961 results for “American Indian Studies”.
but, those same laws were immediately enacted by the Federal government and from that origin, became immediately binding - the Cherokee would be held to be covered by Federal but not state law.
Those members of Congress who supported the removal policies became instrumental in the build-up toward the Trail of Tears. American aggressive expansionism was what drove the forced removal from their land. Whites had expanded to the edges of their territory and were bursting at the seams in the attempt to accommodate all of the European immigrants. Jackson, continuing to sting from the defeat in 1788, took up the most vilely racist approaches to dealing with these "American" needs - by enforcing the Indian emoval Act (Prater, 9). Jackson started creating a wedge against the Cherokee by encouraging people to simply move onto and squat on Cherokee land. Settlers, squatters, encroachers would continue to inch their way toward…
Harvey, Bonnie C. "The West That Wasn't Won" Christian History. 2000. v19. i2. p36(2).
McLean, Herbert. "Rediscovering the Trail of Tears." American Forests. Sep / Oct, 1993. v99. i9/10. p26(5).
Meyers, Jason. "No Idle Past: Uses of History in the 1830 Indian Removal Debates." Historian Fall, 2000. v63. i1, p53(13).
Prater, B. "The Long, Lonely Walk back to Alabama." Americana. Oct, 1991. v19. i4. p9.
American Indian Movement
The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)
However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports on Indian…
Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298
Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138
With the advent of Colombo on the American soil, things began to change as Philip J. Deloria asserts in her book Playing Indian (1999): "[T]he self-defining pairing of American truth with American freedom rests on the ability to wield power against Indians... while simultaneously drawing power from them." This is also the basic idea of Shari M. Huhndorf's Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination. "As white Americans became disenchanted with how American society was developing, they began to reference Indian people and culture as an answer to such problems of a modernizing America as capitalistic greed; alienating, sedentary life-style of the office worker; imperialistic aggressiveness; and racial and gender challenges to white male hegemony" (Barak, 2005).
The Indians progress was challenged by the so-called American School of ethnology. Therein Christianity became a tool in the American colonial project. The development of an ideology based in religion was made…
Keeping Native American Language Alive:
How to Save Them and hy This is a paper that deals with preserving the Native American Language. There are eight references used for this paper.
The Native American Language is rapidly disappearing and there are numerous people and groups, including the United States government, working to revive and preserve this important part of American culture. The language differs from tribe to tribe and it's interesting to look at how each one is preserving their history, as well as exploring why many Native American languages are in danger of extinction.
At the time Columbus discovered America, 1.5 million Native Americans spoke in the 300 to 600 languages of their tribes. Today, only 211 of these languages still exist, with only 32 of them spoken by all ages. Of the Native American languages that are still spoken, "more that half are spoken by fewer than 1,000 persons per…
Bartholet, Jeffrey, Tony Clifton, Elizabeth Bryant and Scott Johnson. "The Sounds of Silence."
Newsweek International. (2000): 19 June. Pp. 62.
Harrison, Sheena. "Michigan State U. adopts American Indian Studies Program." University
Wire. (2000): 24 August.
American National Character
America can almost be thought of as a massive experiment in culture. Here we have a nation inhabited almost entirely by immigrants; all with different languages, customs, beliefs, and appearances who are forced to somehow reach a common understanding and identity. Through the over two hundred years of American history many differences have threatened to unravel our diverse nation, but still, many commonalities have ultimately held it together. Amidst such a range of economic, political, and racial mixtures it is a daunting task to identify what characteristics are uniquely American.
Yet, what can be considered "American" can also be traced to the roots of the nation. The place now called the United States was founded by puritan settlers who valued the notion of all men's equality in the eyes of God. Accordingly, the authors of the U.S. Constitution included equality under the law as one of its most…
Bellah, Robert N., et al., eds. Habits of the Heart. Los Angeles, California: University of California, 1985.
Cochran, Thomas C. The Puerto Rican Businessman: A Study in Cultural Change. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1959.
Hacker, Andrew. The End of the American Era. New York, New York: Atheneum, 1968.
Klausner, Samuel Z. "A Professor's-Eye View of the Egyptian Academy." The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 57, No. 4 (Jul.-Aug., 1986): 345-369.
This is important, because in the story Lilia, does not understand the conflict in Pakistan, much less cares about the issues, until Mr. Pirzada becomes a family friend. An example of this can be seen with the passage that says, "No one at school talked about the war followed so faithfully in my living room." This is significant, because it shows how the lack of studying world history could cause, a disconnect, as the class would cause the students, to instinctively focus on those issue that are relevant from an American perspective. In many ways one could argue, that this is microcosm of the cultural assimilation that the entire family is going through. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the passage that says, "It occurred to me that the television wasn't on at Dora's house at all. Her father was lying on the couch,…
"When Mr. Pizada Came to Dine." Musings of a Bookish Kitty, 2010 . Web. 19 Jul. 2010.
Marsden Hartley epitomizes the transition in American art towards abstractionism. In fact, Hartley was integral to fomenting the shift in American art, which had until then tended to lag behind its European avant-garde counterparts. Hartley spent more than a quarter of a century in Europe before and during World War One, in both Paris and Berlin, where he learned emerging techniques from cubism and abstract expressionism to fauvism. When Hartley returned to the United States, he retreated from the avant-garde styles and became known more as the "rooted-in-Maine American artist," (Slenske, 2014). Hartley's achievements lie as much in his versatility as in his encouragement of abstraction and experimentalism in American art.
Hartley was born in Maine and exhibited a predilection for visual art at a young age. He was formally trained and got his start exhibiting in Alfred Stieglitz's Gallery 291 in New York. Stieglitz gave Hartley an exclusive exhibition,…
"Marsden Hartley (1877-1943)" Retrieved online: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/famous-artists/marsden-hartley.htm
Peltakian, D. (n.d.). Marsden Hartley: American expressionist. Retrieved online: http://www.sullivangoss.com/marsden_Hartley/
The Phillips Collection (2016). Marsden Hartley. Retrieved online: http://www.phillipscollection.org/research/american_art/bios/hartley-bio.htm
Slenske, M. (2014). Deciphering Modernist Marsden Hartley's Coded Paintings. Architectural Digest. Retrieved online: http://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/marsden-hartley-lacma
Management: Management at Walmart
Background of Walmart
Mission, Vision and Values of Walmart
Managers at Walmart
Manager's ole in Decision Making and Strategy
Managers Managing Diversity
Managers as Motivators
Background of Walmart
For this study we would dwell into the role of a manager at Walmart -- the largest retailer in the U.S. Walmart has been in business for more than 50 years and at present has a footfall every week of more than 260 million customers in the 11,500 stores under 65 banners in 28 countries and the e-commerce sites in 11 countries. The net sale of the company in 2014 was $476.29 billion. The company has 2.2 million associated across the world. The group recorded a net sale increase of 1.9% in the fiscal year ended January 30, 2015 and it returned $7.2 billion to shareholders through dividends and share repurchases (Corporate.walmart.com).
