eventually become the United States has many competing narratives. Many people view the relationship between Native Americans and European settlers as fundamentally combative. hile at times the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans was certainly one of conflict, this period was also full of significant curiosity, education and cooperation that went on between both groups. Many times, each group was inquisitive about the other and knowledge was exchanged. The Native Americans were often portrayed as brutal savages, but current literature shows that this was not often the case. The apparent viciousness of the European settlers towards the native peoples, particularly in terms of cultural destruction and land acquisition, is also more complicated than it initially seems. Though the eventually dominance of the Europeans over the Native Americans lead…
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. New York:
Cornell University Press, 2000.
-- . "English Perceptions of Treacherym 1583-1640: The Case of the American 'Savage'." The Historical Journal. Vol 20. No. 2. (June 1977) pp. 263-287.
-- . Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. 2nd Edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
Litwak, Leon. "Results of the Civil ar." Funk & agnalls® New Encyclopedia. 2005 orld
Almanac Education Group. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Bleeding Kansas." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Dred Scott." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
John B. Gordon, "Causes of the Civil ar," Reminiscences of the Civil ar, page updated June 1, 2002, April 23, 2009, http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
"Causes of the Civil ar," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon Leidner, "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer," Great American History. April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise," The Civil ar, April 23, 2009, http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/200303.html
"Causes of the Civil War," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon, John B. "Causes of the Civil War." Reminiscences of the Civil War. Page
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
I believe that his southern background played an important role in influencing him in adopting such an attitude. hile I consider that it is perfectly normal for one to acknowledge the fact that southern colonies were an important battlefield in the war, it would be absurd to consider that Southerners are primarily responsible for the fact that the colonies were victorious.
In spite of the fact that Ferling's tendency to overestimate the importance of particular figures influenced me in thinking that he was not exactly accurate in his description of the ar of Independence, the writer compensates through providing a clear explanation of the American victory. As long as one identifies the areas that Ferling is inclined to express prejudice in the respective reader is likely to enjoy reading the book, considering that it provided me with a generally academic account concerning the reason for which the American Revolution ended…
Ferling, John E., Almost a miracle: the American victory in the War of Independence, Oxford University Press, 2007
Hook, Richard, American War of Independence Commanders, (Osprey Publishing, 2003)
Yerxa, Donald a. Recent themes in early American history: historians in conversation, (Univ of South Carolina Press, 2008)
The book the American Story attempts to dispel common notions of the conquest of the New World. According to the author,
"The story recounted first in Europe and then in the United States depicted heroic adventurers, missionaries and soldiers sharing Western civilization with the peoples of the New World and opening a vast virgin land to economic development. The familiar tale celebrated material progress, the inevitable spread of European values and the taming of frontiers." (Divine, 2)
Divine believes this is a grossly distorted version of the truth for many reasons explained below.
First, North America was already a land of great cultural and technological achievement before the Europeans arrived. There are many examples provided, but the one that stands out the most is Chaco Canyon on the San Juan River in present-day New Mexico (Divine, 4). With as many as fifteen thousand people, Chaco Canyon had…
Divine, Robert, et. al. The American Story (Second Edition). New York: Penguin, 2002.
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Touchstone Books, 1995.
Native Tribes and American Identity
It is reasonable to suggest that the United States would not exist in its current form without the contributions and influences of the millions of Native Americans who already lived here when the first colonists arrived. Not only did these early Native Americans teach the new European arrivals how to survive in the New World, in some cases they even freely supported them for years while they awaited assistance from Europe, all with no real expectation of being repaid in kind or turn. Without this assistance, the settlement of the American continent might well have been delayed for several more decades.
In addition, and although many modern Americans may not realize it, the so-called “melting pot” that would characterize the American identity during much of the 19th and 20th centuries was the direct result of the influences of Native American tribes. Moreover, Native American tribes…
Colonial Culture efore the American Revolution
The Great Awakening and Religious Change
The Impact of Education
When discussing causes of the American Revolution, most historians cite growing taxation, lack of representation in the national government, attempts by the King and Parliament to curb the power of colonial legislatures, and restrictions on trade as some of the primary causes. Often ignored as a cause are the changes in American colonial society that occurred in the decades before the revolution. Americans began to develop a cultural identity separate from that of Great ritain. Attitudes toward religion underwent sweeping modifications as a result of the Great Awakening. Landed aristocracy was unable to dominate society in the same way that it did in England. Education became more prevalent. New ideas concerning the nature and rights of people were debated and gradually accepted. All of these factors played a part in propelling Americans toward independence.…
Canada, Mark. "Journalism." Colonial America: 1607-1783. n.d. 25 February 2003 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/news/ .
Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography and Other Writings. Ed. L. Jessie Lemisch.
New York: Nal Penguin, Inc., 1961.
Heyrman, Christine Leigh. "The First Great Awakening." October 2000. National
mechanics of the mercantilist doctrine from the incipit of the early modern period in Europe, with special focus on the role of the North American colonies in the ritish mercantilist endeavors.
Mercantilism was the leading economical belief system to support the attempts of regimes and great European powers of the 17th century to organize their economic existence. The reasons standing behind mercantilism originated from the need to provide a solid structure for the financial foundation of "the nation-state -- the emerging post-medieval governmental mode that rapidly replaced feudal localism in northern and Western Europe after the mid-fifteenth century" (McCusker, 1996, p. 337), in order to ensure the survival and prosperity of the state. Specifically, nationalism held the promise of political stability and better living prospects for everyone, bringing considerable improvement to the prior era's imbalance.
The majority of early modern Europe countries, starting with Spain, Portugal, and Great ritain, adopted…
Feldmeth, Greg D. "Early British Colonial Trade Regulations" U.S. History Resources. Last modified June 24, 2004. http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html
McCusker, John J.. "British Mercantilist Policies and the American Colonies." In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, edited by Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman, 337-363. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 26 April 1996.
Are Americans of African decent entitled to compensation for the American South's slavery past? Does the American government owe people whose ancestors were slaves reparations in the form of money, land or capitol goods? Many African-Americans and white liberals feel that black Americans are owed something and a movement in this country has been stirring for a while agitating for forced reparations by the U.S. government. (Conyers 2003) This paper will argue that reparations for slavery should not occur. It will be shown why reparations are wrong and how reparations would ultimately cause deeper divisions in our society then already exist.
Today there are increasing numbers of black professionals and scholars advocating reparations for slavery. Black lawyers have filed lawsuits against the federal government and companies that have profited from slavery. In 1989, Congressional representative John Conyers introduced H.R. 40 titled, "Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African-Americans Act."…
Brian Kuzma Black Month Should Be History 2/14/2002 http://www.cornellreview.org/viewart.cgi?num=125 Accessed April 19, 2003
Conyers John http://www.house.gov/conyers/news_reparations.htm Accessed April 19, 2003
Damu Jean web site article http://www.campusaction.net/news/fight_racism/reparations_article.htm2003
Engerman Stanley Inikori Joseph, The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe, Duke University Press, 1992