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Intoduction to Kevin Phillips
Kevin Phillips is a well-known, contovesial yet espected wite and political analyst, who wites about the political and social wold of contempoay Ameica with a sense of liteay style and an "at the bottom of it" substance. His most ecent book, Ameican Dynasty: Aistocacy, Fotune, and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush, would seem to give the liteay and politically uninitiated all the infomation needed in tems of whee Phillips stands politically - his social and political/philosophical fame of efeence. It would be safe to say his investigative, had-hitting book on Geoge W. Bush's White House would pobably not get him an invitation to a Rush Limbaugh inside cocktail paty, and yet, Phillips has woked as a Republican stategist, and he was a top political adviso to Richad Nixon duing the pesidential ace in 1968.
In the book this pape eviews,…
references for "the rich and powerful" - there were "650 special provisions" in the bill which were called "transition rules" and "technical corrections" which actually didn't hurt the rich but harmed the middle class.
On page 414, Phillips calls a section of his Afterward "The Democratic Deficit and the Rise of the Unelected." During the winter of 2000-2001, Phillips recalls, "when Americans watched the U.S. Supreme Court determine the outcome of the November presidential election..." And the Federal Reserve Board made "its critical judgments on the fate of the U.S. economy," the "migration of political authority" was thrown into "bold relief." For thinking Americans, these past few years have brought about radical and almost unbelievable events: first, Bush is elected on a 5-4 vote of the Supreme Court, five Republicans and four Democrats. And that happens notwithstanding the fact that Al Gore won the popular vote, and even won the Florida popular vote - once a coalition of news organizations hired lawyers and counters to count all the "disputed ballots" with "hanging chads" and the other flaws in the Florida balloting.
So, we have a president elected by a 5-4 vote by a judiciary that does not run for election or re-election, and a Federal Reserve Board, that is not beholding to the public, that does not run for election or re-election, making monumental decisions affecting millions of Americans.
And today, we see the enormous influence of giant corporations like Halliburton, formerly run by Vice President Dick Cheney, which, we now know, received billion-dollar no-bid contracts before the attacks on Iraq even begun, contracts to "rebuild" Iraq.
After reading this book by Kevin Phillips, the rebuilding should take place not in Iraq, but in America. And what should be rebuilt is not just the power grids, the schools, the roads and the other key infrastructures that are rotting away (things Bush wants to rebuild in Iraq), but the whole system of how taxes and the economy always benefit the rich few, rather than the struggling middle and lower classes.
Historically, the significance of the executive branch has increased during periods of war, crisis and economic turmoil, while the legislative branch has assumed greater responsibility during peaceful reprieves and ostensibly stable times. The relation between these two branches is complicated, but the increase of power and prestige of the president during crisis times must be approached in two ways: the president as a more efficient executive administrator of policy, and the president as symbolic leader.
The constitution provides the president with the certain powers that enhance his ability to perform in crisis situations, and, given the increased significance of the media in American politics of the last half-century, the president's role as a symbolic figure is more important than ever.
There is a generally perceived division between the executive and legislative branches: Congress is steeped in bureaucratic and intensely inefficient processes, while the president maintains the ability to…
Herring, George. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam 1950-1975. New York: McGraw Hill, 1995.
Sandel, Michael Democracy's Discontent: America in Search of a Public Policy. New York: Belknap, 1998.
Tulis, Jeffrey. The Rhetorical Presidency. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
In the U.S. society, the political powers of groups are determined by the demographic and institution characteristics. The powers is divided into two models, these includes; the pluralism which was created by the Madisonian democracy and the elitism. Pluralism is a system where the decisions of politics are being made resulting to the bargaining and negotiation among the special interested groups. For this case, no one is allowed to hold a majority of powers, since the power is widely distributed. However, elitism is a system where the society are controlled by a few individuals who are at the top, here, the power is concentrated in the hands of some individuals who share a common interests. This paper examines how demographic and institutional characteristics are shaping the political power of the groups in the U.S., society. It also analyzes how pluralism which is created by the Madisonian democracy enshrined…
Kenney, H. (2002). The calculus of consent and Madisonian democracy. London: Free Market
Prothero, S.R. (2006). A nation of religions: the politics of pluralism in multireligious America.
London: University of North Carolina Press.
Not all money is illegal, of course, since politicians running for office need money to pay for their campaigns. But some money given to members of Congress is given illegally and influence is given illegally. And the benefits that the lobbyists receive is money and power and free trips and a life of luxury, in most cases.
Take lobbyists, for example. The lobbyist is hired by a company or an organization; his or her job is to go to Congress and find members who will vote for the things that lobbyist's boss wants to have done through legislation. Jack Abramoff is a lobbyist, and he has pleaded guilty to "fraud, tax evasion and conspiracy to bribe public officials"; he pleaded guilty, according to the ashington Post, in a deal that provides him with a lesser sentence if he will tell prosecutors inside information about others involved in his schemes.
Cable News Network. "Poll: Half believe Congress is Dirty." Available from www.cnn.com/2006/politics/01/01/poll.congressimage.(2006).
Holland, Gina. "High Court Trims Whistleblower Rights." Associated Press. Available at http://www.sfgate.com .
Schmidt, Susan, & Grimaldi, James V. "Abramoff Pleads Guilty to 3 Counts." Washington Post
2006), available at http://www.washingtonpost.com .