The company has been credited with being the leader in application of technology in…
Bateman, C. 'The Role Of The Practice Manager'. InnovAiT 1.8 (2008): 597-599. Web.
Corporate.walmart.com,. 'Leadership'. N.p., 2015. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
Farrington, C. 'Reconciling Managers, Doctors, And Patients: The Role Of Clear Communication'. JRSM 104.6 (2011): 231-236. Web.
Garib, Geetha. 'Leisure Managers' Perceptions Of Employee Diversity And Impact Of Employee Diversity'. International Journal of Hospitality Management 32 (2013): 254-260. Web.
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller and…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
How valuable is history if it is truly written by the victors of war? What remains of the historical account are only tiny fragments of what the true and whole story encapsulated. What we are left with are scraps of stories that are fragmented and skewed to the current power structures that run the institutions. Understanding this skeptical attitude is extremely important when judging an historical account.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the removal of Native Americans from the region east of the Mississippi in the time of 1830. This essay will examine both sides of the argument and address the ethical, moral, philosophical and legal aspects to this complex and sophisticated subject. This essay will ultimately try to distinguish that the removal of these people's land, while extremely expedient and profitable, was a clear violation of the human ethic and should be remembered as a critical…
riters such as Pico Iyer, Richard Pells, and Joseph Nye are in fact correct that the world culture has not and will not be Americanized. These writers are correct in asserting that American culture is ever forceful, but still America remains just one influence in a multicultural world: a manifestation of globalization. ith such a supreme focus on America, it can seem like America is the dominant force; however, this is just a result of a skewed perspective. It is true that other cultures have also spread outwards and that local cultures cannot and will not be destroyed.
The phenomenon of culture shock is direct evidence of the fact that American culture is not as pervasive as many people would like to assert that it is. As centers for study abroad programs in various universities explain, culture shock is a logical reaction to the body and mind in response to…
Balko, R. (2014). Globalization & Culture. Retrieved from globalpolicy.org: http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/162/27607.html
Chapman.edu. (2013). Culture Shock. Retrieved from Chapman.edu: http://www.chapman.edu/international-studies/center-for-global-education/study-abroad-programs/accepted-students/culture-shock.aspx
Kitamura, H. (2010). Screening Enlightenment. NewYork: Cornell University Press.
American Ethnic Literature
Analyzing the Nature of American Ethnic Literature
America has a distinct history: like ancient ome, its inhabitants have come from all over and few of them can truly say to be natives of the place. This fact alone makes American Literature a compelling label: what makes American Literature American? This paper will attempt to answer the question by showing how many ethnicities have converged in one nation allowing various writers with different ethnic, social, political, economical, and social perspectives to define and/or illustrate a time and place.
As Morris Dickstein states, "When America was merely a remote province of world culture, its educated elites were Anglophile, Francophile, or broadly cosmopolitan. Education was grounded in classical learning, a respect for the ancients over the moderns, and a deeply ingrained respect for old Europe's artistic heritage" (p. 155). This type of background made American letters similar to European. What happened, however, was…
African-American Literature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 1-11.
Asian-American Lliterature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 2-12.
Casey, J.G. (n.d.). Canon Issues and Class Contexts. Radical Teacher 86, pp. 18-27.
Dickstein, M. (n.d.). Going Native. The American Scholar.
Heritage scholars obert ector and ea Hederman found that only a little more than one quarter worked for 2,000 hours or more. They suggested that poverty in America was less of a material deprivation and more of emotional and spiritual loss, the awareness or knowledge of one's dependence on state and federal bureaucrats and a loss of self-esteem resulting from the knowledge of self-insufficiency. The working poor, on the other hand, are capable of facing their future with optimism and confidence, no matter how little they earned. It was the control they had over their lives, which translated into their contribution to the economy (Kersey).
An opposing view was suggested, wherein an increase in the minimum wage would benefit low-income workers, in general, and those below the official poverty line, in particular (Economy Policy Institute 2006). If and when the proposed minimum wage increase was approved, the wages of approximately…
1. Economy Policy Institute.2006. Minimum Wage Facts at a Glance. http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/issueguides_minwage_minwagefacts
2. Kersey, Paul. 2004. The Economic Effects of the Minimum Wage. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/research/labor/tst042904a,cfm?tenderforprint=1
3. Morris, David. 2004. The American Voice 2004. The American Voice. http://www.americanoice2004.org/minimumwage/index.html
4. Office for Social Justice St. Paul and Minneapolis. 2006. Facts about Poverty. 101 Economic Facts that Every American Should Know. http://www.osjspm.org/101_poverty.htm
India / Theoretical / Foreign Policy Shyness (Pant, 2009, p. 251). Pant's latest scholarship on India's foreign policies (2009, p. 253) is far more forceful and impactful than the narrative in his 2008 book. He chides India for not letting go of its Cold ar foreign policy strategy. "The Cold ar officially ended almost two decades ago,"
Pant writes (p. 253), and yet India continues to debate "the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)." That attitude among India's elite foreign policy experts "…is merely the clearest sign of the intellectual sloth that has infected the foreign policy discourse," Pant states. "Intellectual sloth?" Nowhere in Pant's 2008 book are there phrases so vigorous and persuasive. He stresses that it is "irresponsible and dangerous" for India to "cling to ideas that served a different strategic context" (p. 253).
Theoretical Approach / India Foreign Policy (Robert Gilpin / John J. Mearsheimer):
Professors Robert Gilpin (Princeton…
Works Cited / Bibliography
Gilpin, Robert, 1983, War and Change in World Politics, Cambridge University Press: New York.
