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A nation wherein the masses elect representatives to the government, thus ensuring the law is shaped by public opinion (so long as this opinion is Constitutional) is considered a republic. This was the aim of America's Founding Fathers. Democracy closely resembles a epublic; however, a key point of distinction between the two is the representatives. The founders were worried about citizens' criticism that they were assuming too much control themselves and hence, there was a need to prove to citizens that it wasn't the President, but the law, that governed the nation. Following the very ineffective attempt at enforcing the Articles of Confederation, the founders ultimately found success with the Constitution -- American history's most famous text -- which ensured federal power was limited to only matters included within the Constitution. Without the Constitution, the U.S. would be an absolute democracy with all citizens doing whatever they felt…
Adams, J. O. (2008). Why Our Founders Feared a Democracy. Retrieved from American Traditions: http://www.americantraditions.org/Articles/Why%20Our%20Founders%20Feared%20a%20Democracy.htm
Appelbaum, Y. (2015, October). America's Fragile Constitution. Retrieved from The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/10/our-fragile-constitution/403237/
Pease, H. (2010, June 25). The Founding Fathers Rejected Democracy. Retrieved from Liberty Under fire: http://libertyunderfire.org/2010/06/the-founding-fathers-rejected-democracy/
Wandrei, K. (2016). What Features of the U.S. Constitution Had Distrust of a Democracy? Retrieved from Synonym: http://classroom.synonym.com/features-constitution-distrust-democracy-20581.html
Voter Turnout in 1988 American Presidential Election:
Democracy is for the people and by the people and it can be successful if people participate effectively in electing their representatives. In 1988, presidential elections were held in United States of America. Statistics shows that voter turnout for this presidential election was very low. Voter turnout was as low as 50.1%. In spite of an increasing trend of voter turnouts in the presidential election of 1948 and in the presidential elections of 1960, the voter turn out in 1988 decreased sharply to merely half of the population that are eligible for casting votes. The turnout was below the American presidential elections standard. Most of eligible candidates who did not cast their votes were supporters of Dukakis. If these people had cast their votes the situation would have been different for 1988 elections. It can also be said that 1988 presidential…
Bardes, B.A., Shelley, M.C., II, & Schmidt, S.W. (2012). American Government and Politics Today. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Franklin, M.N. (2004). Voter Turnout and the Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Established Democracies Since 1945. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Janda, K., Berry, J.M., Goldman, J., & Hula, K.W. (2012). The Challenge of Democracy. Australia; Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Polsby, N.W., Wildavsky, A., & Schier, S.E. (2012). Presidential Elections: Strategies and Structures of American Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Given the very nature of colonialism and imperialism, it is doubtful that the Europeans would have wanted to give any credit to the Native Americans for their contributions to the development of democracy in the United States. As Johansen points out, the settlers in the Northeast must have gleaned some information about how Enlightenment principles can be put into practice. However, the indigenous peoples of North America were incredibly diverse, as were the settlers and their settlement patterns. Influences of Native Americans on Europeans varied, and in many cases the interactions were totally unlike the ones described by Johansen.
Although Johansen overestimates the influence of the Iroquois Confederacy government and social structure on the development of democracy in the United States, the role of Native Americans in the development of the United States should not be discounted. The very fact that Europeans encountered diverse indigenous peoples became a major factor…
American political democracy had its roots and evolved from small closely-knit communities. The Town meetings were the means of securing communal ends. The much debated electoral college in the last Presidential election and the local school system are reminders that the "public" once operated primarily in highly localized and manageable situations. People had real power, as it is the essence of democracy, they could meet to discuses and resolve issues effecting the entire community. But the technological advancement, the industry and economics forces have broadened human associations beyond local community boundary lines. The new technologies of communications and travel has brought people closer in a way, which has gone beyond the normal community interactions and are more complicated. Political and legal measures have lagged far behind technological forces and Americans are thrown together in a variety of associations over which they have no control. The two most prominent…
Gordon L. Ziniewicz Summary of John Dewey's "The Eclipse of the Public" in The Public and Its Problems http://www.fred.net/tzaka/deweypub.html
Place for Us: How To Make Society Civil and Democracy Strong by Benjamin Barber Reviewed by Jerry Kloby http://www.montclair.edu/pages/ics/Barber.htm
Thus, the members of the Convention assumed that, although power was a necessary evil, it was also dangerous, especially when provided to the wrong person who might take advantage of this power for his own gain. In essence, the members attempted to compose a constitution that would insure effective power for the government when needed but that would also place reliable checks and safeguards on the use of that power. Once again, this aim can be traced back to Montesquieu's essay in which he states "to prevent the abuse of power, 'tis necessary that by the very disposition of things (that) power should be checked... " (Leone 37).
ut the members were also much too experienced in the ways of politics to take for granted that conscientious and moral men would always be elected to office. To them, human nature was universally fallible and only built-in safeguards could be…
Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, 1500 to the Present. New York: HarperCollins, 2000.
The Constitution: An Enduring Document." U.S. Constitution: Drafting the Constitution. Internet. 2005. Accessed February 6, 2005. http://www.usconstitution.com/DraftingtheConstitution.htm .
Leone, Bruno, Ed. The American Revolution: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1992.
founding documents American democracy determine democratic concepts principles manifested early writings. For Application Assignment, asked shift thoughts current scholarly writings democratic governance.
The idea of democracy has experienced much change during recent decades and this is reflected by the attitudes that democratic governments put across with regard to the masses. Numerous scholars in the contemporary society have addressed this concept in an attempt to provide the world with a more complex understanding of how it influences people's lives in the present.
Devesh Kapur and Moises Naim's journal article "The IMF and Democratic Governance" relates to how institutions like the International Monetary Fund play an important role in shaping the way that governments apply democratic principles. This article presents research meant to address the way that financial institutions affect today's society through the set of legislations they impose. The fact that it provides substantial information with the purpose of backing ideas…
Brownlee, J., Masoud, T., Reynolds, A., Brown, N. "Tracking the "Arab Spring," Journal of Democracy, October 2013, Volume 24, Number 4
Franck, T.M. "The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance." The American Journal of International Law Vol. 86, No. 1 (Jan., 1992), pp. 46-91
Kapur, D. & Naim. M. "The IMF and Democratic Governance." Journal of Democracy Volume 16, Number 1, January 2005 pp. 89-102
The quest for primacy is likely to lead to the formation of adversarial alliances and greater distrust of American intentions, endangering international stability and peace. In the domestic sphere, quest for primacy will lead to greater abuse of power and the expansion of the military, threatening the health of American democracy. Democracy may be eroded and the U.S. economy may be drained before advocates of American primacy may achieve their dream of American primacy.