This rule is applicable to all states except North Dakota which does not require registration. Absentee ballots and mail ballot options are also available for voters who could not make it to the election booth. This is the election process in the United States.
Problems of the local governments
Local governments have a vital role to play in the country because they are the closest government body for the citizens. Despite this close association, the role of local governments is under-estimated due to a variety of reasons. They face many problems in reaching out to the public and in creating a better community for its residents. The primary problem is finance. Though the community gets a certain amount directly through taxes from the state government, it sometimes, may not be enough to bring about a real change in the community. This is more prevalent in communities that have a large…
The critical part of this decision is its date - 2002. McConnell v. Federal Election Commission decided the manor in which the 2005 election would be campaigned, and while the political world blistered in post-9/11 heat, the Bush v. Kerry campaign was taking on such importance that the Justices' opinion would be immediately decisive in the outcome of yet another election.
Although not as direct as their role in the Bush v. Gore election, the manner in which the BCRA was evaluated was just as critical to the role of money and attack ads in the forthcoming election. The effectiveness of these loopholes are most evidenced in retrospect, from the "Leave No Billionaire Behind!" motto with which liberals credited Bush to the Swift Boat Veterans campaign that essentially under-minded the Kerry movement as a whole. While the outcome favored the conservative party to which the dissenting Justices pay their political…
American Politics and Society
Americans have long struggled with 1970s decade to understand exactly how it influenced American political, economic and social fabric. It seemed that while historians were pondering over the role of 1960s and 1980s, the decade in between evaporated in thin air with no one paying much attention or been able to comprehend the role played by this decade. But when the confused teenager of 1970s grew up to become academics and journalists, a shift in history was noticed.
To most Americans, seventies was an era of defeat and depression. Americans were sorely defeated in Vietnam, they faced hostage crisis in Iran, met some serious inflation problems and oil shortage. Thus if anything, Americans would want to forget that 70s ever existed. But that is not the whole picture- its just one side of the coin. The other side shows a much different picture where 70s played…
Bruce J. Schulman. The Seventies: The Great Shift in American Culture, Society, and Politics. New York: Free Press, 2001
As the world economy grows increasingly interconnected, the president's role as Chief Diplomat and Chief Executive will grow further intertwined.
The President is also Commander in Chief of the nation's armed forces. However, given that you are a former law professor, you know that Congress has the official power to declare war. Many Commanders-in-Chief have attempted to circumvent that power, of course, such as when Lyndon Johnson used the Gulf of Tonkin resolution to vastly expand American involvement in Vietnam. But given your respect for the Constitution, you will surely honor Congress' Constitutional role, even while you also show respect for the U.S. military, and the valiant efforts of the men and women who serve in uniform.
Your role as Chief Crisis Manager will hopefully not be a presidential 'hat' you will have to wear very often, as was the case for George Bush during 9/11 and Franklin Delano Roosevelt…
Ghitis, Frida. "World Citizen: Obama must parlay soft power gains into real results"
World Politics Review. April 9, 2009. http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/article.aspx?id=3587
American politics, for the presidential party to lose congressional support in a midterm election. As any administration struggles in the early part of a term to define itself, it's likely to fall in and out of favor with a public still not inundated of the White House's identity and intentions. This is an opportunity rarely missed by the opposition, as sophomore year presidencies have commonly been forced to tolerate an exploitation of their greatest possible weakness. At the dual behest of the media and some genuine desire for social progress, the public has been prone to voicing protest in a midterm election. One prime example in recent history was Bill Clinton's first midterm election. He had taken a beating on the gays in the military issue in his first year. And as he grappled with a post-Reaganomics recession in those early years, people who were frustrated with unemployment and an…
George Orwell's 1984 And Contemporary American Politics And Society
Orwell's novel, entitled 1984, is essentially a fictional projection of possibilities and "what if" scenarios. While it is classified as a work of fiction, the foundations of 1984 stem from the author's personal experiences and insights into the way governments and political groups manipulate and even construct the truth to suit their own ends in an effort to gain and maintain power. Due to his experiences in the Spanish Civil War, Orwell became aware that often media reports were mere fabrications of the truth and not an accurate reflection of reality. This made him skeptical about reportage in the media and information from official government sources. The future scenario that the book suggests is in fact based on an understanding of human nature, and what Orwell saw as the trajectory that power structures in the world were taking.
There are many…
Bennett, John. Orwell's 1984: Was Orwell Right? Retrieved: March 17, 2005 from Institute for Historical Review. Web site: http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v06/v06p -- 9_Bennett.html
Greenberg J. (2004) Why Bush's America Feels Like Orwell's 1984.
Retrieved: March 17, 2005 from Buzzflash. Web site: http://www.buzzflash.com/contributors/04/11/con04503.html
Neisig. E. 2005. 2005 is reminiscent of Orwell's "1984" Retrieved March 18, 2005 from Daily Trojan. Web Site: http://www.dailytrojan.com/news/2005/01/20/Opinions/2005-Is.Reminiscent.Of.Orwells.1984-836138.shtml?page=2
American citizenry is somewhat in the position of the unfortunate citizens of some third-world countries who try to stay out of the cross-fire while Maoist guerrillas and right-wing death squads shoot at each other. eports of a culture war are mostly wishful thinking and useful fund-raising strategies on the part of culture-war guerrillas, abetted by a media driven by the need to make the dull and everyday appear exciting and unprecedented.