Mearsheimer, John J. 2003, the Tragedy of Great Power Politics, W.W. Norton & Company: New York.
Pant, Harsh V., 2008, Contemporary Debates in Indian Foreign and Security Policy: India Negotiates Its Rise in the International System. Palgrave / Macmillan: New York.
Pant, Harsh V. 2009, 'A Rising India's Search for a Foreign Policy', Orbis, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 250-265.
Indian Legal Environment Foreign Companies Introduction Today, International Businesses buy sell, India. It essential a foreign company planning enter India, understand culture, traditions peoples' mindset.
Conflict in Employment elations
The issue of conflict in employment relations presents great importance to companies because of the effects it has on the activity of employees and on the performance of the company. There are several types of organizational conflicts. The most important types of conflict are represented by individual, collective, overt, covert, and others. Based on the paradigms that these situations refer to, conflicts can be industrial, like strikes, breaches, misbehavior, sabotage, and resistance. The numerous causes of organizational conflicts lead to different types of conflicts and strategies used in these cases.
Job egulation Paradigm
Conflicts in job regulation are important because they help reach a level of stability and balance in the system. This objective can be reached by identifying different interests in the system. These…
1. Gardner, M. & Palmer, G. (1997). Employment Relations. Retrieved June 24, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=3ol8ZFDn5esC&printsec=frontcover&dq=employment+relations&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=v0nnT93DBo6SswaW0IzgAQ&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=employment%20relations&f=false .
2. Cappelli, P. (2008). Employment Relationships: New Models of White Collar Work. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved June 24, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=Kz8O9cEcFU8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=employment+relations&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=v0nnT93DBo6SswaW0IzgAQ&ved=0CFMQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=employment%20relations&f=false .
3. Gennard, J. & Judge, G. (2005). Employee Relations. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Retrieved June 24, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=FuUmIixUldwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=employment+relations&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=v0nnT93DBo6SswaW0IzgAQ&ved=0CFkQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=employment%20relations&f=false .
4. Pot, F. (2000). Employment Relations and National Culture. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. Retrieved June 24, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=-acyy7yNYgUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=employment+relations&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=107nT5_LIIPUtAbG1dyQAQ&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAjgU#v=onepage&q=employment%20relations&f=false .
American Experience With War
Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?
While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.
But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples, its geography, its…
Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The
MacMillan Company, 1969.
Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),
Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.
Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…
Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007. http://www.jsfmusic.com/Uncle_Tom/Tom_Article6.html
Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-pop
Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-pop
Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Jinhui
However, the Kolenda text is somewhat prescient in identifying some of the ways that Indian society has adjusted to change as modernization has become a matter of inevitability. Indeed, Kolenda denotes entering into the discussion that "the shape of India emerging will be different from the shape of modern estern societies. Caste in its new transformations will be an important contributing factor to determining that shape." (Kolenda, i) as Kolenda's is a text which was composed in 1985, this renders it a particularly insightful set of predictions on how the desire of traditionalists and the culturally elite to maintain ancient systems of class demarcation will find balance with the push of the global community to assume a more democratically driven strategy for socioeconomic organization.
Ultimately, one is left with the sense that a subject such as this would best be explored in a study with a more current context. That…
Kolenda, P. (1985). Caste in Contemporary India. Waveland Press.
It is impossible in six short pages to fully comprehend the attitudes that hite Americans had to Native Indians and black Americans in the early centuries of our nation's founding. That was m not my intent. My goal rather, was to illustrate first that although we are often presented a dominant narrative as the narrative, the truth is that in surveying American attitudes towards American Indians and Blacks a single cohesive narrative does not exist. If such a narrative did exist the Native American Seminole tribe of Florida would not exist. The Seminoles were a tri-racial tribe composed of Creek Indians, remainders of smaller tribes, runaway slaves and whites who preferred to live in Indian society (Loewen). The First and Second Seminole wars (1816-18, 1835-42) in which the Seminoles fought against invading hites who demanded that they surrender their African-American members, were fought not for economic value but to eliminate…
Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black:American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. University of North Carolina Press., 1995.
Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Miller, Eric. George Washington and the Indians. 1994. 25 March 2010 .
Root, Maria. Love's Revolution: Interracial Marriage. Temple University Press, 2001.
For example in her essay on "Pagans, Converts, and Backsliders" Mary Young argues that a dialogue did occur between white and native culture, not simply in terms of a trade of goods and land, but also of religious worldviews.
According to Young, to view 'the native mindset' as a monolith is an error. Natives took a multifaceted view of their own religion, often creating a synchronistic faith of Christianity and traditional native movements and there is no "single metaphysical outlook" that can be characterized as Indian (Young 79). This sense of cultural dialogue stands in profound contrast to Martin, who refers to what he calls "the scythe of Christianity" cutting out Native American religion entirely from the history books as well as history itself (Martin 218). Additionally, Vine Deloria's essay, also included in the collection, on "Revision and Reversion" cautions against Martin's view of Native American thinking as impenetrable, arguing…
Fixico, Donald Lee. The American Indian Mind. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Martin, Calvin, editor. The American Indian and the Problem of History. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1986.
By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).
In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).
Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice, said…
Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp
Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.
Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp
Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209
THE BLACKFEET NATION INDIANS
This is a five page paper dealing with the Blackfeet Nation Indians. It will explore the tribe's history and early lifestyles. It will also cover the health and education of the tribe now. Problems facing the tribe and methods used in preserving their culture will also be addressed. There are seven references used.
The Blackfeet Indians are a Native American tribe that live in Northern Montana. They have a history rich in traditions and rituals. There is some controversy on how they became known as Blackfeet, but many believe it is because of the black moccasins they wore. It's not sure how these moccasins became black, but two suggestions are the Indians painted them or they were darkened by prairie fire (www.blackfeetnation.com).
The original home of the Blackfeet is believed to have been in the eastern woodlands "north of the…
(Origins and Early History of the Blackfeet (accessed 10-01-2002) http://
Ritter, John. "Blackfeet plan USA's only offshore bank." USA Today. (2000): 03 April.
Nijhuis, Michelle. "Tribal immersion schools rescue language and culture." The Christian
It is evident that in his case, he tried to improve his condition by looking at his captors as providing him with guidance, and it is in this perception that Equiano's journey becomes meaningful, both literally and symbolically, as he eventually improved his status in life by educating himself after being a free man.
