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If the society puts the power to make laws in the hands of one man, then it is a monarchy. A mixed government combines forms of any of the described governments.
4. According to Locke, what is the 'social contract'?
The social contract refers to the idea that people in a state of nature will willingly come together to form a state. People form a state to provide a neutral magistrate that can protect the lives, liberty, and property of the people of the state. Moreover, the power of the legislators are limited in the social contract, because their laws are only legitimate if they achieve a common good.
1. Read Federalist Papers #10, 51, and 78. Prepare a short summary of what they said.
Federalist paper #10 addressed the issue of faction. In it, Madison (the assumed author) suggested two ways to limit faction: removing the causes of faction…
The courts, therefore, plays a significant role in ensuring that there is uniformity in the decision on abortion in all states. It has been argued that this is undemocratic since the decision is made by justices who are not elected officials. In the situation where the ruling was to be overturned, the authority to legalize abortion would fall back to the states. This would reflect the majority opinion since the state legislators are elected through a democratic voting process. However, it would mean that there will be significant differences in the laws in conservative and prochoice states. This would mean that the women desiring to seek an abortion would simply need to cross state lines to obtain one which would have no effect on illegalizing abortion. States should not have their own say in the abortion laws as a result of this. Therefore, the courts play a huge role in…
How does a bill become a law? Please explain where bills originate and how they go through the process. Also include information about the role of interest groups and political parties in bill formation.
Before a piece of legislation can become a law, the initial proposal, called a bill, must go through a process of debate and approval by both houses of the United States Congress. The initial step is for the individual who comes up with the idea for a new law must present his or her suggestion to their colleagues (Egan 6). This person becomes the sponsor for that law as he or she was the initial supporter of that idea. More than one person can become the sponsor of a bill, showing their additional support of that bill. The proposed bill is then placed in the hopper. Once the bill is read and officially proposed…
Camarota, Steven A. "The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal
Budget." 2004. Print.
Egan, Tracie (2004). How a Bill Becomes a Law. Rosen: New York, NY.
Ehrenberg, Steven (2011). "What's a Primary Election?" Scholastic.
" Then there are the "...5 million employees of the federal bureaucracy and the military" at his disposal.
Also, the president runs the executive branch of government; Cummings writes that he is "chief of state" - the "ceremonial and symbolic head of state as well as head of government" (391) - as well as being "chief executive" of the government. He has the power to "grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States" (394), he has the power to declare war, and as Franklin Roosevelt showed during II (397), the president can "exercise extraordinary power over food rationing and the economy, only partly with congressional authorization." The president is the "Chief Diplomat" (Cummings, 398), the president has "sole power to negotiate and sign treaties" (399), the president "has the sole power to recognize or not recognize foreign governments" (400), and both the "arrows and the olive branch depicted…
Burns, James MacGregor, & Peltason, Jack Walter. (1963). Government by the People: The Dynamics of American National, State, and Local Government. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
CNN.com (2005). Report details FBI's missed opportunities before 9/11. Retrieved June 19, 2005 at http://www.cnn.com .
Cummings, Milton C. Jr., & Wise, David. (1985). Democracy Under Pressure: An Introduction
" (Judith Evans 1996)
Policy has also been defined as being: "A set of interrelated decisions taken by a political actor or group of actors concerning the selection of goals and means of achieving them within a specified situation where those decisions should, in principle, be within the power of these actors to achieve." (Jenkins, 199)
Policymaking, or the formation of policies is stated to have two dimensions, which are:
Dimension One: It is carried out by a specific set of actors; and Dimension Two: It is according to some specific type of process.
The term "Ex-Ante V. Post-Hoc Policy" is definitive of the fact that policy is sometimes created in expectation that it will be a force that drives decisions and in fact preceding decisions and affecting the method and manner in which decisions are made. This view is in contrast with the view of policy as being the…
3. Theory of Multiple Elitism: This theory of power was acknowledge in the 1970's, which is centered on the work of Theodore Lowi, Jr. And Mancur Olson, Jr. that stressed the special interest rule problem.
4. Neo-Pluralism: The Neo-pluralist theory of the 1980's "which saw possibilities for effective representation for a widely share interests without assuming an equilibrium of democratic and fair representation.
Critics of interest group argue that some groups are easier organized than are others and argued further that smaller groups of corporation and economic
Every year, several thousand actions are referred to committees. Only a small percentage is selected for consideration, and those not addressed often receive no further action. Committees determine the fate of most proposed laws. According to some experts the committee system is the natural form of division of labor in such a large and complex body as the Congress (Overview: The Committee System in the U.S. Congress, 2009).
Presently there are about 19 standing committees in the House, and 16 in the Senate. Standing committees work with specific bills, and most operate with subcommittees that handle a committee's work in certain areas. Select and joint committees are used for in between categories and housekeeping tasks. There are several joint committees which are made up of members of both houses of Congress. Each committee deals with specific issues. There are committees in the House that deal with education, science, national security,…
Congress. (n.d.). Retrieved November 13, 2009, from Web site: http://faculty.ucc.edu/egh-damerow/congress.htm
Overview: The Committee System in the U.S. Congress. (2009). Retrieved November 13, 2009,
from PBS Web site:
In theoretical discussions on representation, frequently a distinction is made between two roles of a representative i.e. between a role of a delegate or a trustee. The first refers to the representative role primarily being to transfer the desires of the constituents into the decision-making system.
The idea is to some extent instrumentalist in the sense that the representative is in the first place a mean for the represented and the better the representation reflects the variety of preferences among the constituents the better the representative quality. Among the advantages with this conceptualisation is its invitation to continuous public participation. As the delegate holds the duty to vote for, and in other ways reflect the will of the constituents, this obligation is most likely to be best fulfilled when the constituency actively expresses its preferences.
Actually in its extreme form, the representative in this conception is unable of…
Dennis F. Tompson (1987) Political Ethics and Public Office, Cambridge University Press: 99-102
Katherine Tate Black Faces in the Mirror:
African-Americans and Their Representatives in the U.S. Congress
his was the first time America had entered into colonialism, and they still have power over Guam and Puerto Rico today. It gave the country new respect in the world, and it created the need to create guidelines for governing and watching out for these colonies. his also shapes our policy today because we still have influence over these areas, and that indicates our power to other nations of the world.
