India / Theoretical / Foreign Policy Shyness (Pant, 2009, p. 251). Pant's latest scholarship on India's foreign policies (2009, p. 253) is far more forceful and impactful than the narrative in his 2008 book. He chides India for not letting go of its Cold War foreign policy strategy. "The Cold War officially ended almost two decades ago,"
Pant writes (p. 253), and yet India continues to debate "the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)." That attitude among India's elite foreign policy experts "…is merely the clearest sign of the intellectual sloth that has infected the foreign policy discourse," Pant states. "Intellectual sloth?" Nowhere in Pant's 2008 book are there phrases so vigorous and persuasive. He stresses that it is "irresponsible and dangerous" for India to "cling to ideas that served a different strategic context" (p. 253).
Theoretical Approach / India Foreign Policy (Robert Gilpin / John J. Mearsheimer):
Professors Robert Gilpin (Princeton University) and John J. Mearsheimer (University of Chicago) go where Pant and Sikri didn't often go -- the theoretical approach to states that are powerful or becoming powerful. But Gilpin adds to Pant and Sikri; he says that "a more powerful state…will select a larger bundle of security and welfare goals than a less wealthy and less powerful state"
(Gilpin, 1983, p. 23). A change in the "relative costs of security objectives and welfare objectives, or a change in state's power and wealth usually causes a corresponding change in the foreign policy of the state" (Gilpin, p. 23). So, where is the change in India's foreign policy now that they are clearly undergoing a change in power and wealth?
Gilpin adds that it is "the mix and trade-offs of objectives rather than their ordering" that is quite critical to understanding a state's foreign policy. What are India's objectives? To merely dip a toe in the waters of power? Where is the leadership? Pant's 2009 essay quotes "the eminent" international relations theorist Hans Morgenthau, who states that the interests of any given state are "shaped by its power" (Pant, p. 254). As a state accumulates more power, Morgenthau explains, "…its interest in the foreign policy realm will increase concomitantly"; and as it rises in the inter-state...
Meanwhile, John J. Mearsheimer writes that "great powers are primed for offense" (Mearsheimer, 2003, p. 3). The very structure of the international system "forces states which seek only to be secure nonetheless to act aggressively toward each other,"
Mearsheimer continues. He admits that this situation "is genuinely tragic" because "great powers that have no reason to fight each other" -- because their own survival, like India's need for energy resources to keep its economic humming -- "nevertheless have little choice but to pursue power…" (p. 3).
Which book is more forceful? It is this writer's opinion that Sikri's book has more energy, albeit Pant is thorough and interesting, and Pant takes the blue ribbon for flushing out Indian-American dynamics. Sikri provides about 7 pages on U.S.-Indian dynamics while Pant offers about three times that much narrative. On pages 122-23 Pant spells out two problems while discussing just one. The United States has been critical of India's relationship with Iran, and has "urged India to rethink" the ambitious India-Iran gas pipeline deal -- and other energy-related cooperative projects -- or face the possibility of sanctions (Pant). How cold and brazenly haughty is the big bully of the West! Truly, India should be free to make deals with any state it feels comfortable dealing with.
Brutal frankness is vital in discussions about India's future alliance with any nation -- most notably with the United States. I contend that India should never allow itself to be bullied by the U.S. And moreover, India truly needs to find leadership within its policy or scholarly ranks to put a plan together to do what Mearsheimer refers to as "offensive realism" -- the fortunes of all states "…are determined primarily by the decisions and actions of those with the greatest capacity" (p. 5).
Works Cited / Bibliography
Gilpin, Robert, 1983, War and Change in World Politics, Cambridge University Press: New York.
Mearsheimer, John J. 2003, the Tragedy of Great Power Politics, W.W. Norton & Company: New York.
Pant, Harsh V., 2008, Contemporary Debates in Indian Foreign and Security Policy: India Negotiates Its Rise in the International System. Palgrave / Macmillan: New York.
Pant, Harsh V. 2009, 'A Rising India's Search for a Foreign Policy', Orbis, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 250-265.
Rachman, Gideon, 2009, 'Democracy: The Case for Opportunistic Idealism, the Washington Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 119-127.
Sikri, Rajiv, 2009, Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking India's Foreign Policy, Sage: New Delhi.
R. Sikri (2009), Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking India's Foreign Policy, Sage, New Delhi, p. 23.
G. Rachman (2009), 'Democracy: The Case…
but, those same laws were immediately enacted by the Federal government and from that origin, became immediately binding - the Cherokee would be held to be covered by Federal but not state law. Those members of Congress who supported the removal policies became instrumental in the build-up toward the Trail of Tears. American aggressive expansionism was what drove the forced removal from their land. Whites had expanded to the edges
American Indian Movement The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the
American Indian Studies Native American Storytelling The group of people known as the Native Americans or American Indians are the native residents of the Northern and Southern American continents who are thought to have traveled across the Bering land bridge from Asia. When the new society and the already established, came together, years of imposed philosophy, domination and rebel warfare were begun. The great impediments of religion, ethics and world-views were the
American Civil War/Sioux Indians Cowboys and Indians in Hollywood: The Treatment of Quotidian Life of the Sioux People in Dances With Wolves The old Hollywood Westerns that depicted the heroic cowboy and the evil Indian have past; they no longer sell out the movie theaters and are inundated with critique instead of cinematic favor. In the last thirty years, new Hollywood has attempted to correct this revisionist history, as embodied by Kevin Costner's "Dances
With the advent of Colombo on the American soil, things began to change as Philip J. Deloria asserts in her book Playing Indian (1999): "[T]he self-defining pairing of American truth with American freedom rests on the ability to wield power against Indians... while simultaneously drawing power from them." This is also the basic idea of Shari M. Huhndorf's Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination. "As white Americans
Unemployment b. Deflation c. High railroad rates d. Rising interest rates 14. Which issue led to the organization of the Populist Party? a. The desire to lift the burden of debt from farmers and other workers b. The collapse of the Second Bank of the United States c. An increase in immigration d. Limited availability of land in the West for use by new farmers 15. Which factor contributed most to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act