Bozeman (2003) considered Equiano's experience as beneficial and resulted to Equiano's changed worldview at how he looked at slavery and British society (his 'captors). Bozeman argued that Equiano's worldview became "fluid," wherein
…he is exceptional among his contemporary British brethren: not only is he able to stand both on the inside and outside of the window of British society, Equiano can move efficiently between the two…Accepting the essence of who Equiano is, in the end, is to acknowledge the reality he was a living oxymoron perpetuating a simply complex life (62).
It is this "fluid" worldview that Equiano…
Bozeman, T. (2003). "Interstices, hybridity, and identity: Olaudah Equiano and the discourse of the African slave trade." Studies in Literary Imagination, Vol. 36, No. 2.
Burnham, M. (1993). "The journey between: liminality and dialogism in Mary White Rowlandson's captivity narrative." Early American Literature, Vol. 28.
Carrigan, a. (2006). "Negotiating personal identity and cultural memory in Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative." Wasafiri, Vol. 21, No. 2.
Derounian, K. (1987). "Puritan orthodoxy and the "survivor syndrome" in Mary Rowlandson's Indian captivity narrative." Early American Literature, Vol. 22.
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…
Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903
Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40
Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2
Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
White European Authors Depicted Native Americans in Fiction
The objective of this study is to examine how white European authors have depicted Native American in Fiction. Examined to inform this study are two specific works in writing and specifically those entitled: "The Last of the Mohicans" and "The Searchers" written by James Fenimore Cooper and John Ford, respectively.
There can be no doubt that the native American Indians are misrepresented in literature written by white European authors as the Indians are portrayed as ignorant, uneducated, ungodly, barbarians and villains. IN the literature of White European authors, the Native American Indians lived a life that was wild, unprincipled and ungodly however, study that has examined the life of the Native American Indians since those earlier works has related an entirely different story of the Native American Indians.
Coleman on Social Construction of Indians in the Cinema
The work of Cynthia-Lou Coleman entitled "Framing Cinematic…
Kellner, Leon (1915) The American Books: A Library of Good Citizenship. Garden City, New York. Doubleday, Page & Company 1915.
Coleman, Cynthia-Lou (nd) Framing Cinematic Indians within the Social Construction of Place. Retrieved from: https://journals.ku.edu/index.php/amerstud/article/viewFile/2963/2922
Ebert, Roger (2001) The Searchers. Retrieved from: http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20011125/REVIEWS08/111250301/1023
Gregor, Theresa Lynn (2010) from Captors to Captives: American Indian Reponses to Popular American Narrative Forms. May 2010. Retrieved from: http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/assetserver/controller/item/etd-Gregor-3488.pdf
Native Americans- evisiting the Struggles of 1680
What were the causes of the Pueblo revolt of 1680?
In the year 1680, Native Americans known as the Pueblo revolted against their Spanish conquerors in the American South West (Calloway, 2003). The Spaniards had dominated their lives, their souls and their lands for over eighty years. The Spanish colonists conquered and maintained their rule with terror and intimidation from the beginning when their troops under the command of Juan de Onate invaded the region in 1598 (Countryman 2013). When the natives in Acoma resisted, Oriate commanded that for all men over the age of 15 one leg should be chopped and the rest of the population should be enslaved, setting the tone for what was to be a brutal rule for the next 8 decades. The Pueblo people then rose as one community united by their resolve to unshackle the chains of domination, and…
Bolton, H.E, ed. Spanish Exploration of the Southwest, 1542-1706. New York: C. Scribner's Sons; New YorkC. Scribner's Sons, 1916.
Bowden, H. W. "Spanish Missions, Cultural Conflict and the Pueblo Revolt of 1680." Church History, 1975: 217-28.
Brugge, David M. "Pueblo Factionalism and External Relations." Ethnohistory, 1969.
Calloway, Colin. One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark . University of Nebraska Press, 2003.
Against the Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern by Nathan Glazer
In the text, The Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern by Nathan Glazer, the author argues that affirmative action is creating a 'tribal' America. Rather than a cohesive American identity, Glazer argues that Americans are becoming increasingly identified with their personal racial, religious and ethnic differences. Glazer states that this stands in defiance of the fact that "the United States has become the first great nation that defines itself not in terms of ethnic origin but in terms of adherence to common rules of citizenship." However, Glazer confuses this idealized view of American history with the realities of discrimination that have been perpetuated upon minorities, and which minorities continue to suffer in America. Glazer argues his case as if America were not a nation with a history marked by racial divisiveness, despite the goal of racial harmony advocated by contemporary…
Community resources must be identified and brought together to meet needs. Actions can be developed to prevent poor health outcomes by: appropriately identifying, collecting, and reporting racial/ethnic group-specific data; identifying where data are lacking and developing appropriate tools to collect those data; and linking poor health status indicators to social conditions and influences, as well as personal behaviors and genetics.
As indicated by other counties, the populations experiencing these disparities have many strengths and traditions to draw upon for solutions. In the African-American communities, churches provide connections and leadership on community issues. Other models have provided the use of community engagement principles encouraged throughout any state and local processes addressing eliminating health disparities, whether funded by this initiative or not. Such community engagement principles include fostering openness and participation in the planning process, ensuring that those representing a specific community truly represent that community's values, norms, and behaviors, and using…
Alpha.org. "Racial / Ethnic Disparities." Fact Sheets. 2004. 17 May 2005. www.apha.org/NPHW/facts/RaceEth-PHW04_Facts.pdf.
Fenwick, E. et.al. "Improving the Efficiency and Relevance of Health Technology
Assessment: The Role of Iterative Decision Analytic Modeling." 2003. Che
Discussion Paper. 17 May 2005. http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/che/DP179.pdf .
Vedantam, 2006), Americans are more socially isolated than they were in 1985, with the number of people with whom they can confide dropping by one third, from three close confidents to two. American is viewed as a fragmented society with splinters of people growing ever more distant with regard to intimate social ties. Despite the benefits of close social connections, people report being alone, feeling alone, and suffering alone in bad times.