World War I changed Europe forever, and the United States, too. Woodrow Wilson tried to stay out of the war, but public opinion, and growing German influence around the world made Wilson declare war in 1917. After the war ended, President Wilson worked to promote the League of Nations, which was formed in 1919. he League of Nations would eventually evolve into the United Nations, and it hoped to prevent war through negotiation and arbitration. hey created many treaties…
Three key events that helped shape modern U.S. foreign policy were the Spanish American War, World War I, and World War II. The Spanish American War was between Spain and America in 1898. Cubans were revolting against their Spanish rule, and Americans heard reports of Spanish "atrocities" which were blown out of proportion by the newspapers. The American battleship "Maine" mysteriously sunk in Havana's harbor, and President William McKinley reluctantly declared war. America won the war in ten weeks, and they gained control of Cuba and indefinite colonial power over Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. This was the first time America had entered into colonialism, and they still have power over Guam and Puerto Rico today. It gave the country new respect in the world, and it created the need to create guidelines for governing and watching out for these colonies. This also shapes our policy today because we still have influence over these areas, and that indicates our power to other nations of the world.
World War I changed Europe forever, and the United States, too. Woodrow Wilson tried to stay out of the war, but public opinion, and growing German influence around the world made Wilson declare war in 1917. After the war ended, President Wilson worked to promote the League of Nations, which was formed in 1919. The League of Nations would eventually evolve into the United Nations, and it hoped to prevent war through negotiation and arbitration. They created many treaties that dealt with social consequences and protection of people, and it helped show how influential the United States was in world affairs after the war. It helped increase our power and prestige, because we helped create the League, and it showed that the U.S. was interested in fostering a better world, especially in war-torn Europe. It shaped our future policy by establishing that we were interested in helping the world, and that we cared about peace and social consequences.
World War II established that the United States was a formidable opponent, and that we could dominate the world if we chose. It also showed the world again that we were compassionate and wanted peace, when we helped rebuild Europe and even flew in supplies during the Berlin Airlift. Our foreign policy toughened after this war, when the Soviet Union challenged us and our nuclear abilities, and it became clear to the world that we would not step down, we would hold our ground and defend ourselves, even as we grew far more influential and involved in foreign policy around the world.
Since 1869, eight associate justices have complemented the Chief Justice, though this number is not set in stone. Congress has the right to manipulate the organization of the Supreme Court, and has over the years varied the number of associate justices from as few as six to as many as ten. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court has been originally applied to cases affecting ambassadors, public ministers, or any case in which a State is a party. Congress has also given the Supreme Court the authority to review any decision made in the lower federal courts and the highest courts of the States (Chambers 54).
There are other courts in the federal system besides the Supreme Court. The 94 District Courts are the trial courts in which the majority of federal cases are first tried and decided. Each state in the Union, plus each territory like the District of Columbia…
Bully Pulpit." C-SPAN Congressional Glossary. 23 Nov. 2007 http://www.c-span.org/guide/congress/glossary/bullypul.htm .
Chambers, Ann B. Our American Government. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.
U.S. Civics: How the U.S. Government Works." History Central. 2000. 23 Nov. 2007 http://www.historycentral.com/Civics/index.html .
It is to encourage less consumption: that is all. Remember that during wartime, eggs, butter, sugar, coffee, and other products were rationed as well.
ill the beef industry suffer? Of course -- but the sad truth is that if we continue as we are, Americans in the future will suffer far worse. Additionally, people in other agricultural-related industries will benefit from the ban because of increased consumption of other products.
Another benefit may be in terms of human health. During wartime rationing, it was noted that "one surprising effect...was that the health of the nation actually improved as people ate a more balanced diet, less meat and fat and had more exercise (artime rationing, Body Soul and Spirit, 2008). High amounts of meat consumption have been linked to a number of cancers, including colorectal cancers, and just as the nation have striven to discourage consumption of other unhealthy carcinogenic substances,…
Eisnen, Marc Michael Pollan Interview. The Progressive. November 2008. March 4, 2009. http://www.progressive.org/mag/intv1108
Jowit, Juliette. "UN says eat less meat to curb global warming." The Guardian.
September 7, 2007. March 4, 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/sep/07/food.foodanddrink
Wartime rationing." Body Soul and Spirit. January 8, 2008. March 4, 2009. http://bodysoulandspirit.blogspot.com/2008/01/war-time-rationing.html
Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.
Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…
Department of Homeland Security. (2003). "Executive Order (EO-13284): Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security." Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0072.shtm.
Executive Order 9066. "The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Retrieved March 12,
2012, from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 .
FindLaw. "Williams v. State of North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)." Retrieved March 12,
American Government Response
Summarizing the Readings:
In his article "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power," Peter oll discusses the administrative branch of the government and the various departments who are in control of the funds which keep federal and state governments working. The bureaucracy is a highly influential part of the government and has a degree of control over both the President and Congress with far fewer legal checks to their actions than either of these bodies has to deal with. It has proven difficult to find ways to limit the influence of the bureaucracy when the constitution does not clearly state an opinion on the matter; a serious problem since the constitution is the basis for all legislation in the country. And additional issue has been in trying to determine which branch should deal with administration. Alexander Hamilton believed this was the job of the president and the Executive branch…
"The Executive Branch." 204-28.
Wilson, James Q. "The Rise of the Bureaucratic State." The Bureaucracy. 298-302.
Woll, Peter. "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power." The Bureaucracy. 302-310.
S. Constitution. The court ruled, "Proposition 8 served no purpose, and had no effect, other than to lessen the statutes and human dignity of gays and lesbians in California" (Dolan, 2012). Hence, the will of the people can become law through popular initiatives, but on the other hand, the argument can be made that if citizens object to the constitutional amendments enacted in any given state -- for any political or social issue -- they have the power of the judiciary to address grievances and sue to reverse the decision.
But should citizens have the power to make public policy through initiatives and state constitutional amendments? Is direct democracy the answer for citizens that feel their elected officials are out of touch? This paper believes that passing propositions and altering state constitutions is indeed a way to bring the voter "…in closer touch with great affairs" and allow the voter…
Dolan, Mura. "Prop. 8: Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional, Court Rules." Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com .
Levin, Daniel Lessard. Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American
Political Culture. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999.