Allison, Graham and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Longman, 1999.
Bacevich, Andrew. The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced by ar. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Blainey, Geoffrey. The Causes of ar. New York: Free Press, 1973.
Jervis, Robert. "Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma," orld Politics 30.2 (1978): 167-214. JSTOR. eb 14 Oct. 2011.
Jervis, Robert. System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life. Princeton, NJ:…
Allison, Graham and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Longman, 1999.
Bacevich, Andrew. The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced by War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Blainey, Geoffrey. The Causes of War. New York: Free Press, 1973.
Jervis, Robert. "Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma," World Politics 30.2 (1978): 167-214. JSTOR. Web 14 Oct. 2011.
American Labor Movement
The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.
The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "hat should constitute full participation in American society? hat standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil ar until the beginning of orld ar I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from…
AFL-CIO. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011. Print.
D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services. "The Gilded Age - Industrial Revolution in America." 2011. Raken.com Web site. Web. 7 February 2012.
Dictionary.com, LLC. Xenophobia. 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry
At some point, all of us must have asked ourselves: Does poetry still have a place in the contemporary democratic society? Other questions arise from here of course: Does poetry play different roles in the different democracies? What is the difference between the role poetry plays in the American society and the role it plays in the European one? And from here on it may start the debate.
In the book, Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry, by Robert Pinsky, we may find some answers to these questions.
Robert Pinsky starts in the first chapter "Culture" considering the "voice of poetry"..."within the culture of American democracy." He remarks that the human society fears the most often since its early ages from the important things: the uniformisation, by globalization, centralization, loss of diversity and the possibility of disappearing from the collective memory. An…
1. Pinsky, Robert, Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry, Princeton University Press; (September 3, 2002)
Pinsky, Robert, Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry, Princeton University Press; (September 3, 2002), pg.2 ibid, pg. 6 ibid, pg. 13
American National Character (history)
The Ongoing Search for an "American National Character"
This assignment asks the following pertinent and challenging questions: Is it possible to find trends amongst so much diversity? What characteristics are distinctly American, regardless of class, race, and background? What is problematic about making these generalizations and inheriting the culture? What have we inherited exactly? What problems arise with our ideals - and are we being honest with ourselves? Discuss individualism and the "American Dream." Are these goals realized and are they realistic? This paper seeks solid answers to these often elusive questions.
The search for a national character should be never-ending, and the pivotal part of the search that should be enlightening and enriching for the seeker of that knowledge may just be the inspiration from the books and authors springing into the seeker's mind along the way to discovery.
Who is presently engaged in a…
Bellah, Robert. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life.
New York: Harper & Row, 1985.
Cochran, Thomas Childs. Challenges to American Values: Society, Business, and Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
McElroy's thesis serves to isolate America from Europe, intellectually, in its development, and affirms America's sense of being a special nation in relation to the rest of the world. The vastness of the American wilderness, and its wide-open spaces that gave rise to the need for self-reliance also helps explain why modern European social welfare state institutions, like socialized medicine and generous pension plans, often meet with resistance in an America that is still in love with the ideal of individualism and hard work. Even in today's discussion regarding the status of illegal immigrants, on both sides of the debate, the willingness of desperate people to work for a mere pittance at jobs that Americans find too hard or poorly paying is often seen as admirable, rather than tragic, because hard work is so valued in American society.
McElroy's focus on the colonial period on of American history, however, neglects…
The contact between the two groups is not always straight forward, and is often fought officially, through judicial practices, and unofficially, through dubious backstage arrangements and activities. However, there is also a legal manner through which interest groups have been given the right to influence political decisions and the laws voted upon. Lobbying is one such activity.
Although lobbyists are the subject of heated debate, as many citizens consider them to be just "wheeler-dealers continually wining and dining public officials in order to secure political favors at the expense of the general public" (Volkomer 282), their main function is to supply "information about their specialized interests to a few select public officials, communicating with members and others who are concerned with their problem" (283). However their role is rather interpretable. On the one hand, they represent the interests of a certain segment of the population, such as farmers, or railway…
Janda, Kenneth, Jeffrey Berry, and Jerry Goldman. The challenge of democracy: government in America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.
Jewell Malcolm E, and David M. Olson. American state political parties and elections. Homewoo: The Dorsey Press, 1982.
Volkomer, Walter E.. American government. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,1972.
American Constitution: A living, evolving document -- from guaranteeing the right to enslavement in the 18th century to modifications in favor of freedom in the 19th century
Constitution today protects the rights of all in its language, but this was not always the case in its text and spirit. As a political tactic as well as out of personal conviction and experience, Frederick Douglass' characterization of the American Constitution as an anti-slavery document is certainly an admirable piece of rhetoric. Douglass stated that although the America he spoke to at the time of his autobiography My Bondage and My Freedom, was a nation divided between free and slave states and territories, fundamentally America was and "is in its letter and spirit, an anti-slavery instrument, demanding the abolition of slavery as a condition of its own existence" (396)
Slavery, Douglass stated, deprives an individual of his or her dignity, deprives an…
Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. Available in full text online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer new2?id=DouMybo.sgm& images=images/modeng& data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed& tag=public& part=6& division=div2[29 Jan 2005].
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address: Monday, March 4, 1861." From Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs, U.S.G.P.O., 1989. Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/124/. [29 Jan 2005].
Madison, James. "Federalist No. 10." The Federalist Papers. Available in full text online ( http://www.thisnation.com/library/books/federalist/10.html ) [29 Jan 2005].
"The United States Constitution." Available in full text online http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html . [29 Jan 2005].
The progressive era in American political culture set the stage for President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal. Starting in the 1890s, the Progressive Era drew upon Marxist theory of labor exploitation to help balance unbridled capitalist growth during the Gilded Age of industrial development. Progressivism welcomed social and technological progress both by suggesting reforms in both government and business to reduce corruption and ensure a higher quality of life for all Americans. Two of the progressive political party movements during the turn of the century included the Populist Party and the Bull Moose Party. Progressive values then later became embedded in the platform of the Democratic Party when President Franklin Roosevelt became president.
Some of the specific issues spearheaded by the Progressive movement included labor rights, women's suffrage, and anti-trust laws. During the age of urbanization, the Progressive movement helped to improve what was rapidly becoming deplorable and deteriorating living and…
external factors, including socio-economic or demographic ones, shape political systems and institutions. he latter are flexible to adapt to the changes in the external factors and to their impact, often in violent ways that translate into revolutions, such as the French Revolution. From this larger perspective on things, urner focuses on the external factors that have shaped the American democracy and the U.S. political institutions.