The ability of digital social networks to support substantive civic engagement is more than a test of the media's capacity to convey and renew civic engagement -- it is also a test of the transformative capacity of social networks with regard to sustained interest and action. A criticism of communications and information technology (CIT) -- which includes digital social networking -- is its transience and churn. Engaging digital communication tends to cater to the tastes of an audience…
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV criteria."…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
Racialization is where two, racial groups have become so disgusted with one another that they will begin to take negative views of each other .Where, WASP's would often see blacks as the lowest ethic groups in society, while they would view other ethnics groups in more positive light (but only to a certain extent). A good example of this can be seen with the way many individuals will not acknowledge someone as an American (such as: Christy Yamuguchi's Olympic performance against Midori Ito of Japan). Despite being a fourth generation Japanese-American, the media commentators kept implying that she was Japanese (even though she was from America). This is significant, because it shows how the radicalization of WASP's has created racial triangulation. Where, they cannot acknowledge the accomplishment of minorities, (despite the fact that they are Americans). In this case, the media was using racial triangulation to keep Yamuguchi down…
Kim, Jean. "Racial Triangulation of Asian-Americans." n.d. 105 -- 138. Print.
Takaki, George. "The Tempest in the Wilderness." The Journal of American History. 79.3 (1992): 892 -- 912. Print.
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play a vital organizational…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Hispanic community in the United States. Hispanic-American's have influenced many aspects of today's American culture such as art, religion, and education since the early 1600's. It will outline the influx of the Spanish explorers and the defense of the border between the United States and Mexico. The paper will also examine the influence of the food, colorful clothing, art, and the educational reform that has come about to meet the needs of the Hispanic children in the school system. This culture has made such a lasting impact in America that is deserves to be studied and researched more in-depth to gain more appreciation and insight to its lasting contribution.
Hispanic-American Cultural Diversity
Hispanic-American's have influenced many aspects of today's American culture such as art, religion, and education since the early 1600's. The borders of Mexico have long been the subject of territorial disputes and have many people have died to defend…
Folk Art: The Spanish Tradition." USA Today, March 1999:
Firmat, Gustavo. "Cuban Americans," Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. 1993
1997 Microsoft Corporation.
The Yanomami are an indigenous tribe also called Yanomamo, Yanomam, and Sanuma who live in the tropical rain forest of Southern Venezuela and Northern razil. The society is composed of four subdivisions of Indians. (Yanomami Indians) Each subdivision has its own language. "They include the Sanema which live in the Northern Sector, the Ninam which live in the southeastern sector, the Yanomam which live in the southeastern part and the Yanomamo which live in the southwestern part of Yanomami area."
The Yanomamo are one of the largest unacculturated aboriginal groups left in South America, with a total population of around 12,000. Their subsistence is based on hunting and slash-and-burn agriculture. The predominant crops are plantains and bananas. Their diet includes yams, sweet potatoes and the fruit of the peach palm. (eierle, J.M.)
The social construction of the culture is composed of small groups numbering approximately 75 people in each group. A…
Barnes, M.H. (2000). Stages of Thought: The Co-Evolution of Religious Thought and Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beierle, J.M. Society-YANOAMA. Retrieved February 22, 2005 from CSAC's Ethnographics Gallery. Web site: http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7884
Boehm, C. (1999). Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Buss, D.M. (1994). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: Basic Books.
"From the junction of the East and West Forks the Trinity River continues southeast, forming all or part of the county lines between Kaufman and Ellis, Ellis and enderson, enderson and Navarro, Freestone and Anderson, Anderson and Leon, Leon and ouston, and ouston and Madison counties. It then cuts across northern Walker County to form a portion of the county line between Walker and Trinity counties and continues as the county line between Trinity and San Jacinto and Polk counties. At the northern line of Liberty County the Trinity turns almost directly south, cutting across Liberty and Chambers counties, to drain into Trinity Bay just west of Anahuac (at 29°45' N, 94°42' W)."
So it is easy to see how complicated any undertaking at revitalization of the river would be. The pollution that plagues the Trinity are not so unlike other rivers across the country that have been successfully revitalized;…
Handbook of Texas Online, s.v.," http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/TT/rnt2.html (Accessed May 8, 2007).
Ingrassia, 2000, p. 20.
United Way 2000-2002 Annual Report to Metropolitan Chicago, p. 6.
Indians'Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans, (Salisbury, 1996) details how many of the characterizations that have been presented about the Native American cultures in the United States have been incorrect. The author explains that historians have treated the coming of the Europeans to North America as the beginning of history about the people in North America, whereas, in realty, the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the onslaught of other Europeans who followed was merely a blip in the history of North America. Native Americans and their complex cultures and nations had occupied the North American continent for centuries preceding Columbus' arrival and historians have done these cultures a major disservice by minimizing their existence.
The article also suggests that the fact that historians have either minimized or ignored the contributions of the Native Americans brings into question the accuracy and validity of these historians' assessment…
Salisbury, N. (1996). The Indians' Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans. William and Mary Quarterly, 435-458.
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system, a…
Gilje, Paul a., ed. The Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997
Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.
McCusker, J.J. And Menard, R.R., the Economy of British America, 1607-1789, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
Slaughter, Thomas. R. Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution, New York, Oxford Press, 1986.
"Outsiders" in a Multicultural Society
The United States is generally recognized for the multitude of cultural values present in the country as a result of the wide range of ideas that have been introduced here across the years. hile the majority of individuals in the country have often discriminated against people that they considered "outsiders," many notable non-white persons in the country's history have managed to emphasize the fact that they too are an active part of its culture and that they are able to contribute to making society as a whole acknowledge its complex nature. Langston Hughes and Jhumpa Lahiri are two of the most prominent artists responsible for making the American community accept its multicultural character and for influencing Americans to adopt less discriminatory attitudes concerning non-white individuals. Hughes got actively involved in changing the way that the masses and African-Americans in particular saw discriminated groups in the…
Hughes, Langston. "Song for a Dark Girl." Create ed. McGraw-Hill, 2011. 223. Print.
Lahiri, Jhumpa. "The Third and Final Continent." Create ed. McGraw-Hill, 2011. 417-430. Print.
In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:
dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of governing...in a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)
As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road to…
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the Cold…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept…
David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002
Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996
Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991
Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
Asian and Indian Approaches to Ethics and Theory
Business ethics is a form of applied ethics dealing with moral rights and wrong. (Thite, 2013). In the contemporary business environment, a firm orientation to corporate ethics is influenced by its organizational culture, and India has become one of the rising superpowers in the contemporary global economy where H (human resources) are very critical for organizational strategic advantages because effective management of employee is crucial for organizational innovative advantage. Moreover, H focuses on employee welfare and functions to develop their talents for a firm's growth. Despite the benefits of the H to organizational market advantages, organizations face real challenges in balancing ethical values and business with reference to H function. A firm ethical reputation determines the ability of a firm to attract and retain talent and competent employees.