American Government and Politics
The Impact of Politics on People, Communities, and the World
I have not personally been affected by American politics in ways that I can think of, possibly because I am not an American citizen. However, I understand that, in principle, political decisions can have extremely important affects on individuals. For example, if the Republicans win the presidential election and win back control of the enate and retain control of the House of Representatives, they could actually succeed in outlawing abortion and even many common forms of birth control. Politics also affects local and national communities because the decisions made in Washington determine what federal money is available to states for crucial functions such as education and health care programs. Because the United tates is the most influential nation in the world, political decisions in this country can affect all of the other nations in the world…
Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2007). Government in America: People,
Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.
Grunwald, M. "The Party of No." Time, Vol. 180, No. 10 (2012): 42 -- 46.
Government and Elections
Should foreign interest groups be banned from attempting to influence the course of American government? Are foreign interest groups always opposed to the interests of U.S. companies and citizens?
It is reported in the work of Benen 2010) that a speech delivered by President Obama warned of "corporate takeover of our democracy" in the form of "shadowy groups raising millions in secret to help buy elections for Republicans. Benen notes the publication of 'ThinkProgress' which states that the trade association "organized as a 501c)6)…the U.S. Chamber of Commerce…that can raise and spend unlimited funds without ever disclosing any of its donors…has promised to spend…" the amount of $75 million to defeat specific candidates including such as "Jack Conway, Sen. Barbara Boxer D-CA), Jerry Brown, Rep. Joe Sestak D-PA), and Rep. Tom Perriello D-VA). As of Sept. 15th, the Chamber had aired more than 8,000 ads on behalf…
(4) authorize an agency to exercise a function not expressly authorized by law;
(5) increase the term of an office beyond the period authorized by law; (6) deal with more than one logically consistent subject matter; or (7) abolish enforcement functions or programs established by statues. (FAO, 2010)
These are only some of the actions that the President and government cannot take. The Constitution places limits on what government can do to protect the American public. This is because the forefathers understood that government should remain small rather than become the large bureaucratic machine that it presently is today. The present administration has sought to bypass Congress on many of its moves on restructuring the U.S. Government however as reported by the FAO (2010) "Congressional deliberative processes serve the vital function of both gaining input from a variety of clientele and stakeholders affected by any changes and providing an important constitutional check and counterbalance to the executive branch." Bypassing these governmental processes can results in too much power being vested in the President and his discretion. The Constitution provides for a system of checks and balances that serve to ensure that the Constitutional rights of the American people are not violated by the government in any of its actions or rulings.
When bureaucrats in a particular state see that a large segment of society is struggling with a particular rule or regulation, it may be time to address some changes to that rule. Texas and other states do this, but they are restricted somewhat in that federal regulations always supersede state regulations. Texas passes laws by presenting bills and having them move through the state legislature. If the bill gets enough votes, it is passed and becomes a law. However, it is very important that these bills are acceptable on the federal level, and that they comply with federal laws as well as what the state wants to accomplish. If they are not acceptable on a federal level, they cannot be laws in Texas, even if there were enough votes in that state to pass them. While some states have passed laws that go against what federal law states, it is…
It was during the same period that hostilities with the communist leadership culminated into the bombing of Libya, loggerheads with the Soviet Union and a stiff arms race with the U.S.S.R.
It is also significant to note that it was during the same time that he successfully engaged Mikhail Gorbachev who was then the Soviet General secretary and culminated into the signing of Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that signaled the end in arms race and both countries agreed to decrease in nuclear weapons in their custody.
Upon ascending to presidency, Reagan was bent on introducing new political as well as economic dispensations radically. He advocated more for supply-side economics which saw him push for reduction of tax rates to speed up economic growth, money supply control to check inflation, reduction of regulation on the economy particularly business to encourage competitive and free-market free for all which as a matter…
It separates the various forms of government and does not allow one to become more powerful than another, and it ensures that laws are created fairly, that justice is fair, and that the President does not gain too much power. Essentially, it is the backbone of our Democracy, and that assures our freedom and the public good.
Critics of the Constitution and its support of the public good believe that the laws can promote gridlock in legislation, and that it can make it easier for government leaders to not take responsibility for problems. However, the framers of the Constitution had the citizens in mind, and they formed it to create a Democratic country with the good of the public as a foremost concern.
The Virginia Plan was a plan favored by James Madison, and it had three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature chose the executive and judicial branches,…
The contact between the two groups is not always straight forward, and is often fought officially, through judicial practices, and unofficially, through dubious backstage arrangements and activities. However, there is also a legal manner through which interest groups have been given the right to influence political decisions and the laws voted upon. Lobbying is one such activity.
Although lobbyists are the subject of heated debate, as many citizens consider them to be just "wheeler-dealers continually wining and dining public officials in order to secure political favors at the expense of the general public" (Volkomer 282), their main function is to supply "information about their specialized interests to a few select public officials, communicating with members and others who are concerned with their problem" (283). However their role is rather interpretable. On the one hand, they represent the interests of a certain segment of the population, such as farmers, or railway…
Janda, Kenneth, Jeffrey Berry, and Jerry Goldman. The challenge of democracy: government in America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.
Jewell Malcolm E, and David M. Olson. American state political parties and elections. Homewoo: The Dorsey Press, 1982.
Volkomer, Walter E.. American government. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,1972.
To become a senator, a person has to be at least 30 years of age and should have been a citizen of the U.S. For a minimum period of nine years at the time of election. Also, he or she has to be a resident of the state from which he or she is elected so that the state can be well-represented. In the case of representative, he or she should be at least 25 years old and must be a citizen of the U.S. For at least seven years at the time of election. Also, he or she has to be a resident of the state, but there is no mandatory rule that the representative should be a resident of the district that he or she represents.
Major steps in the process of a bill becoming a law
The first step is a member of the congress should introduce…
Judicial activists like Chief Justice Earl Warren used their power to invoke the Constitution in social changes like school desegregation. They believe the government must stay current with the times and change, rather than become archaic.
Capital punishment is one of the most hotly debated punishments in our judicial system. That is because it is a very emotional issue, and both sides are equally convinced their ideas are right. Because it involves taking a life as punishment for a crime, it is an ethical and moral dilemma, too. Supporters of capital punishment believe it helps keep crime down by scaring potential criminals about the sacrifice they could pay if they commit a heinous crime. They also believe that if the criminal committed a crime like murder, that they could do it again if they faced the possibility of parole, so they believe capital punishment is good for public safety. They…
American Government Structure and Foundation" to a group of new citizens, what would you say?