At the time of every election, both the Democrat and epublican presidential candidates begin spouting their strong political platform. Somewhere along the line of American history, and perhaps it was once true, there arose the belief that a major difference exists between the two parties' beliefs. In their book Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America, Morris P. Fiorina of Stanford University, Samuel J. Abrams of Harvard University, and Jeremy C. Pope of Stanford University combine polling data…
Fiorina, Morris et al. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America.
Upper Saddle Ridge, NJ: Pearson Education, 2004.
hearing the name of Nobel Prize Winner Sinclair Lewis, The Jungle often comes to mind first because of the impact this book made in its time and ever since. Yet, It Can't Happen Here should be judged just as -- if not more -- important than any of Lewis' books. The work, which describes what would happen if America voted in a dictator such as Stalin or Hitler to "save the day," clearly reflects the fears of Lewis' own time. It also strongly warns today's readers what could occur if civil society does not keep watchful.
The main story of It Can't Happen Here revolves around Doremus Jessup, a moderate 60-year-old epublican and editor of a small-town newspaper in Vermont. Everyone, including Jessup, said in 1935, "If there ever is a Fascist dictatorship here, American humor and pioneer independence are so marked that it will be absolutely different from anything…
Lewis, Sinclair. It Can't Happen Here. New York: New American Library, 1970.
Every country has its own powerful and influential groups that seem to control and literally run the state. These groups have unlimited powers and they seem to exert an unhindered and unobstructed influence on the economic, political and military decisions. Wright Mills was one of the pioneers in the field of power elite theorists who closely examined the nature and function of the elite and explained how the three powerful groups i.e. The economy, politics and military merge to dominate the state affairs and to certain extent even personal affairs of people. This is because this power elite enjoys the privileges to make major decisions that affect everything including life of the common man:
The powers of ordinary men are circumscribed by the everyday worlds in which they live, yet even in these rounds of job, family, and neighborhood they often seem driven by forces they can neither…
Mills, C. Wright "The Power Elite," Oxford University Press: New York: 2000.
Factions: Help or Hindrance
James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, aided by John Jay, were responsible for writing eighty-five anonymous essays for the New York Journal in 1787 and 1788. These articles were known as The Federalist Papers, and they were intended to persuade people into ratifying the proposed Constitution. In The Federalist Paper Number 10, Madison responded to critics who had argued that the United States was too large, and had too many groups, or "factions," to be ruled democratically by a single government. Madison acknowledged the importance of factions in the opening paragraph, stating that, "Among the numerous advantages promised by a well constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction" (Rossiter, 1961). In prescribing how to rule and control the effects of factions, Madison detailed their relationships with other important concepts, such as liberty and property,…
Rossiter, C. ed. The Federalist Papers. New York: New American Library, 1961.
Food Nation is the kind of book that you hope young people read because it demonstrates far better than any social studies class the need for government regulation, the unchecked power of multinational corporations and the importance of our everyday decisions.
Despite international concerns with the Cold War and Senator McCarthy's accusations, the 1950s were an exciting change for many Americans. A large number headed out to the suburbs to newly designed housing. National roads started sweeping across the cities and towns. Soon, another change came about on these roads: the arrival of fast-food restaurants, which have epitomized America ever since. People just have to is drive up to the window and order their meals; within minutes they are fed and content. Yet, there are always two sides to an issue, especially when big money is involved. According to the book Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser, fast-food…
Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation. New York: Harper Collins, 2002.
Democracy and Economic Inequality in America
The fundamental aim of democracy in political governance is to ensure elected officials represent the interests of their constituents in the legislature. This means that the votes taken by members of Congress should reflect the policy preferences of their constituents. In reality, however, there is often disconnect between what legislators vote for and what their constituents prefer. In his book Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age, Bartels argues that the increasing economic inequality in the US is evidence that legislators do not in reality represent the interests of their interests -- they represent the interests of more powerful groups or entities as opposed to the average citizen. With reference to matters of economic inequality, this paper discuses the discrepancy between the choices of legislators and the policy preferences of their constituents.
Who actually governs in the American political system remains…
against the emerging concept pertaining to the Racial Privacy Initiative, abbreviated as RPI. The orks Cited seven sources in MLA format.
Just like other constant processes accompanying change, global politics has been in a constant changing state since times immemorial. Not only that, politics that we observe worldwide based on different rules and regulations as well as outlining distinct policies unique to every age, Stone Age, Middle Age as well as Modern Age is highly rich in history. On the same account African-American politics has also witnessed various changes. African-American politics, however, is largely based on issues pertaining to the racial differences and color prejudices that the blacks in America have had to face since for good. This mercurial political sphere while undergoing change gives birth to various phenomenon and activities. The recent one being the issue related to the Racial Privacy Initiative.
The Racial Privacy Initiative is…
Staff Editorial, EDITORIAL: Racial Privacy Initiative deserves close scrutiny., University Wire, 05-06-2002.
Burden P. "Connely Initiative Would Ban Collection of Racial Data," BLACK ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION.
WASSERMAN J., Associated Press Writer, Race Proposal Won't Make Calif. Vote., AP Online, 05-31-2002.
Coleman T.W. "Race Matters," NEW CRISIS.
Voting is a privilege and a right. A right that was denied for millions of people. Only until the passing of the Voting ights Act did minorities have a chance to not only vote, but change the face of the government. Before 1965, minorities, especially blacks, faced violent opposition in an attempt to stifle their voices and control the way the government nominates its officials.