Objective of this paper is to explore Asian and Indian approaches to ethics and theory
Danon-Leva, E., Cavico, F.J., & Mujtaba, B.D. (2010). Business Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Hong Kong and the United States. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly. 1( 4): 1-20.
Marta, J.K.M. Singhapakdi, A. Lee, D. et al. (2013). Perceptions about ethics institutionalization and quality of work life: Thai vs. American Marketing Managers. Journal of Business Research. 66. 381-389.
Thite, M. (2013). Ethics and human resource management and development in a global context: a case study of an Indian multinational. Human Resource Development International, 16 (1): 106-115,
American evolutionary War
The objective of this study is to write on the causes and major outcomes of the American evolutionary War.
Until the finalization of the Seven Years' War, there were only very few British North America colonists that had objections to their situation in the British Empire and British American Colonists had realized a great many benefits reported from the system of the British imperialists and furthermore paid little in the way of costs for those reported benefits. In fact, the British did not bother the American colonies until the earlier part of the 1760s. However, the 'Seven Years' War" brought about changes with Britain realizing victory over France and their allies at a great cost.
The Seven-Year's War also known as the French and Indian War brought many changes. According to reports "A staggering war debt influenced many British policies over the next decade. Attempts to raise money by…
The American Revolution (2014) Library of Congress. Retrieved from: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/amrev/
The American Revolution (2014) Library of Congress. Retrieved from:
The decision of the pilot to crush the plane in the city can have no valid motivation and is deeply painful for Jimmy who feels betrayed by his student. The pilot who decides to crash the plane is a further stereotype, an incarnation of the belief that people belonging to the same cultural space as him are most likely to engage in terrorist acts.
Throughout his transformations, Zits realizes that he has done many mistakes in the past. In fact, he interprets the negative situations in which he is cast as a sort of divine punishment for his bad behavior in the past. He feels as if the violence episodes are supposed to make him learn from his mistakes- a task which he successfully performs.
Looking at the episodes in which Zits plays the main role, the reader realizes that Alexie is actually describing the history of the American people. Regard…
Alexie, S. Flight: a novel, Grove Press, Black Cat, First edition, April 17, 2007
Barbash, T. Native son in NY Times.com, May 27, 2007, Retrieved April 9, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/27/books/review/Barbash2-t.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print
Christie, S. Renaissance man: the tribal "schizophrenic" in Sherman Alexie's Indian Killer in American Indian culture and research Journal, UCLA American Indian studies center, volume 25, number 4, 2001
Cummins, a., Flight: a novel (by Sherman Alexie)- Time traveling boy in the Washington Post Book World, Review a Day, April 20th, 2007, Retrieved April 8, 2011 from http://www.powells.com/review/2007_04_20
Is There Room at the Top?
The question as to whether the United States is currently and will remain a superpower is the topic of much scholarly debate and in the general population around the dinner table. The follow up question to that, of course is, is there room at the top for another superpower, and if so which country or countries will rise to the occasion? Is America really finished as the world's superpower? There are respected intellectual, members of the elite media core, think tank theorists, and many in society at large that seem to think so. In many newspapers, magazines, and on reputable news programs around the world, learner authors announce the end of the American era and advise that the rise of China and India, the resurgence of Putin's Russia, and the noted expansion of the European Union signifies a significant and profound shit in geopolitical…
China State Council, (2005). White paper: China's peaceful development road. Accessed 28, January 2009 at:
Goldstein, A. (2005). Rising to the challenge: China's grand strategy and international security. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Ikenberry, J. (2008). The rise of China and the future of the West. Foreign Affairs,
Father Eusebio Kino
This report is about Father Eusebio Kino who was possibly one of the greatest Spanish missionaries of all time. Over the course of his life, Father Kino influenced a great many individuals in the estern portion of the United States long before there was a Declaration of Independence. This report will attempt to present some of his greater accomplishments as well as an account of his interesting life. Over the course of thirty years, Father Kino worked untiringly as a pastor, explorer, teacher, rancher, farmer, ethnographer, diplomat and cartographer.
He is known for having founded over twenty five missions and maybe more importantly helping create extremely accurate maps of Arizona and the surrounding areas. Ironically, the Father was not even Spanish and he also did not even wish to be on the American continent. But his accomplishments were so astounding that he has been called the greatest Arizonan in…
Butler, Ron. "The Colors between Earth and Sky." Americas, March-April Volume 45 (1993).
Griffith, James S. A Shared Space: Folk Life in the Arizona-Sonora Borderlands. Logan: Utah State UP, 1995.
Scully, Sean. "Kansas Getting Ready to Swap Statues in Capitol: Critics Concerned That Large Exodus Could Follow." The Washington Times [Washington] April 17, 1999.
Southard, Mark. "Howdy Pardner: Get Your Western Duds Ready!" PSA Journal, Vol. 62 February 1996.
African and Native Americans
When discussing the experience of minorities in early America, it is tempting to fall into one of two extremes, either by imagining that the treatment of minorities by European colonizers was equal across the board, or else was so different that one cannot find congruities between experiences. Like most things in history, however, the truth is far more complex, because although the same religious, political, and economic ideologies motivated Europeans' treatment of Native Americans and Africans, the effects were mixed. In some instances Native Americans were treated to the same kind of brutality and disregard as those Africans caught up in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but more frequently, European colonizers attempted to treat Native Americans as something closer to equals in an attempt to manipulate them into favorable actions, such trade alliances or military support. Furthermore, the experiences of Native Americans and Africans in America prior to…
Clark, Andrew F. "The Atlantic Slave Trade Revisited." Journal of Third World Studies 22
Maass, John R. "The Frontier War for American Independence/The French and Indian War."
The Journal of Military History 69 (2005): 228-230.