I want you to know that it just doesn't get any better than this. In everything I say today, you're going to notice some really negative things. But every time you think I'm complaining, keep in mind that I know -- it just doesn't get any better than this. America has the worst form of government imaginable, except for every other kind of government in existence.
Let me tell you a few secrets about American Government Structure and Foundation. Officially, it's a republic. That means the people get to elect representatives who they trust to govern them, and those rulers are subject to other external checks and balances such as judges, and constitutions and so forth. The external checks serve to protect the rights of the individual from the tyranny of the majority, and…
American Government Politics. Discussed is the fourth amendment and the current policies of searches and seizures. Four sources used. Footnotes.
Americans hold very dear the Bill of Rights. Among the ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights is the Fourth, one many refer to as the most ambiguous of the all the amendments. Search and seizure law is drawn from the Fourth and over the years the Supreme Court has come to view that its main purpose is the protection of a citizen's property and privacy. However, according to the conclusion of the Court, the Fourth Amendment does not "protect all property interests or apply to all situations where people might wish to protect their privacy." Perhaps, never has this amendment felt more threatened than today. The attacks on the orld Trade Center on September 11th, spurred the hite House Administration to create the office of…
Civil Rights Reduced." Denver Rocky Mountain News. April 28, 2001.
McWhirter, Darien A. Search, Seizure, and Privacy: Exploring the Constitution.
Greenwood Publishing Group. October 1994.
Rosen, Jeffrey. " Liberty Wins - So Far; Bush Runs Into Checks and Balances in Demanding New Powers." The Washington Post. September 15, 2002.
There is the problem of inaccessibility. Most of the people in these impoverished areas live in regions that are unconnected by roads or any other transportation system, living far from hospitals, pharmacies, health personnel and institutions, and from any commercial system as it is understood in the conventional sense of the word. Superfluous drugs, therefore, languish in government warehouses or end up on the black market, raising additional dilemmas.
Keeping up with free distribution and criterion for stopping free distribution
As the distribution process picks up, it is evident that the organization was increasingly receiving support from civil groups and established health organizations. This means that the distribution strategy is likely to progress until the organization achieves its objectives thus eradicating river blindness. Consequently, the eradication of the ailment will determine the closure of the distribution program. Additionally, development or public health entities may incur distribution costs consequently relieving Merck.…
1) Proceed with self-distribution, whilst investigating whether PR can be established in order to promote Merck's generosity.
2) Temporarily, at least, relinquish the idea of creating a cure for river blindness concentrating instead on other less costly but equally essential concerns such as AIDS.
The Business Enterprise Trust. (1991). Merck & Co., Inc. Massachusetts, MA: Harvard Business School
Function of the American Government
The American government has had a long-standing checks-and-balances efficiency within its three-branch system. Because of the separate governable powers within the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the United States, American law has been approved after many constant revisions and discussions. It is extremely commendable that the legislative branch takes into account the representation of both "state" and "people." This is not to say, of course, that the government system of the United States is utterly perfect; the executive branch certainly holds a bit more power within the government than one would like.
One major positive effect of the passing of laws is the representation included within those laws. Long before the House-and-Senate solution of Congress, there was always the problem of representation amongst the population of the respective states. State borders vary in land mass and population; how does one reconcile a largely-populated state…
Dahl, Robert. (1977). "On Removing Certain Impediments to Democracy in the United States." Political Science Quarterly 92(1), pp. 1-20. The Academy of Political Science.
Lieberman, Robert. (2011). "Why the Rich are Getting Richer: American Politics and the Second Gilded Age." Foreign Affairs.
Putnam, Robert D. (1996). "The Strange Disappearance of Civic America." The American Prospect 24, pp. 34-48.
Short Answer Questions -- Part Two
Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.
Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.
Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.
Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Railroads in America est
Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…
Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.
Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.
Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.
Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.
S. is that they accept the problem as if there is no solution to it. The government believes that preventing immigrants from entering the country is the only answer to reducing the number of undocumented individuals. However, if they were to carefully analyze the dilemma, they would come to the conclusion that it needs to be stopped from its core. Illegal border-crossings would be reduced if people had been acquainted with the fact that the U.S. government does nothing to support illegal immigrants.
ords such as medievalism, nationalism, and discrimination might spring into one's mind when relating to illegal immigrants in the U.S. not receiving any assistance from the government. However, legislations such as the DREAM Act are only contributing to the increase of the number of undocumented immigrants.
Observing that their kin abroad are virtually being provided with help by the American government itself, people from around the world…
1. Knott, Tom. "Dream Act Begins an American Nightmare." The Washington Times, 11 Oct. 2007.
2. Porter, Lakeisha. "Illegal Immigrant Should Not Receive Social Services." International Social Science Review. 81 (2006).
3. "Public Policy." NASFA: Association of International Educators. 22 Nov. 2009
Porter, Lakeisha. "Illegal Immigrant Should Not Receive Social Services." International Social Science Review. 81 (2006).
He centers on people's inability to act according to the dictates of their conscience, for the existence of laws and policies rendered society paralyzed and unable to think conscientiously about their actions -- that is, whether the actions they committed were conscientiously right or wrong. Asserting this point, he stated, "Can there not be a government in which majorities do not virtually decide right and wrong, but conscience?... Must the citizen ever for a moment, or in the least degree, resign his conscience to the legislator? Why has every man a conscience, then? I think that we should be men first, and subjects afterward." From this passage, Thoreau stressed the importance of civil society as the primary holder of power and control in the sovereign rather than the individuals who were supposedly given the function to represent civil society (i.e., political leaders and officials).
In "On the duty of civil…
During the 1940s, America had just experienced the onslaught of World War II. After massive fighting against the Axis power nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan), America, along with its allies in the war, was able to conclude the conflict by deciding to drop the atomic bomb in Japan. The war ended with the Axis power conceding defeat, and America went on to rehabilitate its nation after the war. The rehabilitation of America as a nation weary of possible atrocities among nations in the world is twofold. After the war, America experienced a resurgence in economic growth, primarily brought about by the development of new technologies that spurred the country's commercial market. Furthermore, the growth of new technologies and manufacturing industry in America encouraged social mobility, enabling the middle class society to increase in number, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, the technological revolution and…
As was the nature of the Cold ar, the United States responded by quashing new governments that were likely to lead to communism, even where this constituted an undemocratic or even brutal instituted government (Kort 80).
