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American Democracy Voter Turnout in 1988 American

Words: 3140 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55831538

American Democracy

Voter Turnout in 1988 American Presidential Election:

Democracy is for the people and by the people and it can be successful if people participate effectively in electing their representatives. In 1988, presidential elections were held in United States of America. Statistics shows that voter turnout for this presidential election was very low. Voter turnout was as low as 50.1%. In spite of an increasing trend of voter turnouts in the presidential election of 1948 and in the presidential elections of 1960, the voter turn out in 1988 decreased sharply to merely half of the population that are eligible for casting votes. The turnout was below the American presidential elections standard. Most of eligible candidates who did not cast their votes were supporters of Dukakis. If these people had cast their votes the situation would have been different for 1988 elections. It can also be said that 1988 presidential…… [Read More]

References

Bardes, B.A., Shelley, M.C., II, & Schmidt, S.W. (2012). American Government and Politics Today. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Franklin, M.N. (2004). Voter Turnout and the Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Established Democracies Since 1945. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Janda, K., Berry, J.M., Goldman, J., & Hula, K.W. (2012). The Challenge of Democracy. Australia; Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Polsby, N.W., Wildavsky, A., & Schier, S.E. (2012). Presidential Elections: Strategies and Structures of American Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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Politics Six Questions & Discussion on American

Words: 2113 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20754328

Politics

Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics

Constitutional Convention

During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

Follesdal, Andreas. "Federalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 15 Dec. 2009 .

Green, John, Smidt, Corwin, Guth, James, and Kellstedt, Lyman. "The American Religious Landscape and the 2004 Presidential Vote: Increased Polarization." 15 Dec. 2009 .
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American Government and Politics the Impact of

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25347462

American Government and Politics

The Impact of Politics on People, Communities, and the World

I have not personally been affected by American politics in ways that I can think of, possibly because I am not an American citizen. However, I understand that, in principle, political decisions can have extremely important affects on individuals. For example, if the Republicans win the presidential election and win back control of the enate and retain control of the House of Representatives, they could actually succeed in outlawing abortion and even many common forms of birth control. Politics also affects local and national communities because the decisions made in Washington determine what federal money is available to states for crucial functions such as education and health care programs. Because the United tates is the most influential nation in the world, political decisions in this country can affect all of the other nations in the world…… [Read More]

Sources Consulted

Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2007). Government in America: People,

Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.

Grunwald, M. "The Party of No." Time, Vol. 180, No. 10 (2012): 42 -- 46.
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American Political Behavior

Words: 2145 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28997094

American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog

Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters

Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to…… [Read More]

References

Hendricks, J.A., & Denton, R.E. (2009). Communicator-in-chief: How Barack Obama used new media technology to win the white house. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.

Rosenau, J.N., & Singh, J.P. (2002). Information technologies and global politics: The changing scope of power and governance. Albany (N.Y.: State university of New York press.

Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)

Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
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American Labor Movement History of Labor Movement

Words: 1431 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83699111

American Labor Movement

The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.

The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "hat should constitute full participation in American society? hat standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil ar until the beginning of orld ar I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AFL-CIO. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.

Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011. Print.

D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services. "The Gilded Age - Industrial Revolution in America." 2011. Raken.com Web site. Web. 7 February 2012.

Dictionary.com, LLC. Xenophobia. 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
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American Politcal Behavior American Political

Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 55945368

Social capital increases in the presence of the church hence numerous connections and relationships come into existence in the church. In the modern setting of the church, there is extensive application of contemporary technology. Contemporary technology in the church helps bring religious members together as they communicate on the common religion. Church has a significant impact on the political behavior of the nation. Politicians associate with churches in order to solicit votes from the religious members. eligious groups vote in relation to their interest in the political arena thus have a greater say during elections. Churches also have the capacity to produce potential and actual leaders to serve the nation (Putnam, 2000).

Workplace enables the development of bridging social capital. This is to serve the interest of diversity within the workplace. Workers come from different background, thus experience unique cultures. This makes it necessary for companies to initiate social capital…… [Read More]

References

Putnam, R.D. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)

Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN

10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)

Winograd, M. & Hais, M.D. (2009) Millennial makeover: MySpace, YouTube and the future of American politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Press (ISBN 978-0-8135-4504-2)
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American History Slave Revolts Although

Words: 6354 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54831518

Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.

Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
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American Political Development America's Political

Words: 1985 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87954252


American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…… [Read More]

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Politics as Was Expected the Republicans Took

Words: 2454 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70617230

Politics

As was expected, the epublicans took the House and Senate in the 2014 mid-term elections, shifting the balance of power in the United States government. The election was viewed by many as a referendum on President Obama's policies. The President said it (Martosko, 2014), conservative talking heads said it (Krauthammer, 2014), and voters in exit polls said as much, too (aedle, 2014). This argument makes for fine political rhetoric, this ignores the fact that Obama ran for re-election in 2012. The ACA had been passed but nobody had seen its benefits yet, only heard the fearmongering. The economy was going nowhere fast in 2012, versus two strong quarters in 2014, and the unemployment rate has been declining for four straight years. If there was a time when a referendum on Obama's policies was going to cost him, it would have been in 2012, not the 2014 midterms. Unless of…… [Read More]

References

Edsall, T. (2014). Election 2014: What do the midterms tell us about 2016? New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from  http://www.nytimes.com /2014/11/04/opinion/what-does-2014-tell-us-about-2016.html

Judis, J. (2014). Here's why Democrats got crushed -- and why 2016 won't be a cakewalk. The New Republic. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from  http://www.newrepublic.com/article/120138/2014-election-results-heres-why-democrats-lost-senate-gop 

Krauthammer, C. (2014). U.S. midterms represent a referendum on White House competence. National Post. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from  http://fullcomment.nationalpost.com/2014/10/31/charles-krauthammer-u-s-midterms-represent-a-referendum-on-white-house-competence/ 

Martosko, D. (2014). Obama says midterm election is a referendum on the economy. The Daily Mail. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2777470/Obama-speak-economy-Northwestern-U.html
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American Gospel the Book American

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 63709592



Another drawback of the book is that it didn't have much perspective of what it has meant to be pluralistic or worldly in the context of the rest of the world. During the American Revolution, a country with no official religion was an odd idea. It was a general concept that the world had always been governed by a King by Grace of God, and in return protected God's true religion from heretics and blasphemers (esterlund, 2006).

In addition, the author did not discuss the major difference between the "divisive arguments about God and politics" in the late eighteenth century and today. Thus, without state support, religion flourished in the United States, and now as today is the most religious nation in the estern world. The strength of Americans' religious faith enlightens the determination of a "public religion" that even now continue to worry unbelievers and secular thinkers (esterlund, 2006).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Pauline Maier. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." Washington Post.

A www.washingtonpost.com.May 7, 2006

2. Deirdre Donahue. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." USA TODAY.

A www.usatoday.com.
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American Media Representation of Islam

Words: 3949 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4285978

" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)

The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…… [Read More]

Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
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American Religious History Defining Fundamentalism and Liberalism

Words: 2705 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82017601

American Religious History

Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. hile present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Gilkey, Langdon. On Niebuhr: A Theological Study. University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Hankins, Barry. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.

Longfield, Bradley J. The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 1991.
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American History During the 1940s America Had

Words: 1426 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68012031

American History

During the 1940s, America had just experienced the onslaught of World War II. After massive fighting against the Axis power nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan), America, along with its allies in the war, was able to conclude the conflict by deciding to drop the atomic bomb in Japan. The war ended with the Axis power conceding defeat, and America went on to rehabilitate its nation after the war. The rehabilitation of America as a nation weary of possible atrocities among nations in the world is twofold. After the war, America experienced a resurgence in economic growth, primarily brought about by the development of new technologies that spurred the country's commercial market. Furthermore, the growth of new technologies and manufacturing industry in America encouraged social mobility, enabling the middle class society to increase in number, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, the technological revolution and…… [Read More]

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Politics in America From 1775

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45693893

Both large states with a great population, they did not want to lose influence or power to a federal government. In particular, there was great debate in New York as existing political leaders feared a lose of power. The Federalists were those who supported the Constitution and include James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. They were the Federalist Papers that were published in New York and not only helped the Constitution to be ratified, but guided the direction of the new American nation. Those who opposed a strong government were the anti-federalists and they feared America would turn into a corrupt nation like Great Britain.