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and sometimes massacred…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
Conflict and Cooperation: Native Americans and European Settlers in Early America
The early history of the settlement of what would eventually become the United States has many competing narratives. Many people view the relationship between Native Americans and European settlers as fundamentally combative. hile at times the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans was certainly one of conflict, this period was also full of significant curiosity, education and cooperation that went on between both groups. Many times, each group was inquisitive about the other and knowledge was exchanged. The Native Americans were often portrayed as brutal savages, but current literature shows that this was not often the case. The apparent viciousness of the European settlers towards the native peoples, particularly in terms of cultural destruction and land acquisition, is also more complicated than it initially seems. Though the eventually dominance of the Europeans over the Native Americans lead to…
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. New York:
Cornell University Press, 2000.
-- . "English Perceptions of Treacherym 1583-1640: The Case of the American 'Savage'." The Historical Journal. Vol 20. No. 2. (June 1977) pp. 263-287.
-- . Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. 2nd Edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield
Empire of the Summer Moon -- Non-Fiction American History Book
hat The Book Is About
In the various books about Native Americans published over the years and the myriad history classes students have taken, a great deal of information about Native Americans and their activities has been presented. Much has been written and chronicled about the Sioux and Apache tribes, but how many students who took high school history classes can name the Comanche Tribe as the most powerful Indian tribe in American history? And how many alert readers of the history of the American est can recall that the last and greatest chief of the Comanches was the mixed blood son of Caucasian pioneer woman Cynthia Ann Parker? These facts are all contained in the wonderfully written book by S.C. Gwynne, Empire of the Summer Moon.
The Comanche tribe -- according to the best accounts available to the author -- thrived for…
Gwynne, S.C. Empire of the Summer Moon. New York: Scribner. 2010.
The American tea party
The Tea Party is a populist movement that promotes several conservative values which include the following;
Limitations on the authority of the U.S. federal government
eduction of government spending and the national debt
eduction of personal and corporate taxes
This is a party that has been known over the historical moments to pull frustrated and concerned Americans together to protest against excessive government spending coupled with increased debt burden. This conservative group has it that the government's growing involvement in business and indulgence in individual freedom is a deviation from conservative values.
Since its inception to date, the mission of the Tea Party Coalition has been to organize and launch in a rapid response fashion special nationwide projects that will help to advance the goal of a return to a constitutionally limited government that does not go overboard, through whichever arm to disenfranchise the American citizens in whichever situation the country…
David W. Koeller, (1999). The Boston Tea Party 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/teaparty.html
Eye Witness to History, (2002). The Boston Tea Party, 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/teaparty.htm
James L. Roark et.al. Eds. The American Promise: A History of the United States. Fourth Ed.
Vol I. Bedford/St. Martin's: New York.
This is a deducted consequence of the inability of the market to absorb all the immigrants coming every year in the country. More precisely, "the number of immigrants -- legal and illegal -- living in the U.S., is growing at an unprecedented rate. U.S. Census ureau data indicate that 1.6 million legal and illegal immigrants settle in the country each year. In 2006, the immigrant, or foreign-born population, reached about 38 million in the United States" (Camarota, 2007). The ones who manage to find jobs and employment in the United States tend to impact the legal labor market. The ones that do not find proper employment places influence by increasing the number of people working on the black market. These are mostly illegal immigrants and recent analyses have shown that out of the 38 million people that was of foreign origin in 2006 in America, 12 million of them…
Associated Press. (2006). Study Suggests High Immigration Hasn't Hurt U.S. Employment. Fox News. Accessed 27 February 2008, at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,207745,00.html
Beck, Roy. (2004) Occupation Collapse and Poverty Wages: Consequences of Large Guest worker Programs. Numbers USA Education & Research Foundation. Accessed 27 February 2008, at http://judiciary.house.gov/legacy/beck032404.pdf
Briggs, V.M. (2001) Immigration and American unionism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Briggs, Vernon M. (1992) Mass Immigration and the National Interest. Armonk, NY.M.E. Sharpe.
Native Tribes and American Identity
It is reasonable to suggest that the United States would not exist in its current form without the contributions and influences of the millions of Native Americans who already lived here when the first colonists arrived. Not only did these early Native Americans teach the new European arrivals how to survive in the New World, in some cases they even freely supported them for years while they awaited assistance from Europe, all with no real expectation of being repaid in kind or turn. Without this assistance, the settlement of the American continent might well have been delayed for several more decades.
In addition, and although many modern Americans may not realize it, the so-called “melting pot” that would characterize the American identity during much of the 19th and 20th centuries was the direct result of the influences of Native American tribes. Moreover, Native American tribes were also…
interactions of the Europeans and the Native Americans during the days of the colonists. In addition the author looks at Natice American lifestyles and traditions that have survived the building of America and still exist today. There was one source used to complete this paper.
Then and Now
Students throughout the nation, study the beginning effects of the Europeans arriving on American soil and the reactions both to and of the Native Americans who had already been here for many years (Cronon, 1984). However, after the land dividing was over, and the native Americans and the Europeans began to live as peacefully as could be expected considering the circumstances, that is where most studies stop. Following the initial period however, there was a transitional period that occurred between the Native Americans and the European colonists that is a vital part of our land's history. William Cronon detailed this transition in his…
"The shift from Indian to European dominance in New England entailed important changes (Cronon, 1986)." Because of the way the Europeans settled in the animal and plant population were negatively affected. Before the colonists arrived the Native Americans would hunt and work one area, then move on to another area. This gave areas they left a chance to re-grow and repopulate for future use. The colonists moved here and stayed in one place. In time they depleted much of the animal and plant life that had been a natural part of the eco system. This caused them to have to change the way things were done and to grow new food and raise new animals. Instead of letting the natural system take its course as the Native Americans had always done, the colonists took over the course and force fed it. This set the pattern that we still live with today.
The Native Americans took part in the destruction of the eco system as well. They were intrigued with metal and the utensils that were made with metal so they killed more animals than they would normally have killed for the ability to trade. All in all both sides contributed to the change in the system and the changes that caused to the land.
Few Native American traditions pertaining to the land have survived the years. However, the idea of planting in one area, then moving to another and letting the first area regain its health has been adopted by farmers all over the nation. The changes that were forced upon our lands set in motion a system that we are bound by today. But along the way we did adopt some of the Native American elements of respecting the land and the Native Americans adopted some of the European ways of settling in one place.
Resentment toward Hispanics grew constantly from their arrival in New Mexico. Amerindians in the present day are also reluctant to accept Hispanic customs and their traditions have not changed much in the last centuries (Silverberg, 1970, p. 70).