Democratically elected officials from Brazil, Guyana, and Uruguay were overthrown by internal revolutionaries who were funded and trained by American forces (Parenti 44). These and other leaders and governments in Latin America were targeted by American forced as having communist leanings. Foreign policy followed, with more than two decades of the Cold ar focusing not only on the major publicized events of Korea and the Soviet Union, but on many small, third world countries. These small nations were poised to become players in the larger Cold ar struggle depending on where their allegiance and governments ended up after declaring their independence. ith the Soviet Union attempting to exert force and pressure on the United…
Eisenhower, Dwight D. Inaugural Address. Washington, D.C. 20 Jan. 1953.
Geertz, Clifford. "What Was the Third World Revolution?" Dissent 52.1 (2005): 35-45.
Freidel, Frank. Roosevelt. New York: Little Brown and Company, 1990.
Kort, Michael G. The Cold War. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994.
Even after the Emancipation Proclamation, the Supreme Court held that separate but equal was a legitimate stance under American law, essentially codifying human beings into different racial categories like a caste system, until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. In short, America was a nation founded upon a paradox. It idealized freedom and personal choice, yet it also was based upon a system that did not allow a substantial percentage of the population to exercise that freedom and enjoy in their liberties.
The Civil Rights movement was so radical, because it demanded that the promise of American freedom finally be truly realized and granted to Black Americans, which America was unwilling to do, until African-Americans demanded their rights through this eloquent and articulate protest movement. Sadly, the damage of hundreds of years of slavery had taken their psychological and economic toll upon some Black Americans. One of the saddest…
Major Problems in American History Since 1945. Third Edition.
New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
Even with all of this federal intervention, however, the issue of Americans being able to afford healthcare would rear its ugly head time and time again in the succeeding decades. This issue would be tossed about like a political hot potato until the election of President Bill Clinton, when then First Lady Hillary Clinton embraced the issue of affordable healthcare for all Americans and made an attempt to institute a nationalized healthcare system, much like the ones that have worked in nations like Canada and Great Britain. The Clintons unfortunately met with intense resistance to the plan on the federal level, and their system never came to full fruition. Ironically, however, the Clintons did manage to make meaningful change in American healthcare through their proposed plan. The mere threat of federal control over the monopolies that many American healthcare companies enjoy led in many cases to the freezing of rates…
Behreandt, D. (2005, September 5). The Best Healthcare in the World: Our Healthcare, Though Impeded by Government Intervention, Is Still the World's Best. Adopting a Single-Payer Socialized System Would Lead to Shortages, Frustration, and Failure. The New American, 21, 21+.
Dionne, E. (1997, January 17). The Democrats Are More United Than They've Been for Years. But They Still Cannot Suppress Deep Divisions on Fundamentals. New Statesman, 126, 26+.
Gottschalk, M. (2000). The Shadow Welfare State: Labor, Business, and the Politics of Health-Care in the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Heirich, M. (1998). Rethinking Health Care: Innovation and Change in America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.
THE IMPACT OF…
Agar, Herbert. The People's Choice, from Washington to Harding: A Study in Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933.
Kane, Joseph Nashan. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data. New York H.W. Wilson Co., 1959.
Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
Smith, Abbot Emerson. James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career. New York: Wilson-Erickson, Incorporated, 1937.
Steven Kelman's Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government
Steven Kelman's 1998 book on politics is entitled Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government. This is a brief but accurate summary of the central thesis of Kelman's philosophy of what enables the American system of government to function as well as it does. Perhaps because of the contentious nature of the modern media, discussions of the American governmental system and political process tend to focus on criticisms rather than on praises of its ability to address social ills. However, it is this stress upon the functionality, rather than upon the disfunctionality of American government that drives the structure, arguments, and philosophy advocated by Kelman's book.
In his introduction, Kelman states that he wishes to "evaluate how well the policy-making process works in the United States." In other words, Kelman wishes to rate the efficacy of the…
Kelman, Steven. Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government, 1998.
Monarchy." World Book Encyclopedia Online. http://www2.worldbook.com/
Parliamentary System" World Book Encyclopedia Online. http://www2.worldbook.com
Government Encouraging Small Businesses
Importance of Government Encouragement of Small Business
The socio-economic considerations of the federal procurement process
The federal procedure is made up of different social-economic factors that are of contention in establishing a free and fair-trading. The core intentions of the existence of the federal procedures are to foster stability in the fields of social and economic exemplifications. The policy statements laid by the federal procedures are directed at bringing the best out of the economic and social conditions of the people. In many avenues that cater for varied approaches of loving amicably in the country, the United States of American government established a branch of cohesion and establishment of a free trading mechanism for all the people (Feldman, 2013). The federal procedures ensure the country has existed in terms of stable and functioning social-economic platform. For instance, the stability reflects on the magnitudes of exploring profitability…
Feldman, S.W. (2013). Government Contract Guidebook. Fourth Edition. West, A Thomas
Gatti, S. (2013). Project finance in theory and practice: Designing, structuring and financing private and public projects. Waltham, MA: Academic Press/Elsevier.
Gosdin, J.L., & American Bar Association. (2007). Title insurance: A comprehensive overview. Chicago, IL: Section of Real Property, Probate, and Trust Law, ABA.
Union at Risk, historian Richard Ellis confronts the most singularly formative event of Andrew Jackson's two presidential terms: The Nullification Crisis of 1832 and 1833. In response to tariffs enacted by the Congress in Washington in the late 1820s, the State of South Carolina declared their legal independence from national laws. Avoiding the tariffs, South Carolina poses a real threat to the Jackson administration with serious national repercussions; responsively, Jackson issued a Proclamation asserting the foremost power of the Federal government.
Because legal action means little to a state already refusing Washington's insistence, Jackson found executive support in the Force Act, allowing national laws to be enforced on a state-wide basis with troops. The assuagement of the crisis by Henry Clay brought solvent end to this doctrinal crisis between states' rights and national policy. Richard Ellis argues that this decisive moment in 19th century politics not only connected to other…
America: A nation of paradoxes
America is a nation of paradoxes. On one hand, it is a nation that has symbolized freedom to many immigrants, as poignantly illustrated in Emma Lazarus' poem "The New Colossus," a poem included on the famed Statue of Liberty that greeted so many refugees as they strove to escape from Europe and avoid intolerable situations. The Lazarus poem proclaims the dawning a new America, free of class restrictions, which can offer prosperity even to the poorest new arrival. Yet federal policies in regards to African-Americans and Native Americans have been marked by injustice and prejudice. The American Dream of egalitarianism exists next to an ugly strain of racism that has run through the thread of American history since its inception.