Now that President Obama has shown what can happen when minorities are given a voice in politics, there have come some major setbacks. The nation in the next presidential election will adopt one of two sides, a far left or a far right. With the recent death of Head Justice Scalia and the refusal of Congress to allow the nomination of Merrick Garland, it is safe to say the nation is in turmoil in several ways. To understand how things became so unstable it is…
DeSilver, D. & DeSilver, D. (2015). U.S. voter turnout trails most developed countries. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/05/06/u-s-voter-turnout-trails-most-developed-countries/
Justice,. (2016). History Of Federal Voting Rights Laws -- CRT -- Department of Justice. Justice.gov. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from https://www.justice.gov/crt/history-federal-voting-rights-laws
Meko, T., Keating, D., Urhmacher, K., & Stamm, S. (2016). Everything you need to know about appointing a Supreme Court justice. Washington Post. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/politics/scotus-nominees/
Super PACs -- OpenSecrets. (2016). Opensecrets.org. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/superpacs.php
Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics
During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…
Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .
"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .
Follesdal, Andreas. "Federalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 15 Dec. 2009 .
Green, John, Smidt, Corwin, Guth, James, and Kellstedt, Lyman. "The American Religious Landscape and the 2004 Presidential Vote: Increased Polarization." 15 Dec. 2009 .
American Government and Politics
The Impact of Politics on People, Communities, and the World
I have not personally been affected by American politics in ways that I can think of, possibly because I am not an American citizen. However, I understand that, in principle, political decisions can have extremely important affects on individuals. For example, if the Republicans win the presidential election and win back control of the enate and retain control of the House of Representatives, they could actually succeed in outlawing abortion and even many common forms of birth control. Politics also affects local and national communities because the decisions made in Washington determine what federal money is available to states for crucial functions such as education and health care programs. Because the United tates is the most influential nation in the world, political decisions in this country can affect all of the other nations in the world…
Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2007). Government in America: People,
Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.
Grunwald, M. "The Party of No." Time, Vol. 180, No. 10 (2012): 42 -- 46.
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog
Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters
Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to…
Hendricks, J.A., & Denton, R.E. (2009). Communicator-in-chief: How Barack Obama used new media technology to win the white house. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.
Rosenau, J.N., & Singh, J.P. (2002). Information technologies and global politics: The changing scope of power and governance. Albany (N.Y.: State university of New York press.
Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
American Labor Movement
The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.
The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "hat should constitute full participation in American society? hat standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil ar until the beginning of orld ar I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from…
AFL-CIO. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011. Print.
D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services. "The Gilded Age - Industrial Revolution in America." 2011. Raken.com Web site. Web. 7 February 2012.
Dictionary.com, LLC. Xenophobia. 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
Social capital increases in the presence of the church hence numerous connections and relationships come into existence in the church. In the modern setting of the church, there is extensive application of contemporary technology. Contemporary technology in the church helps bring religious members together as they communicate on the common religion. Church has a significant impact on the political behavior of the nation. Politicians associate with churches in order to solicit votes from the religious members. eligious groups vote in relation to their interest in the political arena thus have a greater say during elections. Churches also have the capacity to produce potential and actual leaders to serve the nation (Putnam, 2000).
Workplace enables the development of bridging social capital. This is to serve the interest of diversity within the workplace. Workers come from different background, thus experience unique cultures. This makes it necessary for companies to initiate social capital…
Putnam, R.D. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN
10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
Winograd, M. & Hais, M.D. (2009) Millennial makeover: MySpace, YouTube and the future of American politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Press (ISBN 978-0-8135-4504-2)
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…
As was expected, the epublicans took the House and Senate in the 2014 mid-term elections, shifting the balance of power in the United States government. The election was viewed by many as a referendum on President Obama's policies. The President said it (Martosko, 2014), conservative talking heads said it (Krauthammer, 2014), and voters in exit polls said as much, too (aedle, 2014). This argument makes for fine political rhetoric, this ignores the fact that Obama ran for re-election in 2012. The ACA had been passed but nobody had seen its benefits yet, only heard the fearmongering. The economy was going nowhere fast in 2012, versus two strong quarters in 2014, and the unemployment rate has been declining for four straight years. If there was a time when a referendum on Obama's policies was going to cost him, it would have been in 2012, not the 2014 midterms. Unless of…
Edsall, T. (2014). Election 2014: What do the midterms tell us about 2016? New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com /2014/11/04/opinion/what-does-2014-tell-us-about-2016.html
Judis, J. (2014). Here's why Democrats got crushed -- and why 2016 won't be a cakewalk. The New Republic. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/120138/2014-election-results-heres-why-democrats-lost-senate-gop
Krauthammer, C. (2014). U.S. midterms represent a referendum on White House competence. National Post. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://fullcomment.nationalpost.com/2014/10/31/charles-krauthammer-u-s-midterms-represent-a-referendum-on-white-house-competence/
Martosko, D. (2014). Obama says midterm election is a referendum on the economy. The Daily Mail. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2777470/Obama-speak-economy-Northwestern-U.html
Another drawback of the book is that it didn't have much perspective of what it has meant to be pluralistic or worldly in the context of the rest of the world. During the American Revolution, a country with no official religion was an odd idea. It was a general concept that the world had always been governed by a King by Grace of God, and in return protected God's true religion from heretics and blasphemers (esterlund, 2006).