George Washington, who would be the first President, was a federalist and had great influence and therefore helped the country to go in that direction. A Bill of Rights quelled further fears about the oppression of the federal government. In 1788 the Constitution went into effect.…… [Read More]

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Politics of Rage George Wallace the Origins

Words: 1092 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40128279

Politics of age: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics" by Dan T. Carter and "I've Got the Light of Freedom" by Charles Payne. Specifically, it will contain a comparative book review on the two books. These books reflect a specific time in our society when struggle and oppression were at their height, and both present different viewpoints on the same political time. Together, they are an intimate portrayal of a man, politics, and the power of a movement vs. The power of a man.

Both books cover southern politics in the 1960s and beyond, but from quite different perspectives. "The Politics of age" is an unauthorized biography of southern governor and presidential hopeful George C. Wallace, one of the most outspoken bigots and controversial politicians in our time. "He was the most influential loser in twentieth-century American politics" (Carter 468) and this…… [Read More]

References

Carter, Dan T. The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

Payne, Charles. I've Got the Light of Freedom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
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American History Between the Years

Words: 2433 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51687593



As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.

The Missouri Compromise

In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from  http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html .

Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.

Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.

Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
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Politics 'Spin Doctors' and Media

Words: 430 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15528215



Issue 2

Voting the 'lesser evil'

Of course, I would be lying if I did not admit that at times I voted 'the lesser evil' of two proposed candidates. In a two-part system such as ours, with relatively limited choices of candidates, this is inevitable. Furthermore, the narrow representation of opinions on a scale of liberal to conservative in American politics, as opposed to Europe and other nations with a greater number of political parties means that voters often elect candidates they do not fully support on many issues. However, this does not mean that people cannot get excited about candidates in America today. Witness the grass-roots enthusiasm about Democratic Senator Obama's campaign. By rallying young people and using inspirational rhetoric, I believe that many of his supporters do not regard him as a lesser evil, but as a potentially great president. The fact that Senator Hillary Clinton and Obama…… [Read More]

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American Government and Politics Today

Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87039777

Government and Elections

Should foreign interest groups be banned from attempting to influence the course of American government? Are foreign interest groups always opposed to the interests of U.S. companies and citizens?

It is reported in the work of Benen 2010) that a speech delivered by President Obama warned of "corporate takeover of our democracy" in the form of "shadowy groups raising millions in secret to help buy elections for Republicans. Benen notes the publication of 'ThinkProgress' which states that the trade association "organized as a 501c)6)…the U.S. Chamber of Commerce…that can raise and spend unlimited funds without ever disclosing any of its donors…has promised to spend…" the amount of $75 million to defeat specific candidates including such as "Jack Conway, Sen. Barbara Boxer D-CA), Jerry Brown, Rep. Joe Sestak D-PA), and Rep. Tom Perriello D-VA). As of Sept. 15th, the Chamber had aired more than 8,000 ads on behalf…… [Read More]

(4) authorize an agency to exercise a function not expressly authorized by law;

(5) increase the term of an office beyond the period authorized by law; (6) deal with more than one logically consistent subject matter; or (7) abolish enforcement functions or programs established by statues. (FAO, 2010)

These are only some of the actions that the President and government cannot take. The Constitution places limits on what government can do to protect the American public. This is because the forefathers understood that government should remain small rather than become the large bureaucratic machine that it presently is today. The present administration has sought to bypass Congress on many of its moves on restructuring the U.S. Government however as reported by the FAO (2010) "Congressional deliberative processes serve the vital function of both gaining input from a variety of clientele and stakeholders affected by any changes and providing an important constitutional check and counterbalance to the executive branch." Bypassing these governmental processes can results in too much power being vested in the President and his discretion. The Constitution provides for a system of checks and balances that serve to ensure that the Constitutional rights of the American people are not violated by the government in any of its actions or rulings.
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American Exceptionalism A Debate

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73710932

The Myth of American Exceptionalism

The myth of American exceptionalism is a familiar one to Americans and non-Americans alike. It suggest that America, as the home of the free and the brave, is unique in its allowance of freedom and social mobility, in contrast to Europe, Asia, and other, much older civilizations. Yet as noted by Stephen M. Walt in his essay, “The Myth of American Exceptionalism,” perhaps one of the most ordinary aspects of America is its view of itself as exceptional. A more critical approach to America’s history, ideology, and identity is needed for America to move forward and to make needed political and social evolution into the future. Of course, it is fine to take pride in one’s nation. But to view one nation as exceptional and the only nation worthy of defending and defining liberty will inevitably lead to strife with the rest of the world.…… [Read More]

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Politics of Mexico and the Influence of Catholicism

Words: 3958 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92225315

Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…… [Read More]

Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.

Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.

Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.
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American West

Words: 2278 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70026311

omen, Men and Environment

hile we might like to believe that we are each the masters of our own fate, in fact the environment plays an important role in shaping who we become. Guthrie makes this point in The Big Sky, for Boone, Summers and Teal Eye are all more the product of their environment than they are the creators of the world around them. Guthrie suggests that this being-shaped-by rather than shaping-of the environment is especially strong in the est, but he also at least suggests that the environment is a potent force in shaping the lives of people everywhere.

It has become fashionable in recent years to scoff at the myth of the est and to replace this myth with history. This is in large measure what Guthrie has set out to do. He is intent on telling a real story about a real place, and in particular…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Guthrie, A.B. The Big Sky. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.  http://www.literature.org/authors/bronte-charlotte/jane-eyre 

Schlissel, Lillian. Women's Diaries of the Westward Journey. New York: Schocken, 1992.
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American Indian Movement

Words: 2030 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81369738

American Indian Movement

The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)

However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…… [Read More]

References

Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298

 http://books.google.co.in/books?id=75UVAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA298&dq=american+indian+movement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nj2IT92qCsWJrAeW-anrCg&ved=0CDMQ6AEwADge#v=onepage&q=american%20indian%20movement&f=false 

Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=3054897
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American Revolution Motivations of the

Words: 717 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41975285

Many colonists had come to the new world in search of a lifestyle infused with greater freedom. The colonists' ideas about government differed greatly from their English counterparts. hile the English still focused on the power of the monarchy, the colonists had been holding popular assemblies since 1763 ("The American Revolution: First Phase"). They began to believe in rights that they saw the English and their stationed guards as there to violate. In addition, they believed that they, not a country across the ocean, should have the right to control or at least have a say in the political decisions that would affect their lives.

In addition to these highly popularized economic and ideological causes of the revolution, social causes also added fuel to the fire of revolution. As the 1700s wore on, More and more Americans came from European countries other than England. As these people began to immigrate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Revolution," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia

http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

The American Revolution: The First Phase." 2005. 9 December 2008. The American

Revolution.  http://www.americanrevolution.com/AmRevIntro.htm
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American Government Should the President

Words: 1099 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41516617



Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.

Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Department of Homeland Security. (2003). "Executive Order (EO-13284): Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security." Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0072.shtm.

Executive Order 9066. "The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Retrieved March 12,

2012, from  http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 .

FindLaw. "Williams v. State of North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)." Retrieved March 12,
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American Foreign Policy Theories it Has Been

Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45870938

American Foreign Policy Theories

It has been said that all politics are local, meaning that whatever the issue, an individual always views it from the perspective of their own personal life. And since their personal life exists in a local environment, a person's view of a political issue is always clouded by local circumstances. oarke and Boyer, in International Politics on the World Stage assert that a nation's international policy can often be guided by their internal circumstances. In other words, a nation's foreign policy is often the result of domestic politics. This type of thinking has often been associated with what has been termed "realism," a theory that asserts international politics is shaped by conflicts between different nations caused by their domestic political circumstances. A newer type of realism, called "neorealism," actively attempts to shape world politics according a nation's internal needs, and has been enacted in many nations.…… [Read More]

References

Indyk, Martin, Kenneth Lieberthal, and Michael O'Hanlon. (2012). Bending History:

Barack Obama's Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute. Print.

McCormack, James. (2010). American Foreign Policy and Process. Boston, MA:

Gengage. Print.
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American Military Security The Dangers

Words: 1879 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51015703

In the future, though, the influence the U.S. must wield over nations such as Pakistan that are Muslim yet strive to be part of the international community, is likely to be contingent upon the U.S.' recapitulation perceived moral authority as well as its ability to use economic and military carrots and sticks. American influence is also dependant upon the international population's own perceptions of the U.S. As well as these nation's national leaders' rhetorical compliance with U.S. demands for the curtailment and monitoring of terrorist activities. Thus to generate loyalty in the hearts of the people in nations such Pakistan, the U.S. must use soft, rather than hard power. And use this soft power more effectively and seem more morally upstanding a more judicious rather than aggressive use of national force seems essential.

orks Cited

Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human elfare. Durham: Duke

University Press, 2004.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human Welfare. Durham: Duke

University Press, 2004.

Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power, the Means to Success in World Politics. London: PublicAffairs, Ltd.,

Nye, Joseph, "Soft Power and American Foreign Policy," Political Science Quarterly. 19. 2
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American Foreign Policy

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11653175

American Foreign Policy

Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics -- Joseph S. Nye

What are the strengths of Nye's arguments?

By suggesting that a strategy of "soft power" (using America's substantial strength of influence, international collaborative coalitions, and non-lethal approaches to persuasion) is preferable to storming into a nation such as was the case with the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 Nye certainly has attempted to stir up the waters in America's current political scene. This is one clear strong point of his argument: simply the fact that he wrote a book which presents an intelligent, well-thought-out alternative to the Bush Administration's approach to "fighting terrorism." Nye's position is that soft power (" ... getting others to want the outcomes that you want -- co-opts people rather than coerces them" page 5) is more a matter of getting people "to buy into your values" (5) than…… [Read More]

Reference

Nye, Joseph S. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York:

Public Affairs.
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American History and Culture Contributes

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 36047997

Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.

Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.

Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.

Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.

Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
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American Government & Politics Today

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3634546



When bureaucrats in a particular state see that a large segment of society is struggling with a particular rule or regulation, it may be time to address some changes to that rule. Texas and other states do this, but they are restricted somewhat in that federal regulations always supersede state regulations. Texas passes laws by presenting bills and having them move through the state legislature. If the bill gets enough votes, it is passed and becomes a law. However, it is very important that these bills are acceptable on the federal level, and that they comply with federal laws as well as what the state wants to accomplish. If they are not acceptable on a federal level, they cannot be laws in Texas, even if there were enough votes in that state to pass them. While some states have passed laws that go against what federal law states, it is…… [Read More]

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American and European Values How

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38007083

To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and France (13%), even fewer say religion is "very important" to their lives (PE).

Fifty-three percent of Americans are more apt to agree that it is vital to believe in God prior to having good morals and values while just 33% of Germans, 20% of the British, 19% of Spaniards and 15% of those in France agree with that statement. omen and the elderly are more apt to agree that God is indeed the "necessary foundation for morality and good values" (PE). Fifty-nine percent of American women say religion is "very important" to them but only 41% of American men agree with that statement (PE).

Meanwhile, in the Journal of Beliefs and Values (illiams, et al., 2009) the authors point out that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, James, and Ezrow, Lawrence. (2009). Who Do European Parties Represent? How

Western European Parties Represent the Policy Preferences of Opinion Leaders. The Journal

of Politics, 71(1), 206-223.

Bernstein, Elizabeth, and Jakobsen, Janet R. (2010). Sex, Secularism and Religious Influence
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American Democracy & the U S

Words: 2075 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65426903

"

Thus, the members of the Convention assumed that, although power was a necessary evil, it was also dangerous, especially when provided to the wrong person who might take advantage of this power for his own gain. In essence, the members attempted to compose a constitution that would insure effective power for the government when needed but that would also place reliable checks and safeguards on the use of that power. Once again, this aim can be traced back to Montesquieu's essay in which he states "to prevent the abuse of power, 'tis necessary that by the very disposition of things (that) power should be checked... " (Leone 37).

ut the members were also much too experienced in the ways of politics to take for granted that conscientious and moral men would always be elected to office. To them, human nature was universally fallible and only built-in safeguards could be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, 1500 to the Present. New York: HarperCollins, 2000.

The Constitution: An Enduring Document." U.S. Constitution: Drafting the Constitution. Internet. 2005. Accessed February 6, 2005.  http://www.usconstitution.com/DraftingtheConstitution.htm .