Emma Lazarus' poem is perhaps the most explicit, famous rendition of the American dream: "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp... / Give me your tired,…
Aldrich, Thomas Bailey. "Unguarded Gates." 1895. Print.
Hawk, Walter Echo. In the Courts of the Conqueror. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum, 2010.
Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American century." Demography (pre-2011) 42.4
(2005): 595-620. ABI/Inform Complete. Web. 19 Sep. 2014.
American verses Vietnam culture. It include History,( events impacted culture); Political (system governs culture); Economy (current economical system, producing distributing goods services; receives, profit transaction, (Capitalism, Socialism Mixed Economy).
Vietnamese culture largely differs from North American culture: firstly because of the influences that each of the countries have had over the years and secondly because of the form of government administering each state. oth the U.S. And Vietnam were at a certain point colonies and while the 1775-1783 Independence War made it possible for colonists to achieve autonomy, it was not until 1954 that the Vietnamese managed to remove French leadership.
The Independence War was the principal factor in installing a democratic system and the First Indochina War had Vietnam divided into two parts: one led by communist forces under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, and the other under the ruling of emperor ao Dai. Although democracy dominated the…
Dinh Te, Huynh, "Family Relationships," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the Vietspring Website: http://www.vietspring.org/values/family.html
"Vietnam," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the CIA Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html
"United States," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the CIA Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876
Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Alternatives to the War on Drugs," at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4727/alt-wod-faq.html
Frequently Asked Questions," at http://www.paranoia.com/drugs/marijuana/hemp/FAQ-alt.hemp
Americans for Compassionate Use," at http://www.acu.org/~acu/
Ethan a. Nadelmann, "Thinking seriously about alternatives to the drug prohibition," Daedalus v.123:3, at http://www.calyx.com/~mariolap/debate/ethan1.html
NASRO Issue rief, Spring 1995 vol. 1, no.1,"Rethinking the War on Drugs and Crime: New Approaches to Local Polic." http://www.dscc.org/cwa/report.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. How to Legalize Drugs. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages., pp. 161
Lester Grinspoon, MD, James . akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876 Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 -- Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Alternatives to the War…
Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. "How to Legalize Drugs." Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages;
Lee P. Brown, "Eight Myths About Drugs," Vital Speeches of the Day, City News Publishing Co. 15 July 1994;
Lester Grinspoon, MD, James B. Bakalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876
Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…
David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002
Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996
Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991
Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
Lewis, a. (2007). The American Culture of War. New York: outledge
Lewis offers the reader a wealth of strong research in the book, "The American Culture of War." The bulk of the book is dedicated to offering a critical look at American military policy and practices since 1945 stretching to the choices made in Iraq, up until 2005. In this book, Lewis offers his opinions and concerns about the All Volunteer Force and possible alternatives to this solution. Lewis opens the book by proposing and defining a term known as the "American Way of War" and uses this view as a means of accounting for the strange and bold choices that have been made in military strategy and methods in the last half a century. Lewis offers a historical account of each major and minor war that the U.S. has had involvement in during this time period, and he offers…
Lewis, A. (2007). The American Culture of War. New York: Routledge
Families progress and grow as time continues. People may be at one stage and then move on to another. My family is a nuclear family and as my parents age, I wonder about how their health will get worse over time. The United States in general, has poor food quality and limited economic opportunity. There are political struggles, job struggles that contribute to chronic stress and a potential obesity epidemic.
I guess that my family as well as other American families will have problems concerning chronic health conditions that can be attributed to weight and food quality. Many Americans have nutrient deficiencies that can lead to chronic health problems like heart disease and diabetes. Although the American government attempts to educate people on healthy eating, the cheapest food available is usually heavily processed or laden with chemicals and pesticides. Things like avocados and apples, some of the foods that help…
The Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches: Separation of Powers and Maintaining Checks and Balances in the Government
The formulation, enactment, and implementation of the Constitution as the primary basis of law in the United States aim to provide society with representativeness. The establishment of the U.S. government allows for the separation of powers among its three branches: the executive, legislative, and judiciary. The President, Vice-President, and its departments represent the Executive branch; the Senate and Congress, on the other hand, represent the legislative branch; lastly, the Judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court (Microsoft Encarta 2002). Each branch has a function designed to provide people not only their representatives in the government, but to ensure that the state and nation as a whole also fulfills their functions as citizens of the country (as decreed by the Constitution). Each branch's function is also designed to ensure that checks and…
'Three Branches of the Government." Utah Education Network. Retrieved February 19, 2004. Available at: http://www.uen.org/themepark/html/liberty/3branches.html .
"United States." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Corporation 1993-2001.
Government & Politics
The arguments contrast two observations. Which of them is the best and why? Give a detailed and substantial response.
Charles eard and John Roche had differing views regarding the American constitution as they hailed from different background. Due to their diverse backgrounds, they have their own views regarding American constitution. A deep study of both authors shows that, John Roche is an optimist and a reformer, while Charles eard attempts to expose the inner intentions of the founding fathers (Thesis Statement, 2014). oth authors give interesting insight into the minds of the founding fathers with rock solid evidence. eard (1913) proposes that founding fathers had huge properties to protect while Roche (1961) argues that constitution united the nation quite effectively.
Those penning the constitution had sold commercial and financial interest of their own (p. 36)
The authors of the constitution were bent on penning a…
Berg, S. (2012). The Founding Fathers and the Constitutional Struggle over Centralized Power. Baltimore County: University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.umbc.edu/che/tahlessons/pdf/The_Founding_Fathers_and_the_Constitutional_Struggle_PF.pdf
Dalleva, N. (2010, August 30). An Analysis Of John Roche's Essay "A Reform Caucus in Action." Retrieved from Essencearticles.com: http://www.essencearticles.com/book-reviews-politics/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay-a-reform-caucus-in-action
Dalleva, N. (2010, September 15). Education. Retrieved from articlesfactory.com: http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/education/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay.html
Folsom, B. (2009, June 11). The Freeman. Retrieved from Fee.com: http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/the-founders-the-constitution-and-the-historians
AMERICAN PEOPLE ARE PEACEFUL, IT IS AMERICA'S LEADERS AND ELITES WHO MAKE WAR
It is the objective of this study to examine the statement that American people are peaceful, it is America's leaders and elites who make war.