For urner, the key element in the evolution of America as a democratic state is the frontier and the frontier regions. urner looks back even before the Declaration of Independence, with examples of frontier regions in Virginia. he key element of the frontier region, with impact on the development of democratic institutions, appears to be the absolute freedom of small landholders, dominated by an entrepreneurial and adventure spirit, aiming to discover, own and develop. his was true both for existing settlers and for new immigrant…
The first characteristic of the frontier spirit is the entrepreneurship, the ability to commit to risk for a future profit. This has been successfully appropriated from the frontier spirit and is now functional in the economic and business area. People are no longer colonizing the Far West, but are investing resources to innovate, to create new businesses, produce jobs and apply their knowledge to new products and services.
Second, I believe that despite the fact that the material forces which gave rise to it were removed, democracy and democracy ideals in the United States will continue, because the frontier spirit was only a part of what makes up this democratic ideal. I believe that a large part of this ideal and of the entire democratic framework has also come from 250 years of democratic development. The opening of the Far West was ended by 1890, but democracy has continued to evolve and develop throughout the 20th century, in a very successful way, including here the civil rights movement.
It is also important to emphasize the role of all the immigrants coming to the U.S. with their own ideals of freedom and democracy and being able to successfully contribute to the democratic framework. Since this trend will likely continue in the future as well, it is improbable that the democratic ideals will disappear any time soon, nor that this dynamic that encourages a continuous development of democracy, will ever stop.
America: A nation of paradoxes
America is a nation of paradoxes. On one hand, it is a nation that has symbolized freedom to many immigrants, as poignantly illustrated in Emma Lazarus' poem "The New Colossus," a poem included on the famed Statue of Liberty that greeted so many refugees as they strove to escape from Europe and avoid intolerable situations. The Lazarus poem proclaims the dawning a new America, free of class restrictions, which can offer prosperity even to the poorest new arrival. Yet federal policies in regards to African-Americans and Native Americans have been marked by injustice and prejudice. The American Dream of egalitarianism exists next to an ugly strain of racism that has run through the thread of American history since its inception.
Emma Lazarus' poem is perhaps the most explicit, famous rendition of the American dream: "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp... / Give me your tired,…
Aldrich, Thomas Bailey. "Unguarded Gates." 1895. Print.
Hawk, Walter Echo. In the Courts of the Conqueror. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum, 2010.
Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American century." Demography (pre-2011) 42.4
(2005): 595-620. ABI/Inform Complete. Web. 19 Sep. 2014.
Democracy in the United States [...] what type of democracy is the U.S. What are the most democratic and least democratic features of American national government? Do you believe that the U.S. presently embodies the core values of a democracy or do you believe that the U.S. has yet to attain the essence of democratic ideals? Democracy is one of the most sought after forms of government, and some form of democracy reaches far back into history, as far back as early Greece. American democracy is a model for the world.
First, to discuss democracy it is better to define democracy. "Democracy" comes from the Greek work "demos" which means "the common people," and "kratia" which means, "power" (O'Neil 149). Thus, democracy means the power actually lives in the people. However, this is too simply a definition of the word. Author O'Neil maintains the word means "political power exercised either…
Mueller, Dennis C. Constitutional Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
O'Neil, Patrick. Essentials of Comparative Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2004.
Putnam, Robert D. "Democracy in America at the End of the Twentieth Century." Participation and Democracy, East and West: Comparisons and Interpretations. Eds. Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Marilyn Rueschemeyer, and Bjorn Wittrock. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1998. 233-259.
omen, Men and Environment
hile we might like to believe that we are each the masters of our own fate, in fact the environment plays an important role in shaping who we become. Guthrie makes this point in The Big Sky, for Boone, Summers and Teal Eye are all more the product of their environment than they are the creators of the world around them. Guthrie suggests that this being-shaped-by rather than shaping-of the environment is especially strong in the est, but he also at least suggests that the environment is a potent force in shaping the lives of people everywhere.
It has become fashionable in recent years to scoff at the myth of the est and to replace this myth with history. This is in large measure what Guthrie has set out to do. He is intent on telling a real story about a real place, and in particular…
Guthrie, A.B. The Big Sky. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. http://www.literature.org/authors/bronte-charlotte/jane-eyre
Schlissel, Lillian. Women's Diaries of the Westward Journey. New York: Schocken, 1992.
Steven Kelman's Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government
Steven Kelman's 1998 book on politics is entitled Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government. This is a brief but accurate summary of the central thesis of Kelman's philosophy of what enables the American system of government to function as well as it does. Perhaps because of the contentious nature of the modern media, discussions of the American governmental system and political process tend to focus on criticisms rather than on praises of its ability to address social ills. However, it is this stress upon the functionality, rather than upon the disfunctionality of American government that drives the structure, arguments, and philosophy advocated by Kelman's book.
In his introduction, Kelman states that he wishes to "evaluate how well the policy-making process works in the United States." In other words, Kelman wishes to rate the efficacy of the…
Kelman, Steven. Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government, 1998.
Monarchy." World Book Encyclopedia Online. http://www2.worldbook.com/
Parliamentary System" World Book Encyclopedia Online. http://www2.worldbook.com
As Margaret Atwood points out, Americans have as much to be ashamed of as to be proud of.
When Barbara Kingsolver claims "The values we fought for and won there are best understood, I think, by oil companies," she refers to the way the American flag has been distorted. The issues the flag symbolizes, such as freedom and liberty, are myths for many people. As Kingsolver points out, the American flag has been used to justify many evils including wars like Vietnam and Iraq. Instead of delivering true freedom, liberty, and democracy, the American flag really brought economic dependence. Instead of associating the American flag with negativity, death, and intimidation, Kingsolver suggests that Americans reclaim it. The red stripes do not need to symbolize war. They can also symbolize "blood donated to the ed Cross."
The American flag is a flexible symbol that is often used in ways that manipulate…
Atwood, Margaret. "A Letter to America." Published on Friday, April 4, 2003 by the International Herald Tribune. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0404-07.htm
Kingsolver, Barbara. "And Our Flag Was Still There." Published on Tuesday, September 25, 2001 in the San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 29, 2008 from Common Dreams at http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0925-08.htm
Streufert, Duane. "Evolution of the United States Flag." Evolution of the United States Flag. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.usflag.org/history/flagevolution.html
American Civil Liberties Union
(Friend or Foe)
America was founded on the astute principles of democracy and the potential benefits of freedom it derives. America, unlike many of its foreign counterparts has long recognized the benefits of individual rights, freedoms and privileges and has fought to the death to protect them. Currently, America aims to spread these principles of democracy around the globe in an effort to create a better quality of life for all mankind. Even with these lofty and ambitious goals, America, on occasion fails to uphold these principles within its own borders. Too often, America has overlooked the problems prevalent within its own country while criticizing other nations about their own circumstances. Many of these overlooked issues including slavery, discrimination, women's rights and others have left an unfavorable image in American history. In such instances, the American Civil Liberties Union has become the beacon of hope for…
1) " American Civil Liberties Union." Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
2) "ACLU History | American Civil Liberties Union." American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
3) "ACLU: Accomplishments." Action Center | American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
4) "American Civil Liberties Union - New World Encyclopedia." Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011.