Politics is a domain rarely dealt with by Native Americans in New Mexico, mostly because of the discrimination they risk facing as a result of joining politics in an Anglo-dominant government and because they are aware they have limited chances to occupy a high position in the state administration. The Civil Rights Division has approached this condition and emphasized that the state Administration should not act inequitable toward Native Americans who want to engage in performing politics (CASES RAISING CLAIMS UNDER SECTION 2 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT). Mexican-Americans have a larger contribution to the New Mexico political scene, even with the fact that their authority is often oppressed by the government (Gomez,…
1. Blake, K. "Sacred and Secular Landscape Symbolism at Mount Taylor, New Mexico," Journal of the Southwest 41.4 (1999): 487.
2. Blanton, C.K. "George I. Sanchez, Ideology and Whiteness in the Making of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement, 1930-1960," Journal of Southern History 72.3 (2006).
3. Gomez, L.E. "Race, Colonialism, and Criminal Law: Mexicans and the American Criminal Justice System in Territorial New Mexico," Law & Society Review 34.4 (2000).
4. Griesbach, D."Resilience as Resistance: Representing Hispanic New Mexico to the Federal Writers' Project in Lou Sage Batchen's Placitas Stories," MELUS 32.1 (2007)
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger."
The war against Spain and for the liberation of Cuba was one that would prove the superiority of America and its ideals. The United States, too, could join the nations of Europe as a major world power, with interests in every corner of the globe. Roosevelt became a hero as a result of his exploits in the Spanish-American War - a modern day crusader. He used his standing to vault to the governorship of the State of New York. As Governor he now headed the wealthiest most populous state in the nation, enjoying a position of influence and power unparalleled in his career. New York was the great melting pot, the entry point for the vast waves of immigrants that were arriving from Europe. Immigration in this era had…
Brantlinger, Patrick. "Kipling's "The White Man's Burden" and Its Afterlives." English Literature in Transition 1880-1920 50, no. 2 (2007): 172+.
Burton, David H. The Learned Presidency: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988.
Burton, David H. Theodore Roosevelt, American Politician: An Assessment. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.
Collins, Michael L. That Damned Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and the American West, 1883-1898. New York: Peter Lang, 1991.
Case study There is no such thing
Q1.The origin of slavery can be traced back to late 1600's in Jamestown in Virginia. In early 1600's the Virginia Company came to America and established the colony of Virginia. In the process of establishing the colony the English settlers also brought with them Portuguese and Dutch traders to help in the establishment of the colony. The English settlers had previously failed in their several attempts to establish a colony but were persistent enough to sees their dream come true. The successful establishment of the colony was later followed by successful trading between the settlers and the locals. In one such incidence that may have most importance was when one trader traded his cargo of African slaves for food.The slaves were first taken in as indentured servants to work in return for freedom, food or land.
The African were given same considerations as poor…
Alexander, R. (2005). Racism, African-Americans, and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Buell, T. (2004).Slavery in America: A primary source history of the intolerable practice of slavery. New York: Rosen Central Primary Source.
Oskamp, S. (2000).Reducing prejudice and discrimination. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
NEGPAInsights on Native American Graves Protection and epatriation Act (NAGPA)What it isOne of the crucial issues that Messenger and Bender (2019) highlight relate to the Native American Graves Protection and epatriation Act (NAGPA). From the onset, it would be prudent to note that this happens to be an instrumental federal law in efforts to ensure that fairness, respect, and dignity is observed in the treatment of any ancestrys human remains and various cultural items. Indeed, as the National Park Service NPS (2019) points out, one instrumental/pivotal aspect of this particular statute happens to be the acknowledgement that human remains and other cultural items removed from Federal or tribal lands belong, in the first instance,tolineal descendants, Indian Tribes, and Native Hawaiian organizations.elevanceAccording to the NPS (2019), one of the greatest benefits of this particular federal law is that it facilitates respectful return. This, as the NP further points out, enhances understanding…
ReferencesMessenger, P.M. & Bender, S.J. (2019). History and Approaches to Heritage Studies. University Press of Florida. National Park Service –NPS (2019). Facilitating Respectful Return. https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nagpra/index.htm
Americanization of Foods:
Food is traditionally considered as a simple means of subsistence but has developed to become filled with cultural, psychological, religious, and emotional significance. Consequently, food is currently used as a means of defining shared identities and symbolizes religious and group customs. In the early 17th and 18th centuries, this mere means of subsistence was considered as a class maker but developed to become a symbol of national identity in the 19th centuries. In the United States, food has been influenced by various cultures such as Native American, Latin America, and Asian cultures. Consequently, Americans have constantly Americanized the foods of different cultures to become American foods. The process on how Americans have Americanized different cultures' foods and reasons for the Americanization is an important topic of discussion.
As previously mentioned, food was traditionally considered as a mere means of subsistence, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries. The…
"America's Take on Ethnic Food." Ai InSite - Culinary. The Art Institutes, 2 Mar. 2012. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. .
Ikerd, John. "The New American Food Culture." Agricultural Economics. University of Missouri, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. .
Jevgenijs. "Americanization." Transatlantic MA Program in East-Central European Studies. West Virginia University, 30 Jan. 20143. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. .
Kikomr. "Food and Globalization!" Food Communication. James Madison University, 4 June 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. .
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Native Tribes and American Identity It is reasonable to suggest that the United States would not exist in its current form without the contributions and influences of the millions of…Read Full Paper ❯
interactions of the Europeans and the Native Americans during the days of the colonists. In addition the author looks at Natice American lifestyles and traditions that have survived…Read Full Paper ❯
Resentment toward Hispanics grew constantly from their arrival in New Mexico. Amerindians in the present day are also reluctant to accept Hispanic customs and their traditions have not changed…Read Full Paper ❯
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger." The war against Spain and for the liberation…Read Full Paper ❯
est Case study There is no such thing Q1.The origin of slavery can be traced back to late 1600's in Jamestown in Virginia. In early 1600's the Virginia Company came…Read Full Paper ❯
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Americanization of Foods: Food is traditionally considered as a simple means of subsistence but has developed to become filled with cultural, psychological, religious, and emotional significance. Consequently, food is currently…Read Full Paper ❯