In addition, the author did not discuss the major difference between the "divisive arguments about God and politics" in the late eighteenth century and today. Thus, without state support, religion flourished in the United States, and now as today is the most religious nation in the estern world. The strength of Americans' religious faith enlightens the determination of a "public religion" that even now continue to worry unbelievers and secular thinkers (esterlund, 2006).…
1. Pauline Maier. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." Washington Post.
A www.washingtonpost.com.May 7, 2006
2. Deirdre Donahue. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." USA TODAY.
" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)
The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
American Religious History
Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. hile present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…
Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, 1997.
Gilkey, Langdon. On Niebuhr: A Theological Study. University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Hankins, Barry. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.
Longfield, Bradley J. The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 1991.
Justice for All
The title itself is an ironic play on words, because as this film plays out, nobody is treated justly -- every character, even the central protagonist played by Al Pacino has either been screwed by the system of justice, or is part of the system that screws others. The "justice" shown in this film is only lip service to a system that is rotten from top to bottom. This is a satire, and a comedy, but there are deeper issues brewing here, because although what happens is an exaggeration of the twisted justice in real life, it also shows the heart beat of how power and politics and justice flourish side-by-side-by-side in the real world.
Anyone who reads the newspapers or watches serious news programs on TV knows that political personalities, individuals in the justice system, corporations, even the media members themselves, are in the news frequently,…
Hunt for Red October
Few fictional texts are as redolent of the global Cold ar as Tom Clancy's novel of east-west submarine intrigue and confrontation, The Hunt for Red October, first published in 1984. For those who have the benefit of hindsight it may appear that the mid-1980s was a period in which the Cold ar was clearly coming to an end, but at the time the east-west confrontation was firmly embedded in geopolitical reality and western culture. The threat to the west from the Communist Bloc seemed as real as ever, and appeared likely to continue for the foreseeable future. Hunt for Red October may appear now as a relic of a lost age, but that judgement is only possible retrospectively and has no meaning for the significance of the book as it was received at the time.
The book presents itself first and foremost as an exciting story…
Tom Clancy, Hunt for Red October (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1984).
During the 1940s, America had just experienced the onslaught of World War II. After massive fighting against the Axis power nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan), America, along with its allies in the war, was able to conclude the conflict by deciding to drop the atomic bomb in Japan. The war ended with the Axis power conceding defeat, and America went on to rehabilitate its nation after the war. The rehabilitation of America as a nation weary of possible atrocities among nations in the world is twofold. After the war, America experienced a resurgence in economic growth, primarily brought about by the development of new technologies that spurred the country's commercial market. Furthermore, the growth of new technologies and manufacturing industry in America encouraged social mobility, enabling the middle class society to increase in number, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, the technological revolution and…
Roger and Me: Automobile Industry
Like All the President's Men, this work is a departure from fiction in film and in novels. Rather than portraying fictional characters in a contrived plot, "Roger and Me" takes us into the lives of actual men and women dealing with the all-too-real problems of the decline of the United States as a world industrial power.
The focus is on the automobile industry, in particular, on one of the early centers of that industry, Flint, Michigan. Major automakers like General Motors have for years been cutting back on production and employment. Now, many of the older plants that have been running at reduced capacity are being closed for good and their workers let go permanently.
Because Flint was heavily dependent on auto making, the effects on the local economy are disastrous. Flint seems to be in the process of turning into a postindustrial ghost town,…
Moore, Michael (Dir.). Roger and Me. Warner Bros, 1989.
Several interesting facts surrounding he China Syndrome are worth bringing out at the beginning of this paper. First, Jack Lemmon, Jane Fonda, and Michael Douglas, the principal actors in the film, were all actively anti-nuclear at one time during the 1970s and 1980s in California and Oregon. Fonda in fact flew from Los Angeles to Eugene Oregon in 1976 to appear as a celebrity on behalf of the proponents of Measure B, a ballot proposition (which failed) that would have restricted the further development of nuclear plants in Oregon pending the establishment of a safe repository for the highly radioactive "nuclear waste."
he same kind of ballot measure that was voted on in California in 1976, and was defeated because of massive advertising by the utilities, which used scare-tactic V commercials showing a family eating dinner by candlelight (the direct implication was that the lights would go out…
The "logic" of what Commoner has been saying for many years is playing out very clearly through the Bush Administration in Washington, in several ways. For example, rather than push Detroit to build cars that get much better mileage, the administration has sided with the auto industry, and worked against legislation that would force Detroit to make more fuel-efficient cars. Two years ago, the administration even went so far as to advocate tax breaks for people who buy big gas-guzzling SUVs.
Rather than push solar power usage on middle class homes, cutting the need for electricity to heat hot water in homes, the administration has pushed for more the building of more nuclear plants, and has re-written rules regarding the Clean Air Act, in order to help utilities avoid having to install expensive equipment to put out less pollution.
The administration has also pushed for more oil drilling in places like Alaska, which plays into the hands of the oil companies, and does nothing for the average consumer and homeowner. And as for energy policies, and getting input from Americans as to what they feel should be pursued for future energy sources, this administration has been very pro-oil, pro-nuclear, and secretive about its plans. Vice President Dick Cheney held an energy meeting at the White House in 2001, and though many groups sought information about what corporations were represented, and sued to find out what companies were invited and participated, the case went all the way to the Supreme Court, and still that information is not forthcoming.
Both large states with a great population, they did not want to lose influence or power to a federal government. In particular, there was great debate in New York as existing political leaders feared a lose of power. The Federalists were those who supported the Constitution and include James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. They were the Federalist Papers that were published in New York and not only helped the Constitution to be ratified, but guided the direction of the new American nation. Those who opposed a strong government were the anti-federalists and they feared America would turn into a corrupt nation like Great Britain.