POL 319 State & Local Governments
emocracy in America has evolved from the concept of federalism allowing citizens at all levels to develop their own governance system. Since the founding of the United States in 1776 different governmental structures both on the state and local level developed. My paper takes a closer look at three different faces of state and local government in the United States of today: irect emocracy Government, Police Jury Government and Mayor-Council Government. While California and Louisiana are showcase examples for the irect emocracy and Policy Jury Government system, New York City stands exemplary for a strong Mayor Council governmental system. The goal of the paper is to point out the distinctive features of the three models, their historic background, and various impacts for citizens in the three geographic surroundings.
Case Study # 1 -- Examination of irect emocracy in California
Does the legislature or the governor have more power in Louisiana based on your analysis? The governor has more power than the legislature because the legislature can completely overpower the governor. There is not one bill he can stop if they chose this veto and there is not an expense he can block for the same reason. The legislature can organize the executive branch anyway it chooses subject to the constitutional imperative of the presence of certain constitutional officers. Furthermore it can get rid of any regulatory authority in it, and propose any constitutional amendment it likes regardless of the governor's opinion on the matter
(Sadow, J.D. (23 May 2011, p.2).
How is the provision of funds to local and state efforts affected or optimized by Louisiana's French-based system? The state of Louisiana faces a severe decline in revenues through fiscal year 2012 which, if no corrective action is taken, will leave a significant funding gap in the state government expenditures and will create serious sustainability issues in financing of state obligations. It is essential that the state act now to reduce the cost of state government, through all means available, including efficiencies, economies, greater effectiveness, and other means to streamline government in order to overcome the projected severe revenue reductions occurring through 2012 . Louisiana also created the Commission on Streamlining Government (CSG) to examine each agency's constitutional and legal duties to gain efficiency and lower costs by reducing the size of state government. This commission is charged with making real reforms to reduce the size of government by finding and getting rid of a ballooning bureaucracy and duplicative services and low-performing programs both on the state and local government level (Streamlining Louisiana: Driving Government Reform in an Era of Fiscal Crisis (29 January 2010, p. 2). Proposers of the reform i.a. request the issuance of annual public reports online of all state grants by funding source, agency, parish and
To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and France (13%), even fewer say religion is "very important" to their lives (PE).
Fifty-three percent of Americans are more apt to agree that it is vital to believe in God prior to having good morals and values while just 33% of Germans, 20% of the British, 19% of Spaniards and 15% of those in France agree with that statement. omen and the elderly are more apt to agree that God is indeed the "necessary foundation for morality and good values" (PE). Fifty-nine percent of American women say religion is "very important" to them but only 41% of American men agree with that statement (PE).
Meanwhile, in the Journal of Beliefs and Values (illiams, et al., 2009) the authors point out that…
Adams, James, and Ezrow, Lawrence. (2009). Who Do European Parties Represent? How
Western European Parties Represent the Policy Preferences of Opinion Leaders. The Journal
of Politics, 71(1), 206-223.
Bernstein, Elizabeth, and Jakobsen, Janet R. (2010). Sex, Secularism and Religious Influence
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov .
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Democracy in U.S. And Scotland
Democracy in the United States
Different countries with widely disparate forms of government all lay claim to being a democracy. Many European parliamentary-style governments, for example, call themselves democracies. In contrast, more centralized, presidential governments claim to be democracies as well.
hat these forms of government have in common, however, are key basic ideals. Democracy is a form of government that is based on aggregative concepts of a "common good." This concept has its roots in philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau's "social contract theory," which states that a general will of the people gives rise to an unstated social contract. In a democratic form of government, decisions are made based on a "rationally identified common good" (Shapiro 2003: 3).
The United States has three main structures of government. The judiciary is tasked with interpreting and upholding the country's laws. The legislature, composed of the Lower House…
Brinkley, Alan. 2000. The Unfinished Nation. New York: McGraw-Hill Company.
Kagan, Robert. 2003. Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. New York: Knopf
Lace, William. 2001. Scotland. San Diego: Lucent Books.
Public Information Service. 2003. Factsheet on the Scottish Parliament. available at http://www.scottish.parliament.uk
Surrounding Islamic countries might foster unrest if nothing else to demoralize the West and decrease this influence. Since most of these countries are kingdoms or ruled by despots, these nations have a hidden agenda to create unrest and present the U.S.-led invasion and its aftermath as a failure.
Having been identified a failure in the eyes of the world would prevent any possible invasion of the other Islamic kingdoms or fiefdoms.
Another cause of a possible long-term failure of U.S. attempts at bringing democracy to Iraq would be because of the Islamic mindset. There are two primary sects within Islam (among others): Sunni and Shiite. Mr. Hussein was a Sunni. Sunnis in the country were preferentially treated. The Sunnis would therefore not want the removal of Saddam Hussein because of the fear of transfer (or sharing) of power with the Shiites. Many have averred that centuries of generations of having…
Copson, Raymond W. "Iraq War: Background and Issues Overview." Report for Congress, 2003.
Toland, John. But Not in Shame; the Six Months after Pearl Harbor. New York,: Random House, 1961.
American Political Philosophy: epublicanism
Within this paper, the general theory of republicanism will be presented. The conceptualization of republicanism discussed within the paper as an American political philosophy will be based on The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison in 1787. Initially, a brief overview of relevant background information on The Federalist Papers will be provided. This will be followed by a discussion of the primary components of republicanism as set forth within the works of Hamilton, Jay and Madison. A summary and conclusions will then be provided.
Overview of The Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers have been suggested as representing one of the most important writing in American political thought (Yarbrough, 1986). It represents a collection of 85 letters written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison under the pseudonym of Publius. The letters were written to the American public and were initially published in a…
Hamilton, A., Jay, J. & Madison, J. (1961). The Federalist papers. C. Rossiter (ed.). NY: New American Library.
Yarbrough, J. (1986). The Federalist. News for Teachers of Political Science, (Spring 1986). 7 June 2003: http://www.apsanet.org/CENnet/thisconstitution/yarbrough.cfm..
They couldn't protect themselves with diversification, as an investor-shareholder would in corporate-capitalism. All their eggs would be in one basket. This could result in the firm's stagnation from lack of creativity, innovation, and willingness to take a risk.