The statement that the American people are peaceful and that it is the American leaders and elites who make war is a true statement because the normal everyday American individual has no say in the starting of any war and the majority of wars started by the United States are not condoned by the American people.
The work of Dugan (2013) reports that on the tenth anniversary of the Iraq War 53% of Americans view the war as a mistake. Specifically Dugan states "Americans initially supported the war, with substantial majorities in 2003 saying the U.S. decision to get involved in Iraq was not a mistake. However, attitudes changed relatively…
Juhasz, A. (2013) Why the War in Iraq Was Fought for Big Oil. CNN News. 15 Apr 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.cnn.com /2013/03/19/opinion/iraq-war-oil-juhasz/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
National Education Association
The National Education Association (NEA) was formed in 1857 and is dedicated to championing the rights of both educators and children. It has been a part of integration, the Civil ights movement, equal opportunity education, and the rights of teachers for over 150 years. After 1966 the National Education Association and American Teachers Association merged to form a more cohesive and powerful body. Each state has a branch of the NEA that regularly does lobby work to legislators for the resources schools need and to push for higher standards in the teaching profession. The NEA's programs and services may be accessed at http://www.nea.org. There are currently five forms of membership, from Students to etired. Anyone actively involved in the American Education System, as well as several distance and online institutions, may join the NEA, although professional certification is required for certain membership tiers.
National Education Association. (2012). Main Website. Retrieved from:
Moe, T. (2011). Special Interest -- Teachers Unions and America's Public Schools. Retrieved From: Brookings Institution Press. http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/2011/specialinterest.aspx
American Orwellian Tyranny
Although the apocalyptic vision of the future that Orwell presented in 1984 has not yet occurred, some of the most chilling concepts he described are gradually becoming doctrinal pillars of law in the United States. An analysis of contemporary society reveals that an Orwellian manipulation of language is causing a dramatic shift in the way people think and is exerting tyrannical control over the common American. This control is being brought about by newly formed standards of speech backed by governmental regulation and which commands that government approved behavior be displayed. These events parallel the control that Orwell's "Big Brother" (1) exerted on the populace in 1984 but which is commonly referred to today as political correctness.
Three of the most potent ideas discussed in Orwell's 1984 are "doublethink" (3), the destruction of actual events (17) and "thoughtcrime" (8). These ideas work collaboratively to bring about the…
Arnold, Catherine "Minority Report." Marketing News 15 Nov. 2004: 38
"Makeup test: More history, less P.C." Newsweek 15 Apr. 1996: 127
Wright, Ellen "U.S. Senate Passes Hate Crimes Act." Lesbian News Aug. 2004: 30
Abraham, Delphine "Changing Websters Dictionary." Essence Mar. 1998: 28
American Indian Movement
The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)
However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…
Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298
Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138
American Political Philosophy: epublicanism
Within this paper, the general theory of republicanism will be presented. The conceptualization of republicanism discussed within the paper as an American political philosophy will be based on The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison in 1787. Initially, a brief overview of relevant background information on The Federalist Papers will be provided. This will be followed by a discussion of the primary components of republicanism as set forth within the works of Hamilton, Jay and Madison. A summary and conclusions will then be provided.
Overview of The Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers have been suggested as representing one of the most important writing in American political thought (Yarbrough, 1986). It represents a collection of 85 letters written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison under the pseudonym of Publius. The letters were written to the American public and were initially published in a…
Hamilton, A., Jay, J. & Madison, J. (1961). The Federalist papers. C. Rossiter (ed.). NY: New American Library.
Yarbrough, J. (1986). The Federalist. News for Teachers of Political Science, (Spring 1986). 7 June 2003: http://www.apsanet.org/CENnet/thisconstitution/yarbrough.cfm..
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov .
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
POL 319 State & Local Governments
emocracy in America has evolved from the concept of federalism allowing citizens at all levels to develop their own governance system. Since the founding of the United States in 1776 different governmental structures both on the state and local level developed. My paper takes a closer look at three different faces of state and local government in the United States of today: irect emocracy Government, Police Jury Government and Mayor-Council Government. While California and Louisiana are showcase examples for the irect emocracy and Policy Jury Government system, New York City stands exemplary for a strong Mayor Council governmental system. The goal of the paper is to point out the distinctive features of the three models, their historic background, and various impacts for citizens in the three geographic surroundings.
Case Study # 1 -- Examination of irect emocracy in California
Does the legislature or the governor have more power in Louisiana based on your analysis? The governor has more power than the legislature because the legislature can completely overpower the governor. There is not one bill he can stop if they chose this veto and there is not an expense he can block for the same reason. The legislature can organize the executive branch anyway it chooses subject to the constitutional imperative of the presence of certain constitutional officers. Furthermore it can get rid of any regulatory authority in it, and propose any constitutional amendment it likes regardless of the governor's opinion on the matter
(Sadow, J.D. (23 May 2011, p.2).
How is the provision of funds to local and state efforts affected or optimized by Louisiana's French-based system? The state of Louisiana faces a severe decline in revenues through fiscal year 2012 which, if no corrective action is taken, will leave a significant funding gap in the state government expenditures and will create serious sustainability issues in financing of state obligations. It is essential that the state act now to reduce the cost of state government, through all means available, including efficiencies, economies, greater effectiveness, and other means to streamline government in order to overcome the projected severe revenue reductions occurring through 2012 . Louisiana also created the Commission on Streamlining Government (CSG) to examine each agency's constitutional and legal duties to gain efficiency and lower costs by reducing the size of state government. This commission is charged with making real reforms to reduce the size of government by finding and getting rid of a ballooning bureaucracy and duplicative services and low-performing programs both on the state and local government level (Streamlining Louisiana: Driving Government Reform in an Era of Fiscal Crisis (29 January 2010, p. 2). Proposers of the reform i.a. request the issuance of annual public reports online of all state grants by funding source, agency, parish and
Baltimore Advertiser, 18 Mar 1788)
(2) the second class was reported as comprised by "those descriptions of men who are certainly more numerous with us than in any other part of the globe. First, those men who are so wise as to discover that their ancestors and indeed all the rest of mankind were and are fools. We have a vast overproportion of these great men, who, when you tell them that from the earliest period at which mankind devoted their attention to social happiness, it has been their uniform judgment, that a government over governments cannot exist - that is two governments operating on the same individual - assume the smile of confidence, and tell you of two people travelling the same road - of a perfect and precise division of the duties of the individual." (No. 10 -- on the Preservation of Parties, Public Liberty Depends, 18 Mar…
The Anti-Federalist Papers (1788) Farmer No. 10. On the Preservation of Parties, Public Liberty Depends. 18 Mar 1788 )Baltimore Maryland Gazette. Retrieved from: http://www.barefootsworld.net/antifederalist.html
The Anti-Federalist vs. The Federalist. Polytechnic.org. (nd) *Based on the American Journey: A History of the United States by Goldfield, et al. Retrieved from: http://faculty.polytechnic.org/gfeldmeth/chart.fed.pdf
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog
Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters
Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to…
Hendricks, J.A., & Denton, R.E. (2009). Communicator-in-chief: How Barack Obama used new media technology to win the white house. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.