George Washington, who would be the first President, was a federalist and had great influence and therefore helped the country to go in that direction. A Bill of Rights quelled further fears about the oppression of the federal government. In 1788 the Constitution went into effect.…
Politics of age: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics" by Dan T. Carter and "I've Got the Light of Freedom" by Charles Payne. Specifically, it will contain a comparative book review on the two books. These books reflect a specific time in our society when struggle and oppression were at their height, and both present different viewpoints on the same political time. Together, they are an intimate portrayal of a man, politics, and the power of a movement vs. The power of a man.
Both books cover southern politics in the 1960s and beyond, but from quite different perspectives. "The Politics of age" is an unauthorized biography of southern governor and presidential hopeful George C. Wallace, one of the most outspoken bigots and controversial politicians in our time. "He was the most influential loser in twentieth-century American politics" (Carter 468) and this…
Carter, Dan T. The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.
Payne, Charles. I've Got the Light of Freedom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.
The Missouri Compromise
In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…
Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html .
Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.
Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.
Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
Voting the 'lesser evil'
Of course, I would be lying if I did not admit that at times I voted 'the lesser evil' of two proposed candidates. In a two-part system such as ours, with relatively limited choices of candidates, this is inevitable. Furthermore, the narrow representation of opinions on a scale of liberal to conservative in American politics, as opposed to Europe and other nations with a greater number of political parties means that voters often elect candidates they do not fully support on many issues. However, this does not mean that people cannot get excited about candidates in America today. Witness the grass-roots enthusiasm about Democratic Senator Obama's campaign. By rallying young people and using inspirational rhetoric, I believe that many of his supporters do not regard him as a lesser evil, but as a potentially great president. The fact that Senator Hillary Clinton and Obama…
Government and Elections
Should foreign interest groups be banned from attempting to influence the course of American government? Are foreign interest groups always opposed to the interests of U.S. companies and citizens?
It is reported in the work of Benen 2010) that a speech delivered by President Obama warned of "corporate takeover of our democracy" in the form of "shadowy groups raising millions in secret to help buy elections for Republicans. Benen notes the publication of 'ThinkProgress' which states that the trade association "organized as a 501c)6)…the U.S. Chamber of Commerce…that can raise and spend unlimited funds without ever disclosing any of its donors…has promised to spend…" the amount of $75 million to defeat specific candidates including such as "Jack Conway, Sen. Barbara Boxer D-CA), Jerry Brown, Rep. Joe Sestak D-PA), and Rep. Tom Perriello D-VA). As of Sept. 15th, the Chamber had aired more than 8,000 ads on behalf…
(4) authorize an agency to exercise a function not expressly authorized by law;
(5) increase the term of an office beyond the period authorized by law; (6) deal with more than one logically consistent subject matter; or (7) abolish enforcement functions or programs established by statues. (FAO, 2010)
These are only some of the actions that the President and government cannot take. The Constitution places limits on what government can do to protect the American public. This is because the forefathers understood that government should remain small rather than become the large bureaucratic machine that it presently is today. The present administration has sought to bypass Congress on many of its moves on restructuring the U.S. Government however as reported by the FAO (2010) "Congressional deliberative processes serve the vital function of both gaining input from a variety of clientele and stakeholders affected by any changes and providing an important constitutional check and counterbalance to the executive branch." Bypassing these governmental processes can results in too much power being vested in the President and his discretion. The Constitution provides for a system of checks and balances that serve to ensure that the Constitutional rights of the American people are not violated by the government in any of its actions or rulings.
The Myth of American Exceptionalism
The myth of American exceptionalism is a familiar one to Americans and non-Americans alike. It suggest that America, as the home of the free and the brave, is unique in its allowance of freedom and social mobility, in contrast to Europe, Asia, and other, much older civilizations. Yet as noted by Stephen M. Walt in his essay, “The Myth of American Exceptionalism,” perhaps one of the most ordinary aspects of America is its view of itself as exceptional. A more critical approach to America’s history, ideology, and identity is needed for America to move forward and to make needed political and social evolution into the future. Of course, it is fine to take pride in one’s nation. But to view one nation as exceptional and the only nation worthy of defending and defining liberty will inevitably lead to strife with the rest of the world.…
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…
Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.
Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.
Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.
omen, Men and Environment
hile we might like to believe that we are each the masters of our own fate, in fact the environment plays an important role in shaping who we become. Guthrie makes this point in The Big Sky, for Boone, Summers and Teal Eye are all more the product of their environment than they are the creators of the world around them. Guthrie suggests that this being-shaped-by rather than shaping-of the environment is especially strong in the est, but he also at least suggests that the environment is a potent force in shaping the lives of people everywhere.
It has become fashionable in recent years to scoff at the myth of the est and to replace this myth with history. This is in large measure what Guthrie has set out to do. He is intent on telling a real story about a real place, and in particular…
Guthrie, A.B. The Big Sky. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. http://www.literature.org/authors/bronte-charlotte/jane-eyre
Schlissel, Lillian. Women's Diaries of the Westward Journey. New York: Schocken, 1992.
The so-called peculiar institution of slavery would come to define America in the 19th century, and set the stage for effects that until the current day. It was a critical, destructive error to leave the issue of slavery unresolved at the time of American independence.