Dahl's issue is how to extend democracy and its values, especially equality, into the workplace and thus create a better economic system. He concludes that self-governing enterprises where the workers were responsible for the success of their firms, is the answer. Because every worker would have an interest in the well-being of the firm, greater participation, harder work, and more attention to duty would be the result. Greater economic equality would lead to more harmonious relationships in the workplace and in the greater community as well. He avoids discussing the issue of social ownership. It is not clear who would actually own these enterprises. Would the public own them? Would the workers?…
S. Constitution. The court ruled, "Proposition 8 served no purpose, and had no effect, other than to lessen the statutes and human dignity of gays and lesbians in California" (Dolan, 2012). Hence, the will of the people can become law through popular initiatives, but on the other hand, the argument can be made that if citizens object to the constitutional amendments enacted in any given state -- for any political or social issue -- they have the power of the judiciary to address grievances and sue to reverse the decision.
But should citizens have the power to make public policy through initiatives and state constitutional amendments? Is direct democracy the answer for citizens that feel their elected officials are out of touch? This paper believes that passing propositions and altering state constitutions is indeed a way to bring the voter "…in closer touch with great affairs" and allow the voter…
Dolan, Mura. "Prop. 8: Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional, Court Rules." Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com .
Levin, Daniel Lessard. Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American
Political Culture. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999.
Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.
Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.
Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…
Felkins, L. (1997) Introduction to Public Choice Theory,
James, W. 1907. Pragmatism: A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
-- -- 1909. The Meaning of Truth, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
He also observes the poignant problem of racism that arises here, which is also his reason for calling the new cult "white" Buddhism: in spite of the fact that the hite Buddhists may adopt all the traditional Asian customs- from their name to the food they eat or to the rituals as such, they will still be part of the "mainstream of the white culture." (Allitt 1999, 459). That is to say, the racial differences, still linger no matter what, and are emphasized by the American racism, which is the dark side of American culture.
Finally, Eldin Villafane analyzes the way in which the Catholicism of Spain was imposed to the Native Americans in Mexico, emphasizing the great religiosity of the Hispanic people. The author discusses the differences between Christendom and Christianity, the first being the powerful and complete assimilation of all life-matters into the religious frame.
Thus, all these…
Allitt, Patrick. Major Problems in American Religious History: Documents and Essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999
Moore, Laurence R. Touchstone Jesus. The Mixing of Sacred and Secular in American History. Westminster: John Knox, 2003
American Elections Have ecome Undemocratic
The American electoral process has been criticized on several points. This paper addresses some, though not all, of the ways in which the American political process has been criticized. Starting with campaign finance and whether expensive advertising exerts an influence on the outcome of elections out of proportion to its importance, I discuss the difficulty faced by potential candidates in getting their names on ballots when they are not the candidate being promoted by either the Democrats or Republicans. I then address whether the idea of plurality in national elections is a rational one and conclude with a discussion of the Electoral College and whether its presence and influence in the outcome of the presidential race runs contrary to the expressed democratic spirit of the United States.
First, there is the issue of campaign finance. Essentially, the uncomfortable question is this: is the American system…
1. "Abolish the Electoral College" The Rest of Us.Org 2005. 29 April 2005
2. "Frequently Asked Questions." U.S. Electoral College 2005. National Archives & Records Administration 30 April 2005.
3. "Quick Answers to Candidate Questions" U.S. Federal Election Commission. 2005. 1 May 2005.
4. Kinsley, Michael, "Sitting Pretty." CNN Time September Edition CNN.com 29 April 2005
Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.
The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…
Bonime-Blanc, a., 2011. The Fight Against Corruption Goes Global. Foreign Affairs, pp. 44-49.
Caldwell, W., 2009 . Learning to Leverage New Media. Military Review, May, pp. 256-260.
Carafano, J., 2011. Mastering the Art of Wiki. Joint Force Quarterly, pp. 266-271.
Clinton, H., 2010. Leading through Civilian Power. Foreign Affairs, pp. 199-209.
American Government Response
Summarizing the Readings:
In his article "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power," Peter oll discusses the administrative branch of the government and the various departments who are in control of the funds which keep federal and state governments working. The bureaucracy is a highly influential part of the government and has a degree of control over both the President and Congress with far fewer legal checks to their actions than either of these bodies has to deal with. It has proven difficult to find ways to limit the influence of the bureaucracy when the constitution does not clearly state an opinion on the matter; a serious problem since the constitution is the basis for all legislation in the country. And additional issue has been in trying to determine which branch should deal with administration. Alexander Hamilton believed this was the job of the president and the Executive branch…
"The Executive Branch." 204-28.
Wilson, James Q. "The Rise of the Bureaucratic State." The Bureaucracy. 298-302.
Woll, Peter. "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power." The Bureaucracy. 302-310.
Marx's interpretation of Twentieth-Century Capitalism, as described by Miller, describes the changes in the American dream. The American dream was initially one linked to the idea of land ownership. Immigrants came from Europe, where land ownership had been a privilege of the wealthy. However, when America was relatively unsettled, almost anyone could theoretically come to America and claim land, and many people did just that. Of course, some of these early Americans did so in a grand way, traveling westward from the cities and establishing homesteads in the wilderness. The idea of home ownership, however, was not limited to those frontiersmen. Instead, only 100 years ago, someone could come to America and, because of the cheap price of land, afford to build his own home if he worked hard enough to do so. However, the nature of the home, itself, was different. Those homes were centers of production: at the…
Medaille, John. The Vocation of Business: Social Justice in the Marketplace. New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007
Miller, Vincent Jude. Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture.
New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
In the future, though, the influence the U.S. must wield over nations such as Pakistan that are Muslim yet strive to be part of the international community, is likely to be contingent upon the U.S.' recapitulation perceived moral authority as well as its ability to use economic and military carrots and sticks. American influence is also dependant upon the international population's own perceptions of the U.S. As well as these nation's national leaders' rhetorical compliance with U.S. demands for the curtailment and monitoring of terrorist activities. Thus to generate loyalty in the hearts of the people in nations such Pakistan, the U.S. must use soft, rather than hard power. And use this soft power more effectively and seem more morally upstanding a more judicious rather than aggressive use of national force seems essential.
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human elfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.…
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human Welfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.
Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power, the Means to Success in World Politics. London: PublicAffairs, Ltd.,
Nye, Joseph, "Soft Power and American Foreign Policy," Political Science Quarterly. 19. 2
" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)
The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
American Association of People with Disabilities
The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
Purpose and structure
The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD) is the largest cross-disability membership organization in the nation. The agency serves multiple purposes, the most fundamental of which is advocacy. Established in 1995, the agency's original objectives were twofold: (1) to be a voice for and implement the policy goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) -- which had been enacted in 1990 -- and (2) to unite a wide diversity of people with disabilities into a community, bringing together the many disability-specific organizations that made up the landscape. The American Association of People with Disabilities holds that joining the diverse constituencies of the disability community -- people with physical disabilities, intellectual disabilities, developmental disabilities, sensory disabilities, psychiatric disabilities, and chronic health conditions --…
Affirmative Action, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.(2009). Retrieved http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
American Association of People with Disabilities Annual Report 2008-2009. Retrieved
Buskey, F., and Pitts, E.M. (2009). Training subversives: The ethics of leadership preparation. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 57-61. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from EBSC host, http://web.ebscohost.com/
Popular Music and Social Change in the Present: Green Day's 'American Idiot' (2004)
Following the catalyzing events of September 11th, 2001, the United States would find itself deeply divided over the issues of terrorism, war and presidential politics. At the heart of this frequently impassioned and vitriolic debate would be the U.S.-led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq as well as a far-reaching culture clash between two distinction American populations. The 2004 album by pop-punk trio Green Day, American Idiot, would be crafted with the intent of exploring these divisions. In the title track, Green Day would author an anthem that would become omnipresent in pop culture as the U.S. used falsified information to justify its invasion of Iraq.
"American Idiot" would serve both as a harsh critique of the war, of the presidency of George . Bush and of the violent, materialistic culture being fomented in the U.S.…
Geek Stink Breath (GSB). (2012). American Idiot Song Meaning. Geekstinkbreath.net.
Wiebe, C. (2007). Walkn' With Green Day. Center for Parent/Youth Understanding.
However, once they were expelled from Kuwait is when the original boundaries were restored once again. (rown 302 -- 310)
These different events are significant, because they are illustrating how any kind of attempts to change the borders in the Middle East has been a sign that U.S. is working to aggressively to maintain the status quo. Where, they do not want one particular country to be able to dominate all of the others. Instead, the United States wants to make certain that the current balance of power is maintained at all times. As, this kind of strategy will ensure the continuous free flow of oil out of the region.
Once we are able to test our hypothesis against this theory, it will offer specific insights as to the accuracy of hypothesis. The reason why, is because this kind of doctrine will help us to understand how oil is one…
Askari, Hossein. Middle East Oil Exporters. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2006. Print.
Brown, Leon. Diplomacy in the Middle East. London: IB Tarius, 2004. Print
Crane, Keith. Imported Oil and U.S. National Security. Santa Monica: RAND, 2009. Print.
Denzen, Norman. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2005. Print.
American Meat Packing Corp., 362F.3d 418 (7th Cir. 2004).
On November 15, 2001, 350 workers at the American Meat Packing Corporation (AMPC) showed up for work and were told they had been terminated. Because they were not notified 60 days prior to termination, the Worker Adjustment and etraining Notification Act, U.S.C. § 2101-2109, the WAN Act, did not apply. The purpose of the 1989 WAN Act was to create a buffer for workers who anticipate mass layoffs or plant closings that have been unanticipated. Under the WAN Act, the 60 day notice of plant closings or any mass layoffs may be waived or reduced if a business closure is "caused by some sudden, dramatic, and unexpected action or condition outside the employer's control." 20 C.F.. § 639.9(b)(1).
The fundamental issue of this case is that of foreseeability. Business situations that are likely to cripple or close a firm may be…
partnerships (8th ED), Thomson Retrieved http://esl.rutgers.edu / graduate_writing_program courses/academic_writing_II/media/b_paper.pdf
Internet sources assessed.
Even after the Emancipation Proclamation, the Supreme Court held that separate but equal was a legitimate stance under American law, essentially codifying human beings into different racial categories like a caste system, until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. In short, America was a nation founded upon a paradox. It idealized freedom and personal choice, yet it also was based upon a system that did not allow a substantial percentage of the population to exercise that freedom and enjoy in their liberties.
The Civil Rights movement was so radical, because it demanded that the promise of American freedom finally be truly realized and granted to Black Americans, which America was unwilling to do, until African-Americans demanded their rights through this eloquent and articulate protest movement. Sadly, the damage of hundreds of years of slavery had taken their psychological and economic toll upon some Black Americans. One of the saddest…
Major Problems in American History Since 1945. Third Edition.
New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
" Indeed, in the "marriage bed of the beautiful Bertrande things now went well," presumably in sexual cohesion, but also, in reproduction as two daughters were born to them." key part of the Davis story was the trial, in which Arnaud was accused of being the imposter that indeed he was. This is in effect a sidebar to the story, and a sidebar to the issue of "different historians...using different types of evidence..." talk about the same things. On page 67, some 150 people had come to testify, but "forty-five people or more said that the prisoner was Arnaud...[and] about thirty to forty people said that the defendant was surely Martin Guerre." So, people who had seen history (the real Martin) had different views of whether this man on trial was him or not. Time casts shadows on the truth, just as it does on how the history of the…
Davis, Natalie Zemon. (1983). The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge: Harvard
Finlay, Robert. (1988). The Refashioning of Martin Guerre. The American Historical
Review, 93, 553-603.
Wood, Gordon S. (1991). The Radicalization of the American Revolution. New York:
American History: Important Changes From 1810 to 1830
The period of time from 1810 to 1830 was a major time of social, economic and political change in America. The most important of these changes are those whose impact can still be seen today. Three of the most important changes were the growth of manufacturing, the focus on the individual rather than the community and the acceptance of democracy.
The growth of manufacturing changed the nature of America forever, with manufacturing becoming more important than farming for the first time. Tocqueville (XIX) reflects on the focus America put on manufacturing saying, "No people in the world have made such rapid progress in trade and manufactures as the Americans." This rapid progress led to the industrial revolution and eventually the society we have today, with capitalism and manufacturing the basis society is built upon. As Tocqueville (XIX) argues, "Democracy not only swells…
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XV: Unlimited Power of the Majority in the United States, and its Consequences." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/1_ch15.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XIX: What Causes Almost All Americans to Follow Industrial Callings." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch2_19.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XIII: How the Principle of Equality Naturally Divides the Americans into a Multitude of Small Private Circles." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch3_13.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter I: Equality Naturally Gives Men a Taste for Free Institutions." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch4_01.htm
American evolution Was Modeled After evolutions in France and England
The American quest for freedom, modeled after reform movements in England and France, has resulted in the most revered democratic society in the world. We are free of the religious and political tyranny that plagued Europe in the 18th Century and early colonialists would approve of our government in 2002.