Leone, Bruno, Ed. The American Revolution: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1992.
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American Democracy American Political Democracy Had Its

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41869605

American Democracy

American political democracy had its roots and evolved from small closely-knit communities. The Town meetings were the means of securing communal ends. The much debated electoral college in the last Presidential election and the local school system are reminders that the "public" once operated primarily in highly localized and manageable situations. People had real power, as it is the essence of democracy, they could meet to discuses and resolve issues effecting the entire community. But the technological advancement, the industry and economics forces have broadened human associations beyond local community boundary lines. The new technologies of communications and travel has brought people closer in a way, which has gone beyond the normal community interactions and are more complicated. Political and legal measures have lagged far behind technological forces and Americans are thrown together in a variety of associations over which they have no control. The two most prominent…… [Read More]

References

Gordon L. Ziniewicz Summary of John Dewey's "The Eclipse of the Public" in The Public and Its Problems  http://www.fred.net/tzaka/deweypub.html 

Place for Us: How To Make Society Civil and Democracy Strong by Benjamin Barber Reviewed by Jerry Kloby  http://www.montclair.edu/pages/ics/Barber.htm
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Politics Heywood Describes a Number

Words: 727 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26915290

I think the state should be neutral, and there should be opportunities for everyone, but that is not real life. I think that men mostly run government, but to call states patriarchal seems too extreme for me. I believe that there will be more opportunities for women both in government and the private sector, and that this is a wiser and less volatile outlook than the more radical feminist ideas. I do not have a problem with women or minorities in government, and I believe the state should encourage and make way for more of this type of participation.

As far as economic ideals are concerned, I believe a blend of the Minimalist and the Developmental state is the best alternative. I believe that capitalism is a good thing, but that wealth does not need to be distributed evenly, so I am not a fan of the socio-democratic state. I…… [Read More]

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American Government Course American Government

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 6448180

It was during the same period that hostilities with the communist leadership culminated into the bombing of Libya, loggerheads with the Soviet Union and a stiff arms race with the U.S.S.R.

It is also significant to note that it was during the same time that he successfully engaged Mikhail Gorbachev who was then the Soviet General secretary and culminated into the signing of Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that signaled the end in arms race and both countries agreed to decrease in nuclear weapons in their custody.

Upon ascending to presidency, Reagan was bent on introducing new political as well as economic dispensations radically. He advocated more for supply-side economics which saw him push for reduction of tax rates to speed up economic growth, money supply control to check inflation, reduction of regulation on the economy particularly business to encourage competitive and free-market free for all which as a matter…… [Read More]

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American Government & Institutions Should

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77137251

S. Constitution. The court ruled, "Proposition 8 served no purpose, and had no effect, other than to lessen the statutes and human dignity of gays and lesbians in California" (Dolan, 2012). Hence, the will of the people can become law through popular initiatives, but on the other hand, the argument can be made that if citizens object to the constitutional amendments enacted in any given state -- for any political or social issue -- they have the power of the judiciary to address grievances and sue to reverse the decision.

But should citizens have the power to make public policy through initiatives and state constitutional amendments? Is direct democracy the answer for citizens that feel their elected officials are out of touch? This paper believes that passing propositions and altering state constitutions is indeed a way to bring the voter "…in closer touch with great affairs" and allow the voter…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dolan, Mura. "Prop. 8: Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional, Court Rules." Los Angeles Times.

Retrieved March 9, 2012, from  http://latimesblogs.latimes.com .

Levin, Daniel Lessard. Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American

Political Culture. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999.
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American Government the American Governing

Words: 1244 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82232346



The contact between the two groups is not always straight forward, and is often fought officially, through judicial practices, and unofficially, through dubious backstage arrangements and activities. However, there is also a legal manner through which interest groups have been given the right to influence political decisions and the laws voted upon. Lobbying is one such activity.

Although lobbyists are the subject of heated debate, as many citizens consider them to be just "wheeler-dealers continually wining and dining public officials in order to secure political favors at the expense of the general public" (Volkomer 282), their main function is to supply "information about their specialized interests to a few select public officials, communicating with members and others who are concerned with their problem" (283). However their role is rather interpretable. On the one hand, they represent the interests of a certain segment of the population, such as farmers, or railway…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Janda, Kenneth, Jeffrey Berry, and Jerry Goldman. The challenge of democracy: government in America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.

Jewell Malcolm E, and David M. Olson. American state political parties and elections. Homewoo: The Dorsey Press, 1982.

Volkomer, Walter E.. American government. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,1972.
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American Ethnic Literature There Are'so Many

Words: 2099 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52693344

American Ethnic Literature

There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.

American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…… [Read More]

References

Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf

Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.

Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.

Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.