Attempts to econcile the Slavery Issue
What was the 3/5 Compromise?
elevance of the 3/5 Compromise
Significance of the 3/5 Compromise for the issue of slavery
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Define (MO as slave state, ME as free state)
Significance of the 1820 compromise
3.Compromise of 1850
Define the compromise of 1850
Significance of this compromise iii. Fugitive Slave Act and DC
Shift in power dynamic on the issue
Define the Nebraska-Kansas Act
Describe the bleeding of Kansas iii. Show how the violence was a precursor to the Civil War
What was the Dred Scott case?…
Foner, E. (1974). The causes of the American Civil War: recent interpretations and new directions. Civil War History. Vol. 20 (3) 197-214.
Laws.com (2015). What was the three-fifths compromise? Laws.com. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://constitution.laws.com/three-fifths-compromise
Library of Congress (2015). Primary documents in American history. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Missouri.html
Library of Congress (2015, 2). Kansas-Nebraska Act. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/kansas.html
American Indian Movement
The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)
However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…
Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298
Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138
Many colonists had come to the new world in search of a lifestyle infused with greater freedom. The colonists' ideas about government differed greatly from their English counterparts. hile the English still focused on the power of the monarchy, the colonists had been holding popular assemblies since 1763 ("The American Revolution: First Phase"). They began to believe in rights that they saw the English and their stationed guards as there to violate. In addition, they believed that they, not a country across the ocean, should have the right to control or at least have a say in the political decisions that would affect their lives.
In addition to these highly popularized economic and ideological causes of the revolution, social causes also added fuel to the fire of revolution. As the 1700s wore on, More and more Americans came from European countries other than England. As these people began to immigrate…
American Revolution," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
The American Revolution: The First Phase." 2005. 9 December 2008. The American
Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.
Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…
Department of Homeland Security. (2003). "Executive Order (EO-13284): Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security." Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0072.shtm.
Executive Order 9066. "The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Retrieved March 12,
2012, from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 .
FindLaw. "Williams v. State of North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)." Retrieved March 12,
American Foreign Policy Theories
It has been said that all politics are local, meaning that whatever the issue, an individual always views it from the perspective of their own personal life. And since their personal life exists in a local environment, a person's view of a political issue is always clouded by local circumstances. oarke and Boyer, in International Politics on the World Stage assert that a nation's international policy can often be guided by their internal circumstances. In other words, a nation's foreign policy is often the result of domestic politics. This type of thinking has often been associated with what has been termed "realism," a theory that asserts international politics is shaped by conflicts between different nations caused by their domestic political circumstances. A newer type of realism, called "neorealism," actively attempts to shape world politics according a nation's internal needs, and has been enacted in many nations.…
Indyk, Martin, Kenneth Lieberthal, and Michael O'Hanlon. (2012). Bending History:
Barack Obama's Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute. Print.
McCormack, James. (2010). American Foreign Policy and Process. Boston, MA:
In the future, though, the influence the U.S. must wield over nations such as Pakistan that are Muslim yet strive to be part of the international community, is likely to be contingent upon the U.S.' recapitulation perceived moral authority as well as its ability to use economic and military carrots and sticks. American influence is also dependant upon the international population's own perceptions of the U.S. As well as these nation's national leaders' rhetorical compliance with U.S. demands for the curtailment and monitoring of terrorist activities. Thus to generate loyalty in the hearts of the people in nations such Pakistan, the U.S. must use soft, rather than hard power. And use this soft power more effectively and seem more morally upstanding a more judicious rather than aggressive use of national force seems essential.
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human elfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.…
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human Welfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.
Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power, the Means to Success in World Politics. London: PublicAffairs, Ltd.,
Nye, Joseph, "Soft Power and American Foreign Policy," Political Science Quarterly. 19. 2
American Foreign Policy
Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics -- Joseph S. Nye
What are the strengths of Nye's arguments?
By suggesting that a strategy of "soft power" (using America's substantial strength of influence, international collaborative coalitions, and non-lethal approaches to persuasion) is preferable to storming into a nation such as was the case with the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 Nye certainly has attempted to stir up the waters in America's current political scene. This is one clear strong point of his argument: simply the fact that he wrote a book which presents an intelligent, well-thought-out alternative to the Bush Administration's approach to "fighting terrorism." Nye's position is that soft power (" ... getting others to want the outcomes that you want -- co-opts people rather than coerces them" page 5) is more a matter of getting people "to buy into your values" (5) than…
Nye, Joseph S. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York:
Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.
Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.
Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.
Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
When bureaucrats in a particular state see that a large segment of society is struggling with a particular rule or regulation, it may be time to address some changes to that rule. Texas and other states do this, but they are restricted somewhat in that federal regulations always supersede state regulations. Texas passes laws by presenting bills and having them move through the state legislature. If the bill gets enough votes, it is passed and becomes a law. However, it is very important that these bills are acceptable on the federal level, and that they comply with federal laws as well as what the state wants to accomplish. If they are not acceptable on a federal level, they cannot be laws in Texas, even if there were enough votes in that state to pass them. While some states have passed laws that go against what federal law states, it is…
To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and France (13%), even fewer say religion is "very important" to their lives (PE).
Fifty-three percent of Americans are more apt to agree that it is vital to believe in God prior to having good morals and values while just 33% of Germans, 20% of the British, 19% of Spaniards and 15% of those in France agree with that statement. omen and the elderly are more apt to agree that God is indeed the "necessary foundation for morality and good values" (PE). Fifty-nine percent of American women say religion is "very important" to them but only 41% of American men agree with that statement (PE).