While the American evolution and the quest for freedom was modeled after revolutions in France and England, the United States has done something that its European relatives admire - it achieved a stable democracy free of aristocratic and religious tyranny - and this was accomplished in a relatively bloodless fashion.
Our success would meet with accolades from European philosophers and historians including Jean-Jacques ousseau, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine and Francois Furet. However, our success has also many developing nations and Middle East nations to regard us as arrogant…
1. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
2. F. Furet, paraphrased from Interpreting The French Revolution, 1970
3. F. Bastiat "What is Seen and What is Not Seen," in Selected Essays, pp. 1-50.
4. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
In the Continental Army was not just a force that was motivated by its service to a united cause, but by the democratic impulses that differentiated this from the British system of nobility and military rank. As a result, the dedication to cause elicited from the Continental Army solider was inherently more driven by the theoretical opportunities to follow victory. Certainly, for those who took part in the struggle to remove the British from American soil, there would also be an adoption of the view of this as a personal homeland now imposed upon by occupation.
To an extent, this motive may be said to be a greater assurance of eventual victory than military might. In the case of the American war for Independence, the better armed and more resource-wealthy British Imperial forces would be worn down by a commitment to what the Continental Army and militias alike saw as…
Such alliances suggested the more widespread implications of an American victory. While we may stop short of arguing that Britain lost a war -- particularly because many conditions suggest its defeat was inevitable regardless of military tactic -- it may be reasonable to argue that this signaled the beginning of the end of a colonial system which had sustained all European monarchies to this juncture. The power of the British Crown had been tarnished, but the initiation of the Industrial Revolution in both the United States and throughout Europe during the next century was fully dismantle its structural relevance. The type of wholesale occupation through which it had conducted its international presence would no longer be possible for Great Britain on the scale that had been achieved prior to American Independence.
Ultimately though, it seems appropriate to acknowledge these events first and foremost as a victory for the aristocratic leaders of the American rebellion and the working class enlisted men alongside whom they fought. Without too greatly idealizing this relationship, it may be acknowledged as a root to Americas socioeconomic identity today.
Martin, J.K. & Lender, M.E. (2006). A Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic, 1763-1789. Harlan Davidson, Inc.
The USA Patriot Act: This was a law that was passed after September 11th. It is giving the police and intelligence officials the power to go after terrorists organizations easier. As it lifted various Constitutional protections when investigating these offenses.
Counter Terrorism: These are the activities that: federal, state and local officials are taking to prevent future terrorist attacks.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): These are weapons designed to inflict large amounts of casualties. These include: chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear.
These different terms are important, because they will help to avoid confusion and will focus the reader on understanding the overall scope of the problem.
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study are that the information we are presenting, could be pointing out a number of different problems. Yet, beneath the surface they are failing to identify possible changes that could have already been implemented by federal…
39% Say Government. (2011). Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved from: http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/march_2011/39_say_government_not_focusing_enough_on_threat_of_domestic_islamic_terrorism
Al Shabaab American Recruits. (2010). ADL. Retrieved from: http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/al_shabaab_american_recruits.htm
Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html
Jose Padilla. (2009). New York Times. Retrieved from: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/p/jose_padilla/index.html
S. is that they accept the problem as if there is no solution to it. The government believes that preventing immigrants from entering the country is the only answer to reducing the number of undocumented individuals. However, if they were to carefully analyze the dilemma, they would come to the conclusion that it needs to be stopped from its core. Illegal border-crossings would be reduced if people had been acquainted with the fact that the U.S. government does nothing to support illegal immigrants.
ords such as medievalism, nationalism, and discrimination might spring into one's mind when relating to illegal immigrants in the U.S. not receiving any assistance from the government. However, legislations such as the DREAM Act are only contributing to the increase of the number of undocumented immigrants.
Observing that their kin abroad are virtually being provided with help by the American government itself, people from around the world…
1. Knott, Tom. "Dream Act Begins an American Nightmare." The Washington Times, 11 Oct. 2007.
2. Porter, Lakeisha. "Illegal Immigrant Should Not Receive Social Services." International Social Science Review. 81 (2006).
3. "Public Policy." NASFA: Association of International Educators. 22 Nov. 2009
Porter, Lakeisha. "Illegal Immigrant Should Not Receive Social Services." International Social Science Review. 81 (2006).
Kerr's management strategy on campus only emboldened the New Left.
In addition to the Free Speech movement, the New Left included other student organizations including Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Congress on acial Equality (COE), and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The former focused on the antiwar efforts to end the Vietnam conflict, placing the students in direct conflict with many of America's most powerful institutions and organizations. Sit-ins, and other non-violent protest tactics were used to gain media coverage as well as to effect real change. The increasing awareness of how the War in Vietnam was proceeding caused the New Left to grow dramatically, providing a credible opposition to the Department of Defense. As Zinn points out, an increasingly large proportion of Americans ceased affiliating with either the Democratic or epublican parties, expressing opposition to the core institutions of government that led to injustices like those being…
Foner, E, 2011. Give Me Liberty! Norton.
"The free-speech fight that shaped the New Left." Workers' Liberty. Retrieved online: http://www.workersliberty.org/story/2008/02/09/free-speech-fight-shaped-new-left
Heilbrun, J., 1997. "The New Democrats. New Republic. Retrieved online: http://www.newrepublic.com/article/93596/democratic-leadership-council-al-from#
Kinzer, S. Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change. New York: Henry Holt.
It separates the various forms of government and does not allow one to become more powerful than another, and it ensures that laws are created fairly, that justice is fair, and that the President does not gain too much power. Essentially, it is the backbone of our Democracy, and that assures our freedom and the public good.
Critics of the Constitution and its support of the public good believe that the laws can promote gridlock in legislation, and that it can make it easier for government leaders to not take responsibility for problems. However, the framers of the Constitution had the citizens in mind, and they formed it to create a Democratic country with the good of the public as a foremost concern.
The Virginia Plan was a plan favored by James Madison, and it had three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature chose the executive and judicial branches,…
This strategy also permitted the more speedy management of local dealings. Basically the purpose of this strategy was to centralize of colonial affairs; however, it simply solidified the idea that the colonies needed a system of self-governance that was not inclusive of the British government. Because of the behavior of the British government, the English colonies that revolted in 1776 had in common: "representative assemblies and this institutional affinity laid the foundations for the concerted resistance without which the American evolution would have been impossible."
It was under the auspices of the English government's attempt to control the colonists that the idea of American independence began to be viewed as necessary. The colonist felt that they had the right and the wisdom to rule and to develop a governmental structure that would be conducive with meeting the needs and the goals of those living within the colonies. The structure of…
Becker, Carl Lotus Schlesinger, Arthur M. The History of Political Parties in the Province of New York, 1760-1776. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, WI. 1960.