Rosenau, J.N., & Singh, J.P. (2002). Information technologies and global politics: The changing scope of power and governance. Albany (N.Y.: State university of New York press.
Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
How Presidents can influence the policymaking process to suit their needs
constitution has created the executive branch and the executive power vested in the hands of the president. In fact, the president cannot act in isolation in running the executive branch. The president depends on the executive office staff and agencies like office of management and council of economic advisors and the policy development offices like the National Security Council. Further, the president selects individual cabinet members who lead the cabinet departments and other non-cabinet-level agencies. All these are mandated to interpret and implement laws passed by congress. All these departments act as advisors, formulating policies, and identifying issues for presidential consideration. In theory, all these divisions of the executive branch function in furthering the goals set by the president.
The presidents are the heads of the federal executive branch. As strong as this might sound,…
Shull, S.A. (2012). Presidential policymaking: An end-of-century assessment. Armonk, NY [u.a.: Sharpe.
Mitchell, D. (2010). Making foreign policy: Presidential management of the decision-making process. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Riley, D.D., & Brophy-Baermann, B.E. (2006). Bureaucracy and the policy process: Keeping the promises. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.
Schraeder, P.J. (2008). United States foreign policy toward Africa: Incrementalism, crisis and change. Cambridge u.a: Cambridge Univ. Press.
In the future, though, the influence the U.S. must wield over nations such as Pakistan that are Muslim yet strive to be part of the international community, is likely to be contingent upon the U.S.' recapitulation perceived moral authority as well as its ability to use economic and military carrots and sticks. American influence is also dependant upon the international population's own perceptions of the U.S. As well as these nation's national leaders' rhetorical compliance with U.S. demands for the curtailment and monitoring of terrorist activities. Thus to generate loyalty in the hearts of the people in nations such Pakistan, the U.S. must use soft, rather than hard power. And use this soft power more effectively and seem more morally upstanding a more judicious rather than aggressive use of national force seems essential.
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human elfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.…
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human Welfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.
Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power, the Means to Success in World Politics. London: PublicAffairs, Ltd.,
Nye, Joseph, "Soft Power and American Foreign Policy," Political Science Quarterly. 19. 2
Criticisms against and praise for colonialism in America: A comparative analysis of "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine and "Origin and Progress of the American Rebellion" by Peter Oliver
The declaration of King George III of the United Kingdom that America is in an active state of rebellion in August 23, 1775, marked the opportunity for Britain's 13 colonies in the country to be liberated from British colonialism. The path towards rebellion in America is an arduous process, where there had been a series of economic and political pressures that Britain had imposed in order to maintain control over the gradually rebelling members of the colonies.
What made the study of the history of the American Revolution interesting is that there are numerous literatures illustrating the political and economic climate between the Americans and British at the time where rebellious ideologies and propaganda are gradually increasing. There had been…
Henry Clay gave his famous speech in support of the American System to the House of Representatives in 1824, although Alexander Hamilton had used the same term decades before. It rested "on the idea of harmonizing all the segments of the economy for their mutual benefit and of doing so by active support from an intervening national government" (Baxter 27). Clay's conversion to this policy was surprising since Hamilton had been a member of the Federalist Party while Henry Clay was supposedly a Democratic Republican and a Jeffersonian, opposed to Federal plans for government aid to industry, a national bank, protective tariffs and federal funding for highways, canals, railroads and other internal improvements. After the ar of 1812, however, the first political party system had come to an end and the Federalists were discredited by their opposition to the war and threats of secession in New England. During…
Baxter, Maurice G. Henry Clay and the American System. University Press of Kentucky, 2004.
Hounshell, David A. From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
Government Changes post-Revolution ar vs. post-Civil ar
Close examination of the reasons for and the results of the Revolutionary ar and the Civil ar forces me to disagree with McPherson's position that more radical change in government occurred due to the Civil ar than the Revolutionary ar. In order to understand how this is true, one must look at several issues, such as the causes of each of the wars, the purposes and intentions, and the ultimate results.
The Revolutionary ar was based on the struggle to become independent from Great Britain and this struggle began due to a series of taxes forced upon the citizens. So "taxation without representation" was the initial call to arms however, it grew to include other freedoms as well.
The Civil ar was utterly a different process of situation. hile claims by the South of freedom it was always an economic issue tightly woven…
Abraham Lincoln, Cooper Union Address, New York City Presidential Campaign
Confederate States of America-Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union, December 1860, South Carolina
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address." Washington D.C. Mar. 1861. Address.
Ordinance of 1787
The second section examines the processes of the Constitutional Convention, the rectification of the weak Articles of Confederation, the ratification of the new Constitution, and the Washington and Jeffersonian Administrations. The first presidents had to try to make sense of the wording of the new document and put the presidency's ideals into practice. The third section examines the evolving role of presidents from Jackson to the present and how they defined the role in relationship to the legislative and judicial branches, public opinion, historical events, and foreign affairs.
McDonald notes that although Democrats today tend to be most critical of so-called imperially styled presidents, it was Republicans who decried the increasingly powerful office of the presidency during the Roosevelt and Johnson administrations, and only later did the two parties flip-flop, after Nixon created what would later be called the imperial presidency by Democrats. This suggests that there is less of…