Meanwhile, in the Journal of Beliefs and Values (illiams, et al., 2009) the authors point out that…
Adams, James, and Ezrow, Lawrence. (2009). Who Do European Parties Represent? How
Western European Parties Represent the Policy Preferences of Opinion Leaders. The Journal
of Politics, 71(1), 206-223.
Bernstein, Elizabeth, and Jakobsen, Janet R. (2010). Sex, Secularism and Religious Influence
I think the state should be neutral, and there should be opportunities for everyone, but that is not real life. I think that men mostly run government, but to call states patriarchal seems too extreme for me. I believe that there will be more opportunities for women both in government and the private sector, and that this is a wiser and less volatile outlook than the more radical feminist ideas. I do not have a problem with women or minorities in government, and I believe the state should encourage and make way for more of this type of participation.
As far as economic ideals are concerned, I believe a blend of the Minimalist and the Developmental state is the best alternative. I believe that capitalism is a good thing, but that wealth does not need to be distributed evenly, so I am not a fan of the socio-democratic state. I…
It was during the same period that hostilities with the communist leadership culminated into the bombing of Libya, loggerheads with the Soviet Union and a stiff arms race with the U.S.S.R.
It is also significant to note that it was during the same time that he successfully engaged Mikhail Gorbachev who was then the Soviet General secretary and culminated into the signing of Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that signaled the end in arms race and both countries agreed to decrease in nuclear weapons in their custody.
Upon ascending to presidency, Reagan was bent on introducing new political as well as economic dispensations radically. He advocated more for supply-side economics which saw him push for reduction of tax rates to speed up economic growth, money supply control to check inflation, reduction of regulation on the economy particularly business to encourage competitive and free-market free for all which as a matter…
S. Constitution. The court ruled, "Proposition 8 served no purpose, and had no effect, other than to lessen the statutes and human dignity of gays and lesbians in California" (Dolan, 2012). Hence, the will of the people can become law through popular initiatives, but on the other hand, the argument can be made that if citizens object to the constitutional amendments enacted in any given state -- for any political or social issue -- they have the power of the judiciary to address grievances and sue to reverse the decision.
But should citizens have the power to make public policy through initiatives and state constitutional amendments? Is direct democracy the answer for citizens that feel their elected officials are out of touch? This paper believes that passing propositions and altering state constitutions is indeed a way to bring the voter "…in closer touch with great affairs" and allow the voter…
Dolan, Mura. "Prop. 8: Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional, Court Rules." Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com .
Levin, Daniel Lessard. Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American
Political Culture. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999.
The contact between the two groups is not always straight forward, and is often fought officially, through judicial practices, and unofficially, through dubious backstage arrangements and activities. However, there is also a legal manner through which interest groups have been given the right to influence political decisions and the laws voted upon. Lobbying is one such activity.
Although lobbyists are the subject of heated debate, as many citizens consider them to be just "wheeler-dealers continually wining and dining public officials in order to secure political favors at the expense of the general public" (Volkomer 282), their main function is to supply "information about their specialized interests to a few select public officials, communicating with members and others who are concerned with their problem" (283). However their role is rather interpretable. On the one hand, they represent the interests of a certain segment of the population, such as farmers, or railway…
Janda, Kenneth, Jeffrey Berry, and Jerry Goldman. The challenge of democracy: government in America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.
Jewell Malcolm E, and David M. Olson. American state political parties and elections. Homewoo: The Dorsey Press, 1982.
Volkomer, Walter E.. American government. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,1972.
American Ethnic Literature
There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.
American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…
Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.
Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.
Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov .
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
American History: Important Changes From 1810 to 1830
The period of time from 1810 to 1830 was a major time of social, economic and political change in America. The most important of these changes are those whose impact can still be seen today. Three of the most important changes were the growth of manufacturing, the focus on the individual rather than the community and the acceptance of democracy.
The growth of manufacturing changed the nature of America forever, with manufacturing becoming more important than farming for the first time. Tocqueville (XIX) reflects on the focus America put on manufacturing saying, "No people in the world have made such rapid progress in trade and manufactures as the Americans." This rapid progress led to the industrial revolution and eventually the society we have today, with capitalism and manufacturing the basis society is built upon. As Tocqueville (XIX) argues, "Democracy not only swells…
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XV: Unlimited Power of the Majority in the United States, and its Consequences." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/1_ch15.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XIX: What Causes Almost All Americans to Follow Industrial Callings." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch2_19.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XIII: How the Principle of Equality Naturally Divides the Americans into a Multitude of Small Private Circles." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch3_13.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter I: Equality Naturally Gives Men a Taste for Free Institutions." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch4_01.htm
Criticisms against and praise for colonialism in America: A comparative analysis of "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine and "Origin and Progress of the American Rebellion" by Peter Oliver
The declaration of King George III of the United Kingdom that America is in an active state of rebellion in August 23, 1775, marked the opportunity for Britain's 13 colonies in the country to be liberated from British colonialism. The path towards rebellion in America is an arduous process, where there had been a series of economic and political pressures that Britain had imposed in order to maintain control over the gradually rebelling members of the colonies.
What made the study of the history of the American Revolution interesting is that there are numerous literatures illustrating the political and economic climate between the Americans and British at the time where rebellious ideologies and propaganda are gradually increasing. There had been…