Declaration of Independence. Online Available at http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/declaration_transcript.html
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Priest, Claire. "Currency Policies and Legal Development in Colonial New England." Yale Law Journal 110, no. 8 (2001): 1303.
Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).
A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…
"Progressing into the 20th Century the Progressive Movement." (n.d.). 14 February 2010,
"Progressive Movement." (2010). 14 February 2010,
Democracy is the accepted forms of governance of people throughout the world and is divided into direct and indirect democracy. Direct democracy is a system of democracy in which power is placed directly in the hands of people. The strengths of direct democracy include it provides direct responsibility, enhances transparency, increases political participation, and facilitates the creation of a well cooperative community. However, its weaknesses include difficulties in decision making, ignoring the opinions of the minority, and needs for extremely high costs. On the contrary, indirect democracy is a system of governance where leaders and officials are elected by the people and mandated with the responsibility of making decisions, formulating policies, lawmaking, and running the country. Its strengths include well balanced decisions, effective legislative body, and well balanced policies whereas the weaknesses include under representation of minorities and increased likelihood of inefficiency and corruption. The most effective democracy is indirect…
Annenberg Foundation. "The Modern Presidency: Tools of Power." Annenberg Learner. Annenberg Foundation, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2016. .
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…
Slaves were not in such a position, and often lived their entire lives in bondage to cruel masters and terrible conditions. Furthermore, in contrast to immigrants who left their home countries by choice, African slaves were kidnapped from their homes against their will. In these cases, there was indeed a definite hierarchy in the country.
Doerflinger turns the focus to the economy of the country at the time. According to the author, business people at the time were more individually focused on making use of the opportunities offered by the new country than on freeing themselves from England. Indeed, business people did very little to incite revolution. In this way, the paradigm of the economic world was much different from the social.
In terms of hierarchy, it seems not to have been greatly manifested in the American economy. Business people were free to conduct their dealings as they saw fit.…
Zuckerman, Michael. 1998. Tocqueville, Turner, and Turds: Four Stories of Manners in Early America. The Journal of American History, June, Vol. 85, No.1, pp. 30-31.
Fogleman, Aaron S. 1998. From Slaves, Convicts, and Servants to Free Passengers: The Transformation of Immigration in the Era of the American Revolution. The Journal of American History, June, Vol. 85, No.1, p. 43
Doerflinger, Thomas M. Philadelphia Merchants and the Logic of Moderation, 1760-1775. William and Mary Quarterly, p198
paradoxical that none of the American movies has ever done a good job at representing the American democracy. However Lincoln the movie is one among the many movies that have tried to demonstrate a great democratic art form. Lincoln (2012) is an American drama that was produced and directed by Steven Spielberg. The movie is centered on the United States sixteenth president Abraham Lincoln and covers the four final months of Lincoln's life, focus being on the efforts made by the president in January 1865 of having the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States House of representative that would see the abolishment of slavery in the country. He tried to scare up votes to ensure that he could get enough votes to pass the bill in congress. This movie concentrates on tumultuous period between January 1865 and the end of the civil war on April 9th and finally the assassination…
Scott, A.O. (2012). A President Engaged in a Great Civil War. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://movies.nytimes.com/2012/11/09/movies/lincoln-by-steven-spielberg-stars-daniel-day-lewis.html?pagewanted=all
21st Century American 'Democracy': The Best Government that Money Can Buy
ithin polarized, interest group-dominated 21st century United States life, most Americans still cling to the idea, despite abundant evidence to the contrary, that we live in a democracy. In today's America, however, that idea is more quaint than accurate. Instead, as the article suggests, America is more a pseudo-democracy than a real one, in which special interest groups (and, as their representatives, high-priced lobbyists they can afford to hire) shape national political, social, economic, health, environmental, and most, if not all, other national agendas for us (although definitely not on our behalf). Meanwhile, a destructive combination of voter apathy (especially among, but not limited to, working-class individuals and minority group members, who feel especially detached) gives us, instead of democracy, the best government money can buy.
ebster's New American Dictionary defines "democracy" as: "1: government by the people; esp:…
"Democracy." Webster's New American Dictionary. New York: Merriam-
Webster, 1995, p. 138.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. New York: Signet, September
Function of the American Government
The American government has had a long-standing checks-and-balances efficiency within its three-branch system. Because of the separate governable powers within the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the United States, American law has been approved after many constant revisions and discussions. It is extremely commendable that the legislative branch takes into account the representation of both "state" and "people." This is not to say, of course, that the government system of the United States is utterly perfect; the executive branch certainly holds a bit more power within the government than one would like.
One major positive effect of the passing of laws is the representation included within those laws. Long before the House-and-Senate solution of Congress, there was always the problem of representation amongst the population of the respective states. State borders vary in land mass and population; how does one reconcile a largely-populated state…
Dahl, Robert. (1977). "On Removing Certain Impediments to Democracy in the United States." Political Science Quarterly 92(1), pp. 1-20. The Academy of Political Science.
Lieberman, Robert. (2011). "Why the Rich are Getting Richer: American Politics and the Second Gilded Age." Foreign Affairs.
Putnam, Robert D. (1996). "The Strange Disappearance of Civic America." The American Prospect 24, pp. 34-48.
Short Answer Questions -- Part Two
This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government. (Wolf, 2005)
How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment?
Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. A capitalist is opposed to these kinds of programs and believes that charities / private enterprises can address these issues.
In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not?
Yes, the government should provide health care. The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…
2012 Puerto Rico Statehood Amendment. (2012). Boards. Retrieved from: http://www.boards.ie/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=77582334
Commerce Clause. (2012). Britannica. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127865/commerce-clause
Principles of Constitutional Construction. (2010). Constitution.org. Retrieved from: http://constitution.org/cons/prin_cons.htm
Sin Taxes. (2005). Six Taxes. Connecticut Voices for Children. Retrieved from: http://www.ctkidslink.org/publications/bud05sintax02.pdf
assumes the notion that it would be best to have "a system of economic
enterprises collectively owned and democratically governed by all the
people who work in them," meaning that he differs from the notions of Okun
and the Friedman's by proposing something radically different to promote
the ultimate goal of democracy (Dahl 92). Neither equality nor freedom is
necessary to fix the relationship between the economy and democracy, but
rather a completely different and even radical outlook on the relationship
between the economy and government can solve the dilemma. Furthermore Dahl
argues to how it is possible to retain the democratic principle within
firms, and prevent problems such as oligarchy. These notions in which the
economy becomes compatible with the political notions are completely
different than the Friedman's and Okun's notion that there lies a problem
with democracy. Dahl is even casting serious doubt on Tocqueville's long…